ACTIVITY REPORT

2 0 0 6 - 2 0 0 7

GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY REPORT 2006-2007 Coordinated and written by David Alix Contributions from: Amber Finkbeiner, William Pons, and Will Ramsay Proofread by Will Ramsay Under the guidance of Alexander Likhotal and Bertrand Charrier Green Cross International 160a Route de Florissant - P.O. BOX 80 1231 Conches - Geneva Switzerland Phone +41 22 789 1662 Fax +41 22 789 1695 www.greencrossinternational.net Design : NAPALM - napalm@mtds.com Printed by naturaprint support@naturaprint.net On recycled paper and vegetable inks

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES
Water for peace Access to water services Right to water campaign Smart energy for sustainable development

03 04 05
06 11 14 15

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS
The legacy of the cold war programme Social and Medical Care Programme Post-war environmental analysis

19
20 24 27

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
The Earth Charter The Earth Dialogues Environmental education programme

28
29 31 32

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS GREEN CROSS INFORMATION

36 40

ACTIVITY REPORT 2006-2007 - GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL

- 01

MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN
Green Cross International has spent the past fifteen years insisting and demonstrating that sustainable development is the real frontline of the battle for lasting and genuine peace. I believe that 2006 and 2007 will be remembered as the years during which the citizens of the world joined us in that realisation and demanded government and business leaders alike take urgent, united action. It has become impossible to ignore the fact that numerous inter-related threats, affecting each and every person on the planet, have been accumulating over several decades: threats to which many are only just, and still very slowly, waking up to. Sustainable paths must be followed in order to confront climate change and environmental degradation head-on, eliminate the shameful scourge of extreme poverty, and combat global insecurity. At the heart of this quest are fundamental human values that transcend cultural differences: respect, care, integrity, equality and non-violence. These are the universal values enshrined in the Earth Charter, and which will serve to guide us towards sustainability, justice and peace. The era during which I founded Green Cross International was one of immense optimism. The Cold War was recently, and peacefully, over. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro had initiated important conventions to protect nature from over-exploitation. We appeared to be embarking on an age of strong, multilateral governance and solidarity. Fifteen years on, it is clear that we squandered this opportunity, but today I am confident that we are on the brink of a new era of hope. The telecommunications explosion of the past decade has truly made the world smaller; people are far more aware of the links between natural resources, poverty and peace, and sensitive to the fact that neither threats nor solutions respect national borders. We also know that we will not be given yet another chance fifteen years from now. But progress is still not happening fast enough. Many political leaders remain trapped in the past, unable to move beyond traditional concepts of security, defined by borders and armies, or face up to the reality and severity of the new generation of 21st Century global challenges. As GCI has long asserted, access to essential natural resources can be a contributing factor in the emergence and prolongation of conflicts, while on the other hand there is nothing more destructive to communities or the environment than war. Sustainable development means the mutual reinforcement of peace, human development, and care for the environment. Without this realisation, all our efforts to achieve security will be in vain: we will be building castles in the air, with no foundation. Never has the Green Cross International mission to drive change through cooperation been more relevant. Without joint efforts of governments, businesses and citizens, as well as scientists and experts, we do not stand a chance against today's perils. Green Cross calls for building peace through development, rather than enforcing security through arms and military might. For every dollar that rich countries spend on aid they allocate ten to military budgets.Three days of military expenditure exceeds what is spent on fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a whole year. What is affordable is ultimately a matter of political priority. There are now just eight years left to honour the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to really step up to the plate in the fight against poverty, disease, and environmental deterioration. According to current trends, over the next ten years the gap between the MDG targets and the actual situation dictates that 41 million additional children will die before their fifth birthday of that entirely curable disease - poverty. These are not abstract concerns, this is a matter of life and death and threatens to destabilise communities across the world - rich and poor alike. Climate change is adding to the urgency of the situation, and its effects are already heightening tensions within affected regions as competition for natural resources - particularly water and arable land - intensifies. Since the creation of GCI in 1993, resource conflicts have led to the deaths of millions of people and the situation is set to worsen as floods, famine, and desertification are exacerbated by climate change. This is why Green Cross is committed to ensuring all people have access to essential services such as water, housing and energy; to protecting people and nature from contamination by weapons of mass destruction; and to working with communities and authorities to prevent and resolve conflicts related to natural resources. More than ever we need to build a strong public consensus in support of peaceful, just and sustainable solutions to the crises threatening our future. This is the motivation behind GCI's ambition to stimulate a new global glasnost to inform, inspire, and educate the public and world leaders alike on sustainability and conflict prevention. It is said that pessimists see difficulties in any opportunity, while optimists see opportunities in any difficulty. Green Cross International is an optimistic organisation and believes that meeting the 21st Century's challenges is a chance to achieve a better, more peaceful and fairer future - one that we are excited and proud to be a part of.

Mikhail Gorbachev

ACTIVITY REPORT 2006-2007 - GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL

- 03

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT
In 1989 President Gorbachev said, addressing a major international conference: “Now that we have achieved visible progress in nuclear disarmament, the biggest threat to our common future will be increasingly associated with environmental challenges” - thus duly laying the ground for the creation of Green Cross International several years later. Unfortunately, his prophecy all too quickly became a reality. As reported last year in the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment, we humans are destroying the life-support systems of the planet at an alarming rate. The data keeps pouring in that we are altering the climate and toxifying the air, water, and soil so that the health of humans and other species is at risk. Avoidable environmental hazards contribute to a wide range of diseases and injuries worldwide. This causes over 13 million deaths per year according to a new UN report by the WHO. Having to some extent bridled Weapons of Mass Destruction, we are now creating a Climate of Mass Destruction. Global warming is already evident in melting glaciers, thawing tundra, and flooding coastal regions. Furthermore, scientists are documenting that we are living in the midst of a sixth extinction, with more than 20,000 species lost annually. This period represents the largest loss of species since the extinction of the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago. In other words, we are shutting down life systems and causing the end of our geological era. Green Cross International, since its inception 15 years ago, has been one of the few organisations focusing on the crucial nexus between poverty, security, and the environment.These challenges are of the utmost importance to today's world where vital resources such as water and energy are becoming ever more scarce, and the threat of conflict over limited resources looms ominously. Therefore, in order to ensure a sustainable and peaceful future, organisations like GCI that possess expertise in mediation and encouragement of synergies have become increasingly essential to the creation of international solidarity. The second decade of GCI's existence is loaded with new challenges. On the one hand we have many reasons to state that GCI has become a mature and dynamically developing NGO. GCI has achieved visible success over the last several years. The Legacy of the Cold War programme continues to develop and involve more and more citizens; in 2006, GCI's global work on water won Mikhail Gorbachev the prestigious UN award of “Champion of the Earth”; and the Earth Charter is endorsed by a growing number of governments and organisations. The greatest sign that a network is in good health is the growth in membership: we have welcomed GC Sri Lanka, Australia, and Canada over the 2006-2007 period. All this has ensured very tangible support from several governments, the business community, and international public organisations. The two years since the last General Assembly in Moscow has also brought substantial stabilisation of our financial position. In this respect, GCI is pleased to announce the creation of the Green Cross International Circle of Friends Foundation, an Endowment Fund which will enable us to strengthen our organisational structure and to further expand our activities. On the other hand the international situation is becoming increasingly complex and worrisome. As a result, issues related to sustainable development become more and more sidelined by multiplying political problems. The war in Iraq, the situation over Iran, endless Middle Eastern imbroglios, and the international atmosphere of the “cool peace” trend have downgraded the Millennium Development Goals agenda into an academic, if not science fiction, discussion rather than a major political challenge of global proportions. Undoubtedly the “collateral damage” of these developments for the sustainable development agenda will be very significant. Thus GCI is entering a very important period, and in order to face new challenges and enhance its capacity to resolve important problems with global implications, it needs to continue to adapt its vision, strategy, and operational efficiency. I have no doubt that the coming GCI General Assembly will prove a pivotal event in this direction.

Alexander Likhotal

04 - ACTIVITY REPORT 2006-2007 - GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES
Access to clean water and sustainable energy are two of the cornerstones of human development; unfortunately, despite all the technological advances of the past decades, today half the population of the world lives without one or both of these essential services, trapping them in poverty. GCI is dedicated to ensuring that the right of all people to basic supplies of safe water is respected, while also striving to secure sustainable sources of energy which will promote a healthy and prosperous future for humanity and the planet. In the face of an ever-increasing global population, with the need for both water and energy growing at an amazing speed, GCI has continued to implement initiatives locally, nationally and internationally to meet rising demands. The lack of access to sufficient quantities of clean potable water and/or basic sanitation for a third of humanity is one of the most pressing matters of this age. Not only is there a lack of water in rural areas of developing nations, but also in the increasingly crowded urban centres. This shortage of water, which is such an essential part of modern life whether in domestic, commercial or agricultural endeavours, is having an untold effect on the health and development of communities across the developing world. It is hardly surprising that tensions - that could degenerate into violent conflicts - arise over this scarce and precious resource. For this reason GCI has established the Water for Peace programme, which aims to promote cooperation and conflict resolution throughout the world's transboundary river basins. This effort is illustrated by GCI's current efforts to help protect limited water resources - including groundwater - from pollution in Israel and Palestine. This also explains why GCI has become intricately involved in encouraging communication and negotiation between involved parties on how to peacefully handle the issue of equitably and sustainably managed and distributed water resources. In 2006, Green Cross International's global work on water won Mikhail Gorbachev the prestigious UN award of “Champion of the Earth”. GCI believes that access to a reliable and safe supply of water for essential human consumption and basic sanitation is a universal human right that should be recognised by all nations. In 2004 Mikhail Gorbachev announced that GCI would champion a global campaign for the Right to Water. The primary aim of this campaign is to empower national and local authorities with the ability and knowledge of how to integrate the Right to Water into their own national constitutions and legislation, thus fuelling the movement to establish a Global Convention on the Right to Water. So far, the Right to Water campaign has been successful in raising global awareness of the need for national governments to move towards an international agreement that legally binds each nation to recognise, protect and implement the human right to water. Even though the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has already recognised the right to water as a fundamental right, this decision is not legally binding on states and it remains essential to encourage national governments to officially acknowledge the right to water as a guaranteed human right. GCI is also promoting the UN Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, adopted in 1997, with the objective of gathering the required number of signatories for the convention to enter into force, before the start of the 5th World Water Forum in March 2009. Without electricity the modern way of life would cease to exist, which is why there must be a concerted effort to use sustainable sources of energy. Fossil fuels are at best a transitionary source of energy due to their finite quantity as well as their harmful effects on the environment, which in turn will affect the security and economies of all nations. Therefore, GCI and national affiliates have been working on projects that will lower the cost and enhance the efficiency of sustainable energy sources such as solar power in order to compete with fossil fuels. One such project, being led by GCI and its national affiliate Global Green USA, is the Global Solar Fund, which aims to reduce the overall cost of solar photovoltaic technology to a level competitive with traditional fossil fuels. In the same vein, there are also projects to reduce the cost of energy consumption through the development of more “green building” techniques in the hope of reducing low-income families' utility bills by 15% - 25%. GCI continues to strive towards a more sustainable energy future with the hope that every person will have access to affordable and sufficient energy to guarantee human development and wellbeing, while also protecting the environment of which we are all a part. Green Cross International believes that in order to achieve a more global level of sustainability there must be international solidarity and a collective effort to change the values and behaviour that we have become accustomed to. The shift has already begun but it is not happening nearly fast enough; GCI will continue to work hard in order to accelerate and expand the global movement towards real sustainability.
PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

“It's about building a sustainable peace. A peace we can all enjoy. Construction of that peace is most certainly dependant on our ability to prevent conflicts over the limited natural resources of our planet.” Shimon Peres, Member of GCI Board of Directors

- 05

WATER FOR PEACE

This crucial water facility was destroyed after the Israeli departure from Gaza in 2006. / photo: GC France

PROTECTING TRANSBOUNDARY GROUNDWATER SOURCES FROM POLLUTION IN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE: RESEARCH, TRAINING AND GUIDELINES FOR ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN MUNICIPALITIES Perpetual competition for water in the Middle East is a matter of contention and, in order to preserve both the environment and security, Green Cross France aims to reduce the tension that results from limited amounts of groundwater resources in Israel and Palestine. Pollution of groundwater resources in the region has been caused largely by human impact on the environment in terms of domestic effluents, industrial activity, and environmentally harmful agricultural practices. Since the summer of 2006, Green Cross France has coordinated a project arising from its partnership with Friends of the Earth-Middle East and the House of Water and Environment. The project has clear objectives; primary among them is the goal of educating Israelis and Palestinians at a local level to establish a network of water professionals with strong technical knowledge of groundwater preservation. In doing so the project will also clearly define the guidelines agreed upon for monitoring, alleviating and managing pollution. The ultimate objective of the project is to secure a commitment from municipalities to adhere to and improve pollution levels in their respective jurisdictions.

