You are on page 1of 106

JOURNAL OF

KRISHI VIGYAN
ISSN 2319-6432
A Publication of Society of Krishi Vigyan
www.iskv.in www.indianjournals.com
January - June 2014 Vol.2 Issue 2
CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (CEC) for 2013-14
President
Mukhtar Singh Gill
Secretary Treasurer Editor Joint Secretary
Manoj Sharma N S Dhaliwal Gagandeep Kaur Gurdeep Singh
Member CEC
A H Hakeem, PC, KVK, Kupwara (Srinagar)
A K Srivastava, PC, KVK, Hoshangabad (Madhya Pradesh)
Ajay Kumar, SMS, Agronomy, KVK, Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand)
Akhil Kr. Deka, PC, KVK, Karbi Anglong (Assam)
Amrish Vaid, PC, KVK, Kathua (Jammu)
Anamika Sharma, PC, KVK, Dimapur (Nagaland)
B Mohan, PC, KVK, Namakkal (Tamilnadu)
K P Chaudhary, Deputy Director (Instruction) CAU, Imphal (Manipur)
Karamjit Sharma, SMS ,Ext. Education, KVK, Mukatsar (Punjab)
Kuldeep Singh, PC, KVK, Jalandhar (Punjab)
M P Nayak, PC, KVK, Sundergarh (Odisha)
Mahendra Kumar, PC, KVK, Nagaur (Rajasthan)
Mayank Kumar Rai, PC, KVK, Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh)
Manoj Sudhakar Talathi, PC, KVK, Killa-Roha (Maharashtra)
Mrs. Sailabala Dei, PC, KVK, Rohtas (Bihar)
N D Singh, PC, KVK, West Kameng, Dirang (Arunachal Pradesh)
P K Sharma, PC, KVK, Kheda (Gujarat)
R D Kaushik, PC, KVK, Jind (Haryana)
Ranjay Kumar Singh, PC, KVK, Chatra (Jharkhand)
Ratnesh Kumar Jha, PC, KVK, Saran (Bihar)
Samuel Rai, PC, KVK, Darjeeling (West Bengal)
S S Paliyal, SMS Soil Science, KVK, Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh)
T J Ramesha, PC, KVK, Lower Dibang Valley (Karnataka)
Editorial Board
Abu Kaushar Hazarika, Guwahati (Assam) Anil Dixit, Raipur (Chattisgarh)
Ashok S Dhawan, Parbhani (Maharashtra) Chander Mohan, Ludhiana (Punjab)
G S Buttar,Ludhiana (Punjab) J S Kular, Ludhiana (Punjab)
J S Urkurkur,Raipur (Chhattisgarh) V K Khatta, Hisar (Haryana)
K P Viswanatha, Raichur ( Karnataka) K S Risam, Jammu ( Jammu and Kashmir)
Kalyan Singh,Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) M Premjit Singh, Imphal (Manipur)
Mukesh K Gupta,Rourkela (Odisha) Pradeep K Sharma, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh)
R K Sohane, Bhagalpur (Bihar) R R Singh, Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh)
S K Acharya, Nadia (West Bengal) S S Nanda, Bhubaneswar (Odisha)
S S Tomar, Udaipur (Rajasthan) T A Shah, Kupwara (Jammu and Kashmir)
Manuscripts: Offered for consideration should be sent to the Editorial Office, hard copy as well as soft copy by Email-
editoriskv@gmail.com or secretarykvk2011@gmail.com .
Editorial Office :
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, J J Farm, Near New Grain Market, PO. Sheikhupur, Kapurthala 144620 (Punjab).
Subscription fee:
Fee for 1 year -Rs. 1000/-; for 3 years- Rs. 2500/-; for 5 years - Rs. 3500/-; Life Membership (10 years)- Rs. 5000/-
General Correspondence: Should be addressed to the Secretary, Society of Krishi Vigyan, J J Farm, Near New Grain
Market, PO. Sheikhupur, Kapurthala 144620 (Punjab).
Printed and published by Dr. Manoj Sharma, Secretary on behalf of Society of Krishi Vigyan under the able guidance
of Dr. M S Gill, President, Society of Krishi Vigyan at M/S Foil Printers, Ludhiana.
SOCIETY OF KRISHI VIGYAN
116. Angrej Singh, Subject Matter Specialist (Soil Science), KVK, Bhathnda (Punjab)
117. Ankit Sharma, Subject Matter Specialist (AAgricultural Engineering), KVK, Mansa(Punjab)
118. Arvind Preet Kaur, Subject Matter Specalist (Horiticulture), KVK, Fatehgarh Sahib (Punjab)
119. B Mohan, Programme Coordinator, KVK, Namakkal (Tamil Nadu)
120. Daya Ram, Department of Extension Education, Central Agricultural University Imphal (Manipur)
121. Jagdish Kumar Arora, Subject Matter Specialist (Plant Protection), KVK, Roop Nagar (Punjab)
122. Jagmohan Kaur, Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana (Punjab)
123. Kirandeep Kaur, Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), KVK, Samrala (Punjab)
124. Krupasindhu Behere, Ph.D Scholar, Department of Library and Information Science, Utkal
University, Bhubaneswar (Odisha)
125. Maninder Kaur, Subject Matter Specialist (Agronomy), KVK, Fatehgarh Sahib (Punjab)
126. Navjot Singh Brar, Ph.D Scholar, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana (Punjab)
127. Navjyot Kaur, Assistant Plant Physiologist, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana (Punjab)
128. Noorjehan A K A Hanif, Subject Matter Specialist (Agricultural Extension), KVK, Tamil Nadu
Agricultural University, Vamban Colony, Pudukkotai (Tamil Nadu)
129. Pervinder Kaur, Assistant Chemist (Residue), Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural
University, Ludhiana (Punjab)
130. Purva Jaggi, Subject Matter Specialist (Home Science), KVK, Roop Nagar (Punjab)
131. Ravinder Kaur, Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), KVK, Sangrur (Punjab)
132. A Alagudurai, Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), KVK, Namakkal (Tamil Nadu)
133. Sharmila Bharathi C, Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), KVK, Namakkal (Tamil Nadu)
134. Shivani Sharma, Subject Matter Specialist (Home Science), KVK, Faridkot (Punjab)
135. Tarundeep Kaur Dhaliwal, Assistant Agronomist, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural
University, Ludhiana (Punjab)
136. Vicky Singh, Subject Matter Specialist (Soil Science), KVK, Ferozepur (Punjab)
137. V Krishnamoorthy, Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture), KVK, Tamil Nadu Agricultural
University, Vamban Colony, PUdukkottai (Tamil Nadu)
SCIENTISTS JOINED AS LIFE MEMBER OF SOCIETY OF KRISHI VIGYAN
President’s Message
By the year 2025, about eighty per cent of the
expected global population of 8.5 billion will be living
in developing countries. Yet the capacity of available
resources and technologies to satisfy the demands of
this growing population for food and other agricultural
commodities remains uncertain. Agriculture has to meet
this challenge, mainly by increasing production on
diminishing arable land. Further, major adjustments
are needed in agricultural, environmental and
macroeconomic policy to create the conditions for
sustainable agriculture and rural development. This will
involve education initiatives, utilization of economic
incentives and the development of appropriate and new
technologies. Ensuring stable supplies of nutritionally
adequate food, access to those supplies by vulnerable
groups, and production for markets; employment and
income generation to alleviate poverty; and natural
resource management and environmental protection are
the challenges ahead.
The past contribution of science and technology
to agricultural development has not been trouble free
nor has it met all needs. Agricultural output must
increase, particularly in the developing world. At the
same time, an emerging global concern about the
degradation of the environment makes it clear that
progress will be acceptable only in the context of a
more sustainable agriculture that does not damage the
natural productive base of the planet. At farmer’s field,
the gap is wide between what can potentially be and
what is actually produced. There are many reasons for
this yield gap. Among technical constraints in crop
production, problems related to climate and water
account for about one-third of the overall yield gap,
and problems related to pests, weeds and diseases for
another third. The last third is accounted for by non-
technical constraints. In livestock production, the gap
in the yield of milk, meat, hides and animal traction is
primarily related to problems that cause low
productivity. Among the major causes are deficiencies
in the quantity and quality of feed, the widespread
occurrence of major diseases, and often the difficult
environment in which livestock is raised.
A similar situation prevails in production from
aquaculture. Other sectors of fisheries face problems
that are related more to depletion of stocks, poor
utilization of the catch, especially the unintended by-
catch, and post-catch handling. Depletion is also a main
current problem for products of the forest, particularly
in the tropical regions. The existence and condition of
forests and trees also strongly influences production
and productivity in agriculture,
wildlife and the variety and
abundance of uncultivated
plants. One recognized need is
now additionally and urgently
to address the problems of poor
farmers and of more marginal
areas.
