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**J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014
**

Design of STBC- Multiband Ultra-Wideband

(UWB) System by Using DWT with Three

Transmit Antennas

Abstract - In this paper Outage performance is investigated for space-time block coded multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

ultra-wideband systems STBC MB-OFDM UWB. The design of STBC MB-OFDM UWB systems, with three transmit and single receive

antennas, with the goal of achieving 1 Gbps data rate. We study the performance of these systems with different channel models schemes.

The new proposed structures for the STBC-MB-UWB system based on wavelet transform (DWT) depends on the transmitted signal that

generated by space time block coding matrix (G3)at the transmitter side, and the inverse of STBC matrix(G3) at the receiver side. The results

extracted by a computer simulation for a single user. These STBC-MB-UWB systems were modeled using MATLAB V7.10 for the two types of

the transform FFT and DWT (Wavelet Transform) are considered to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The

simulations results, and evaluation tests of these proposed systems (Bit Error Rate (BERs)) and the operating range of these systems are

obtained using frequency domain baseband simulations as well as more realistic full-system simulations. The results of all systems in the four

types of channels (CM1, CM2….CM4) will be examined and compared. Finally, Simulation results show that the STBC MB-OFDM UWB

systems with Discrete Wavelets Transform DWT provide significant gains for 1 Gbps transmission over MB-OFDM UWB systems using

conventional method with Fast Fourier transform FFT. The simulation results are presented to support the theoretical analysis..

Index Terms: UWB, CM1.. CM4, multiband, OFDM, .

1. INTRODUCTION

After the FCC allowed the use of UWB transmitters in the 3.1

to 10.6 GHz (requiring that the transmitters limit their EIRP

to -41.25 dBm/MHz [1]), the industry has moved from the

impulse radio paradigm towards other physical layer

options. Although the impulse radio techniques have many

advantages for the low rate and/or military applications, for

commercial high data rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

(WPANs) other modulation/transmission schemes have

proved to be more attractive. One of the most popular

approaches to UWB system design is the Multi-Band

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM)

[2][3]. This approach has received wide industry support

and has been adopted by many industry alliances such as

[4][5] and standardized by ECMA in December 2005 as a

high-rate UWB PHY and MAC standard [6]. The highest

physical layer (PHY) data rate in the current MB-OFDM

specification [3] is only 480Mbps. This data rate cannot meet

the requirements of future wireless applications, such as

wireless High Definition (HD) video streaming. Thus, the

next generation MB-OFDM UWB systems target more than

1Gbps PHY data rates. In order to achieve such high data

rates, new modulation and coding techniques are needed.

The Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technique is a

promising solution, since it can increase channel capacity

greatly under rich scattering scenarios. The MIMO technique

has been adopted in many wireless systems such as the IEEE

802.11n Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) [7]. It is

likely that the next generation UWB systems will employ the

MIMO technique as well as precoding techniques. The

MIMO technique is used to increase the data rate, while the

precoding techniques are used to achieve frequency domain

diversity which leads to improved system performance [11].

Outage probability is an important performance measure in

wireless communication systems, and is usually defined as

the probability of unsatisfactory signal reception. The outage

analysis for multiple-antenna systems is always performed

under assumptions of Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami fading

channels [12, 13]. However, for the IEEE 802.15.3a UWB

channel model [11], which further considers the log-normal

shadowing effect, few results have ever appeared according

to our best knowledge. In this paper, recent advances in high

speed electronics and novel UWB antenna designs have

resulted in a fresh look of UWB systems. The first generation

of commercial UWB systems will be based on -UWB and

multiband OFDM. On the other hand, the application of the

wavelet packets to wireless systems has been studied in a

wide variety of forms [4]. Those studies have shown to

provide good performance against time-varying fading

channels and narrowband interference rejection as wavelet

waveforms have low sidelobes [15]. Those properties make

WPs a very attractive design alternative for UWB

applications. Hence, we propose a novel multi-channel

modulation scheme for UWB transmissions based on the

Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and discrete wavelet transform

DWT combined with spread spectrum and multiband

approaches, as analogous to multicarrier CDMA and

multiband OFDM. Thus, two possible structures are studied,

namely multiband DWT multiplexing and DWT-CDMA

multiplexing [16-18]. Indeed, the proposed techniques divide

UWB channels into a set of parallel channels. Exploiting the

properties of wavelet packets in time and frequency, a set of

multi-channel basis functions can be formed such that the

corresponding channel-output functions remain nearly

orthogonal for any UWB channel. Multiple accesses are

introduced in the form of a time-frequency hopping code

(similar to multiband OFDM) [19-21]. The remaining of this

paper is organized as follows. Section 2, briefly describes the

MB-OFDM UWB system. Section 3, Provides the details of

the system model and modulation schemes used to achieve

528 Mbps data rate and signal model. Section 4 presents the

simulation results obtained using different simulation

settings, and the conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

2. MULTI-BAND UWB SYSTEM

A multiband OFDM system devides the spectrum between

3.1 to 10.6 GHz into several non-overlapping subbands each

one occupying approximately 500 MHZ of bandwidth [2].