STRENGTHENING THE COASTAL WATER MUNICIPALITIES UNION (CWMU) OF GAZA TO IMPROVE THEIR WATER SERVICES AND SANITATION MANAGEMENT In Gaza, the average person's daily water consumption is less than half the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. Insufficient water access is partially to blame for the low living standards and prolonged violence in the region. Only nine of the existing 24 high flow wells in Gaza are operational, and many illegal wells further exploit the overextended coastal aquifer. This situation is largely due to the economic and political crisis that has led directly to increases in the cost of providing water services while at the same time reducing technical knowledge and the capacity of the staff to service and maintain the existing water infrastructure. In order to take steps toward improving this situation, since February 2007 Green Cross France has implemented a training programme for members of the Coastal Water Municipalities Union (CWMU) with the Palestinian Hydrology Group and strong support from the Palestinian Water Authority. Over the course of nine months, over 150 people have been part of an internship programme that teaches participants to improve and maintain the water infrastructure. Individuals receive instruction on running and maintaining wells and water supply systems, managing purification and water treatment plants, as well as being taught resource integration and financial management. The Palestinian Water Authority and the CWMU are in charge of defining the programme, as well as choosing participants, which in turn provides the project with legitimacy, expertise, and longevity, thus improving access to water in Gaza while also increasing the human capital in the region.

06 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

ISRAEL AND PALESTINE - DETERMINE THE NEEDS TO OPTIMISE WATER RESOURCES: A NECESSARY STEP TO ACHIEVE RECONCILIATION By coordinating a research panel to assess the long-term supply and demand of water in Palestine and Israel, Green Cross France, in partnership with the Peres Center for Peace, has demonstrated its deep commitment to the challenge of finding innovative methods for preserving the Earth's finite resources. This research panel is focused on correctly evaluating the water needs of the region, and brainstorming to meet those needs as a necessary step towards increased cooperation among competing interest groups. The initial step in this project, which started in January 2007,is to organise a group of both Israeli and Palestinian specialists and international experts. The final goal of the study is to provide Israel and Palestine with reliable, unbiased data and analysis on the water needs and availability in the region, thus opening avenues for collaboration over integrated water management. RESOLUTION OF AN ARGENTINEAN AND URUGUAYAN CONFLICT OVER PAPER MILLS The Uruguayan government's decision to allow the installation of two paper mills (one from the Finnish company Botnia, and the second from the Spanish company Ence), with an investment of USD 1 billion in the area of Fray Bentos near the city of Gualeguaychú (Argentina), has generated significant worry amongst the local Argentine population. They are concerned about the possibility of water and air pollution that could threaten human health and destroy the environment. In the first place, Green Cross International, with its partners in Argentina and Uruguay, has been addressing this conflict by conducting a technical, social and environmental assessment study, independent from the two governments and the various stakeholders involved, in order to clarify the positive and negative impacts of the Paper Mills Implantation Project. The study's objective was to help the communities understand the magnitude and composition of any potential consequences of these paper mills, whilst at the same time educating them on how to avoid and decrease their own exposure to these risks. In the beginning of 2007, the second phase of the project began: establishing a process of dialogue and information exchange within a multi-stakeholder approach, involving both sides of the border in a constructive dialogue to find sustainable and peaceful solutions to the conflict.

GREEN CROSS FRANCE EMBARKS UPON TWO ADDITIONAL PROJECTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST • Establishing the Abdullah Rotenberg Peace Park in the Middle East: Three local authorities - Muaz Bin Jabal (Jordan), Jordan Valley Regional Council (Israel), and Beit Shean Regional Council (Israel) have come together to take the first steps toward establishing the Abdullah Rotenberg Peace Park along the confluence of the Lower Jordan and Yarmuk Rivers. Currently in the planning stage, the park will establish a natural habitat for different native animals and plants while attracting migrating birds. This will create a unique eco-tourist attraction for travellers in Jordan and Israel, to be combined with nature trails to the cultural heritage sites associated with the Three Bridges. Green Cross France and Friends of the Earth Middle East are currently guiding the project's progress.

GCI Vice-President Bertrand Charrier opens the “border” between Israel and Jordan on the site of the future Abdullah Rotenberg Peace Park. / photo: GC France

• Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Schools in the Middle East: A recent project initiated by Green Cross France and partner organisation Friends of the Earth Middle East, seeks to install 12 additional rainwater harvesting systems in schools and community centres in Palestinian, Jordanian and Israeli communities. This most recent initiative is an expansion of a pilot project which installed 14 systems - 7 in Palestine, 5 in Israel, and 2 in Jordan - thanks to funding from the European Union and U.S. Wye River programme. The Middle East projects led and managed by Green Cross are financially supported by The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the French Development Agency, the Fondation Manna, the Cities of Lyon and Paris, and the Water Agencies of Loire-Bretagne and RhôneMéditerranée et Corse.
- 07

Citizens in Argentina protest the construction of paper mills on the banks of the Rio Uruguay. / photo: GC Argentina

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

WATER FOR PEACE
MANY GREEN CROSS NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS IMPLEMENT SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS RELATED TO THE WATER FOR PEACE PROGRAMME • Green Cross Argentina's study on lead contamination in Argentina High levels of lead in the soil and in groundwater can have devastating effects on human health. In the spring of 2007, GC Argentina completed a study on lead contamination in Argentina that was presented to the Ministry of Health. The aim of the study was to identify contaminated sites, assess impacts on human health, and propose recommendations. • Green Cross Argentina continues to enjoy strong ties with Buenos Aires The recent appointment of Green Cross Argentina to the Commission for the Riachuelo River has enhanced efforts to improve the local environment in Buenos Aires. The Commission for the Riachuelo will devise strategies for river clean up and furnish the Argentine government with these solutions directly. • Green Cross Burkina Faso is involved in activities to combat desertification and promote transboundary water resources management In cooperation with NIRAS, a Danish consulting firm, Green Cross Burkina Faso produced a survey in July 2007 on the theme “Mainstreaming of land sustainable management issues into the transboundary project on integrated management of water resources in the Volta river basin.” The survey was commissioned by the African Development Bank within the framework of its programme to combat desertification in Sub-Saharian Africa. In June 2007, Green Cross Burkina Faso, represented by its CEO, Ousséni Diallo, took part in the preliminary workshop of the Sahel Water Governance Learning Group (or in French, PROGRES - Projet de Gouvernance des Ressources en Eau au Sahel), as the focal point for the project's work in Burkina Faso. PROGRES is a four-year programme to tackle water issues in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. It promotes better policies, laws and practices that address the property rights and governance challenges of improving access to water for farming and herding. GC Burkina Faso, using its expertise in water management and water as a human right, will be facilitating “experience exchanges” and informed debate in the country, based on the results of the scoping phase. • Green Cross Denmark's international water projects: Green Cross Denmark is developing water purifying systems to be implemented in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Romania and China. • Green Cross Italy is in the process of implementing the second phase of an educational and awareness project on the issue of water crisis in Sicily, with the contribution of the European Commission (Hydromed 2; 2008). • Green Cross Pakistan: Water Education Project Water scarcity is a serious problem in many parts of Pakistan due to drought, water mismanagement and conflict. To remedy the situation, Green Cross Pakistan has started to address the issue at a grass roots level by promoting water education programmes for farmers. • Green Cross Spain: Second (2006) and Third (2007) International Dialogue organised on the worldwide water crisis The International Dialogues offer a general point of view about global water management to solve conflicts regarding water. The event is the outcome of collaboration between Green Cross Spain, the Seville Public Water Management Company (EMASESA), and Seville City Council. The second dialogue on the world water crisis (2006) was on the theme of global urban water management, while the third programme (2007) will be about international water conflicts and the role of technology in resolving the fight between communities and social sectors. The 2006 Dialogues used concrete examples of successful water management around the world: Ougadougou (Burkina Faso), Querétaro (Mexico) Medellin (Colombia), Rome (Italy), etc. • Green Cross Spain and the Water Alliance The Water Alliance was formed as a tool for raising funds and engaging Spanish citizens in the challenge to go above and beyond the UN Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of the world's population with limited access to water by 2015. Sponsored by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, the International Agency of Spanish Cooperation, the United Nations office for the Millennium Development Goals in Spain, and the Expo Zaragoza 2008, it has provided an opportunity to work with like-minded partners to fundraise in the hope of exceeding Millennium Development Goals. • Green Cross Swaziland: Water Pollution Surveillance project Green Cross Swaziland is leading a project aimed at monitoring water pollution in the main rivers of Swaziland, that are mostly polluted by chemicals dumped from local companies. The national affiliate works closely with environmental stakeholders and has recently run a very successful clean-up campaign in the Eastern Lowveld region of Swaziland involving school children. Another project in which GC Swaziland is very active aims to combat desertification, a major issue in Swaziland. One of the solutions has been the planting of trees in areas where the soil has been tempered because of the construction of dams or roads.

08 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

PROMOTION OF WATER ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES Participating in international conferences and forums stems from the GCI philosophy that action for positive change should take place in both the field and in the boardroom. In the last two years, GCI representatives have travelled to various locations around the globe to show support and lend a voice to several different international water-related conferences, some of which are outlined below: • The Fourth World Water Forum, held in Mexico City. In March 2006 GCI organised two sessions related to the Water For Peace Programme and the Right to Water Campaign, and participated in the launch of a synthesis report entitled “The Right to Water: From Concept to Implementation” edited by the World Water Council. • Green Cross International attended Stockholm World Water Week held from 16-20 August 2006, which was an excellent opportunity to further our cooperation with other organisations that share a common interest in the preservation of water as a precious and finite natural resource. • At the bequest of the President of the French Republic, a Conference for Global Ecological Governance was held in Paris on 2-3 February 2007 with more than 200 world leaders from 72 countries present. The event gave GCI President Alexander Likhotal the opportunity to renew its call for the adoption of an international framework convention on Water, which would legally affirm and facilitate the implementation of the right to water. • At the World Life Sciences Conference in Lyon, France (March 2007), GCI Vice-President Bertrand Charrier gave a presentation on the state of the global water crisis and the importance of mobilising to meet the Millennium Development Goals of increasing access to water and sanitation. • On March 22, 2007, Green Cross International and its national affiliate Green Cross Italy, promoted World Water Day in Rome, at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. At the plenary session, the Nobel Prize winner Rita Levi Montalcini, Honorary President of GC Italy and GCI Honorary Board Member, drew attention to the fundamental role of women in finding solutions to the problem of water issues, and a video message from Mikhail Gorbachev, GCI Chairman, was aired. • Bertrand Charrier was also invited to speak in Brussels, at the Water Security in Europe Forum in June 2007. There, he promoted the use of a “preventive engagement strategy” to tackle complex global security issues that require more than military resolution. • At the International Forum on Drought, Seville, Spain, in June 2007, Green Cross Spain organised the theme session “Framework Convention on the Right to Water. Water is a Right, not a Privilege” in which Bertrand Charrier, Vice-President of Green Cross International, and Alberto Fraguas, the Executive Director of Green Cross Spain, highlighted the main reasons for the lack of an adequate international legal framework - one of the major obstacles to overcoming the current world water crisis. • In preparation for the International Expo Zaragoza 2008 - held from 14 June to 14 September - GC Spain identified the different activities required to transform the idea of a New Culture of Water into a reality on the ground.

During World Water Day 2007 in Rome, Rita Levi Montalcini, Nobel Prize winner and Honorary President of GC Italy, drew attention to the fundamental role of women in finding a solution to the world water crisis. / photo: FAO/Giulio Napolitano
PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

- 09

WATER FOR PEACE
WORLD WIDE PARTICIPATION IN THE ACTIVITIES AND WORK OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND INITIATIVES Bertrand Charrier, in his capacity of Governor of the World Water Council, is highly involved in several projects and initiatives led by the Council. As a first step in bridging the 4th World Water Forum to the 5th, a kick-off meeting was held in Istanbul in March 2007. Bertrand Charrier and David Alix, GCI Director of Communications, participated in the process. During two days of workshops and brainstorming sessions, the themes and issues to be discussed at the 5th World Water Forum began to take shape. GCI is highly involved in the Programme and Communication Steering Committees of the Forum, making sure that issues such as energy, climate change, security, culture, dams, reservoirs, and transboundary watercourses are taken into account in the debates and in the communication strategy of WWF5. INFLUENCING WATER POLICIES THROUGH THE MEDIA Green Cross International constantly engages with the media to promote the Water for Peace Programme. Members of the GCI Board of Directors Mikhail Gorbachev and Jan Kulczyk were guest columnists for the Financial Times in March 2007. In a piece entitled “We Should All Be Ashamed” they chastised the developed world for their neglect of sustainable development practices and lack of progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Mr. Gorbachev reminded readers that, two years earlier Green Cross International had warned that governments and corporations continuing with “business as usual” would lead to missing the MDG for water by 234 million people. In another article, published in June 2007, Mr. Gorbachev collaborated with the CEO of the French Development Agency, Mr. Jean-Michel Severino, in expressing their concern over “Climate change and water security”. The op-ed piece was carried by over 40 international news sources and was a moving assessment of the repercussions of failing to take preventive action. Mr. Gorbachev and Mr. Severino warned readers that the “sudden scarcity of an element whose symbolic and spiritual importance matches its centrality to human life” would cause “stress and exacerbate conflicts worldwide.” Accordingly, they advocated solutions in which responsibly sized and sustainably designed dams and international waterways were protected, and integrated development projects took social, economic and agricultural incentives into account in their planning and implementation. The Financial Times also published an interview in June 2007, in which Mr. Gorbachev stressed the need for action at the highest levels of government to generate support for an international law that protects the human right to water. This interview was an opportunity for Green Cross international to inform a large audience about the definition of water as a human right and the implications of adopting an international convention on the right to water.