In order to interact with scientists working in
different parts of the country on the above mentioned
issues as well as for the betterment of farmers, an effort
has been made to publish such experiences and findings
in the form of research papers. These published research
findings will be of immense importance for the
planners, researchers and extension workers because
the information collected by the scientists while working
in a district with the farmers is not available in any of
the scientific journal available at national level. Journal
of Krishi Vigyan is the first such attempt made by the
registered Society of Krishi Vigyan. Presently, about
137 research scientists from 20 different states have
been enrolled as life members who are further
committed to expand the horizon of this society.
The successful launch and growth of the Journal
of Krishi Vigyan owes much to the outstanding editorial
board members as well as secretary of the society who
have given so generously of their time and expertise.
On behalf of the entire editorial team, I convey my
sincere gratitude to all our many authors and reviewers
who have submitted papers and provided valuable
service as a reviewer. Our team has spent countless
hours reviewing manuscript for the journal over the
past year and thus we continue to excel as a direct result
of your efforts.
I am asking for your help to increase the number
of high quality manuscripts submission. For this
purpose, when ever attending a scientific meeting, please
be an advocate for the journal and talk with potential
authors. Your advocacy is valued and needed.
Let me close by again offering my sincere thanks
for everyone’s support for this journal during the past
year and by extending my best for your future
assignments and new endeavors in the field of
agriculture and allied sectors.
(M S Gill)
CONTENTS
Sr. No. Title Page No.
1. A Study Regarding Agricultural Development in Bhadrak District of Odisha.
Krupasindhu Behera and Baman Parida
2. Adoption of Chemical Weed Control in Rice: Credit Utilization and Preference for
Formulations – A Study from Temperate Kashmir.
Sheikh Muzaffar Ahmad and Abdul Hameed Hakeem
3. Agronomic Manipulation in Brahmi Cultivation for Higher Productivity in Assam
Plains.
Aparna Baruah, P K Gogoi, I C Barua and D Baruah
4. Communication Source Utilization Pattern and Constraints Faced by Farm Women
for Getting Technical Information about Chickpea Cultivation.
Urmila Devi and Kanta Sabharwal
5. Comparative Study on Cultivation of Cabbage Under Low Tunnel and Open Field
Conditions in Cold Arid Ladakh Region.
Tahir Saleem, Mohd Mehdi, A H Hakeem, M S Trumboo

and N A Ganai
6. Development and Evaluation of the Dietetic Products Prepared from Bael Fruit.
Sangita Sood and Suruchi Katoch
7. Effect of Salix Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
under Shallow Water Table Conditions.
Sunil Kumar, B C Saini and R K Jha
8. Effect of Water Soluble and Conventional Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of
Chillies.
V Krishnamoorthy and Noorjehan A K A Hanif
9. Effect on Yield and Yield Component of Maize (Zea Mays L.) due to Planting
Patterns and Different Irrigation Levels.
Rima Taipodia and N D Singh
10. Evaluation of Different Gerbera (Gerbera Jamesonii Bolus) Cultivars for Growth
and Flower Characters Under Assam Conditions.
Kankana Deka and Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar
11. Feeding of UMMB Licks to Dairy Animals: A Farmers’ Reactive Study. Manoj
Sharma, Gurdeep Singh and Keshava
12. Impact of KVK Training Programmes and Frontline Demonstrations on Adoption of
Pusa Basmati 1121 in Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir.
A P Singh, Amrish Vaid and Vishal Mahajan
13. Impact of Training Programme on Adoption of Organic Farming Technology in
Central Zone.
A S Rajput, R P Singh, S Kumar and Ashish Jaiswal
1
8
11
14
19
22
25
28
31
35
39
44
49
Sr. No. Title Page No.
53
56
59
64
69
74
80
83
85
88
14. Intercropping of Mentha (Mentha arvensis L.) in Bed Planted Wheat (Triticum
aestivum) in Rampur District of Uttar Pradesh.
A S Rathi, Ajay Kumar, M K Mishra, Ravindra Kumar and Laxmi Kant
15. Performance of Different Plant Densities for Yield and Yield Attributes of Basmati
in the District Kapurthala.
Gurpreet Kaur
16. Analysis of Problems Faced By Pig Farmers in Dima Hasao District of Assam
Monosri Johari, K K Saharia, Leema Bora, R Roychoudhury, L Sanathoi
Khuman and Jupi Talukdar
17. Raising of Hybrid Vegetable Seedlings under Protrays.
Sharmila Bharathi C, B Mohan and S Alagudurai
18. Socio Economic Profile of Successful Beekeepers and Profitability of Bee Keeping
in Muktsar District of Punjab.
Karamjit Sharma and N S Dhaliwal
19. Training Needs of Pesticide Retailers in Imphal District of Manipur.
Daya Ram, M K Singh and E Priyadarshini
20. Yield Gap Analysis of Niger Through Front Line Demonstrations in Konkan Region
of Maharashtra.
Pramod Mandavkar and Manoj Talathi
Short Communications
1. Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Tribal Areas of Eastern Ghats.
P B Pradeep Kumar, Sri D Sekhar and K Dhanasree (Andhra Pradesh)
2. Knowledge and Adoption of the Recommended Package of Practices for Banana
Crop.
C D Badgujar (Maharashtra)
3. Studies on Some Important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Their Traditional
Usages in District Hamirpur –A Sub Himalayan Tropical Region of Himachal
Pradesh.
Parveen Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Thakur, Gulshan, Deepika and Deep Kumar
1
A Study Regarding Agricultural Development In
Bhadrak District of Odisha
Krupasindhu Behera* and Baman Parida#
National Centre for Cell Science
Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 001 ( Maharashtra)
ABSTRACT
The present study coverage of basic agriculture, facilities, infrastructure, agriculture policy
among the different communities in the rural areas of the district. The basic survey showed the
coverage of primary agriculture facilities. This study important about the distribution of farming
households and land holdings, share of agriculture, non-agriculture and cropping pattern in the
districts. The study also discusses in sector wise distribution the value of output in agriculture
and allied agriculture activities. Share of area under different fruits, vegetables, seasonal
vegetables as a percentage of total Area in the district. Annual growth rate (Compounded) of
different livestock, share of livestock output, percentage distribution by household in rural
areas in the district, share of agricultural Vis-à-vis Non-agricultural and commodity exports in
agriculture in the district. This paper focuses the primary agriculture status among the poor
population on socio-economic improvement of different communities. This paper finds out the
rural development, agricultural growth, poverty reduction, production linkages. This study
aims to analyze the trends and patterns of agricultural diversification and related development
in the district.
Key Words: Rural Agriculture; Status of Agriculture, Agricultural Infrastructure, Policy of
Agriculture, Facilities among different Communities.
INTRODUCTION
The success of agricultural information study
always depends upon well controlled sample and
a defined methodology for collecting the relevant
data. The first step is to plan the whole
investigation and then to decide on its scale, the
method to be used, the timing of the study and
the type of the questions to be asked or the type
of information to be recorded. Mainly five method
are to be followed such as : (i) investigating user
needs, (ii) questionnaires, (iii) interviews, (iv)
diaries and (v) observation and analysis of existing
data. However individual methods do not give any
objective assessment of information requirements
and there is tendency for use of several methods
jointly. The interview/ discussion method has the
advantage of allowing precise formulation.
The districts have small landholdings and their
income from crop cultivation as well as non farm
income is not enough to meet their subsistence
level. Hence, both the horizontal and vertical
diversification becomes the need of the rural areas.
Rural development is essentially a part of
structural transformation characterized by
diversification of the economy away from
agriculture”. This process is facilitated by rapid
agricultural growth, at least initially, but leads
ultimately to a significant decline in the share of
agriculture to total employment and output and
in the proportion of rural population to total
population. This study aims to analyze the trends
and patterns of agricultural diversification and
related development in the area of Bhadrak
comprising the blocks of Basudevpur, Bhadrak,
Bhandaripokhari, Chandbali, Dhamnagar,Bonta
and Tihidi. The objectives of this study were
To analyse the trends and patterns of rural
diversification, including both horizontal and
vertical diversification followed by the constraints
and potentials of diversified rural agricultural
*Corresponding Author’s Email: kbehera@nccs.res.in, http://www.nccs.res.in.
# M.Lib.& Inf.Sc.Ph.D. Department of library & Information Science, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar - 751004 (Odisha).
*Technical officer - B (Library),
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
2
growth in the district.
To find out the various agro-climatic, socio-
economic, technological, infrastructural,
institutional and policy factors and various
economic aspects including production,
profitability, equity and viability of small and
marginal farms in the context of diversification.
To identify potential sources and appropriate
strategies and policies for accelerated and
diversified agricultural growth as well as
sustainability of small/ marginal farms.