Information is transmitted using OFDM modulation over

one of the subbands in a particular time-slot. The

transmitter architecture for the multiband OFDM system is

very similar to that of a conventional wireless OFDM

system. The main difference is that multiband OFDM

system uses a time-frequency code (TFC) to select the center

Murad O. Abed Helo

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

frequency of different subbands which is used not only to

provide frequency diversity but also to distinguish between

multiple users (see figure 1 a). Different puncturing

patterns of a 1/3 convolutional mother code combined with

time and/or frequency repetition, generate ten data rates

from 55 Mbps to 480 Mbps. One OFDM symbol has

duration of 312.5 ns and a bandwidth of 528 MHz. A 128

point IFFT or IDWT is used along with a cyclic prefix (CP)

length of 60.6 ns to modulate 122 subcarriers among which

100 subcarriers are allocated to data, 64 subcarriers are used

for frame synchronization and 10 subcarriers provide 9.5 ns

of guard interval for switching between subbands. Here, we

consider multiband OFDM in its mandatory mode ie.

employing 3 first subbands. More details about multiband

OFDM system parameters and its advantages for UWB

transmission can be found in [2] [4]. This preamble is used

for time and frequency synchronization. After the time

domain preamble, a frequency domain training sequence is

transmitted. This sequence, which is repeated 6 times, is

employed for channel estimation. This means that in the TFI

mode two copies of the frequency domain sequence are

available for the channel estimation in each band. The

frequency domain training sequence as well as the header

and the data that follows it are generated using an OFDM

modulation scheme with N = 128 sub-carriers. Instead of a

more traditional cyclic prefix, each symbol (including the

preamble and training sequences) is padded with NZP = 33

zeros. Within each OFDM symbol, 61 sub-carriers are used

for data transmission and 64 are used for pilot symbols.

Also, 10 sub-carriers (five on each edge) are used as guard

sub-carriers. The data from the adjacent sub-carriers is

copied on these sub-carriers. On each data sub-carrier, the

data is modulated either using QPSK.

2.1. UWB Channel Model

We have modeled the multipath channel using the model

provided in [1]. This is the channel model adopted for use

in the IEEE 802.15.3a standardization Task Group. This

model is similar to the Saleh-Valenzuela (S-V) multi-cluster

model [8]. Each cluster has an exponential decay profile.

The overall power of each of the clusters also exponentially

decays with time. The difference between this adopted

model and the SV model is that instead of a Rayleigh

distribution for the coefficient of each path, a log-normal

distribution is used. To model the shadowing effects, the

overall gain of each channel realization is also modulated

by another log-normal shadowing coefficient. As given in

[11], four different sets of parameters (referred to as CM1

through CM4) are available. These models (parameter sets)

are chosen to represent different channel conditions in

typical usage scenarios. CM1 describes a LOS (line-of sight)

scenario with a separation between transmitter and receiver

of less than 4m. CM2 describes the same range, but for a

non-LOS situation. CM3 describes a non-LOS scenario for

distances between T

X

and R

X

4-10m. Scenario 4 finally

describes an environment with strong delay dispersion,

resulting in a delay spread of 25ns. Note that, when using

the model, the total average received power of the

multipath realizations is typically normalized to unity in

order to provide a fair comparison with other wideband

and narrowband systems. The channel characteristics and

corresponding parameter matching results in Table 1

correspond to a time resolution of 167 psec, although the

output of the model described in the appendix yields

continuous time samples (i.e., based upon an infinite

bandwidth). How this model matches measurements with

bandwidths greater than 6 GHz is unknown due to the lack

of measurement data at this bandwidth.

Table 1: Multipath channel target characteristics and model

parameters.[11]

Target Channel

Characteristics

CM 1 CM 2 CM 3 CM 4

τ

m

[ns] (Mean excess delay)

5.05 10.38 14.18

τ

rms

[ns] (rms delay spread)

5.28 8.03 14.28 25

NP

10dB

(number of paths within

10 dB of the strongest path)

35

NP (85%) (number of paths that

capture 85% of channel energy)

24 36.1 61.54

Model Parameters

Λ [1/nsec] (cluster arrival rate) 0.0233 0.4 0.067 0.067

λ [1/nsec] (ray arrival rate) 2.5 0.5 2.1 2.1

Γ (cluster decay factor) 7.1 5.5 14.00 24.00

γ (ray decay factor) 4.3 6.7 7.9 12

σ

1

[dB] (stand. dev. of cluster

lognormal fading term in dB)

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4

σ

2

[dB] (stand. dev. of ray

lognormal fading term in dB)

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4

σ

x

[dB] (stand. dev. of

lognormal fading term for total

multipath realizations in dB)

3 3 3 3

Model Characteristics

τ

m

5.0 9.9 15.9 30.1

τ

rms

5 8 15 25

NP

10dB

12.5 15.3 24.9 41.2

NP (85%) 20.8 33.9 64.7 123.3

Channel energy mean [dB] -0.4 -0.5 0.0 0.3

Channel energy std dev. [dB] 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.7

In [1], Snow et al provided some information-theoretic

performance measures of MB-OFDM for UWB

communications from the aspect of outage capacity and

cutoff rates. To estimate the performance of MB-UWB

systems with multiple antennas, we also use the calculation

of outage capacity of UWB channels and get a rough picture

of the data rates that can be achieved. We assume that the

multipath channels for different antenna pairs are

statistically independent. For the multipath block fading

channels, the outage capacity is the theoretical limit which

shows the highest achievable data rate at certain outage

error rate. For the multi-band OFDM systems, because of

the frequency-hopping feature, there are a total of 300 data

sub-carriers that must be averaged to calculate the average

capacity:

) . det( log

180

1

2 180

1 ^

=

+ =

¿ i i

t i

Nr av

H H

N

SNR

I C (1)

where Cav is the average capacity, Hi is the channel matrix

on the i-th subcarrier, and Nt and Nr are the number of

transmit and receive antennas, respectively. The outage

probability Pout associated with a target rate R is defined as

Pout = Pr (Cav < R). For example, if we set the outage

probability to 0.1, we can determine the target rate R

corresponding to this channel outage. The maximum data

rate theoretically attainable at PER = 0.1 can be estimated as

Rdata = R ·W · Rc, where R is the outage capacity (in

bits/s/Hz), W is the bandwidth, and Rc is the code rate.