Representatives from international and non-governmental organisations gather to plan the 2009 World Water Forum / photo: World Water Council 10 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

ACCESS TO WATER SERVICES

Women in Burkina Faso walk and queue for hours every day in order to draw water from wells. / photo: GC France

“WATER, THE SOLIDARITY OF PEOPLE AND TERRITORIES” DIALOGUES AND ACTIONS FOR LIFE AND PEACE INITIATIVE This campaign, which was initiated in Bologna (Bologna Dialogues on Water for Life and Peace, 2003) aims to promote the logic of decentralised cooperation and revive the value of water as an essential link between people and nature. Following the launch of the French campaign in Rennes (Brittany region) on December 12, 2005, Mr. Gorbachev, GCI, and the Regional Council of Brittany joined forces to organise a Summer University programme on 29 and 30 September 2006. The conference centred around a discussion of the Oudin law - a French law adopted in January 2005 that permits public authorities to allocate one percent of their water and sanitation revenue to water projects in developing countries. One of the most exciting developments of the conference was the commitment of local and regional authorities of Brittany to implement the new Oudin Law.

IMPROVEMENT OF BASIC WATER AND SANITATION IN SAN ANTONIO DE LOMERIO, BOLIVIA Green Cross Bolivia's Rainwater Harvesting and Ecological Latrines Project deals with the general water shortage and inadequate sanitary conditions endemic in families from the municipality of San Antonio de Lomerío, Bolivia. The programme had the support of Green Cross Japan, who helped finance 13 ecological latrines and 14 rainwater tanks that were immediately made available to the families. The International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance was subsequently approached and provided funding for the construction of 25 new rainwater tanks, training the indigenous population in relevant technologies, and offering basic sanitation guidance to families. To date, 18 people have been trained to construct rainwater tanks and ecological latrines. Furthermore, 37 indigenous families have been educated on water purification, personal hygiene, and other elements of basic sanitation. Thanks to the initiative, nearly 2,000 additional people now have access to clean water. The rainwater tanks and ecological latrines are simple systems that have low build costs yet yield high returns and significantly improve the condition of the environment.

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

- 11

ACCESS TO WATER SERVICES
ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER AND BASIC SANITATION IN THE YATENGA PROVINCE, NORTHERN BURKINA FASO In an effort to combat desertification and provide rural villagers with a clean and reliable water source,Green Cross Italy has collaborated with the Italian non-profit organisation, MediaFriends, to provide 11 different villages in the Yatenga Province with a safe and secure water infrastructure. The project, which is a joint venture with Green Cross Burkina Faso, began in the summer of 2007 with a proposed timeframe of two years. Funding a comprehensive hydrological study, the Green Cross team is designating the best places in the area for drilling wells. Eventually wells will be combined with hydraulic systems to move the water to where it is most needed, for consumption, sanitation and agricultural irrigation. Involving the local population in the building and maintenance of wells will promote a transfer of skills,helping to generate further water projects and improvements. SOCIAL REHABILITATION OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL The aim of this project is to develop integrated actions to promote social rehabilitation via associations and rural community cooperatives in the regions of the hydrographical basins of Paranaibas rivers, part of the extended Prata/Parana basin. Green Cross Brazil has recently completed the third and final phase of the three-year community development project started in 2004 and funded by the Carrefour Foundation. While the initial phase of the project took place in the community of Garimpo do Baneira, in the second year the project was expanded to include a second city, where similar goals were met using the unique skills of each community. Speaking solely in terms of enhancements to their daily lives, community members experienced improvements in both health and nutrition .The construction of a community centre had a significant impact on daily life.The Centre includes space and facilities for technical training, empowering women to become active in social and economic spheres. The Green Cross programme also had a significant impact on repositioning the economic interests of the community by giving them the time to evaluate their strengths in order to decide the direction of their economic development. FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT BETWEEN GCI AND THE GOVERNMENT OF BRAZIL Green Cross International, represented by Green Cross Brazil, and the Brazilian Government, represented by the State of Minas Gerais and the Secretary of Science Technology and Graduate Education, have recently signed an agreement on their commitment to work in concert with one another to protect and sustain water sources in Brazil. On 14 May 2007, the parties signed a Framework Agreement on Cooperation, marking an important milestone and a formalisation of the relationship between the signatories regarding objectives for water sustainability projects in Brazil. The impetus for this agreement is the mutual recognition that water is a fundamental human right and that sustainable solutions must be found at local levels in order to avoid a deepening global water crisis.

A farmer, former gold digger, benefits from the Carrefour Foundation project Social rehabilitation of rural communities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. photo: GC France

CREATION OF THE HYDROEX UNESCO INSTITUTE IN BRAZIL The Government of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil is proud to announce the creation of a category II UNESCO Center, the HydroEX UNESCO Institute, in the State of Minas Gerais. The Institute will focus on environmental education and capacity building in the field of water management. The project, which was initiated by the State of Minas Gerais, is run in partnership with Green Cross International, the national affiliate Green Cross Brazil, UNESCO, CENEP (National Center of Professional Education in Cooperativism, Environmental Management, and Tourism), and the Biodiversitas Foundation. This initiative responds to the training and education needs that were identified during the implementation of the project “Social Rehabilitation of Rural Communities in the State of Minas Gerais”.

The Garimpo do Bandeira community celebrates “Children's Day” with the support of Green Cross and the Carrefour Foundation. / photo: GC Brazil

12 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

RIGHT TO WATER CAMPAIGN

Right to Water banner on the occasion of World Water Day celebrations in Italy / photo: Green Cross Italy

THE RIGHT TO WATER CONCEPT Most human and environmental rights are defined as such by instruments of international law, such as a treaty or convention. Green Cross International believes that the right to water should be no different. Like climate and biodiversity, the right to water deserves a legally-binding international instrument dedicated to its protection. GCI and President Gorbachev are fully engaged in this campaign. Because the right to water is universal and inalienable, Green Cross lends a strong voice to the call for the adoption of a convention that would recognise this and make it a priority in political decision-making. What had previously been an awareness-raising campaign is thus transforming into a powerful force for action in international law.

THE RIGHT TO WATER CAMPAIGN - BACKGROUND Following the Petition for a Global Water Convention, launched in 2002 in Lyon during the first Earth Dialogues, it was decided, along with the International Secretariat of Water (ISW) and the MaghrebMachreq Alliance for Water (ALMAE), that the Water Convention project would be launched at the first World Assembly of Water Wisdom (WAWW) held during the 3rd World Water Forum in Kyoto in March 2003. The second WAWW was held in Barcelona during the Universal Forum of Cultures in 2004, where the first draft of the Fundamental Principles for a Global Convention on the Right to Water was adopted. The text was improved by experts and is currently being proposed to governments for their consideration. The website www.watertreaty.org, established by GCI in 2005, encourages visitors to sign a petition that endorses international legal action on the convention. It is available in eight different languages, which allows people from across the globe to take action for a cause that is important to all human beings.

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

- 13

RIGHT TO WATER CAMPAIGN
NOTABLE EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES REGARDING THE RIGHT TO WATER • Promotion of the Principles of the Global Convention - Early in 2006, President Gorbachev sent 60 letters to Prime Ministers and Presidents around the globe in order to solicit their support for the international campaign for the Right to Water. Approximately 20 countries, including Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany and Hungary communicated their interest and support for the campaign. • Right to Water Publication - Green Cross International's Vice-President, Bertrand Charrier, contributed to the World Water Council publication “The Right to Water, from Concept to Implementation,” that aims to re-examine the questions that surround the issue, clarify the content of the right to water and, crucially, move forward with its implementation. This publication introduces the challenges that the campaign faces in terms of defining the right, and identifies the misconstrued political priorities and economic considerations which all impede its implementation. Green Cross national affiliates from Argentina, Bolivia, and Burkina Faso provided valuable case studies for the publication. • Success of the national campaign for the Right to Water in French Law - The recent passage of the Water and Aquatics law included the human right to water in its first article (30 December 2006), an unequivocal success for the national campaign run by Green Cross France. The campaign for the right to water has since progressed further via the creation of a Citizens Committee to follow up the implementation and enforcement of the law in France. • In 2006 and 2007, Green Cross Italy actively promoted the Right to Water to the highest State authorities. The organisation collected signatures in 30 squares around Italy and held various conferences at the Universities of Milan and Turin, in Florence, Sorrento, Palermo, and many other cities. • Preparation for the 5th World Water Forum - GCI has been promoting the UN Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, adopted in 1997, with the objective of gathering the required number of state ratifications for the Convention to enter into force before the start of the 5th World Water Forum in March 2009. The Convention was adopted on 21 May 1997 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, but only very few countries have since ratified it. • “The Right to Water: Implementation and Enforcement” - Green Cross International, in partnership with the World Water Council is in the process of launching a two-year study on the theme “The Right to Water: Implementation and Enforcement”. The aim of the study is to expand the implementation of the human right to water by accelerating the enforcement of those legally-binding instruments that already exist on water issues within national legislation, and analysing the need for a Global Framework Convention on Water. An internationally binding document would provide everyone with effective judicial remedies for demanding fulfilment of the right to water, and require that governments prioritise water access in budgetary allocations.

The website www.watertreaty.org was established by GCI in 2005

14 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

SMART ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Design board for the Holy Cross Neighbourhood green building project in New Orleans

THE GLOBAL SOLAR FUND Green Cross International, in cooperation with its national affiliate Global Green USA, has undertaken an ambitious plan to explore the viability of creating a Global Solar Fund to accelerate investment, research, and development in photovoltaic energy. Over the course of ten years Green Cross International intends to spur the creation of the Global Solar Fund with a goal of generating USD 50 billion. This money would fund research and projects to make solar energy more cost effective. Commitments to the Fund would be tracked by a central agency and managed under the auspices of the United Nations. Green Cross will also monitor commitments to the Fund and advocate for additional pledges. At least 50% of the Fund will be dedicated to the energy impoverished developing world through the multi-lateral central agency, and coordinated bi-lateral commitments.

ADVISING GOVERNMENTS AND COMPANIES ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CLIMATE CHANGE • G8 Summit - In 2006 and 2007 Green Cross saw the G8 Summit as an opportunity to weigh in on issues of renewable energy and sustainable development. Prior to the 2006 G8 Summit in St. Petersberg, Russia, Green Cross Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev presented G8 leaders with the Green Cross position paper on energy security. He articulated, in no uncertain terms, the necessity for global action to implement long-term solutions to the approaching energy crisis. • Energy Efficiency in Australia - In September 2006, the government of South Australia invited GCI to evaluate and present recommendations on its groundbreaking draft Energy Saving law, and consultation continues. Following GCI's Brisbane Earth Dialogues in July 2006, the Lord Mayor of Brisbane formed a working group to prepare recommendations on resource efficiency to combat climate change. • Bio-diesel Vehicles In Pakistan - In January 2006 Green Cross Pakistan presented Pakistan's first vehicle running on bio-diesel fuel. The two-fold objective behind this project was to encourage potential investors in the energy field to think in new terms of environmental and energy sustainability, and also to update local population on the efforts made by the international community to reduce CO2, NOXs and SOXs. GC Pakistan also published a report about the viability of bio-diesel vehicle use. • Advising Citibank Investors About Climate Change Challenges In June 2007, GCI President, Alexander Likhotal, was invited to address the Citibank Conference on Climatic Change. The address expressed GCI's belief that long-term planning and corporate cooperation were key to averting the climate crisis.

“Global warming is threatening us all,” said Oscar nominee and GCI supporter Penelope Cruz. “Fortunately, there are many simple things we can all do such as driving greener cars or changing to compact fluorescent light bulbs, which can dramatically save energy and reduce global warming pollution.”