HYPOTHESIS OF STUDY
The present study about information needs of
agriculture would help in designing the
information system and services. However
specific hypothesis formulated for the present
study were as under which envisaged that
Information needs about basic status of
agriculture in rural areas are based on and linked
with one another in mutually useful ways.
It has increased their needs of consulting
various information sources for developing their
economic growth.
Agriculture status has formulated and
organized to help them in solving daily problems
and raising the quality of their lives in day to day
problems.
Agriculture needs are to be met on priority
basis which is crucial for socioeconomic
development of household.
Refreshing or updating their knowledge in a
particular field improves their technical or
professional qualifications, further develop the
abilities, and/or enrich their knowledge.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was based on both secondary and
primary data. The secondary data at the block and
district level were collected from different
departments /agencies/farmer household relating
to different variables/parameters of the study for
the period 2012-13. The primary data were based
on a survey of a cross section of cultivating
households in the district during the year 2011-
2012.
The study has attempted to cover the
quantitative analysis of the status of poor farmers,
policy and management of rural process of
implementation in the district. The action research
consisted of secondary research on the agriculture
in the block, field visits and primary data collection
from different categories of farmers in the district,
dialogue with government departments and
institutions/projects related on agricultural farm
and engagement with civil society groups and
institutions. The study primarily looked at the
interventions and delivery of services in farmers
located in the rural areas.
Agricultural diversification in the district were
gauged from share of various sub-sectors in GDP
as well as total value of output from agriculture
and allied activities, sectoral shares of employed
persons, cropping pattern and agricultural visa-
à-vision-agricultural exports. Further two indices
of crop diversification were estimated.
(i) Index of Crop Diversification
(ii) Simpson’s Index of Diversification
At the district level certain factors were taken
to explain agricultural diversification of value of
output from crop production, livestock, forestry
and fisheries through multiple regressions using
data for the 2011-2012. These factors were
fertilizer consumption, irrigation, annual rainfall,
grazing lands, credit, regulated markets, village
hats, cold storages, rural roads, rural electrification,
veterinary hospitals, forest protection committees,
rural literacy and urban population on one hand
and the factors like irrigation, annual rainfall,
credit, regulated markets, rural roads, rural
electrification, rural literacy and urban population
on the other hand. In these exercises, the
regressions of district could not be formulated due
to lack of adequate data under most heads. To
understand crop diversification, economics of
crop production was analyzed for which an
analysis of cost of cultivation was undertaken.
Apart from this, agricultural diversification in the
field was also gauged through horticultural,
livestock, fisheries and non-farm diversification.
Data collected through field survey were used
extensively for the detailed analysis.
A survey of cultivating households was
conducted in the areas of Basudevpur, Bhadrak,
Bonta, Chandbali, Dhamnagar, Bhandaripukhuri
and Tihidi to study the agricultural production and
Behera and Parida
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
3
resource use efficiency.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The primary data were based on a survey of a
cross section of cultivating households in selected
blocks. In the district in each block two areas were
purposively selected – one relatively developed
and one relatively under developed in consultation
with local district level officer. Hence a village
or a cluster of villages was chosen from each of
the blocks (Table 1). Before the selection of
sample farm households, all households were
enlisted along with various information including
operational holdings i.e., net cultivated area
(NCA) in the selected villages. Based on the net
cultivated area, farm households were categorized
into four broad sub-classes viz., marginal (< 1.0
ha.), small (between 1-2 ha.), medium (2-4 ha.)
and large (> 4 ha.). Within sub classes, the
households were selected based on proportionate
random sampling procedure. Accordingly, 50
households more were selected from each village.
Following this, systematic random sampling
method was adopted for the selection of sample
households. Under systematic random sampling
method, firstly all farm households in a village
were enumerated. The next step was to find the
random interval. This was calculated by dividing
the total number of households in particular farm
size category (For e.g. n = 100) in the village by
the number of households that are to be selected
(e.g.xn = 20). Thus, the random interval is equal
to 100/20 = 5. Then the first household was
selected using the random numbers table.
Subsequently every 5th household from the total
number of households was taken to frame a
sample. Therefore, if the first selected number was
the 5th household, then the subsequent selected
households were the 15th,25th, 35th, 45th, and
so on. When the random interval was in decimals,
it was converted to the next whole number.
However, if a sample household could not be
surveyed due to any reason, then the sampling
household with the next sampling serial number
was substituted for collecting information. Farmers
were interviewed by using pre-tested structured
schedules.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Most of the secondary sources of data were
collected from economics and statistics of
agriculture, Department of Agriculture and
Cooperation, district level and Sample Survey
Rounds of District Statistical Organization (DSO),
District Statistical Abstracts, Department of
Animal Husbandry & Dairying, District
Horticultural Board and Economic Survey.
Table 1. Blocks and villages selected for primary
survey in districts.
Block Villa- No. of No. of No. of % of
ges House- per- far- Far-
holds sons mers mers
Basudevpur 10 60 240 120 15.08
Bhadrak 11 66 264 132 17.58
Bhandaripo 15 56 224 112 15.60
khari
Bonta 16 57 228 114 14.32
Chandbali 13 50 200 100 12.16
Dhamnagar 12 54 216 108 13.16
Tihidi 10 55 220 110 12.10
Total 87 398 1592 796 100
Survey -detailed questionnaire schedule was prepared for
the collection of primary data.
Farming Households and Land Holdings
In all the selected blocks of district, the
proportion of marginal farmers was higher than
small, medium and large farmers. In terms of area
distribution, there was unequal distribution of net
cultivated area among farming households in the
entire block. Out of the net cultivated area of the
total households surveyed, medium and large
farmers defined as those operating area more than
2 ha. constitute a comparatively smaller proportion
of total farming households but account for a
higher per household operated area. The marginal
and small farmers constituting a large proportion
of households have comparatively lower net
cultivated area. The cropping intensity (GCA/
NCA) was highest in Chandbali (199.86%)
followed by Bonta(186.54%) Basudevpur
(169.09%) Dhamnagar (159.02%) and Bhandari
pokhari (127.92%). Cropping intensity was higher
where farmers grew two crops per year, did
multiple cropping or grew several crops in a year.
Agriculture and Non-Agriculture
It was noticed that in the district as a whole,
the share of agriculture in the Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) declined from 35.7% in 2007-2008
to 23.2% in 2012-2013, while that of non-
agriculture increased from 64.3% to 76.8% in the
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
Agricultural Development in Bhadrak District
4
same period. In all the areas share of agriculture
was higher than the district level except in Tihidi
in the recent years. Conversely, in all the blocks,
the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from
non-agriculture was lower. Further, within the all
blocks the share of GDP from agriculture and allied
activities was relatively higher in Bonta (50.38%),
followed by Bhandaripokhari (50.19 %), Bhadrak
(45.99%) and Basudevpur (35.7%), lastly
Chandbali (30.06%). The share of GDP from non-
agriculture was very high in Dhamnagar (73.60
%), followed by Chandbali (69.94 %),
Basudevpur (64.3%), Bhadrak (54.01 %)
Bhandaripokhari(49.81 %), and lastly
Bonta(49.62%). This distribution was on expected
lines as Tihidi, Basudevpur and Bonta have large
mineral deposits resulting in large scale
industrialization in this region.
Cropping Pattern in district
The index values of crop diversification were
very high in the district of Bhadrak,(Table 2)
indicating a high degree of crop specialization in
the district during both the years. The year 2007-
08 showed a decline in crop diversification in the
block of Dhamnagar and bhadrak as two crops
started dominating GCA as well as an increase in
their index values. There was an increase in the
index values of diversification for 2 out of 7
blocks (80%) more from 2007 to 2013, thereby
indicating in crop diversification. In the block of
Chandbali (Table 2) during 2008-2009, four crop
combinations occupied more than 10% of GCA
only in three blocks (Bonta, Chandbali and Tihidi),
while in 2007-08, four crop combinations
occupied more than 10% GCA in seven blocks
(Basudevpur, Bhadrak, Bonta, Chandbali,
Dhamnagar, Bhandaripukhuri and Tihidi). There
was an increase in the index values of
diversification for 34 out of 70 villages(48.57%)
from 2007-2008 to 2012-2013, thereby indicating
a slight increase in crop diversification
Sector wise Agriculture Output and Allied
Activities
From Table 3, it was noticed that the share
of value of output from crop production (excluding
horticulture) in the total value of output from
agriculture and allied activities was highest
compared to the other sectors in the district and it
was highest in Chandbali (44.29%) followed by
Basudevpur (42.28%), Bhadrak (41.17%),
Dhamnagar(39.14%) and Bonta (33.51%). The
share of value of output from horticultural crop
production was highest in Tihidi (39.72%)
followed by Dhamnagar (27.33%), Basudevpur
(26.6%), Chandbali (26.05%). The share of value
of output from livestock was highest in
Bhandaripokhari (43.27%) followed by Bhadrak
(37.79%), Damnagar(32.68%),Banta (28.59%).