Using independent realizations of the CM2 channel model

[1], we have calculated outage capacity at PER = 0.1 for all

possible antenna formations. We can see that at medium

SNR, (Tx and Rx) system can provide double the data rate

that can be achieved by the (Tx and Rx) system with the

same bandwidth. Also, (Tx and Rx) system has certain

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

advantage over the (Tx and Rx) system from the capacity

point of view. Therefore, UWB system with multiple

antennas is a good candidate to increase the date rate up to

1 Gbps with the fixed 1 Gbps bandwidth.

2.2. Simulation Environment

To simulate the behavior of the above systems in multipath

environment, we have generated the UWB channel using

independent realizations of the models provided in [12],

which can be re-sampled and converted to the baseband

frequency domain channel coefficients. This assumes that

the channels are independent, i.e. sufficient multipath exists

and antennas are separated in space by at least one

wavelength. Furthermore, the power of the channel

coefficients is normalized, i.e., it has been assumed that

shadowing does not exist. Also, the effect of increased path

loss at higher frequency band has not been taken into

account. These simple simulations have been used to

compare different modulation options. A full system-level

simulation model, including real world impairments, has

also been set-up to evaluate the performance of the most

promising systems in this paper. The transmitter includes a

Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) operating at 1GHz, an

analog filter to remove signal images, and a mixer to up-

convert the signal to the desired frequency at each transmit

antenna. For each receive antenna, the analog front-end in

the receiver includes a mixer to bring the signal down to

baseband, a filter to reduce out-of-band signal and an AGC-

ADC (Automatic Gain Control - Analog to Digital

Converter) loop to adjust gain and to digitize the signal.

The base-band module processes the ADC output data to

detect the burst and to correct for frequency and timing

errors. It then processes the frequency domain preamble to

estimate the channel, which is used to equalize the header

and payload symbols. The equalized data is then demapped

to generate to the header symbols. The payload symbols are

processed based on the parameters decoded from the

Header symbols. In all simulations, the Packet Error Rate

(PER) performance is calculated using the average PER for

all channel realizations. The performance is measured at

PER = 0.1 [21].

3. SYSTEM DESIGN

The block diagrams of the proposed systems for MB-UWB

are depicted in Figure (1) and (2).These Figures illustrates a

typical MB-UWB system used for Multicarrier modulation.

In the conceptual block diagram of a MB-UWB, suppose the

data packet dn generated at a rate of Rs, is a stream of serial

data to be transmitted using this scheme of modulation. The

receiver is based upon a square-law detector followed by a

low-pass filter and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

with built-in track and hold circuit. Figure (2) shows the

block schematic diagram of this UWB receiver. A low-pass

filter with 1 GHz cut-off frequency (rise time 350 ps)

performs averaging of the square-law detector output

signal. After 20 dB of amplification, the signal with a track

and hold circuit with 1 GHz bandwidth is required. The

amplified detector signals of 20 mV (10 LSB) will ensure

reliable detection. Each data packet convert the data

streams from serial to parallel form to construct a one

dimensional vector contains the data symbols to be

transmitted as shown:

T

L

d d d d d ) ....... (

1 2 1 0 ÷

= (2)

Where, L is the packet length. Each serial-to-parallel

converted data symbols. As a result each data symbol

becomes a vector with L bits. So, a matrix D of size L by L is

obtained. Then each column of the matrix D converts to

serial data using parallel-to-serial converter. The same

procedure illustrated in [14] will be used with each

converted serial data.

The transmitted baseband signal of user k is written as:

¿¿¿

=

·

= =

÷ ÷ =

M

m n

N

u

c m m k c k

uT nT t f n d E t S

1 0 1

,

) ( ) ( ) ( (3)

where k=1, ..., K, K is the active user number; dk(n)

corresponding to the BPSK complex signal denotes the nth

data symbol of the kth user, and {dk(n)} are assumed to be

independent, identically distributed (i.i.d) with equal

probability, and Tb is the symbols period. The chip period

Tc, corresponds to the minimum orthogonal shifting

defined in complex wavelet packet; Ec is the mean energy

over a chip. So the sub-carrier symbol period T=MTc,,M, is

the number of sub-carriers [13]. The OFDM based on DWT

will be used, from OFDM encoder throughout generation

and insertion of Pilot carriers [12], the OFDM modulation

using IDWT and the addition of the cyclic prefix. This is

followed by sequences insertion, parallel to serial

conversion for transmitter and then the channel effect for

transmitted sequence is added. The received additive

sequences in receiver antenna are passed through serial to

parallel conversion and sequence separation. After this step

each sequence discarded the cyclic prefix and inter to

OFDM demodulator that use the DWT where after, the zero

padding is removed from each sequence and the training

sequence will be used to estimate the channel transfer

function, h(t) using :

) (

) (

) (

k H

k Y

k X

e

p

e

= k=0,1,……….,N-1 (4)

For each received sequence [13].

We assume that the wireless channel from transmitter

antenna to receive antenna experience independent, slow

time-varying frequency selective Rayleigh fading, whereas

every sub-carrier channel is considered to be flat and slow

fading [15]. So the impulse response of mth subcarrier

channel from transmit antenna to the receive antenna for

user k can be repressed as

) ( ) exp( ) (

, , , , k m k m k k m k m k

t j t h c o | o c o | ÷ = ÷ = (5)

Where

m k,

o and

m k

j

,

| denote the amplitude and phase of

m k,

| respectively are i.i.d uniform variables in the interval

[0,2π] for different k, m. So at the receiver, after down

converting to baseband, the received signal from receive

antenna can be written can be written by:

¿

=

+ - ÷ =

K

k

m k k k

t n t h t t S t r

1

,

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

¿¿¿¿

= =

·

= =

=

K

k

M

m n

N

u

m k c

n d E

1 1 0 1

,

) ( (6)

) ( ) (

,

t n t uT nT t f

m k k k c m

+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ × | c

Where n(t) is AWGN noise terms with double sided power

spectrum density N/2 and zero mean. Single-path delay εk

is i.i.d. for different k and uniforms in [0,Tc],and tk is the

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

time misalignment of user k with respect to the reference

user at the receiver which is i.i.d for different k and

uniforms in [0, Ts.].