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

- 15

SMART ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
GREEN REBUILDING IN NEW ORLEANS Immediately after Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast in 2005, Global Green USA was on the ground in New Orleans, evaluating disaster response and exploring ways to effectively respond to the incredible needs of the city. In the months following the disaster, an aggressive plan for rebuilding neighbourhoods in New Orleans took shape across three distinct programmes: political action; education; and the creation of model green building projects that can be replicated throughout New Orleans and ultimately in cities around the world. • Influencing policy in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast- Global Green recognises that a key to the long-term success of sustainable development in New Orleans will be liaising with government officials at the parish, state and federal levels of government to create green building and energy policy and incentive programmes that ensure healthy, cost-effective green building becomes standard practice. As a result of Global Green advocacy initiated around our Sustainable Design Competition, the New Orleans City Council passed a green building resolution that endorses the adoption of LEED Silver standards - a green building rating system - for all city buildings, creates tax incentives for green building sector companies and encourages green building in the residential sector. • Greening the Tax Credits- As a result of Global Green's advocacy, the Louisiana Housing Finance Authority (LHFA) adopted guidelines (also known as the Qualified Allocation Plan, or QAP) that will be used to determine the distribution of over USD 150 million worth of tax credits for affordable housing until the end of 2008. The LHFA has asked Global Green to help implement these guidelines by reviewing developer applications and providing educational materials. • Green Schools Initiative- with the help of a USD 2 million grant from the Bush Clinton Katrina Fund, Global Green USA has launched its Louisiana Green Schools initiative which advocates for the creation of high performance schools throughout the state of Louisiana that will benefit thousands of students. Green schools enjoy 20%-40% lower energy and water costs, provide an improved learning environment, and can be an instrument for passing on environmental education. Global Green staff visited and toured several school sites last December, then drafted and presented green schools criteria to the Louisiana Recovery Authority (LRA), which the LRA has since adopted. Global Green presented a Green Schools Workshop to key stakeholders on August 8th, 2007, and additional training and workshops will take place over the next 24 months. In addition, included in the grant is the launch of Global Green's “Green Seed Schools” programme in which five New Orleans schools are being selected to receive financial and technical assistance. In the Spring of 2007, the selection of the first Green Seed School was coupled with the development of an “Art and Assembly” programme which exhibited the work of school children in a human art mural. • Sustainable Design Competition- On 31 August 2006, Global Green USA announced the winner of the New Orleans Sustainable Design Competition chaired by Brad Pitt. An official architectural design and green technical jury helped pick the winning design after three months of consultation with the local community. The housing development, which will include a 12-unit multi-family building, five single-family homes and a community center, will be built in the Holy Cross Neighbourhood of the Lower Ninth Ward.The contest was committed to the goals of providing green affordable housing and demonstrating principles of sustainable cities, and climate solutions that work for communities. If 50,000 homes were rebuilt according to the energy cost reduction goals of the Global Green Sustainable Design competition, residents would save USD 38 million to USD 56 million EVERY year. Additionally, each home with a sustainable design would also reduce carbon and greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 11 tons per household per year.

Pam Dashiell, President of the Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, Brad Pitt, and Global Green President Matt Petersen announce the winner of the sustainable design competition for New Orleans. / photo: Global Green USA 16 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

GREEN BUILDING PROJECTS IN CALIFORNIA Global Green USA has long been a leader within the Green Cross International network on issues of environmental awareness and “greening” of communities. Through the Green Affordable Housing Initiative, Global Green works to encourage the adoption of green building strategies and materials in affordable housing. Working with affordable housing organisations, Global Green provides information and education on the best practices and components of financial strategies, and relevant policy initiatives. In June 2007, Global Green, in collaboration with Community HousingWorks, launched 'SOLARA', the first apartment community in California to be fully powered by the sun. Through the Local Government Green Building Initiative, Global Green works in partnership with local governments to design local green building programmes and policies, and provides examples through case studies and design tools. Since 2004, Global Green has also been very active in promoting its Green School Initiative to schools in Southern California where it is helping to green new schools construction. In addition to securing the USD 100 million set aside for green schools in the state education bond initiative, Global Green advocated for a plan to distribute those funds that was approved by California's State Allocation Board in September 2006. California's Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 is the most significant climate legislation passed to-date in the USA and requires California to quarter its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. As part of Global Green USA's Climate Solutions for Communities Initiative, Global Green USA successfully added key language to the “Community Empowerment Amendment” included in AB 32. This amendment will empower California's low-income communities to participate directly in and benefit from carbon finance to mitigate climate change and help the most at risk communities adapt to it.

RAISING AWARENESS

“I am proud to support Global Green (the American affiliate of Green Cross International) and help them educate the public about climate change” said Global Green board member Leonardo DiCaprio. “It's urgent that we all take steps to reduce our impact on the environment.”

• Green Cross Solar Park in Sri Lanka Green Cross Sri Lanka is proud to announce the development of an environmentally friendly public space at Wellawatta beach in the Colombo district. The new park, called the Green Cross Solar Park, will be unique in that all buildings and outdoor lighting will be powered by solar energy. The park will include normal facilities and amenities for visitors including a snack bar and an information centre, but thanks to a donation from Green Cross Japan and its President Shoo Iwasaki, solar panels will be the primary source of energy for these facilities. The Government of Sri Lanka, through the Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs, will also provide some financial assistance to the project.

Aerial photo of 'SOLARA', the first apartment community in California to be fully powered by the sun / photo: Global Green USA

GREEN BUILDING FUNDRAISING EVENT In December 2006, Global Green USA hosted its 2nd annual San Francisco event, attended by actors Salma Hayek, Leonardo DiCaprio, Orlando Bloom and hundreds of supporters. The event focused on green design solutions to combat global warming and other environmental problems. The funds raised during the event are being used to support Global Green's Green Building projects in New Orleans and California.

Boardwalk at the new Green Cross Solar Park in Sri Lanka photo: GC Japan - 17

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

SMART ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• Global Green USA celebrity campaigns For the past five years, Global Green USA has encouraged some of Hollywood's most visible personalities to cast the spotlight on global warming and climate change by arriving at the Academy Awards in hybrid cars. Known as “Red Carpet, Green Cars”, the event has become one of Global Green's most publicised initiatives. At the 2007 Oscar show, celebrities had the choice of arriving in The Tesla Roadster, a high performance, all electric sportscar, a plug-in Prius that gets up to 100 gpm, the all electric Phoenix Roadster SUV, Compressed Natural Gas vehicles or the electric Zap Car. Celebrity and notable individuals participating included: Leonardo DiCaprio, Penelope Cruz, Forest Whittaker, Nicole Kidman, Kirsten Dunst, Ryan Gosling, Gwyneth Paltrow, Al and Tipper Gore, Melissa Etheridge, Davis Guggenheim and Elisabeth Shue, Larry and Laurie David, Lawrence Bender, Scott Z. Burns, Lesley Chilcott. • Antarctica The weather patterns and environmental changes that take place in Antarctica are often a strong indicator of climate change globally. It is important for citizens and scientists alike to take note of the climatic developments of the earth's southern pole. In an effort to raise awareness and interest in Antarctic climate and global warming, Green Cross International and its national affiliates Green Cross Argentina, France and Global Green USA have taken an active role in Sebastian Copeland's public awareness campaign “Antarctica: The Global Warning”, the focal point of the campaign has been the production of a photography book by Mr. Copeland, which contains stunning landscapes of the continent. The publication also contains a call to action including a foreword by GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev and an introduction by Leonardo DiCaprio. • The Double Top Expedition The Double Top Expedition is one of Green Cross France's most unique projects for the year 2007. It has the dual purpose of being a climatic research mission, as well as a mission to scale Greenland's highest mountain. In order to promote awareness of just how quickly ice is melting in Greenland, Green Cross France is helping sponsor the Sagax Double Top Expedition as well as the International Polar Year. Beginning in June of 2007, the expedition travelled throughout Greenland, conducting important scientific research on the environment, with specific attention paid to flora and fauna of Greenland. Focused research on polar bears, whales and gulls will contribute to a full picture of the effects of climate

“As the world struggles to combat poverty and global warming, Global Green USA is proving we can find solutions that benefit our communities and reduce global warming,” said Salma Hayek, a Green Cross International supporter.

Celebrities lend their star power to promote renewable energy: Salma Hayek and Orlando Bloom / photo: Global Green USA

change on the world's largest island. The adventurers also documented their journey on film and in diaries, with an awarenessraising book to be published on the findings of their journey. • Yahoo and Starbucks - The Way toward Corporate Sustainable Development In spring 2007, Global Green USA partnered with Yahoo's Be a Better Planet campaign (http://better.yahoo.com/planet) to offer cities and communities smart, simple solutions that will save money, improve health, and help save our environment. Global Green is partnering with the winning city - Hastings, Nebraska - to green a school or city building, or to create a citywide green building programme based on its recent publication “Developing Green Building Programmes: A Step-by-Step Guide for Local Governments.” Global Green also provided much of the green building tips and content to the website http://green.yahoo.com. Starbucks is another company that has become an influential player in corporate sustainable development. In April 2007, Starbucks and Global Green USA teamed up to encourage individuals to click, play and learn about global climate change and smart solutions with the launch of Planet Green Game. Through the online game located at www.planetgreengame.com players can explore a virtual world and learn how everyday decisions by individuals, cities, schools and businesses can impact the climate and environment. The game offers real-world examples of how individuals can change their own behaviour and also influence the actions of community, political and corporate leaders to engage in the effort to stop global warming.

Luc Hardy - the Double Top expedition leader, on the Gunnbjorn Fjeld, the highest peak in the Arctic. / photo: Sagax/Luc Hardy

18 - PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS
“Green Cross International's willingness to tackle conflict, poverty and unsustainable development simultaneously illustrates their unique understanding of these interconnected and critical issues.” Michel Rocard, Member of GCI Board of Directors
Too often in cases of conflict, the focus narrows to short-term strategy, and thus the long-term consequences of conflict are ignored, in many cases to the detriment of the surrounding populations. For this reason, Green Cross International is dedicated to the Environmental Consequences of Wars and Conflicts area of activity, established in 1993 with the mission of safely eliminating weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and mitigating the social, health, and environmental impacts of conflicts and nuclear, chemical, and biological contamination. This goal is accomplished through three complementary programmes: the Legacy of the Cold War Programme; the Social, Medical Care and Education Programme (SocMed); and Post-War Environmental Analysis. The Legacy of the Cold War Programme has been and continues to be one of GCI's most successful initiatives through the two-pronged approach of action and diplomacy. The purpose of the programme is to promote responsible destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles, cleaning of nuclear and chemical contamination, and the conversion of military bases for civilian use, while giving affected people outlets for questions and frustrations. Initially focusing on the reduction and destruction of chemical weapons within the United States and Russia, the Legacy Programme has grown and now is moving into the realm of elimination of biological and nuclear weapons. This exciting expansion of the Legacy Programme demonstrates the effectiveness of GCI's approach to the elimination of WMDs. Particularly, Green Cross International has made great strides in the safe destruction of Russian chemical weapons stockpiles, along with investigations into the extent of environmental damage that has occurred due to weapons storage. To complement the Legacy Programme, Green Cross also works on remedying the socio-economic and health consequences of man-made disasters, such as Chernobyl and the effect of Agent Orange in Vietnam, through the implementation of the Social, Medical Care and Education Programme (SocMed). SocMed focuses on three demographics: children, young adults and families to help bring a sense of normalcy to the lives of the hundreds of thousands that were affected. Primarily, SocMed establishes education programmes that foster a sense of future for the people affected by the nuclear contamination that occurred after Chernobyl. Additionally, therapy camps as well as mother's clubs help affected people deal with serious psychological, economic and social problems due to nuclear contamination and relocation. Each of these camps is highly effective in educating and treating the local populations who, still 20 years after the disaster, are living with the catastrophic effects. The programme focuses predominantly on the effected areas of Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine. In conjunction with the Legacy and SocMed programmes, the Post-War Environmental Analysis Programme is designed to push for greater understanding and awareness of the environmental damage caused by wars and conflicts. This programme simultaneously promotes the inclusion of environmental rehabilitation of areas and regions that have been affected by conflicts under the auspices of humanitarian assistance, and provides independent expertise on post-conflict environmental damage. The success enjoyed by the Legacy, SocMed and Environmental Analysis programmes illustrates the effectiveness of the education and action approach taken by Green Cross International. By raising awareness about environmental damage caused by conflicts, GCI hopes to increase the concern for the lasting issues associated with weapons of mass destruction and conflict.