The share of value of output from forestry was
highest in Banta(9.25%), followed by Bhadrak
(6.84%) Tihidi (5.55%). The share of value of
output from fisheries was highest in Basudevpur
(6.79%) followed by Bhadrak (4.67%), Tihidi
(4.54%), Bonta (3%) and Chandbali (2.34%) as
the district level average.
Share of Area under different Fruits in district.
In the total value of output from share of area
under different fruits as a percentage of total area
under different fruits in the district. In Basudevpur,
the share of value of output from fruits of mango
production was the highest (50.34%) followed
closely by that of Dhamnagar (45.03%) and lowest
has recorded as from Chandbali (16.79%) At the
district level, 796 farmers were of the view that
mango has the highest production in all the blocks
of the district followed by banana (21.76%),
guava(10.79%) and lowest litchi (2.27%).
Share of Area under different Vegetables in the
District.
The highest share was of potato (44.49%)
among vegetables followed by onion (10.03%),
okra (7.31%), cauliflower (6.52%) and lowest has
been recorded from cucumber (0.21%). The data
showed that total share of area under seasonal
vegetables was during Rabi season (58.93%).
Bhandaripokhari and Chandbali has maximum
percentage of area (62.17%) and lowest was
recorded from Bhadrak (56.81%). Maximum
number of farmers (132) practising seasonal
vegetable cultivation were in Bhadrak sector.
Total share of area during Kharif season was 41.07
per cent. Maximum area under seasonal
vegetables dring Kharif season was in Bhadrak
block while minimum share of area was in
Bhandaripokhari and Chandbali block.
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
Behera and Parida
5
Table 2. Cropping pattern in district.
Block No. of Crop 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012- Dist.Total
Farmers 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Basudevpur 120 Cereals 70.60 70.14 69.97 68.79 66.42 64.46 68.39
Oilseeds 9.41 9.28 9.72 10.14 12.55 13.83 10.94
Pulses 12.75 13.38 12.41 13.12 12.81 11.83 12.72
Cotton 4.12 4.41 4.32 4.75 3.87 4.82 4.17
Jute &Mesta 0.61 0.45 0.72 0.91 0.53 0.61 0.86
Coconut 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.68 0.75 0.84 0.68
Sugarcane 1.48 1.51 1.47 1.01 2.13 2.81 1.66
Fruits & Veg. 0.44 0.24 0.79 0.60 0.94 0.80 0.58
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Bhadrak 132 Cereals 85.00 73.58 81.61 77.11 81.11 83.00 80.23
Pulses 7.74 8.22 8.81 8.34 10.67 9.2 8.83
Oilseeds 2.31 12.6 6.0 9.23 1.98 3.13 5.87
Fruits &Veg. 1.29 2.46 1.22 1.28 2.63 1.48 1.75
Sugarcane 2.19 1.54 1.01 1.13 2.05 1.36 1.54
Jute 1.47 1.60 1.35 2.91 1.56 1.83 1.78
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Bhandari 112 Cereals 68.37 66.19 57.42 53.94 48.71 52.9 69.8
pokhari Pulses 8.85 9.14 12.71 14.97 21.84 19.62 16.17
Oilseeds 9.76 8.10 11.94 8.61 17.73 10.11 8.08
Fruits &Veg. 6.37 8.09 9.41 12.94 8.36 8.10 4.59
Sugarcane 6.65 8.48 8.52 9.54 3.36 9.27 1.36
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Bonta 114 Cereals 75.61 76.87 81.77 78.63 81.13 62.71 76.11
Pulses 11.79 9.79 9.53 8.28 11.14 15.97 11.08
Oilseeds 9.10 6.88 3.09 7.56 3.47 8.77 6.47
Fruits &Veg. 0.06 2.57 2.00 1.04 0.69 8.18 2.45
Sugarcane 3.44 3.89 3.61 4.49 3.57 4.37 3.89
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Chandbali 100 Cereals 74.72 75.76 75.23 68.51 71.13 68.72 82.37
Pulses 8.06 11.12 10.11 12.05 13.04 12.37 4.95
Oilseeds 7.07 7.40 5.22 6.56 6.92 8.78 4.45
Fruits &Veg. 5.68 4.30 8.24 9.15 5.70 7.96 6.70
Sugarcane 4.47 1.42 1.20 3.73 3.21 2.17 1.53
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Dhamnagar 108 Cereals 83.74 86.74 81.29 78.04 77.04 77.59 81.19
Pulses 8.66 7.43 8.29 9.31 10.22 12.38 12.26
Oilseeds 4.18 2.15 8.03 6.21 4.11 3.40 3.00
Fruits &Veg. 1.17 1.51 1.13 4.21 3.55 1.40 2.30
Sugarcane 1.19 1.11 1.21 1.19 3.04 4.19 0.55
Jute 1.06 1.06 0.05 1.04 2.04 1.04 0.70
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Tihidi 110 Cereals 63.27 64.72 76.33 68.42 67.91 63.27 74.05
Pulses 14.91 12.33 8.05 10.47 8.65 11.11 6.44
Oilseeds 9.25 7.13 6.49 8.24 7.38 9.25 7.33
Fruits &Veg. 6.33 5.97 6.4 8.42 8.74 6.21 6.98
Sugarcane 4.17 5.97 0.22 4.2 4.01 5.17 3.39
Cereals 2.07 3.88 2.51 0.25 3.31 4.99 1.81
Total 796 Share 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Source: Primary Field Survey
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
Agricultural Development in Bhadrak District
6
Table 3. Sector wise value of output in agriculture and allied activities in district.
Block No. of Crop Horticulture Livestock Forestry Fisheries
Farmers Production
Basudevpur 120 42.28 26.6 24.14 0.19 6.79
Bhadrak 132 41.17 9.53 37.79 6.84 4.67
Bhandaripokhari 112 36.47 17.38 43.27 0.13 2.75
Bonta 114 33.51 25.65 28.59 9.25 3
Chandbali 100 44.29 26.5 26.87 0 2.34
Tihidi 108 36.68 39.72 13.51 5.55 4.54
Dhamnagar 110 39.14 27.33 32.68 0 0.85
Total. 796 273.54 172.71 206.85 21.96 24.94
(39.07) (24.67) (29.55) (3.13) (3.56)
Source: Primary Field Survey
Table 4 Area under seasonal vegetables as a percentage of total area under vegetables in Bhadrak (2007-08)
Block No. of Farmers Rabi Vegetables Kharif Vegetables
Basudevpur 120 56.97 43.03
Bhadrak 132 56.81 43.19
Bhandaripokhari 112 62.17 37.83
Bonta 114 57.68 42.32
Chandbali 100 62.17 37.83
Tihidi 108 57.68 42.32
Dhamnagar 110 59.03 40.97
Total 796 (58.93) (41.07)
Source: Primary Field Survey
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
Behera and Parida
Table 5. Share of agricultural vis-à-vis non-agricultural exports in district (%)
District No. of Persons Year Agricultural Exports Non-Agricultural Exports
Basudevpur 120 2005-06 84.02 15.98
Bhadrak 132 2006-07 69.35 30.65
Bhandaripokhari 112 2007-08 80.59 19.41
Bonta 114 2008-09 85.96 14.04
Chandbali 100 2009-10 90.87 9.13
Tihidi 108 2010-11 92.12 11.3
Dhamnagar 110 2011-12 95.15 16.4
Source: Economic Survey (Various Issues)
Annual Growth Rate of different Livestock in
the District.
As a component of agricultural sector, its
share in gross domestic product has been rising
gradually, while that sector has been on the
decline. In recent years, livestock output has
grown at a rate of about cattle -2.7% a year,
Buffaloes 2.98% Sheep 9.56 % and goats 7.48%
growth in sector. District has immense resources
of livestock and poultry, which plays a vital role
in rural areas.
The share was highest for milk (52.32%)
followed by meat 23.19%,dung 6.84%, egg
4.47%, wool and hair 4.23% and lowest for silk
and honey in the district.
Share of Agricultural Vis-à-vis Non-agricultural
Exports in district
Out of all the blocks, was at the top by
contributing to Dhamnagar in highest as 95.15%in
the year 2011-12 followed by Tihidi 92.12%,
Chandbali 90.87% and lowest was Bhadrak
69.35% in agricultural exports. On the other hand
Non-Agricultural Exports‘ was highest from
Bhadrak (30.65%), Bhandaripokhari (19.41%)
and lowest from Tihidi (9.13%) blocks in the
district (Table 6).