¿

}

=

÷ ÷ ÷ =

N

v

Tc

l c

c

l l l i

dt vT iT t f v c t r Y

1

,

) ( ) ( ) ( c

¿¿¿¿

}

= =

·

= =

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =

K

k

M

m n

N

u

Tc

k k c m m k c

t uT nT t f n d E

1 1 0 1

,

) ( ) ( c

q | c + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ × dt v c t uT nT t f

k m k l k c

c

l

) ( ) (

,

(7)

Since cross-correlation functions of the optimized

Multiwavelets packets satisfy equation

) ( ) ( ) ( n l m nT R

c

lm

f

o o ÷ = therefore the interference from same

sub-carrier and same user k=1, interference from other sub-

carrier and same user will equal zero. The desired output is

¿

}

=

÷ ÷ ÷ + =

N

v

Tc

l c

n

l l i l i c i

dt vT iT t f t n i Nd E Y

1

, ,

} ) ( ) ( ) ( { c |

(8)

3-1 A FAST COMPUTATION METHOD OF DWT

ALGORITHMS

Under the reconstruction condition ( )

}

= + 0 dt t , the

continuously labeled basis functions (wavelets), ( ) t

k j,

+

behave in the wavelet analysis and synthesis just like an

orthonormal basis. By appropriately discretizing the time-

scale parameters, t , s, and choosing the right mother

wavelet, ( ) t + , it is possible to obtain a true orthonormal

basis. The natural way is to discretize the scaling variable s

in a logarithmic manner ( )

j

s s

÷

=

0

and to use Nyguist

sampling rule, based on the spectrum of function x (t), to

discretize t at any given scale ( ) T s k

j

0

÷

= t . The resultant

wavelet functions are then as follows:

( ) ( )

0 0

2

0 ,

t k t s s t

j j

k j

÷ + = +

… (1)

If s0 is close enough to one and if T is small enough, then

the wavelet functions are over-complete and signal

reconstruction takes place within non-restrictive conditions

on ( ) t + . On the other hand, if the sampling is sparse, e.g.,

the computation is done octave by octave (s0 = 0), a true

orthonormal basis will be obtained only for very special

choices of ( ) t + . Based on the assumption that wavelet

functions are orthonormal:

Figure (1): (b) UWB transmitter and Receiver[10]

Fig.(1) (a) Block Diagram of a STBC-MB-UWB system

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

( ) ( )

¹

´

¦ = =

= + +

}

otherwise

n k and m j if

dt t t

n m k j

0

1

, ,

… (2)

For discrete time cases, (2.8) is generally used with s0 = 2,

the computation is done octave by octave. In this case, the

basis for a wavelet expansion system is generated from

simple scaling and translation. The generating wavelet or

mother wavelet, represented by ( ) t + , results in the

following two-dimensional parameterization of ( ) t

k j,

+ .

( ) ( ) 2 2

2

,

k t t

j j

k j

÷ + = + … (3)

The

2

2

j

factor in (2.9) normalizes each wavelet to maintain

a constant norm independent of scale j. In this case, the

discretizing period in t is normalized to one and is

assumed that it is the same as the sampling period of the

discrete signal ( )

-j

2 k = t . All useful wavelet systems satisfy

the multiresolution conditions. In this case, the lower

resolution coefficients can be calculated from the higher

resolution coefficients by a tree-structured algorithm called

filter-bank [30]. In wavelet transform literatures; this

approach is referred to as discrete wavelet transform

(DWT).

3.1.1 The Scaling Function

The multiresolution idea is better understood by using

a function represented by ( ) t u and referred to as scaling

function. A two-dimensional family of functions is

generated, similar to (3), from the basic scaling function by

[30]:

( ) ( ) k t t

j j

k j

÷ u = u 2 2

2

,

… (4)

Any continuous function, f(t), can be represented, at a given

resolution or scale j0, by a sequence of coefficients given by

the expansion:

( ) | | ( )

¿

u · =

k

k j j j

t k f t f

,

0 0 0

… (5)

In other words, the sequence | | k x

j

0

is the set of samples of

the continuous function x(t) at resolution j0 . Higher values

of j correspond to higher resolution. Discrete signals are

assumed samples of continuous signals at known scales or

resolutions. In this case, it is not possible to obtain

information about higher resolution components of that

signal. It is however, desired to use the given samples to

obtain the lower resolution representation of the same

signal. This can be achieved by imposing some properties

on the scaling functions. The main required property is the

nesting of the spanned spaces by the scaling functions. In

other words, for any integer j, the functional space spanned

by [31]:

( ) { } , 2 , 1 ;

,

e u k for t

k j

… (6)

Should be a subspace of the functional space spanned by:

( ) { } , 2 , 1 ;

, 1

e u

+

k for t

k j

… (7)

The nesting of the space spanned by ( ) k t

j

÷ u 2 is achieved

by requiring that ( ) t u be represented by the space spanned

by ( ) t 2 u . In this case, the lower resolution function, ( ) t u ,

can be expressed by a weighted sum of shifted version of

the same scaling function at the next higher resolution,

( ) t 2 u , as follows:

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 k t k h t

k

÷ u = u

¿

… (8)

The set of coefficients ( ) k h being the scaling function

coefficients and 2 maintains the norm of the scaling

function with scale of two. ( ) t u being the scaling function

which satisfies this equation which is sometimes called the

refinement equation, the dilation equation, or the

multiresolution analysis equation (MRA) [29-31].