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

- 19

THE LEGACY OF THE COLD WAR PROGRAMME

Legacy Programme delegation (including Stephan Robinson - International Director, Paul Walker - Director, and Christian Ion – Associate) at Zvezdochka shipyard in Severodvinsk, Russia, June 2007. / photo: GC Switzerland

PUBLIC OUTREACH OFFICES IN RUSSIA Located near chemical weapons stockpiles or nuclear destruction facilities, these offices inform, educate and support communities affected by the Cold War's legacy. In the last ten years the public outreach offices have built strong relationships with the communities, averaging 500 visitors monthly or 30 daily. The activities and opportunities for civic engagement offered by the offices have resulted in the emergence of trust previously absent, such as through the Citizens' Advisory Committees (CACs) which our offices have established in many chemical weapons destruction areas. CACs are advisory boards composed of diverse community representatives and are responsible for reaching a community consensus to use when liaising with local, regional and federal authorities. Emergency preparedness is critical for the Russian public outreach offices since the risk of accidents is high and often government emergency procedures, training, and equipment are inadequate, as demonstrated by chemical and environmental disasters. In Kambarka, the emergency sirens could not communicate accident details across the region. One of two emergency preparedness initiatives begun in 2007 distributed 2,000 radios in the region to complement the existing emergency sirens. Currently, most of the Kambarka region's population, thanks to Green Cross, has access to emergency response communication. In Kizner, 150 chemical weapons cleanup suits have been issued to local volunteers, which, when coupled with the practical training coordinated by Green Cross outreach offices, allow citizens to ensure their health and safety. Public outreach offices educate the community on new laws and constantly changing technology and train librarians, postmen, journalists, and teachers to pass along accurate and dependable information. In February 2007, the first public outreach office at a nuclear submarine dismantlement site was opened in Severodvinsk, Russia, where the world's largest shipyard maintains and decommissions nuclear ships and submarines. The Severodvinsk outreach office will help the Green Cross Legacy Programme encompass issues that are unique to nuclear weapons dismantlement, yet capitalise on ten years of chemical weapons outreach expertise.

2 0 - ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

NATIONAL DIALOGUES ON DEMILITARISATION, NON-PROLIFERATION AND THREAT REDUCTION, MOSCOW,WASHINGTON DC, AND GENEVA The recent series of national dialogues orchestrated by Green Cross International affiliates have been instrumental in bridging the gap between decision makers and local stakeholders in Russia. The 8th National Dialogue on Chemical Weapons Destruction, held in November 2006 in Moscow, was open and frank. National dialogues are the sole platform in Russia to include all stakeholder groups: local community members, federation officials, central government officials and the international community. Presentation topics vary from community concerns on health, environment and economics to official government and chemical weapon destruction industry presentations as all stakeholder groups are encouraged to present.
Paul Walker (Legacy Programme Director, Global Green USA), Alexander Likhotal (President, Green Cross International) and Marie Chevrier (Chair of the Scientists Working Group, Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation ) during the UN Press Conference, 8 November 2006. / photo: Global Green USA

Weapons Convention. Topics on the agenda included an address by the Director General of the Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and a panel discussion on emerging issues and challenges to non-proliferation. In November 2006, over fifty experts and diplomats participated in a roundtable discussion on global biosecurity and biosafety issues hosted by Tim Caughley, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference on Disarmament and keynoted by Ambassador Masood Khan, President of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) Sixth Review Conference. The meeting was organised by Green Cross International and three national affiliates, Global Green USA, Green Cross Switzerland and Green Cross Russia, and was held at the United Nations Palais des Nations in Geneva. The biosecurity conference used the nuclear and chemical dialogues as models to raise issues regarding the global prevention of and response to outbreaks of disease and the strengthening of the existing international ban on biological weapons. Many of the same participants attended the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) Five-Year Review two weeks later and Green Cross roundtable recommendations were introduced in the conference plenary by Alexander Likhotal, GCI President. The BWC Review Conference was productive, and many of the Green Cross roundtable recommendations were addressed.

The 10th Legacy Forum in Washington, DC, 29 March 2007. photo: Global Green USA

In 2006, the Legacy Programme introduced a new series of national dialogues in Russia on nuclear weapons. The Pilot Russian National Nuclear Dialogue (July 2006) and the 1st Russian National Nuclear Dialogue (April 2007) in Moscow aimed to initiate an inclusive, long-term dialogue about the future role of the military and civilian atom by addressing the latest technological advances and environmental and social impacts of nuclear energy and waste, nuclear demilitarisation, the G-8 Global Partnership's nuclear assistance, and nuclear non-proliferation and threat reduction. Global Green USA's 10th annual Legacy Forum in Washington, DC, in March 2007 was an opportunity for Russian, U.S., and other government representatives, academics and experts to celebrate the 10th anniversary of, and exchange their views on, the 1997 Chemical

Woman in Shchuch'ye with Emergency Radio photo: GC Switzerland

Quarterly planning meeting in Shchuch'ye, a chemical weapons stockpile community in Siberia, 7 June 2007./ photo: Stephan Robinson - 21

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

THE LEGACY OF THE COLD WAR PROGRAMME
THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS DEMILITARISATION CONFERENCE, BRUSSELS The Chemical Weapons Demilitarisation (CWD) forum is an annual opportunity for representatives from possessor states and key global partners to review the status of destruction programmes and global demilitarisation. Though government and industry experts give most presentations, Green Cross adds grassroots action and high level “Track II” diplomacy due to its committment to catalysing immediate and long-term change. Green Cross was represented at “CWD 2007” in May, 2007 by Paul Walker, Legacy Programme Director, and Stephan Robinson, Legacy Programme International Coordinator, who commented: “Green Cross is invited to present at the annual Chemical Weapons Demilitarisation Conference because we are about building cooperation and understanding. International conferences are very important, but it's not over when a treaty is ratified. Somewhere it has to happen in the field. That is where it starts.” THE 11TH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IN THE HAGUE For five days in The Hague in December 2006,the 182 signatories,observer states, and selected NGOs and UN agencies discussed issues linked to complete chemical weapons demilitarisation.Green Cross was selected as an NGO observer for the 7th consecutive year. Paul Walker and Stephan Robinson represented GCI and GCI's goal to keep demilitarisation in motion by renewing relationships with international delegations, ambassadors, and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and by capitalising on formal and informal interaction with possessor states. The 12th Session of the Conference will take place in November 2007, and, once again, Green Cross will participate. CWC UNIVERSALITY CAMPAIGN As of July 2007, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) has 182 signatories, meaning that 13 nations, some identified as “rogue states”, remain outside the treaty. Thus, the challenge has become universal application of and adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The press conference, organized by Global Green USA at the National Press Club in Washington DC on 30 March 2007, with the Organisation for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Director General, Rogelio Pfirter, and Legacy Programme Director Paul Walker, was the CWC Universality Campaign's official kick-off. Both the mission and challenge of the CWC Universality Campaign is treaty ratification by all 13 outlying states,whose lack of transparency about chemical weapons activity and stockpiles constitutes an imminent threat to international peace and security. To achieve this goal, Legacy Programme representatives will engage their leaders, civil societies, and government representatives in Washington DC and elsewhere, as well as conduct regional workshops about the advantages of joining the CWC. The campaign will involve the public at large through the media, including the creation and global distribution of a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that presents the work done by the OPCW. The PSA will air on CNN, BBC, Al Jazeera, and other channels with global reach.

The 11th Session of the Conference of the States Parties to the CWC in The Hague, 5-8 December 2006. / photo: Global Green USA 2 2 - ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

GREEN CROSS ITALY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE LEGACY PROGRAMME GC Italy has been very active in the past two years in promoting the elimination of weapons of mass destruction and support by the Italian government to the G8 Global Partnership. GC Italy has, amongst other activities: • Organised an international roundtable discussion on Italy's Role in the Global Partnership and Non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Russia, and the Former Soviet Union, in Rome. The roundtable, entitled “Current Global Partnership Initiatives and Italian Programmes: Submarine Dismantlement, Chemical Weapons Destruction and Plutonium Disposition” was held in collaboration with GCI, Global Green USA, GC Switzerland, GC Russia, Instituto Affari Internazionali, and the Monterey Institute's James Martin Centre for Non-proliferation Studies. • Attended the 4-day workshop on the universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention organised by the Italian government and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in Rome. Finn Longinotto, Legacy Programme Senior Fellow, and Elio Pacilio, GC Italy Director, presented the latest status of chemical weapons destruction. • Been engaged in various activities to encourage the Italian government to realise its one-billion-Euro commitment to Russia's chemical weapons and submarine dismantlement programmes.

LEGACY PROGRAMME MEDIA OUTREACH In 2006 and 2007 Green Cross published articles in many leading news outlets. In the February 2006 Strengthening the Global Partnership (SGP) Issue Brief, Paul Walker and Janina de Guzman published “Implementing Chemical Weapons Destruction in Russia: An Investigation of Best Practices in WMD Demilitarization” which drew lessons from a decade of public outreach and facilitation of the Legacy Programme in Russia. “The Real Chemical Threat”, an op-ed article written by Legacy Programme Director Paul Walker and Senior Fellow Jonathan Tucker, of the James Martin Centre for Non-Proliferation Studies, was published in the Los Angeles Times on 1st April 2006, warned about the importance of pressuring governments to tighten security measures at chemical weapons storage facilities. The academic journal, Arms Control Today, featured Paul Walker's historical analysis of the U.S. government's threat reduction programme since its foundation in 1991, “Nunn-Lugar at 15: No Time to Relax Global Threat Reduction Efforts”, in May 2006. In another op-ed piece for the Boston Globe, “A Long Way to Go In Eliminating Chemical Weapons”, on 1 May 2006, authors Paul Walker and Jonathan Tucker reminded readers that Russia and the United States are not the sole possessors of chemical weapons and the majority of chemical weapons destruction programmes are under-funded and behind schedule. In the editorial, “The Nuclear Threat”, in the Wall Street Journal on 31 January 2007, Green Cross International Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev seconded the sentiments of many world leaders calling for renewed respect for and adherence to the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) and contended that many NPT signatories were “in blatant violation of the nuclear powers' commitments under the Non-Proliferation Treaty.” In protest at the UK government's announcement in March 2007 of its intention to update its existing nuclear arsenal, Mikhail Gorbachev wrote an op-ed for The Times on March 8th, 2007, stating that acting on this proposal would “be in contradiction to the treaty that helped to end the cold war” and would further jeopardise the already precarious security situation concerning nuclear weaponry. The article, “Make Chemical Weapons History”, written in April 2007 by Cristian Ion and Paul Walker from the Legacy Programme, recognised that while the CWC has been effective in many respects, the critical remaining challenges could be rectified with short-term goals for the year 2007. Paul Walker also published an article, “Kananaskis at Five: Assessing the Global Partnership”, in Arms Control Today, in September 2007, which draws lessons from the first five years of the G-8 Global Partnership for its next half decade in helping secure and eliminate WMD in Russia.

Dr. Paul Walker (Legacy Programme Director) and Amb. Rogelio Pfirter (OPCW Director General) at the National Press Club in Washington, DC on March 30, 2007 to announce the Chemical Weapons Convention Universality Campaign. / photo: Global Green USA

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

- 23

SOCIAL AND MEDICAL CARE PROGRAMME (SocMed)

Children gather for a week at GC therapy camps. / photo: GC Ukraine

THERAPY CAMPS BELARUS, UKRAINE, AND RUSSIA Green Cross therapy camps operate across the region affected by the Chernobyl disaster and chemical weapon stockpile areas. In 2006, 412 children in Belarus, 278 in Russia and 80 children from Ukraine were participants in therapy camps, and since 1994, more than 14,000 children have benefited from their stay at 52 Green Cross Therapy Camps. Young people attend the therapy camps for 24 days of rest, medical care and recreation. The majority of children born in the Chernobyl region since 1986 have chronic problems with their respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems; thus the camp is an opportunity for them to receive treatment and prescriptions for these aliments. In fact, 83% of the children that attended the 2006 therapy camps across Russia, Belarus and Ukraine reported feeling healthier after spending time at the camp. Although the benefits to the children's physical health are quite significant, the effect of the therapy camps on the children's attitudes and confidence levels is also worth noting.

MOTHER AND CHILD PROJECT BELARUS, UKRAINE AND RUSSIA The specific aim of the Mother and Child Project is to improve the health of mothers and their children through focused medical attention and by showing them methods for protecting their families from the effects of radioactivity. During a 21 days stay, mothers learn about food growth and preparation techniques that reduce radioactive contamination. Information sessions about basic human health and nutrition, legal advice, and family psychology are also offered. The positive response to this programme is overwhelming. In parallel to this project, family clubs have been established in rural locations, providing mothers with techniques for dealing with stress and improving family relations. They learn best practices for reducing nuclear contamination levels, and also receive training and information regarding their legal rights. Above all, the family clubs are a venue for mothers to find a supportive network of women who face similar challenges every day. In Belarus, there are currently four rural family clubs with a combined membership of 490 mothers. Green Cross Russia sponsors eight family clubs and Green Cross Ukraine has 224 members in its three family clubs.