7 J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 1-7
Agricultural Development in Bhadrak District
CONCLUSION
This study analyzed the trends and patterns
of agricultural diversification and related
development of blocks in the district by
considering various agro-climatic, socio-
economic, technological, infrastructural,
institutional and policy factors. Within the
agriculture & allied activities sector the share of
agriculture including livestock in recent years was
highest in Bhadrak, (95.2%) followed by
Basudevpur, Chandbali, Bonta and Tihidi
(approximately 80%). The share of forestry and
logging was highest in Bhadrak (12.08%),
followed by Chandbali and Dhamnagar
(approximately 7%). In Chandbali and
Dhamnagar the shares were very low 3%. The
share of fisheries was highest in Chandbali
(10.23%) followed by Bhadrak and Basudevpur
5%. The fisheries sector showed very low shares
in Tihidi and Chandbali i.e., 3.93% and 1.28%
respectively.There has been a significant change
in the cropping pattern in the past few decades.
In Bhadrak as a whole as well in all the block
areas share of cereals in the GCA has been highest
amongst other crops from 2006-2012. It was also
observed that the area devoted to food grains was
higher in all the blocks compared to horticultural
crops. It was thus inferred that:
Received on 11-01-2014 Accepted on 08-03-2014
8
Adoption of Chemical Weed Control in Rice: Credit
Utilization and Preference for Formulation: A Study
From Temperate Kashmir
Sheikh Muzaffar Ahmad* and Abdul Hameed Hakeem
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Baramulla (Potushai Bandipora)
Shere Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir ( J & K)
ABSTRACT
Farmers don’t use credit for the purchase of herbicides in the rice crop and they prefer a
particular formulation of herbicide in Kashmir. To know the reasons, a study was conducted in
four randomly selected development blocks of district Baramulla. Two villages from each
development block were selected randomly. A sample of 200 farmers comprising adopters,
partial adopters, and non-adopters was selected from eight sampled villages through stratified
random sampling technique proportional to size. The study revealed that financial soundness
and the risk of losing their lands in case of untimely repayment of credits were the main reasons
for not using credits. It was further revealed that granular formulation was preferred over liquid
formulation owing to lesser requirement of labourers and ease of application.
Key Words: Adoption, Credit, Herbicide, Rice crop.
INRODUCTION
Rice is the staple food as well as one of the
major crops of Jammu and Kashmir (Mubarak et
al. 2012). Weeds are considered as the major
constraint in achieving higher yields in rice
(Srinivasan et al. 2008) and can cause a reduction
to the tune of 10-90 per cent in Indian rice fields
(Nair et al. 2000). In integrated weed management
approach, chemical weed control is very important
as it is quick, easy, efficient, labour saving and
less time consuming. The use of chemicals for
weed control in rice in Jammu and Kashmir is
slow. In order to speed up the adoption of
herbicides, a study was conducted with the
objective to examine the extent and level of
adoption of recommended herbicides for rice crop
by the farmers of Baramulla district of Jammu and
Kashmir. Since farmers don’t use credits for
purchasing herbicides, so it was considered
worthwhile to probe reasons for this trend.
Moreover, the farmers are using herbicides in
granular form. Hence, the investigation was also
conducted with the objective that if the farmers
are given a free choice, what they would prefer:
Granular formulation or liquid formulation of
herbicides.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out during 2006 in
Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir. Out of
14 development blocks in the district, four
development blocks were selected randomly. Two
villages from each development block were
selected randomly. A sample of 200 farmers
comprising adopters, partial adopters, and non-
adopters was selected from eight sampled villages
through stratified random sampling technique. The
size of sample from each stratum was in
proportion to the total number of farmers in it.
The data was collected through personal interview
with the farmers with the help of structural and
pretested schedule.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data presented in Table 1 revealed that the
major reasons, which contributed for not using
credits for purchasing herbicides were financial
soundness (40.0%), risk of losing land in case of
untimely repayment of credits (30.5%) and poor
repaying of capacity of credits later on (17.0%).
The other reasons pointed out by farmers were
high rate of interest, delay in sanctioning credits,
lengthy and different procedures involved in
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 8-10
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 8-10
*Corresponding Author’s Email: shkmuzaffar@yahoo.co.in
9
getting credits sanctioned from banks, hesitation
of banks to sanction credits because of small
holdings, prevalence of bribery, non- availability
of credits, previous bad experience and the
tradition of community of not taking credits from
banks. Kumar and Jitarwal (2012) also reported
that economic status has great role in technology
adoption and thus such farmers rarely need credit
facility.
From the above findings, it becomes clear that
extension personnel have to work for bringing in
confidence among the farmers that by taking
credits from banks, they will not lose their
holdings. They should help the farmers in filling
up the forms etc at the nearby banks. The bank
people should be invited in the district meetings
so that the problems of delaying in sanctioning
credits are sorted out amicably.
Table 1. Reasons for not using credits for purchasing
herbicides for rice crop.
(N = 200)
Reason Respondents
No Percentage
1. Financial soundness 80 40.0
2. Unwilling to take risk of 61 30.5
losing land if credit not
repaid back in time
3. Poor repaying capacity 34 17.0
4. High rate of interest charged 27 13.5
by bank
5. Delay in sanctioning credits 20 10.0
6. Lengthy and difficult 19 9.5
procedure involved
in getting credits sanctioned
7. Not knowing the credit facility 17 8.5
of banks
8. Hesitation of banks to 8 4.0
sanction credits because
of small holdings
9. Other reasons like prevalence 8 4.0
of bribery, non-availability of
credits, previous bad experience,
tradition of the community of
not taking credits from banks.
A perusal of the data presented in Table 2
revealed that 78.0 per cent of respondents gave
preference for granular formation while 21.0 per
cent did not give any preference.
Table 2. Preference for a particular formulation of
weedicide.
Preference Respondents
No Percentage
1. Granular formulation 156 78.0
2. Liquid formulation 2 1.0
3. No preference 42 21.0
Out of those who preferred granular
formulation (Table 3), the reasons were: lesser
requirement of labourers (53.2%), ease in
application (31.4%), difficulty in handling
spraying equipment (23.1%) and long experience
of using granular formulation of herbicides
(20.5%).
Table 3. Reasons for preferring granular formulation
of herbicides.
(N = 156)
Reasons Respondents
No %age
1. Lesser requirement for 83 53.2
labourers
2. Ease in application 49 31.4
3. Difficulty in handling 36 23.1
spraying equipment
4. Long experience of using 32 20.5
granular formulation
5. Conviction about superiority 23 14.7
of granular formulation over
liquid formulation.
6. Non-availability of spraying 22 14.1
equipment
7. Tradition of a community 12 7.7
to apply granular formulation
8. Others(Lack of experience in 20 12.8
applying liquid formulation,
not knowing effectiveness of
liquid formulation of
herbicides, machinery /
spraying equipment not needed,
liquid formulation laborious,
weeds completely controlled
by granular formulation,
weedicide in granular formulation
can be broadcast effectively).
Other reasons pointed out were: conviction
about superiority of granular formulation over
liquid formulation, non-availability of spraying
equipments, lack of experience in applying liquid
formulation and higher efficiency of granular
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 8-10
Ahmad and Hakeem
10
formulation. Only two respondents preferred
liquid formulation and the reason expressed by
them was that liquid formulation of herbicides
could be evenly spread to entire field as compared
to granular formulation.
CONCLUSION
From the above findings it was evident that
the farmers were not yet aware of the liquid
formulation of herbicides. Extension efforts need
to be concentrated on educating the farmers
regarding liquid formulations through result
demonstrations so that farmers become equally
convinced about the effectiveness of liquid
formulations also. At the same time, the liquid
formulation of herbicides should also be made
available to farmers at their respective plant
protection stores, well in time. It would be
worthwhile to mention that quite a good
percentage of respondents (23.1) have expressed
that due to difficulty of handling spraying
equipment, they prefer granular formulation.
Since no spraying equipment is involved in liquid
formulations of herbicides, the extension workers
should remove this misconception through
educational efforts.
REFERENCES
Kumar Mahendra and Jitarwal R C (2012). Review of Factors
affecting the Adoption of Drip Irrigation Technology. J Krishi
Vigyan 1(1):69-72
Mubarak T, Zarger M A and Bhat Z A ( 2012). IDM- In Combating
Blast Disease in Rice Crop in Temperate Environment. J Krishi
Vigyan 1(1):27-31
Nair A K , Pramanik S C, Ravisankran N and Dinesh R ( 2000).
Effect of varieties and weed control practices on productivity
of rice and weed growth in lowlands of south Andamans.
Indian J Agri Sci 72 (8): 477-79
Srinivasan E K, Natarajan S , Ganapathy M and Arivazhagan K(
2008). Effect of nitrogen levels and weed management in
hybrid rice. ORYZA 45(2): 160-62.