3.1.2 The Wavelet Functions

The important features of a signal can better be

described or parameterized, not by using ( ) t

k j,

u and

increasing j to increase the size of the subspace spanned by

the scaling functions, but by defining a slightly different set

of functions ( ) t

k j,

+ that span the differences between the

spaces spanned by the various scales of the scaling function.

It is shown that these functions are the same wavelet

functions discussed earlier. Since it is assumed that these

wavelets reside in the space spanned by the next narrower

scaling function, they can be represented by a weighted

sum of shifted version of the scaling function ( ) t 2 u as

follows:

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 k t k g t

k

÷ u = +

¿

… (9)

The set of coefficients ( ) k g ’s is called the wavelet function

coefficients (or the wavelet filter). It is shown that the

wavelet coefficients are required by orthogonality to be

related to the scaling function coefficients by [29,31]:

( ) ( ) ( ) k h k g

n

÷ ÷ = 1 1 … (10)

One example for a finite even length-N ( ) k h

( ) ( ) ( ) k N h k g

k

÷ ÷ ÷ = 1 1 … (11)

The function generated by (9) gives the prototype or mother

wavelet ( ) t + for a class of expansion functions of the form

shown in (3).

For example the Haar scaling function is the simple unit-

width, unit-height pulse function ( ) t u shown in Fig. (2.)

[30] and it is obvious that ( ) t 2 u can be used to construct

( ) t u by:

( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 2 ÷ u + u = u t t t … (12)

which means (8) is satisfied for coefficients ( ) 2 1 0 = h ,

( ) 2 1 1 = h .

The Haar wavelet function that is associated with the

scaling function in Fig. (2a) are shown in Fig. (2.b). For Haar

wavelet, the coefficients in (12) are ( ) 2 1 0 = g ,

( ) 2 1 1 ÷ = g .

Fig. (2): (a) Haar Scaling Function, (b) Haar wavelet function.

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

Any function ( ) t f could be written as a series expansion in

terms of the scaling function and wavelets by [31]:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

¿ ¿ ¿

·

=

·

÷· =

·

÷· =

+ + u =

0

0 0

, ,

j j k

k j j

k

k j j

t k b t k a t f … (13)

In this expansion, the first summation gives a function that

is a low resolution or coarse approximation of f(t) at scale j

0

. For each increasing j in the second summation, a higher or

finer resolution function is added, which adds increasing

details. The choice of j0 sets the coarsest scale whose space

is spanned by ( ) t

k j .

0

u . The rest of the function is spanned by

the wavelets providing the high-resolution details of the

function. The set of coefficients in the wavelet expansion

represented by (13) is called the discrete wavelet transform

(DWT) of the function f(t).

These wavelet coefficients, under certain conditions, can

completely describe the original function, and in a way

similar to Fourier series coefficients, can be used for

analysis, description, approximation, and filtering. If the

scaling function is well behaved, then at a high scale,

samples of the signal are very close to the scaling

coefficients. In order to work directly with the wavelet

transform coefficients, one should present the relationship

between the expansion coefficients at a given scale in terms

of those at one scale higher. This relationship is especially

practical by noting the fact that the original signal is usually

unknown and only a sampled version of the signal at a

given resolution is available. As mentioned before, for well-

behaved scaling or wavelet functions, the samples of a

discrete signal can approximate the highest achievable

scaling coefficients.

It is shown that the scaling and wavelet coefficients at scale j

are related to the scaling coefficients at scale (j + 1) by the

following two relations.

( ) ( ) ( )

¿ +

÷ =

m

j j

m a k m h k a

1

2

… (14)

( ) ( ) ( )

¿ +

÷ =

m

j j

m b k m g k b

1

2

… (15)

The implementation of equations (14) and (15) is illustrated

in Fig.(3). In this figure, two levels of decomposition are

depicted. h and g are low-pass and high-pass filters

corresponding to the coefficients ( ) n h and ( ) n g

respectively. The down-pointing arrows denote a

decimation or down-sampling by two. This splitting,

filtering and decimation can be repeated on the scaling

coefficients to give the two-scale structure. The first stage of

two banks divides the spectrum of

k j

a

, 1 ÷

into a low-pass

and high-pass band, resulting in the scaling coefficients and

wavelet coefficients at lower scale

k j

a

,

and

k j

b

,

. The second

stage then divides that low-pass band into another lower

low-pass band and a band-pass band.

For computing fast discrete wavelet transform (FDWT)

consider the following transformation matrix for length-2:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

g g

g g

g g

h h

h h

h h

T

(16)

and the following transformation matrix for length-4:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2

3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2

0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0

g g g g

g g g g

g g g g

g g g g

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

T

(17)

Here blank entries signify zeros. By examining the

transform matrices of the scalar wavelet as shown in

equations (16) and (17) respectively, one can see that, the

first row generates one component of the data convolved

with the low-pass filter coefficients ( ( ) 0 h , ( ) 1 h , …).

Likewise the second, third, and other upper half rows. The

lower half rows perform a different convolution, with high

pass filter coefficients ( ( ) 0 g , ( ) 1 g , …). The action of the

matrix, is thus to perform two related convolutions, then to

decimate each of them by half (throw away half the values),

and interleave the remaining halves.

By using (11), the transform matrices become:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

÷

=

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h

T

(18)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

÷ ÷ =

2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2

0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

T

(19)

It is useful to think of the filter ( ( ) 0 h , ( ) 1 h , ( ) 2 h , ( ) 3 h …) as

being a smoothing filter, H, something like a moving

average of four points. Then, because of the minus signs,

the filter ( ( ) 3 h , ( ) 2 h ÷ , ( ) 1 h , ( ) 0 h ÷ , …), G, is not a smoothing

filter. In signal processing contexts, H and G are called

Quadrature mirror filters. In fact, the ( ) n h ’s are chosen so as

to make G yield, insofar as possible, a zero response to a

sufficiently smooth data vector. This results in the output of

H, decimated by half accurately representing the data’s

“smooth” information. The output of G, also decimated, is

referred to as the data’s “detail” information.