2 4 - ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

AGENT ORANGE- GREEN CROSS WORK IN VIETNAM Since launching the SocMed Programme in Vietnam in 1998, Green Cross has been working to bring improvements in daily life and physical health to those who were touched by Agent Orange. The most pressing concern is to repair the physical deformities caused by environmental contamination from Agent Orange. In 2006, 172 children and young adults with disabilities received medical assistance from this programme. Because the SocMed Programme is dedicated to an integrated and holistic approach in its work, children are not one-time recipients of Green Cross benefits. Often solutions to their ailments require multiple surgeries, or numerous prostheses as they grow. Addressing the economic and educational needs of children and their families in Agent Orange hot spots is also an integral aspect of the SocMed mandate. Green Cross has instituted a Micro-Credit Programme in Vietnam that helps to address the poverty that further complicates medical and social care in Vietnam. Currently, 40 families are enrolled in a small farming project that supplies a pregnant cow to the families of handicapped children. In addition to the Micro-Project, Green Cross has implemented “The Broom Project,” which trains 20-30 disabled young people and adults to make brooms. Green Cross also distributes information leaflets to raise awareness about services available and early detection of disabilities. INDIVIDUAL HEALTH RELATED PROGRAMMES BELARUS AND UKRAINE The Family Medicine Programme in Belarus is geared the development of public infrastructure for protecting the Chernobyl population from the continuing process of health and social degradation. In 2006, the Family Medicine Project evaluated the health of 16912 people and integrated their medical records into the information database “info clinic”. By using “info clinic” software, the long-term healthcare that a patient receives will be more consistent and thorough. Health for the Future is the name of a new and innovative programme orchestrated by Green Cross Ukraine. Like many of the health related projects in the SocMed Programme, Health for the Future liaises with the established state healthcare system to support and strengthen their efforts. In an effort to provide thorough research on the state of children's health and all aspects of chronic paediatric pathology, 761 children were examined and given medical advice. Green Cross Ukraine has also been active pursuing a second project in Zhytomyr called the Diabetes Pilot Project. TRAINING FOR TRAINERS SocMed was founded on the idea that provision of aid, services and knowledge could grow exponentially when delivered in a self-sustaining manner. The Training for Trainers seminars accomplish this goal and are an avenue for creating a large network of persons committed to social and medical projects. Training for Trainers workshops are organised in every location where the SocMed Programme is active. Most often, participants are parents, doctors, teachers, activists, students, and external authorities. In 2006, 40 seminars with well over 650 participants took place worldwide.

A before and after picture of one of SocMed Vietnam's patients. photo: GC Switzerland

SocMed Vietnam patient and programme coordinator spend time together after surgery. / photo: GC Switzerland

ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

- 25

SOCIAL AND MEDICAL CARE PROGRAMME (SocMed)
SOCIAL COOPERATIVES The first new generation affected by the Chernobyl disaster is quickly approaching adulthood. Those who were some of the first beneficiaries of the SocMed Programme are no longer children, and 20 years after the disaster what they need more than medical attention are vocational skills and opportunities. Thus the SocMed Programme has matured along with those it aims to help, and recently added Social Cooperatives to the list of supported projects. Social Cooperatives aim to overcome poverty and strengthen local autonomy by fostering community development. Currently the Social Cooperative Programmes include home sewing businesses that employ 30 families and agricultural activities that employ over 22 families. 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF CHERNOBYL BELARUS, UKRAINE, SWITZERLAND, ITALY, GERMANY As 2006 marked the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, Green Cross Belarus spent much of the first half of the year preparing anniversary events for the region's young population. In 600 schools across the country approximately 7000 children were able to attend theatre performances and participate in cross-cultural workshops with children from Holland and Germany. Green Cross Ukraine organised a touching solidarity event in Biela Tserkva for 100 disabled children and their families. Green Cross Switzerland also orchestrated activities in Berne and Zurich that served as a public reminder and gesture of solidarity with those affected by the disaster. In Geneva, GCI organised an interfaith ceremony and panel discussion in cooperation with the World Council of Churches. Green Cross Italy organised an international roundtable discussion in partnership with the city of Parma and held an ecumenical dialogue in Rome with representatives of all faiths. Global Green Germany held a press conference with Chernobyl victims and a public event in Berlin in which 50 German parliamentarians made a declaration.

Children who are part of a social cooperative hold the lambs they have helped raise. / photo: GC Switzerland

THE DRACULA PROJECT The Dracula Project is a new endeavour for Green Cross Ukraine that addresses the dental needs of mothers, children and youths living in rural areas of the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine. Due to their rural location, dental care and education is difficult and expensive to obtain. The Dracula programme has already improved dental care for over 2,000 children in the region. THE GREEN ISLAND FACILITY Green Cross Belarus is proud to announce the development of Green Island, a facility in Belarus which will be the new location of Green Cross therapy camps, workshops and mother and child projects. Green Island will work in two complimentary directions: ecological education and social and medical rehabilitation.This project, initiated by Green Cross Belarus, is run in partnership with the SocMed programme.

Swiss children get ready to release balloons and cards for victims of the Chernobyl disaster at a 20th anniversary event. photo: GC Switzerland

2 6 - ADDRESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARS AND CONFLICTS

POST-WAR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
“That military conflicts in our time can cause both a human and an environmental catastrophe makes the task of preventing them even more urgent and important. Prevention must be foremost in our thinking and our actions. But, if hostilities break out despite all our efforts, they must be constrained by certain legal limits. Such constraints have been laid down by the Geneva conventions and their protocols. It is now clear that they should be supplemented by provisions to limit the environmental damage caused by warfare.” GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev
Both natural disasters and international conflicts have profoundly damaging environmental effects. Because environmental rehabilitation is a key aspect of humanitarian assistance, Green Cross International assesses environmental conditions of conflict and disaster at the first opportunity. With help from various Green Cross National Offices, GCI has recently engaged in environmental assessments in Cote d'Ivoire, Pakistan and Lebanon where rehabilitation programmes for economies, people, and the environment were subsequently based upon these assessments. The 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste spill was a health crisis in Côte d'Ivoire in which a ship illegally dumped toxic waste in up to 12 sites around the country's largest city, Abidjan, in August 2006. Immediately following the environmental catastrophe, Green Cross Cote d'Ivoire led an investigation on the causes and consequences of the toxic waste spill. The recommendations were widely disseminated, and GC Cote d'Ivoire President, Mr. Hilaire Gnohité Gomé, was invited to a parliamentary debate to present the organisation's findings. In 2006 and 2007, GC Cote d'Ivoire has also been very active in addressing environmental and poverty-based issues which have been further aggravated by the conflict that started in 2002: this has led to advocacy activities to combat deforestation, contributing to a national strategic document for poverty reduction, and validating various environmental impact studies. In June 2007, Green Cross International participated in the 7th Advisory Group on Environmental Emergencies (AGEE) meeting, organised every two years by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), in association with the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL). Multi-disciplinary guidance is an essential element of building awareness and a global framework for environmental emergency preparedness and response. Countries affected by disasters contribute to the effectiveness of global disaster response by sharing experiences and lessons learned. Within this framework, GCI is developing a campaign with UNEP/OCHA, and endorsed by AGEE, to recognise the international effort to respond to environmental emergencies and to increase public and governmental awareness by drawing attention to efforts made to prevent, prepare for and respond to emergencies. Global Green USA (GGUSA) has also collaborated with UNEP and its environmental assessment programme. Following conflict in Lebanon in 2006, Global Green participated in the UNEP Post-Conflict Branch tele-conferences on the environmental consequences of the conflict. Beginning in September, Global Green gave expertise to UNEP as needed. The Legacy Programme participated in weekly conference calls that: discussed proposals about alleviating the environmental degradation caused by fighting; received reports by each group on the ground; debated how UNEP could best intervene; and assessed the harm caused by the oil spill along the coast of Lebanon.

PREVENTING AND RESOLVING CONFLICTS OVER NATURAL RESOURCES

- 27

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
In an effort to bring about fundamental value and behaviour changes, Green Cross International has employed the power of words and education to implement the Earth Charter by developing the Earth Dialogues and Environmental Education initiatives. Each of these programmes highlights the crucial nexus between the issues of security, poverty and the environment and facilitates dialogue that will effectively change the values and behaviour of governments and the public. The Earth Charter (EC) is a document that has both Green Cross International's Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev and the President of Earth Council Maurice Strong as its patrons. It is a prime example of GCI's effort to impact upon the values and behaviour of people. This document embodies fundamental principles that are meant to act as guide for people worldwide on how to conduct themselves in order to ensure a sustainable future. The support of this document has been overwhelming, with over 8000 organisations representing more than 100 million people formally endorsing the EC, along with many nations starting to integrate aspects of the EC into their constutions and national laws. In this way GCI is promoting a new vision of how a sustainable future can be achieved. Within the same realm, Green Cross International has established the Earth Dialogues, public forums held on the sustainable development and the ethical dimension behind the nexus of poverty, security, and the environment. The goal is to raise awareness and promote solutions worldwide by providing an opportunity for uninhibited conversation about many of the most pressing economic, environmental social and security issues in the world. These forums are held all around the world including Lyon, Barcelona, New York, and most recently in 2006 where they were held in Brisbane, Australia. The Earth Dialogue compliments the ideals and guidelines established in the Earth Charter by providing a venue for people from all sectors to discuss and debate ideas instead of being excluded from the development process. Under the leadership and foresight of both Mikhail Gorbachev and Maurice Strong the Earth Dialogues will continue to be a great success. Green Cross International is also working to include both children and adults through its Environmental Education and Awareness Programme established by the Green Cross National Organisations with projects such as “Environmental Diaries” created by Green Cross Japan. Many other Green Cross affiliates have also established environmental education and awareness projects with promising results. The idea is to educate and infuse children and adults with a positive awareness of and responsibility for the environment. GCI understands that many of the issues faced by the planet will not be solved immediately, which is why it is important to give children an understanding of the links between the problems of security, poverty, and the environment.

“Governments are still not doing enough to protect the environment, countries should adhere to environmental principles to avoid irreparable damage to the planet - it's five minutes to midnight.” GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev

28 - PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

THE EARTH CHARTER

The Award Ceremony of the Earth Charter Youth Contest in Italy was attended by Italian President Giorgio Napolitano and Rita Levi Montalcini, Nobel Prize winner and Honorary President of GC Italy. / photo: GC Italy

EARTH CHARTER PRINCIPLES The Earth Charter is a declaration of the fundamental principles for building a just society with a special emphasis on the world's environmental challenges. The document's vision recognises that environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace are interdependent and indivisible. In 1987, the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development issued a call for the creation of a new charter that would set forth fundamental principles for sustainable development. The drafting of an Earth Charter was part of the unfinished business of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. In 1994 Maurice Strong, the Secretary-General of the Earth Summit and Chairman of the Earth Council, and Mikhail Gorbachev, Chairman of Green Cross International, launched a new Earth Charter initiative with support from the Dutch government. An Earth Charter Commission was formed in 1997 to oversee the project and an Earth Charter Secretariat was established at the Earth Council in Costa Rica. The Earth Charter seeks to inspire in all peoples a new sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well being of the human family and the larger living world. It is an expression of hope and a call to help create a global partnership at a critical juncture in history. The principles of the Earth Charter reflect extensive international consultations conducted over a period of many years. These principles are also based upon contemporary science, international law, and the insights of philosophy and religion. Today, the Earth Charter is endorsed by more than 8000 organisations that represent hundreds of millions of people. In 2004, Professor Wangari Maathai, the Earth Charter Commissioner from Kenya and member of GCI's Honorary Board, became the first African woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

- 29

THE EARTH CHARTER
GREEN CROSS NATIONAL OFFICES AND THE EARTH CHARTER • Earth Charter in Sweden - Green Cross Sweden has improved information dissemination about the Earth Charter by developing the Swedish Earth Charter website and an Earth Charter brochure in Swedish. - In April 2006, the international seminar on the Earth Charter in Action was held in cooperation with the municipality of Åre, the first municipality in Sweden to sign the Earth Charter. - Close cooperation with the Earth Charter International Communications Centre in Stockholm has developed during 2006-07. Representatives from Green Cross Sweden and Denmark have attended many meetings focused on the Earth Charter. - “The Connections between Oil, War and Climate” is a project coordinated jointly with the Swedish NGO, Peace Coalition, and was inspired by the values and principles set out in the Earth Charter. The Oil, War and Climate Seminar was held on 27 September 2006, in Gothenburg. - GC Sweden actively participated at the Young Masters Global Youth Convention in Dubai, December 2006. GC Sweden President, Tonia Moya, and Native American Faithkeeper Chief Oren Lyons, held a series of Earth Charter workshops entitled “Calling Youth Leaders to Action.” • Earth Charter in Argentina Green Cross Argentina has been working hard to establish partnerships with local NGOs in order to work together to promote positive changes in behaviour and environmental values among local families. Each week, 28 environmental organisations in the Belgrano area of Buenos Aires meet and brainstorm ways to make a positive environmental impact in their immediate community. Using the Earth Charter as a foundation, the group has decided to give entertaining presentations about the environment to schoolchildren in each of Belgrano's 32 schools. On a similar vein, GC Argentina was invited twice weekly to discuss environmental issues with candidates for the position “Chief of Government” in the city of Buenos Aires. • Earth Charter in Italy In 2006 and 2007, GC Italy organised the 14th and 15th editions of the Earth Charter Youth Contest. The goal of this project is to contribute to the environmental education of youth and to make them feel responsible for the world around them. Both editions were successful: for the 2006 Contest, 35 conferences were held in schools all over the country and the award ceremony was chaired by the President of the Italian Republic.