Received on 22-01-2014 Accepted on 14-04-2014
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 8-10
Adoption of Chemical Weed Control
11
Agronomic Manipulation in Brahmi (Bacopa
monnieri) Cultivation For Higher Productivity in
Assam Plains
Aparna Baruah, P K Gogoi, I C Barua and D Baruah
1#
Department of Agronomy
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, (Assam)
ABSTRACT
Brahmi [Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst] is one of the most popular medicinal herb in Indian
Pharmacopeia. It has been used as brain tonic and mind refresher in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic,
Siddha and Folk medicines. Realizing the importance of scientific support for the sustainable
and large scale production of Brahmi, an agronomic trial was conducted with an aim to develop
an acclimatized package of cultivation practices for the plains of Assam. The experiment was
conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research Farm of Assam Agricultural University (AAU)
under medium-land rainfed conditions during summer season. The study revealed that the crop
is very sensitive to soil nutrient status, spacing and availability of moisture in the soil. Addition
of organic manure resulted faster spread and ground coverage of the crop and the optimum
dose was determined as 2t ha
-1
enriched compost. Organic manure improved the soil health by
increasing the organic carbon content nearly to 17 per cent after the first harvest of the crop and
also improved the water holding capacity of the soil. The planting of 12 to15 cm long rooted
slips with a spacing of 20 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants resulted faster ground
coverage that gave better competitive ability of the crop against the associated weeds. The
highest yield (144.17 g m
-2
) on dry weight basis was obtained with the application of 2t ha
-1
enriched compost at spacing of 20cm x 10cm, after 6 months of planting. In addition, this
treatment also yielded 996 numbers m
-2
of rooted slips. The results were very promising for
acceptance of Brahmi for commercial cultivation and entrepreneurship development
Key Words: Bacopa monnieri; Package of practices; Commercial cultivation.
INTRODUCTION
Brahmi [Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst] is an
important medicinal herb. It is found throughout
the Indian subcontinents in wet, damp and marshy
areas. It belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae
and has a chromosome number of 2n = 64. It
requires a warm- moist climate with a temperature
range of 30 to 40°C and a relative humidity of 60
to 80 per cent with a good sunshine duration.
Thus, the climatic and edaphic conditions of plains
of Assam are very ideal for Brahmi cultivation. It
is usually used as a memory booster. Besides this,
it is also used in the treatment of cardiac,
respiratory and neuropharmacological disorders
like insomnia, insanity, depression, phychosis,
epilepsy and stress (Russo and Borrelli, 2005). In
addition, it was also reported to possess anti
inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative, free
radical scavengering and anti-lipid peroxidative
activities (Anbarasi et al, 2005; Kishor and Singh,
2005). In spite of availability of all the favorable
environmental conditions and also its usefulness,
its commercial cultivation is restricted to very few
pockets of Assam, that too in a very small scale
and without following proper scientific method
of cultivation; that is mainly due to the lack of
site specific low cost agro technology of the crop.
So in order to develop an acclimatized and organic
agro-technique, an attempt was made to work on
the fertility and spacing management of the crop.
Corresponding Author’s E-mail: deep_baruah@rediffmail.com
1
Livestock Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Hekra-781127, Kamrup, Assam
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 11-13
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 11-13
12
MARERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted during
summer season (January to August) of 2011 at
the Instructional-cum-Research Farm of Assam
Agricultural University (AAU) under medium
land rainfed condition with a sandy loam texture.
The soil was high in P
2-
O
5
(62.58 kg ha
-1
), organic
carbon (1.09%), medium in K
2
O (273.28 kg ha
-1
)
and low in N (251.06 kg ha
-1
) with acidic reactions.
The experiment consisted of 16 treatment
combinations which included 4 different doses of
organic manures [F
1
: 3t Enriched compost (EC)
ha
-1
; F
2
: 2t EC ha
-1
; F
3
: 3t EC of which 25% w/w
was supplemented with Farmyard manure (FYM)
and F
4
: 2t EC of which 25% w/w was
supplemented with FYM] and 4 different spacing
( S
1
: 20cm x 10cm; S
2
: 20cm x 20cm; S
3
: 30cm x
20cm and S
4
: 30cm x 30cm). Enriched compost
was prepared by hipping layers of woody materials
of plant biomass, green leafy materials, thick
brown materials like rice straw and a thin layer of
Azolla over which thin slurry of cow dung and
water was sprinkled in a pit. It was kept for 2-3
months and collected in polythene sheets, when
colour changed from brown to black. It was further
kept for 1 month for final curing and then enriched
with Rock Phosphate @ 5-10 kg q
-1
and Phosphate
Solubalizing Bacteria (PSB). EC prepared in this
manner contains (0.84% N, 0.94% P
2
O
5
, 0.57%
K
2
O and 6.72%) Organic Carbon. On an average,
Farm Yard manure consists of 0.3-0.5% N, 0.2%
P
2
O
5
and 0.3-0.5% K
2
O. Stale seed bed technique
was followed to control the early emerged weeds,
where the plot was left undisturbed for 25 days.
The weeds which appeared were removed
mechanically without using any chemicals.
Organic manures were incorporated 7 days ahead
of transplanting for its proper decomposition.
Local germplasm of Brahmi was used as the
planting material. 10 to 15 cm long cuttings were
transplanted on 1
st
of March, 2011 by maintaining
the required spacing.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The highest yield of leafy twigs on dry weight
basis without roots and with roots (93.33 g m
-2
and 164.17 g m
-2
, respectively) were obtained in
the treatment where planting was done with a
spacing of 20 cm between rows and 10 cm
between plants. Besides, it also yielded highest
number of rooted slips (966 m
-2
). Yield gradually
decreased with the increase in spacing. This might
be due to the increasing competition with weeds
that developed due to the availability of open space
under wider spacing of the crop; narrow spacing
helped to check the weed growth more efficiently
then the wider spacing (Table 1). Relation between
closer spacing (10 cm x 10 cm) and higher yield
was also observed in Jammu by Sharma et al
(2005).
Application of 2t EC, with or without
supplementation of FYM enhanced faster ground
coverage of the crop at 30 days after transplanting
(DAT). However, more than 90 .0 per cent ground
coverage was obtained nearly at 90 DAT in all
the treatments (Table 2). Amongst, the spacing
tested in the experiment, 20 cm x 10 cm showed
better area coverage at 30 DAT. Irrespective of
manuring treatments, the closer spacing showed
better ground coverage in the early part of crop
growth, however, percent ground coverage was
more responsive to FYM application in between
30 to 60 DAT (Table 2). Good response of FYM
and faster ground coverage has also been reported
in Brahmi by Shirole et al (2005) at Rahuri. It
indicated that application of FYM helped Brahmi
in faster area coverage, which means better
branching and faster elongation of prostrate
branches. The highest yield of green herbage on
dry weight basis has been obtained under the
application of 2t ha
-1
EC (F
2
) which was followed
by the treatment that received 2t EC having 25%
w/w supplementation with Farmyard manure (F
4
).
Besides, it also yielded 827 m
-2
and 801 m
-2
numbers of rooted slips, respectively (Table 1).
CONCLUSION
Looking towards the growing up demand of
Brahmi, the experiment conducted to develop an
agro-technique suitable for Assam plains, resulted
the need of application of EC for faster growth
and early harvest. EC when applied @ 2t ha
-1
,
more than 64% of ground coverage was seen
within 30days of planting under the spacing 20cm
x 10cm and 20cm x 20cm. It also gave the highest
yield of herbage (144.17 g m
-2
) on dry weight
basis. Supplementation of 25 per cent w/w of this
dose of EC with FYM, delayed the spread of
Brahmi, but the rapid growth was recorded
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 11-13
Baruah et al
13
Table 1. Number of rooted slips and herbage yield under different spacing and doses of organic manure of
Brahmi.
Treatment Dry weight of leafy Dry weight of leafy Number of rooted slips
twigs without roots (g m
2
) twigs with roots (g m
2
)
Spacing
20cm x 10cm 93.3 164.2 996
20cm x 20cm 72.5 143.3 869
30cm x 20cm 66.7 127.5 697
30cm x 30cm 40.8 98.3 602
CD (P=0.05) 0.43 0.39 2.63
Organic manures (t h
-1
)
3t EC 64.2 130.8 827
2t EC 81.7 144.2 827
3t EC, 25%w/w supp. with FYM 56.2 122.5 716
2t EC, 25%w/w supp. with FYM 68.33 135.83 801
CD (P=0.05) 0.43 0.39 2.63
Table 2. Ground coverage (%) of Brahmi at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting under different doses of
organic manure and spacing.