Fig. (3): The filter bank for calculating the wavelet

coefficients.

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

For such characterization to be useful, it must be possible to

reconstruct the original data vector of length N from its

N/2 smooth and its N/2 detail. That is affected by

requiring the matrices to be orthogonal, so that its inverse is

just the transposed matrix:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

÷

=

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0

2

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h

T

(20)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷

÷

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

=

2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0

3 1 0 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 1 0

0 3 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0

0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 0

0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2 0

0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3

0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2

0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0

2

h h h h

h h h h

h h

h h

h h

h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

T

(21)

For a length-2 ( ) n h , there are no degrees of freedom left

after satisfying the following requirements [89,140]:

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ¦

)

¦

`

¹

= +

= +

1 1 0

2 1 0

2 2

h h

h h

(22)

which are uniquely satisfied be:

( ) ( ) { }

)

`

¹

¹

´

¦

= =

2

1

,

2

1

1 , 0

2

h h h

D

(23)

These are the Haar scaling function coefficients, which are

also the length-2 Daubechies coefficients.

For the length-4 coefficients sequence, there is one degree of

freedom or one parameter which gives all the coefficients

that satisfies the required conditions [74-78]:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

¦

¦

)

¦

¦

`

¹

= +

= + + +

= + + +

0 3 1 2 0

1 3 2 1 0

2 3 2 1 0

2 2 2 2

h h h h

h h h h

h h h h

(24)

Letting the parameter be the angleo , the coefficients

become

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ¦

¦

¦

)

¦

¦

¦

`

¹

÷ ÷ =

÷ + =

+ + =

+ ÷ =

2 2 sin cos 1 3

2 2 sin cos 1 2

2 2 sin cos 1 1

2 2 sin cos 1 0

o o

o o

o o

o o

h

h

h

h

(25)

These equations give length-2 Haar coefficients of equation

(21) for 2 3 , 2 , 0 t t o = and length-4 Daubechies coefficients

for 3 t o = . These Daubechies-4 coefficients have a

particularly clean form:

¦

)

¦

`

¹

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

÷ ÷ + +

=

2 4

3 1

,

2 4

3 3

,

2 4

3 3

,

2 4

3 1

4 D

h (26)

The structure of a one-dimensional DWT is shown in

Fig. (4). ( ) n X is the 1-D input signal. ( ) n h and ( ) n g are the

analysis lowpass and highpass filters which, split the input

signal into two subbands: lowpass and highpass. The

lowpass and highpass subbands are then downsampled

generating ( ) n X

L

and ( ) n X

H

respectively.

The up sampled signals are filtered by the

corresponding synthesis lowpass ( ) n h

~

and highpass ( ) n g

~

filters and then added to reconstruct the original signal.

Note that the filters in the synthesis stage, are not necessary

the same as those in the analysis stage. For an orthogonal

filter bank, ( ) n h

~

and ( ) n g

~

are just the time reversals of ( ) n h

and ( ) n g respectively [33].

To compute a single level FDWT for 1-D signal the

next step should be followed:

1. Checking input dimensions: Input vector should be of

length N, where N must be power of two.

2. Construct a transformation matrix: using

transformation matrices given in (18) and (19).

3. Transformations of input vector, which can be done by

apply matrix multiplication to the N×N constructed

transformation matrix by the N×1 input vector.

3.1.3- Computation of IFDWT for 1-D Signal:

To compute a single level IFDWT for 1-D signal the next

step should be followed:

1. Let X be the Nx1 wavelet transformed vector.

2. Construct NxN reconstruction matrix, T2, using

transformation matrices given in (20) and (21).

3. Reconstruction of input vector, which can be done by

apply matrix multiplication to the NxN reconstruction

matrix, T2, by the Nx1 wavelet transformed vector.

3.2 Signal model of Three Transmit and One Receive

Antenna

At a given symbol period, three signals are transmitted

simultaneously from three transmit antennas. The signal

transmitted from antenna one (Tx1) is denoted by S1, the

signal from antenna two (Tx2) by S2 and the signal from

antenna three (Tx3) by S3. This process will go on in the

same manner until transmitting the last row of the G

3

transmission matrix as given in equation (27). This matrix

has a rate of half (1/2) and is used as STBC encoder to

transmit any complex signal constellations. The encoding,

mapping and transmission of the STBC can be summarized

in Table 2.

Fig. (4): Analysis and Synthesis stages of a 1-D single level DWT.

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

Table 2: Encoding and mapping of STBC for three transmit

antennas using complex signals

For the four transmit and one receive antenna system, the

channel coefficients are modeled by a complex

multiplicative distortions, h

1

for the first transmit antenna,

h

2

for the second transmit antenna and h

3

for the third

transmit antenna. The channel coefficients explained above

are summarized in Table 3.

(27)

Table 3: Three transmit and one receive channel coefficients

Assuming the fading is constant over the four

consecutive symbols and then channel coefficients can be

represented as

(28)

The receiver in this case will receive eight different

signals in eight different time slots. The received signals can

be represented as

(29)

The combiner in Figure (1) builds the following three

combined signals

(30)

4. SIMULATION RESULTS OF THE PROPOSED

MB-UWB SYSTEMS:

In this section the simulation of the proposed MB-UWB

Systems in MATLAB R2010a are achieved. In this part, we

used Rayleigh's distribution method to simulate the effect

of antenna selection for ultra-wide band system. Under

CM1-CM4 channel model, we suppose that the transmitting

completely understood the channel condition information.