Green Cross Sweden President Tonya Moya and Chief Oren Lyons with participants of the Young Masters Global Youth Convention, in Dubai December 2006. photo: GC Sweden

30 - PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

THE EARTH DIALOGUES

GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev and President Alexander Likhotal at the Brisbane Earth Dialogues in 2006.

EARTH DIALOGUES PRINCIPLES Security, poverty and environmental sustainability are inextricably intertwined - finding solutions to the problems in one area cannot be complete without concerted improvements in all areas. Recognising this, Green Cross Chairman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Maurice Strong, Chairman of the Earth Council, launched and participated at the first Earth Dialogues in 2002. The Earth Dialogues were inspired by Green Cross' belief in the need to generate new energy to drive the movement to place ethics and human values at the heart of the struggle to harmonise the globalisation process with sustainable development. GCI has the ability to bring together influential and innovative people from all sectors of government, business and world affairs in these truly unique Earth Dialogues. Since their inception, the Earth Dialogues have been a powerful forum for raising public awareness on the moral dimensions of poverty, security, and environmental sustainability. The first Earth Dialogues global forum was held in the French city of Lyon in 2002, and have since taken place in New York, Barcelona, Lahore and Brisbane.

EARTH DIALOGUES BRISBANE - JULY 2006 The most recent Earth Dialogues was held in Brisbane, Australia, in July 2006. The World Forum carried the theme “Resource Management and Sustainable Development” throughout its many seminars, workshops and sessions. The forum analysed the global challenge of natural resources depletion, and sustainable, ethical and practical development. More importantly, the dialogue was able to emphasise the profound connection between these global challenges, world peace and the fight against poverty. Co-Chairs Queensland Premier Peter Beattie and Mikhail Gorbachev were joined by other Nobel Peace Prize laureates, high level UN officials, renowned experts and activists from around the world at this lively, pragmatic event which attracted huge public interest. At the end of the conference participants released an “Appeal for Sustainable Peace” and the “Brisbane Plan of Action” including the following commitments and outcomes: the endorsement of Green Cross International's Campaigns on Solar Energy and the Right to Water; the incorporation of the Earth Charter in Queensland Education's environmental curriculum; the creation of a Queensland Youth Council to enable young people to raise concerns; and the establishment of a Green Cross Australia headquarters in Brisbane.

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

- 31

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME

Children in Kenya participate in tree planting in the Rift Valley with the Green Belt Movement. / photo: GC Sweden

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN MOSCOW International conferences on environmental education, traditionally organised annually by Green Cross Russia, were held in 2006 and 2007.The 12th international conference, held on 28-30 June 2006, focused on the theme “Sustainable World: On the Way to an Ecologically Safe Civil Society.” GCI Vice-President Bertrand Charrier actively participated in the event by chairing a session on “Water Resources and Public Education.”On 27-29 June 2007, the focus of the 13th Conference was “Environmental Education for Sustainable Development: Experiences and Prospects.” The Conference covered several issues surrounding the Education for Sustainable Development concept.The International Conference was jointly organised by Green Cross Russia, Green Cross International, the Russian Environmental Congress, and the International Independent University of Environmental and Political Sciences. Participants discussed practical experience and development prospects in the field of education for sustainable development, and held plenary sessions, round tables, topical workshops, and poster sessions.

VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND AWARENESS ACTIVITIES IN THE GREEN CROSS NETWORK • Reforestation and environmental awareness in Burkina Faso In the summer of 2006, Green Cross Burkina Faso led several reforestation activities in the village of Zagtouli (Ougadougou region). The initiative was a great opportunity to promote environmental education in the area. • Green Cross Denmark's work focuses on sustainable development based on people's enlightenment. In all its activities, this national affiliate strives to implement the concepts of sustainability and behaviour change, and the principles of the Earth Charter. Major international activities include: - The establishment of the Nnundu Open Village School, a community school focusing on development issues in Latvia; - The Development of a Youth Programme on Sustainability in rural areas in Eastern Europe, in partnership with the EC Youth for Europe programme; - A contribution to the World Summit on Climate Change taking place in Copenhagen in 2009; - Participation in the establishment of a Climate Change Hub in Copenhagen; - The preparation of Mr. Gorbachev's visit as keynote speaker at the Danish Parliament in October 2007; - The preparatory work for establishing a Youth Green Cross sub-organisation.

32 - PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

• In 2006, a new book on Mikhail Gorbachev was published by Global Green Germany to mark the occasion of his 75th birthday. The publication, a retrospective of his contribution to the USSR and the world - including the foundation of Green Cross International, was presented to Mr. Gorbachev during an International Ceremony in Bremen, held on 11 March 2006. • Green Cross Italy has been involved in numerous environmental awareness and education initiatives, including: - Organisation of the 14th edition of the international Youth Contest “Energy for peace” on renewable energy, with the patronage of all state authorities; - Implementation of the “Pink Energy” project in collaboration with the power company Enel, for the promotion of renewable energy; - Collaboration with the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Rome for the promotion of green building; - Production of a publication on renewable energy posted on GC Italy's website, and disseminated in Sicily thanks to the help of 30 volunteers; - Partnership with the Powerstock Festival to raise awareness on clean energy and sustainability; - Implementation of an education project in Sicily, with the contribution of the European Commission, on the issue of environmental micro-economy. • Green Lane Environmental Diary - Japan, Sri Lanka The Environmental Diary programme is an annual project organised by Green Cross Japan. Now in its eighth year, over 400,000 children have completed the Environmental Diary programme and it has now been expanded to schools in Sri Lanka. By reporting their day's environmental impact, each child learns about his or her place in the ecosystem and also establishes positive behaviour regarding such matters as water conservation or rubbish recycling. To recognise their efforts, GC Japan hosts an awards ceremony for the children who produce exceptional diaries. In 2006, GC Japan honoured 200 individuals, who received certificates and a chance to participate in the Asian Children's Ecology Symposium. Two children who participated in the diary programme from Sri Lanka were also honoured in the ceremony.

• “Exploring the Forest” website - Green Cross Japan In 2007, Green Cross Japan demonstrated their continued commitment to environmental education for young people with an interactive website called “Exploring the Forest” (http://www.sato-sato.jp). The website aims to teach children about the diverse features of forests - their history, fairytales, bio-diversity, and the forest's symbiotic relationship with people, as well as the implied ecological issues that this entails. The production of the website has been wholly funded by the Ministry of Education and Science's “Child Dream Fund”. • Green Signatures Campaign - Green Cross Pakistan On the occasion of Earth Day, 22 April, Green Cross Pakistan organises its annual “Green Signatures Campaign”. Through this awareness campaign, signatures are collected from students at schools, colleges and universities, who declare their commitment to protect nature from unhealthy activities and adopt a more sustainable way of living. Signatures are then sent to public departments engaged in environmental protection activities, and UNEP and UNDP offices, to encourage them to take action accordingly. In 2007, the goal of reaching 10,000 signatures was achieved.

Young people taking part in GC Pakistan's “Green Signatures Campaign” gather to sign the pledge. / photo: GC Pakistan

• Green Cross Romania seeks viable alternatives to environmental degradation GC Romania is involved in a project - together with UNDP and the PAN Park Foundation - to support the local community of the Retezat National Park, whose economy is currently based on exploiting resources from the National Park. The goal of the project is to sensitise local communities on environmental issues and to seek viable alternatives for economic sustainable growth with them that will have a minimal impact on conservation areas. • Green Cross Spain promotes environmental policies Green Cross Spain has developed a new programme that integrates a passion for sport and the necessity to shape a sustainable world. By working closely with the Spanish Olympic Committee and other sports and environmental organisations (Spanish Sport Agency, Spanish Environment Ministry), GC Spain has promoted education on sustainable development. This programme has developed an overarching national strategy for sustainability and introduced it through sports. Thus the programme will liaise directly with event organisers and private sector sponsors to have environmentally friendly events and venues for competition. GC Spain is also actively involved in the
- 33

GC Japan's new website “Exploring the Forest”

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME
preparation of the 1st International Social Forum on Environmental Policies, together with many high level political organisations. GC Spain has a consultative role on the topics discussed at the forum, which will centre on the social impacts of potential environmental policies. Similarly, GC Spain, together with the Andalucian Region Agency for Innovation, is developing a programme to promote the Innovation and use of appropriate technologies for Sustainable Development, especially in cooperation projects. • Green Cross Sweden Environmental Education Activities In an effort to provide environmental education while reducing conflicts over natural resources, Green Cross Sweden and Green Cross Japan have, since 2005, teamed up with the Green Belt Movement - founded by Nobel Peace Prize winner Professor Wangari Maathai - to create a more sustainable and peaceful future in the Rift Valley in Kenya. The project goal is to mitigate conflict between Maasai and the Kikuyu communities and restore the environment in the process. To begin a process of reconciliation 121,000 trees were planted in the region by members of both community groups. The role of Green Cross has been to facilitate and document the project. Green Cross Sweden has also looked to Al Gore's 2006 movie 'An Inconvenient Truth' as a tool for getting the attention of public officials in Sweden. GC Sweden organised a special screening of the film, which was followed by a discussion on climate change and environmental degradation. Green Cross Sweden, together with the Global School of Sweden (Globala Skolan) has, since 1998, been offering an educational programme “The World's Water” as a training course for teachers and high school students. Inspired by GCI's global programme,“Water for Peace”, it has proven a success within many of the high schools in the cities of Gothenburg, Linköping, Malmö and Stockholm.The course aspires to give students a lasting impression of the use of water as a means for cooperation and conflict prevention.

“I don't only think that the biosphere is in trouble, I know it is. I just have to look around in the environment, in which I live. In my own part of the world, I keep telling people, let us not cut trees irresponsibly. Let us not destroy especially the forested mountains. Because if we destroy the forests on these mountains, the rivers will stop flowing, the rains will become irregular, the crops will fail and people will die of hunger and starvation. Before these tragedies, there will be conflicts and wars over the diminishing resources. The work the Green Belt Movement and Green Cross do is intended to help people understand these linkages and be moved to take positive action.” Wangari Maathai Member of GCI Honorary Board

Children assemble for the GC Japan Environmental Diaries Award Ceremony. photo: GC Japan

34 - PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

GREEN CROSS ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND ART BELARUS, BULGARIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, ITALY, PAKISTAN Many Green Cross National offices have found that art projects and contests are a great way to encourage creativity in children while educating them about care for the environment. The International Drawing Contest coordinated annually by Green Cross Belarus was another great success. The 2007 competition attracted 7,579 drawings from 11 counties: a total of 4 more counties and 1,000 more participants than previous years. Similarly, pupils from eighteen schools participated in a new project launched by Green Cross Bulgaria, “Dream: My Home Town in the Future.” This was an art contest wherein children drew or painted how they imagine their homeland will look in the future. This contest was a part of GC Bulgaria's new environmental education programme. The artwork submitted to the contest became part of a larger exhibition, which was displayed in hotels, banks and art galleries. Green Cross Czech Republic focuses its activities on ecological education. In all its ecological education programmes, GC Czech Republic works in close collaboration with the Club of Ecological Education, a renowned organisation in the country with several years of experience. The ecological education component was particularly emphasized after Ms. Danuse Kvasnickova joined the GC Czech Republic Board. Throughout her career, Danuse Kvasnickova has promoted environmental education at all levels of the Czech Republic's educational system. Widely recognized on the international scene, she received the UNEP Global 500 Roll of Honour for Environmental Achievment. In 2007, Green Cross Pakistan organised a nationwide art competition on the theme “Botanical Green Living.” The event, which was the first of its kind in Pakistan, was supported by IUCN Pakistan and the Federal Ministry of the Environment. Young professional artists from all over the country were given the opportunity to display their paintings while contributing to the promotion of environmental education in Pakistan. The event received extensive media exposure. Within the framework of the Earth Charter, Green Cross Italy is also actively involved in environmental education and art activities (See Earth Charter section).

Volunteers assemble art submissions from Children around the World for the “In my Homeland” Contest in Belarus. / photo: GC Belarus

AWARDS WE HAVE GIVEN • Millennium Awards GCI and GGUSA have continued to give their annual Millenium Awards that were split into 6 categories between 2006 and 2007. The Awards consist of: The Individual Environmental Leadership Award; the Corporate Environmental Leadership Award; the International Environmental Leadership Award; Entertainment Industry Environmental Leadership Award; California/Local Environmental Leadership Award; Community Environmental Leadership Award. The 2006-2007 recipients of the Award were: William McDonough; David W. Orr; Thomas C. Leppert; Pierre André Senizergues; Sheila Watt-Cloutier; Jena King; Fran Pavley; the Honorable Gavin Newsome (Mayor of San Francisco); Nina Simons; Kenny Ausubel, and Irmelin DiCaprio. • “Designing a Sustainable and Secure World” Award GGUSA also holds the “Designing a Sustainable and Secure World Award.” This is New York based and honours those who promote a sustainable and secure world through innovative design. 2006 recipients included: Elon Musk and Martin Eberhard of Tesla Motors; Larry Aidem, the President of Sundance Travel; and Alan Rappaport, Chairman, Private Bank, Bank of America.