Treatments 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT 120 DAT 150 DAT
Organic manures (t h
-1
)
3t EC 50.2 79.0 94.8 97.3 98.7
2t EC 51.4 85.3 96.0 99.0 100.0
3t EC, 25%w/w supp. with FYM 47.7 77.7 90.3 95.7 98.7
2t EC, 25%w/w supp. with FYM 50.8 80.1 95.3 98.7 99.3
CD (P=0.05) 0.95 0.84 0.98 N.S. 1.05
Spacing
20cm x 10cm 64.7 88.7 97.7 100.0 100.0
20cm x 20cm 59.3 81.1 95.1 98.7 100.0
30cm x 20cm 40.4 76.7 93.7 97.7 99.7
30cm x 30cm 35.7 75.7 90.0 94.3 97.0
CD (P=0.05) 0.95 0.84 0.98 3.90 1.05
between 30-60 days after planting. In addition
narrow spacing reduced the growth of competitive
weeds. Thus, under medium-land rainfed
condition and warm moist sub-tropical climate,
the crop flourishes well and increased the harvest
frequency when it is transplanted with a spacing
of 20 cm x 10 cm and a dose of 2t EC ha
-1
is
applied.
REFERENCES
Anbarasi K, Vani G, Balakrishna K and Desai C S (2005). Creatine
kinase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette
smoke: Protective effect of Bacoside A. Vascul Pharmacol
42: 57-61.
Kishore K and Singh M (2005). Effect of bacosides, alcoholic
extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi), an experimental
amnesia in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 43: 640-45.
Russo A and Borrelli F (2005). Bacopa monnieri, a reputed
nootropic plant: An overview. Phytomedicine 12: 305-317.
Sharma S N, Bhan M K, Kumar A, Gupta S, Balyan S S, Gupta
K K and Dhar A K (2005). Bacopa monnieri: Its domestication
and agro-technology. J Tropical Medicinal Plants 6 (2): 227-
33.
Shirole M S, Jadhav, A S , Mahatale P V, Shinde R H and
Mahatale Y V (2005). Effect of organic manure and spacing
on growth and yield of Brahmi. Annals of Plant Physiology
19(2): 264-65.
Received on 25-01-2014 Accepted on 15-03-2014
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 11-13
Agronomic Manipulations in Brahmi
14
Communication Source Utilization Pattern and
Constraints Faced By Farm Women in Getting
Technical Information About Chickpea Cultivation
Urmila Devi
1
and Kanta Sabharwal
2
Department of Extension Education and Communication Management
I.C. College of Home Science, CCS HAU, Hisar 125004 ( Haryana)
ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out to study the communication source utilization
pattern by the farm women about recommended package of practices and to identify various
constraints faced by the farm women in getting technical information regarding chickpea
cultivation. A proportionate random sample of 65 farm women were selected purposively
from Rewari district of Haryana. The pre-tested structured interview schedule was used to
collect the information and the data were processed, tabulated and analyzed by using frequency,
percentage, mean weight score and ranking etc. Results revealed that majority of the respondents
used family members, neighbours and friends most frequently to get the information amongst
the localite sources and were found fully satisfied. None of the respondents used cosmopolite
source of information to acquire the information about chickpea cultivation. All the cosmopolite
source of information and television and radio as mass media sources were found somewhat
satisfying by the respondents. It is also vivid that family member being localite source of
information was found most useful source, whereas all the cosmopolite source were found
somewhat or not useful and radio and television were perceived as useful mass media sources
of information by the respondents. It was worth noticed that the localite sources of information
such as village leaders, panchayat members, progressive farm men/women, traditional folk
media and all of the cosmopolite and mass media sources were perceived as most needed for
repetition of information. The most serious constraints perceived by the respondents were social,
physical and time in getting the technical information regarding chickpea cultivation .
Key Words: Communication source, Utilization pattern, Constraints, Technical information,
Farm women, Chickpea.
INTRODUCTION
The problem in agricultural development is
not the availability of improved agricultural
technologies but converting them into production
accomplishments. Therefore, transfer of
agricultural technology to the women farmer in
order to increase the production and productivity
has been playing vital role in agricultural
development in India. Among the various
communication sources that play an important role
in providing information support to the women
farmers, interpersonal sources and channels are
more important for every field operation. The mass
media are quick and economical but lack crucial
elements of empathy and feedback which are
apparent in face to face situation. Individuals tend
to use different communication and media for
obtaining the technology. The utilization of
improved agricultural technology by the farm
women, to a large extent, depends upon the
effective source of information and channels to
which they are generally exposed directly or
indirectly. Farm women are socially at low level
in availing and using of technological information
and mostly very few service of information are
provided to them. They face number of
* Corresponding Author’s Email: urmil_dhukia@rediffmail.com
1 Post Doctorate Fellow, Dept. of Ext. Edu. & Comm. Mgt. (COHS) CCSHAU, Hisar
2 District Extension Specialist, KVK, Jind, CCSHAU,Hisar
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
15
constraints in getting technical information for
chickpea cultivation.
Keeping this in view, the present investigation
was carried out to study the communication
sources utilization pattern by the farm women
about recommended package of practices and
identify various constraints faced by them in
getting technical information regarding chickpea
cultivation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted in Rewari
district of Haryana. Rampuri and Jatusana villages
were selected from Rewari Block. From two
selected villages, a proportionate sample of 65
farm women who were actively involved in
farming was selected randomly. The extent of use,
usefulness, satisfaction level and perceived need
for repetition of communication source and
constraints faced in getting technical information
by the farm women were studied for chickpea.
Extent of use of Communication sources refers
the frequency with which rural women used
various media for getting information. The
frequency of contact with various sources and/or
channels by the farming women was measured
with the help of three-point interval scale. The three
points were regularly, often and sometime and
assigned scores of 3, 2 and 1, respectively.
Usefulness refers to the benefits derived from
technological information source use and was
obtained from the respondents under 4 categories
as very useful, useful, somewhat useful and not
useful and score was assigned as 4, 3, 2 and 1,
respectively. The satisfaction level was
categorized in three categories viz., fully satisfied,
partially satisfied and not satisfied and score was
assigned as 3,2 and 1, respectively. Perceived
need for repetition of information refers to
information from any technological information
source and was obtained from the respondents
under three categories as most needed, needed
and not needed and accordingly score was
assigned as 3,2 and1 respectively.
The structured interview schedule was
developed and pre-tested on non sampled
respondents. The interview was conducted
personally by the investigator with the women
farmers individually. The collected data were
processed, tabulated and analyzed by using
frequency, percentage, mean weight score and
ranking etc.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Frequency of information source utilization
It was observed (Table 1) that friends got rank
I with mean score 2.58 followed by neighbours
(2.51) and family members (2.49) to acquire
information by the respondents whereas,
frequently used source of information was
relatives (2.11) and least frequently used source
was traditional folk media (1.55), Panchayat
members (1.15) and village leaders (1.11) as
localite source of information.
Least frequently/not used cosmopolite sources
of information were contact farmers (I,), social
workers (II), banks (III), exhibition, input agencies
(IV), university scientist (V), cooperative societies
personnel, agricultural development officer
(ADO), subject matter specialist, kisan mela (VI),
scientist, extension specialist, government agency
personnel, farmer’s training centers, krishi Upaj
Mandi, pesticides/seed/fertilizers depot holders
(VII,) by the farm women.
Radio and television were frequently used
mass media sources by the farm women. whereas
cassette recorder , newspaper , audio visual aid ,
farm magazines/journals, telephone calls and
internet were least frequently/not used sources of
information by farm women for seeking
information regarding gram cultivation practices.
It was thus, inferred that the locality sources
were utilized more frequently by the farm women
and no cosmopolite source of information was
used to acquire the information about gram
cultivation. Radio and television were found to
be frequently used mass media source of
information. Similar findings were reported by
Dahiya et al (1997).
Usefulness of information source
It was observed that the family members
were found very useful locality source, whereas
friends , neighbours and relatives were perceived
as useful, whereas progressive farm men/women,
traditional folk media, panchayat members and
village leaders were perceived as somewhat
useful/not useful localite source of information by
Devi and Sabharwal
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
16
the farm women (Table 1).
None of the respondents recorded
cosmopolite source of information very useful and
useful. Other cosmopolite sources of information
viz. social workers , krishi upaj mandi, exhibitions,
pesticides/seed/fertilizers depot holders ,banks
,contact farmers, subject matter specialist, kisan
mela, university scientist, ADO, cooperative
societies personnel, scientist, extension specialist,
cooperative societies personnel, panchayat
officers, farmers training centers and input
agencies were perceived as somewhat/not useful
to the farm women. This was due to the reason
that cosmopolite sources were not up to the reach
of women easily so they can not use these source
regularly.