And system used DWT STBC-MB-UWB, exploited BPSK

map, an OFDM symbol had 180 subcarriers. Table (2) shows

the parameters of the system that are used in the

simulation; the bandwidth used was 1GHz and carrier

frequency 4.2 GHz using Daubechies-4 coefficients for

Discrete Wavelet DWT with level two.

Table 2: Simulation Parameters

DWT-MB- UWB DFT-MB- UWB

DWT FFT Multicarrier Types

QPSK QPSK Modulation Types

1GHz 1GHz Bandwidth

128 128 Number of sub-carriers

128 128 Size of packet

Db4 with 1 and 2 level Wavelet type

CM1 CM1

Channel model

CM2 CM2

CM3 CM3

CM4 CM4

4.1. Performance of MB-UWB in CM1 Channel model:

Simulations are done utilizing the IEEE 802.15.3a multi-path

channel [11] to obtain a detection probability over SNR. The

probability of detection becomes about 0.5 when SNR is

27dB in the IEEE 802.15.3a CM1 and CM4. The channel

models consist of AWGN, IEEE 802.15.3a CM1 (Residential

LOS) with a parameter shown table (1). In this section, the

channel is modeled as CM1 for wide range of SNR from

0dB to 40dB. Simulation result of the proposed STBC-MB-

UWB Systems is simulated as shown in Figure (1) which

gives the BER performance of STBC-MB-UWB Systems in

CM1 channel model. It is shown clearly that the STBC-MB-

UWB Based on DWT is much better than STBC-MB-UWB

systems based on FFT. This is a reflection to the fact that the

orthogonal bases of the wavelets is much significant than

the orthogonal bases used in FFT. From Figure (5) it can be

seen that for BER=10

-4

the SNR required for STBC-MB-UWB

Based on DWT about 6.5dB,8dB and 12dB for 1,2 and 3

antennas and for STBC-MB-UWB Based on FFT have

26.5dB, 30dB and 33.5dB respectively, therefore a gain of

20dB for the DWT against FFT. As shown in Figure (5) it

was found that the DWT- STBC-MB-UWB is outperform

significantly other than other systems for this channel

model.

1

2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3

3 3 3 3

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

j

j

j

h t h t T h h e

h t h t T h h e

h t h t T h h e

u

u

u

= + = =

= + = =

= + = =

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1

2 1 2 2 1 3 4 2

3 1 3 2 4 3 1 3

4 1 4 2 3 3 2 4

5 1 1 2 2 3 3 5

6 1 2 2 1 3 4 6

7 1 3 2 4 3 1 7

8 1 4 2 3 3 2 8

* * *

* * *

* * *

* * *

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

r h s h s h s n

= + + +

= ÷ + ÷ +

= ÷ + + +

= ÷ ÷ + +

= + + +

= ÷ + ÷ +

= ÷ + + +

= ÷ ÷ + +

1

1 1 2 2 3 3 1 5 2 6 3 7

2

2 1 1 2 3 4 2 5 1 6 3 8

3

3 1 1 3 2 4 3 5 1 7 2 8

* * * * * *

* * * * * *

* * * * * *

s h r h r h r h r h r h r

s h r h r h r h r h r h r

s h r h r h r h r h r h r

= + + + + +

= ÷ + + ÷ +

= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷

1

1 1 2 2 3 3 1 5 2 6 3 7

2

2 1 1 2 3 4 2 5 1 6 3 8

3

3 1 1 3 2 4 3 5 1 7 2 8

* * * * * *

* * * * * *

* * * * * *

s h r h r h r hr h r h r

s h r h r h r h r hr h r

s h r h r h r h r hr h r

= + + + + +

= ÷ + + ÷ +

= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

4.2. Performance of MB-UWB in CM2 Channel model:

In this type of channel, the signal affected by the flat fading

with addition to AWGN; in this case all the frequency

components in the signal will be effect by a constant

attenuation and linear phase distortion of the channel,

which has been chosen to have a Rayleigh's distribution of

IEEE 802.15.3a CM2 with a parameter shown table (1). From

Figure (6) it can be seen that for BER=10

-4

the SNR required

for STBC-MB-UWB Based on DWT about 8dB,9dB and 12dB

for STBC-MB-UWB Based on DWT with using 1,2 and 3

antennas and FFT have 30dB,33dB and 37dB respectively,

therefore a gain of 21.5dB for the DWT against STBC-MB-

UWB Based on FFT. As shown in Figure (5) it was found

that the DWT- STBC-MB-UWB is outperform significantly

than other systems for this channel model.

4.3. Performance of MB-UWB in CM3 Channel model:

In this section, the channel model is assumed to be IEEE

802.15.3a CM3, where the parameters of the channel in this

case as shown in table (1). That BER performance of MB-

UWB Based on DWT, DWT and FFT are shown in Figure

(7). It was clearly that BER performance of MB-UWB Based

on DWT is better than STBC-MB-UWB Based on DWT and

FFT. The STBC-MB-UWB Based on DWT has BER

performance 10

-4

at SNR=9.5dB, 12dB and 15dB for STBC-

MB-UWB –DWT and STBC-MB-UWB Based on FFT have the

same BER performance at 33.5dB.

From the above results it can be concluded that the MB-

UWB Based on DWT is most significant than the

conventional systems (FFT based STBC-MB-UWB) and DWT

based STBC-MB-UWB in this channel model CM3 that have

been assumed.

4.4 Performance of MB-UWB in CM4 Channel model

In this section, the channel model is assumed to be selective

fading channel of IEEE 802.15.3a CM4, where the

parameters of the channel shown in table (1). The BER

performance of proposed system and conventional systems

was shown in Figure (8). From this figure, it is clearly that

proposed system (STBC-MB-UWB Based on DWT) is better

than STBC-MB-UWB Based on FFT. The MB-UWB Based on

DWT has BER performance 10

-4

at SNR=13dB,15dB and

19dB for STBC-MB-UWB based on DWT for 1,2 and 3

antennas and the same BER performance at 35.5dB,38.5dB

and 45dB for STBC-MB-UWB Based on FFT.