An example of Childrens art from the Czech Republic's youth art contest. photo: GC Czech Republic

PROMOTING LEGAL AND ETHICAL NORMS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

- 35

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

THE GREEN CROSS OPTIMIST Green Cross International launched The Optimist magazine in 2004 and it remains critical to the organization's communications arsenal. It continues to encourage the development of a new Global Glasnost for sustainable development. The Optimist promotes positive action and innovation to achieve a peaceful and sustainable future for all. The Optimist covers complex world challenges with in-depth analysis and, like GCI, the magazine stimulates dialogue between advocates of all sides of critical global debates. The Optimist identifies avenues of cooperation and strategies to break deadlocked negotiations. Each issue of The Optimist features articles by such luminaries as heads of state, cabinet ministers, heads of United Nations Organisations, and Nobel Prize laureates; as well as eminent and visionary scientists, activists, business leaders and journalists. Spring 2006 saw the unveiling of a new design and structure for the magazine. Since then, each issue of The Optimist has included a features section and regular segments including “Frontline”, “Innovation”, and “Optimist Alert!” The Optimist chooses its feature subjects based on major world events and developments. In the period 2006-2007 this has included examination of the unprecedented destruction unleashed by natural disasters, the 20 th anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe and a debate on the future of nuclear energy, and the stalling Doha Round of world trade talks. The Optimist is unique in combining the contributions of leading voices on these crucial subjects with a lively, contemporary magazine style. The issue commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster includes an exclusive interview with Mikhail Gorbachev, as well as hearing from key scientists and former government and UN officials. The “Environment, War and Peace” issue took readers as far a field as Aceh, Nepal, Darfur, Chechnya, and the urban conflicts of South America to examine links between natural resources and security. Examination of the contentious issue of “Trade, Finance and Justice for Development” included a wide range of views from diverse sources. An Editorial Board including Federico Mayor, the former UNESCO Director-General, Lester Brown, the renowned Environmental Scientist, Ismail Serageldin, the Director of the Library of Alexandria, and Sergei Ordzhonikidze, the Director-General of the UN Office at Geneva, guarantees the quality of the publication. The Editors-in-Chief of The Optimist are Green Cross International President Pr. Alexander Likhotal and world-renowned environmentalist Jean-Michel Cousteau. The Editor is Fiona Curtin. The Optimist is circulated to opinion leaders and decision makers across the world, including influential people from politics, business, education and international affairs. The mission of The Optimist is to look beyond the horizon and inspire a sustainable future of peace and opportunity for all. The Optimist challenges people to change their way of thinking, and targets individuals with the capacity to make a positive difference. All past issues are available at www.optimistmag.org.

“I have always been an optimist, convinced that determination, solidarity and foresight can lead to positive change even in the face of adversity. This publication encourages people to grasp the challenges of our times with both hands and take action.” GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev

36 -

C O M M U N I C A T I O N

A N D

P U B L I C

R E L A T I O N S

GCI COMMUNICATION • Green Cross International website At the end of 2006, GCI took the decision to develop a new design for its website, that could also be used as a template for websites of national organisations. Using a design team and with the help of Coobalt - a non-profit organisation of professionals voluntarily providing support to develop IT solutions, GCI reinvented the look and feel of the website. The idea was to create a common style for all websites of the GCI network, and to strengthen the GCI “brand” worldwide. The new website will be up and running in the autumn of 2007. • Newsletters In order to strengthen GCI's internal communications and to engage the general public with the whole of Green Cross' work, it was decided to relaunch the GCI quarterly newsletter at the beginning of 2007. Three issues have already been released and are available on the GCI website. Other Green Cross National Organisations who have their own Newsletter include GC France, GC Japan (the newsletter is named “Kaze no Koe” - “Voice of the Breeze”), GC Switzerland (with German and French versions and a print-run of 37,630), GC Italy and GC Australia. • New Information System strengthens the Green Cross Network At the start of 2007, GCI partnered with the volunteer organisation Coobalt with a view to setting up an Information System. As such the Information System currently consists of a Photo Database, a Contacts' Directory, an Intranet, a Wiki, and a Help Centre. Tools that are currently being developed for the Information System consist of Voice-Over IP (a web-based telephony system), Instant Messaging, and standardised email addresses for the entire network. Currently, four offices are connected to the system: GCI headquarters in Geneva, Green Cross Belarus, Green Cross France, and Green Cross Sweden. After the test-phase at the end of October 2007, all Green Cross national offices will be invited to join the Information System.

New website template to be used by the GCI network

Green Cross Information System portal

Newsletters from the Green Cross network
C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D P U B L I C R E L A T I O N S

- 37

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
GREEN CROSS PUBLICATIONS IN 2006-2007 “The Right to Water, from concept to implementation” Edited by the World Water Council, published 2006 in English, and March 2007 in French “Winning over business to the Green Cross Code,” Conversation with Alexander Likhotal, The Times, 4 February 2006 “10 Questions For Mikhail Gorbachev,” Time Magazine, April 1, 2006 OP-ed - “The Real Chemical Threat,” by Paul Walker and Jonathan Tucker, Los Angeles Times, 1 April 2006 “Gorbachev sets his sights on a greener world,” The Financial Times, April 17, 2006 “Nunn-Lugar at 15: No Time to Relax Global Threat Reduction Efforts,” Arms Control Today, May 2006 OP-ed - “A long way to go in eliminating chemical weapons,” by Jonathan B. Tucker and Paul F. Walker, Boston Globe, 1 May 2006 “Gorbachev warns UK on nuclear energy: Remember Chernobyl,” The Times, June 9, 2006 Interview with Mikhail Gorbachev, SBS Dateline (Australia), July 26, 2006 Interview with Alexander Likhotal on water IRIN, October 2006 “GCI's conclusions from the November Biological Weapons Roundtable Discussion,” by Alexander Likhotal, Biological Weapons Review Conference, UNOG, December 2006
Mr. Gorbachev being interviewed for SBS Dateline on the occasion of the Earth Dialogues in Brisbane, June 2006.

OP-ed - “The Nuclear Threat,” by Mikhail Gorbachev, The Wall Street Journal, 21 January 2007 “Building a Global Culture of Peace and Sustainability,” by Alexander Likhotal, President, Green Cross International, Social Alternatives, Australia, 2007 “GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev urges Britain to veto the modernisation of its nuclear fleet,” The Times, 8 March 2007 “Business and Water: All of us should be ashamed,” by Mikhail Gorbachev, Chairman GCI, and Dr. Jan Kulczyk, Member of the Board, GCI, Financial Times Report, 23 March 2007 OP-ed - “Make Chemical Warfare History,” by Paul Walker and Cristian Ion, Global Green USA website, 23 April 2007 Mikhail Gorbachev Interview Sky News, 1 May 2007 “Climate change and water security: solving the equation,” by Mikhail Gorbachev and Jean-Michel Severino, June 6, 2007 The article was published in various international and national newspapers worldwide. “Gorbachev calls for global law on water access,” The Financial Times, June 12, 2007 “Antarctica: A Global Warning,” Photographs by Sebastian Copeland Foreword by Mikhail Gorbachev Introduction by Leonardo Di Caprio, October 2007

“The Right to Water ” was published in 2006.

38 - C O M M U N I C A T I O N

A N D

P U B L I C

R E L A T I O N S

AWARDS WE HAVE RECEIVED In 2006, Green Cross International's global work on water won Mikhail Gorbachev the prestigious UNEP “Champion of the Earth” award. Paul Walker, Director of the Legacy Programme received the Sanctae Crucis Award in 2007 from the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts, for his “devoted, scholarly attention to matters of paramount importance for the entire world.” Reiner Braun, President of Global Green Germany, received the 2006 ECOMIR Prize, awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, in acknowledgment of his work on sustainable development and peace. GCI WELCOMES TWO NEW FAMILY MEMBERS Green Cross Canada: The newly formed Green Cross Canada received “Preparatory Committee” status in March 2006. Green Cross Canada is becoming an active participant and contributor to the Green Cross Legacy Programme. GC Canada Vice-President John Coo also visited the Ukraine to explore the possibility of working with Green Cross Ukraine in support of the health and therapy camps for children still affected by the Chernobyl disaster. This is all part of Green Cross Canada's determination to become engaged in GCI's global activities and programmes. Green Cross Australia: During the course of the Earth Dialogues held in 2006 in Brisbane, the Premier of Queensland, Peter Beattie, and the Lord Mayor of Brisbane, Campbell Newman, made a commitment to support the establishment of a national branch of Green Cross in Australia. GC Australia was officially launched in Brisbane on 14 June 2007 and the interest in the organisation has been overwhelming.

Mikhail Gorbachev and GC Canada Vice-President John Coo photo: GC Canada

Left to Right : GC Australia Directors Brett Godfrey, Peter Ellyard, Clem Campbell and Ian O'Connor - Seated: Premier Peter Beattie & Lord Mayor Campbell Newman / photo : GC Australia

C O M M U N I C A T I O N

A N D

P U B L I C

R E L A T I O N S

- 39

GREEN CROSS INFORMATION

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mikhail Gorbachev, Russia, Chairman of the Board Jan Kulczyk, Poland (joined in September 2006) Alexander Likhotal, Russia, President & CEO (ex-officio) Ernst Mühlemann, Switzerland, Treasurer (ex-officio) Shimon Peres, Israel Michel Rocard, France (joined in May 2007) Mario Soares, Portugal Horst Teltschik, Germany (until October 2007) HONORARY BOARD MEMBERS Mr. Chinghiz Aitmatov, Kyrgyzstan Princess Basma Bint Talal, Jordan Mr. Jean-Michel Cousteau, France Mr. Victor Danilov-Danilyan, Russia Prof. Istvan Lang, Hungary Dr. Rita Levy Montalcini, Italy Dr. Rudolphus Lubbers, The Netherlands Prof. Wangari Maathai, Kenya Ms. Pat Mitchell, USA Mr. Adolf Ogi, Switzerland GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS Alexander Likhotal, President Bertrand Charrier, Vice-President Pierre Muller, Vice-President David Alix, Director of Communications Marianne Berner, Head of Administration Fiona Curtin, Director, GCI Information Office in London H. E. Javier Perez de Cuellar, Peru Mr. Robert Redford, USA Dr. Karan Singh, India Rabbi Awarham Soetendorp, The Netherlands Mr. David Suzuki, Canada Dr. Monkombu S. Swaminathan, India Ms. Diane Meyer Simon, USA Mr. Ted Turner, USA Dr. Yevgeny Velikhov, Russia

“We desperately need to recognise that we are the guests not the masters of nature and adopt a new paradigm for development, based on the costs and benefits to all people, and bound by the limits of nature herself rather than the limits of technology and consumerism.” GCI Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev

GREEN CROSS NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS ARE ESTABLISHED TODAY IN 31 COUNTRIES Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Canada, Cote d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Jordan, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, USA, Information Office in London, Information Office in Taipei. Green Cross International has been granted consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and is a privileged partner of UNESCO. The activities of Green Cross International are audited annually by PricewaterhouseCoopers AG. The results of audits are available upon request. THE GREEN CROSS INTERNATIONAL CIRCLE OF FRIENDS FOUNDATION Green Cross International (GCI) is pleased to announce the creation of the Green Cross International Circle of Friends Foundation. The Foundation has been created following President Gorbachev's recent Appeal to set up an international endowment fund of USD 30 million for GCI's activities. Such a foundation will ensure that GCI is able to meet its growing responsibilities, to carry out projects on-site and in remote locations. The generosity of our supporters allows our non-profit organisation to defray expenses so that we are able to focus on our mission to address the increasingly destructive environmental causes and consequences of wars and conflicts, and to provide assistance to people affected by these consequences. It also enables us to carry out projects on natural resource related conflict prevention and resolution on all five continents, and generally to contribute to the pursuit of a just, sustainable and secure future for all by cultivating a new sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility in humanity's relationship with nature. The Foundation opened with a lead donation of USD 1 million.

40 - GREEN CROSS INFORMATION

For more information on GCI please contact David Alix, Director of Communications, at david.alix@gci.ch

Green Cross International 160a route de Florissant - P.O. BOX 80 1231 Conches-Geneva Switzerland

Phone: + 41 22 789 1662 Fax: + 41 22 789 1695 www.greencrossinternational.net