From the above results it can be concluded that the MB-

UWB Based on DWT was most significant than the

conventional systems (FFT based MB-UWB) in the different

channel models that have been assumed in these

simulations.

Figure 5: BER performance of STBC-MB-UWB System in CM1

channel model

Figure 6: BER performance of STBC-MB-UWB System in CM2

channel model

Figure 7: BER performance of STBC-MB-UWB System in

CM3 channel model

Figure 8: BER performance of STBC-MB-UWB System in CM4

channel model

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J OURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 1, MAY 2014

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we investigate the performance of the STBC-

MB-UWB based on DWT systems under IEEE 802.15.3a

UWB channel models CM1-CM4, in which the multipath

effect is considered. Based on the obtained results, we can

see that the STBC-MB-UWB system with based on DWT

with three antennas provides the best performance compare

with the same systems designed using FFT in the different

channel models that have been assumed in this paper. The

Simulations results proved that the proposed design

achieved much lower bit error rates and better performance

than FFT- STBC-MB-UWB and assuming reasonable choice

of the bases function and method of computations and the

use of multiple antennas at the transmitter enhances the

system spectral efficiency and supports better error rate and

these benefits come at no extra cost of bandwidth. The

improvements are about 20dB over FFT systems in all type

UWB channel. In terms of performance, this method using

DWT and STBC cans double the data rate while keeping the

same transmission range in a new STBC-MB-UWB system.

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Murad O. Abed Helo (Member IEEE) was born in Babylon-1962, Iraq.

He received the B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from the

University of Baghdad (1984)-Iraq, M.Sc. degrees in Electronics

Engineering from the University of Technology-Iraq in 2002. Since 2004,

he has been with the University of Babylon-Iraq, where he is lecturer in

Electrical Engineering Department. His research interests include,

Image processing, wireless communications and intelligent system.

- Heath Lecture Ofdm
- Duplicated Region in Digital Image Detection Approaches Evaluation
- Sub 15834
- A Theory for Multiresolution Signal Decomposition
- Improving the Performance of DWDM Free Space Optics System under Worst Weather Conditions
- Design of proposed STBC-MC-DS- WIMAX Systems Based on DWT and Phase Matrix
- Wavelet Based Watermarking
- A Review of Analytical Techniques for Gait Data
- biomed458_109
- Yang 2011
- Design of STBC-WIMAX System by Using DWT with Four Transmit Antennas in Fading Channel
- 2 Rajeev Aggrawal Research Article April 2011
- MIMO Channel Modelling
- Paper_9-Automated_Marble_Plate_Classification_System_Based_On_Different_Neural_Network_Input_Training_Sets_And_PLC_Implementation.pdf
- Dk 26766771
- UWB Signal Propagation for Outdoor Wireless Communications-11
- PPt on Mimo Channel Modeling
- Wavelet.docx
- docs-332415207516f78f8d5714
- A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems
- ijsrp-p2451.pdf
- 4224440
- Fft Matlab Ofdm PDF System Tutorial
- VSWR Characteristics of a Slot Loaded UWB Antenna With Notching at X-Band
- Image Compression Using Transform Techniques
- ofdm11
- NI Tutorial 3740 En
- Coherent Optical – OFDM using 64QAM to high data rates 1.60 Tb/s over 4500 km
- Ademola Phd Final
- 0400801--

- Analysis of spurious RF signal caused by retardation in optical two-tone signal generator utilizing polarisation manipulation
- Blackhole Attack Effect Elimination in VANET Networks Using IDS-AODV, RAODV and AntNet Algorithm
- DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN)
- Optimal Pilot Matrix Design for Training- Based Channel Estimation in MIMO Communications
- Implementation scenarios for an adaptable LTE turbo decoder based on BLER
- Controlled Sink Mobility for Efficient Design of a Wireless Sensor Network
- Secured and Efficient Transmission of Wireless Information Depending on Frequency Hopping System with 63 Channels
- Micro Controller Based Remote Sensing and Controlling using Cellular Network
- Reflectionless Filters with Arbitrary Transfer Functions
- Optimization of Passive FTTH Network Design Using Vertical Micro Ducting
- 4G or 3G, Does It Signify an Improvement in Telecommunication Technology in Cameroon?
- Performance Enhancement of VANET Routing Protocols
- System Model of TH-UWB Using LDPC Code Implementation
- A Survey on 5G Multi-carrier waveforms- Evaluation and Comparison for Diversified Application Scenarios and Service Types
- Optimization of Smart Grid Communication Network in a Het-Net Environment Using a Cost Function
- Blocking probability minimization in WDM with optimal placement of wavelength converters using ETGA
- Study of UWB On-Body Radio Channel for Ectomorph, Mesomorph, and Endomorph Body Types
- SFN Monitoring for DVB-T/T2 Networks
- Programming Considerations for the Design of Token Ludo Game Using Petri Nets
- Broadband Pulse shapes for PAPR Mitigation Technique
- Development of a Sign language Tutoring System for People with Hearing Disability
- QoT Aware Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment Technique using Fuzzy Logic Controller in WDM Networks
- Learning an Online Control Experiment Platform Using Labview Software
- Automated Teaching Step-by-Step the Operations of TCP/IP Model (A-Step-TPC/IP)
- Simulation of a communication system using Verilog Language
- Error Correction Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
- Rural Area Development and Society Performance Improvement in Ghana
- Patient Monitoring Using Bluetooth and Wireless LAN
- Applying Optimum Combining to a DS/CDMA Code Diversity System

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