Mass media sources of information i.e. radio
(I, MS 2.54), television (II, MS 2.43) were found
to be useful, whereas cassette recorders (III, MS
1.86), newspaper (IV, MS 1.40), farm magazines/
journals (V, MS 1.34), audio-visual aids (VI, MS
1.32), telephone calls, internet (VII, MS 1.00) were
found somewhat/not useful source of information
by the respondents.
It was thus concluded that family member
being localite source of information were found
most useful source, whereas all the cosmopolite
source were found somewhat/not useful, radio and
television were perceived as useful mass media
sources of information for chickpea cultivation
by the respondents. Similar findings were reported
by Parmeela et al (2001).
Satisfaction level
The data (Table 1) depicted that friends (I, MS
2.52), family members and neighbors (II, MS 2.43
each) were found to be fully satisfying as localite
source of information, whereas partially satisfied
information source was found to be relative (III,
MS 2.14) by the farm women and somewhat/not
satisfied sources were found to be progressive
farm women (IV, MS 1.58), traditional folk media
(V, MS 1.55), panchayat members (VI, MS 1.12)
and village leaders (VII, MS 1.08), as localite
source of information by the farm women.
It was noticed that none of the respondents
recorded full/partial satisfaction with cosmopolite
sources of information. Mass media sources found
to be partially satisfying by the farm women were
radio and television whereas all other sources were
found to be somewhat/not satisfying source of
information. Thus, it was inferred that friends,
family members and neighbors were found to be
fully satisfied as localite source of information
whereas, all the cosmopolite source of information
were found somewhat satisfying by the
respondents but in case of mass media sources
television and radio were found to be somewhat/
not satisfying for chickpea cultivation.
Perceived need for repetition of information
source
It was noticed that most of the respondents
perceived more need for repetition of information.
The respondents perceived need often for
relatives, somewhat needed for family member,
neighbours and friends. On the other hand, all the
cosmopolite sources were perceived as most
needed (Table 1). Among the mass media source,
most needed were internet, telephone calls, audio-
visual aid, farm magazines/journals, newspapers,
radio for further gaining/repetition of the
information. Mass media source often needed
were television (VII, MS 2.08) and cassette
recorder (VIII, MS 1.97). It was worth noticed that
village leaders, Panchyat members, progressive
farm men/women, traditional folk media were
perceived as most needed localite sources of
information whereas, all of the cosmopolite
communication sources were perceived as most
needed for repetition of information and same
trend was observed in mass media sources for
repetition of information in Rewari district.
Constraints perceived
The constraints perceived by the farm women
in getting technical information were time
constraint, lack of competency of the resource
person, lack of technical expertise, lack of
confidence in the use of technology received,
physical, social, economic constraints and
language problem etc. The most serious constraints
perceived by the farm women were social
,physical and time constraints. On the other hand,
serious constraints were lack of confidence
,language problem, economic constraints , lack
of technical expertis and lack of competency of
the resource person in getting technical
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
Communication Source Utilization Pattern by Farm Women
17
Table 1: Communication source utilization pattern by farm women. N=65
Sr. Communication Frequency of use Usefulness Satisfaction level Perceived need
No. source Weighted Rank Weighted Rank Weighted Rank Weighted Rank
Mean Mean Mean Mean
A) Localite source
1. Family members 2.49 III 3.01 I 2.43 II 1.63 VI
2. Neighbour 2.51 II 2.75 III 2.43 II 1.52 VII
3. Progressive farm 1.65 V 1.98 V 1.58 IV 2.49 III
men/women
4. Relatives 2.11 IV 2.57 IV 2.14 III 1.98 V
5. Friends 2.58 I 2.98 II 2.52 I 1.46 VIII
6. Village leaders 1.11 VIII 1.15 VIII 1.08 VII 2.92 I
7. Panchayat members 1.15 VII 1.17 VII 1.12 VI 2.88 II
8. Traditional folk media 1.55 VI 1.68 VI 1.55 V 2.45 IV
B) Cosmopolite source
1. University scientist 1.06 V 1.05 VIII 1.05 V 2.92 IV
2. NDRI scientist 1.00 VII 1.00 XI 1.00 VII 3.00 I
3. District Extension 1.00 VII 1.00 XI 1.00 VII 2.94 III
Specialist
4. Co-operative societies 1.03 VI 1.02 X 1.03 VI 3.00 I
personnel
5. Government personnel 1.00 VII 1.00 XI 1.00 VII 3.00 I
agency
6. Panchayat officers 1.00 VII 1.00 XI 1.00 VII 3.00 I
7. Agricultural Development 1.03 VI 1.03 IX 1.03 VI 2.92 IV
Officer
8. Social workers 1.15 II 1.28 I 1.17 O 3.00 I
9. Farmers’ Training Centres 1.10 VII 1.00 XI 1.00 VII 2.88 V
10. Subject matter specialists 1.03 VI 1.06 VII 1.03 VI 3.00 I
11. Kisan Mela 1.03 VI 1.06 VII 1.08 IV 2.94 III
12. Exhibition 1.11 IV 1.14 III 1.08 IV 2.97 III
13. Banks 1.12 III 1.09 V 1.08 IV 3.00 I
14. Contact farmers 1.25 I 1.08 VI 1.14 II 2.83 VI
15. Krishi Upaj Mandi 1.00 VII 1.15 II 1.11 III 2.92 IV
16. Pesticides/Seed/Fertilizers 1.00 VII 1.12 IV 1.00 VII 3.00 I
depot holders
17. Input agencies 1.11 IV 1.00 XI 1.08 IV 3.00 I
C) Mass Media Source
1. Radio 2.03 I 2.54 I 1.88 I 2.52 VI
2. Television 1.95 II 2.43 II 1.88 I 2.08 VII
3. Newspapers 1.28 IV 1.40 IV 1.60 II 2.71 V
4. Farm magazines/journals 1.20 VI 1.34 V 1.18 IV 2.80 IV
5. Telephone calls 1.00 VII 1.00 VII 1.15 V 2.85 II
6. Internet 1.00 VII 1.00 VII 1.00 VI 2.91 I
7. Audio visual aid 1.21 V 1.32 VI 1.15 V 2.86 III
8. Cassette recorder 1.63 III 1.86 III 1.52 III 1.97 VIII
*Maximum mean score is 3
Low 1.0-1.66
Medium 1.67-2.32
High 2.33-3.00
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
Devi and Sabharwal
18
information from various technological
information sources.
CONCLUSION
It was inferred that among the localite sources,
majority of the respondents used family members,
neighbours and friends most frequently and also
found fully satisfying in using these localite
sources of information. All the cosmopolite source
of information were found somewhat satisfied by
the respondents but in case of mass media sources
Table 2. Constraints faced by the respondents in getting
technical information for chickpea
cultivation.
N=65
Sr. Constraint Weighted Rank
No. mean
1. Time constraint 2.52 III
2. Lack of competency of 1.80 VIII
the resource person
3. Lack of technical expertise 1.89 VII
4. Lack of confidence 2.17 IV
5. Physical constraints 2.66 II
6. Social constraints 2.72 I
7. Economic constraints 1.97 VI
8. Language problem 2.07 V
*Maximum score is 3
Not so serious (low) 1 – 1.66
Serious (medium) 1.67 – 2.32
Most serious (high) 2.33 – 3.00
television and radio were found to be somewhat/
not satisfied by the respondents. Likewise, family
member were found most useful source, whereas
all the cosmopolite source were found somewhat/
not useful and radio and television were perceived
as useful mass media sources of information by
the respondents. It was worth noting that village
leaders, Panchayat members, progressive farm
men/women, traditional folk media were
perceived as most needed localite sources of
information by the respondents, whereas all of the
cosmopolite and mass media communication
sources were perceived most needed by the
respondents for repetition of information and the
most serious constraints perceived by the
respondents were social, physical and time .
Hence, it can be said that need based training for
farm women may be organized using different
mass media and cosmopolite communication
sources to enhance their potentiality and to meet
the challenges of the society.
REFRENCES
Dahiya R, Verma T and Grover I (1997). Training of rural women
on grain storage through media package and impact
assessment. J. Dairying, Foods and Home Science 16, 1: 60-
64.
Prameela K, Ravichandran V and Vasanthakumar J (2001).
Communication channels utilization behaviour of farm women.
J. Ext. Edu. 12, 2: 3089-3093.
Received on 16-01-2014 Accepted on 16-03-2014
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 14-18
Communication Source Utilization Pattern by Farm Women
19
Comparative Study on Cultivation of Cabbage Under
Low Tunnel and Open Field Conditions in Cold Arid
Ladakh Region
Tahir Saleem
1
, Mohd Mehdi
2
, A.H.Hakeem
1*
, M.S. Trumboo
1
and N.A. Ganai
3
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kargil -194103
Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kashmir ( J&K)
ABSTRACT
The low tunnel technology increased seed germination from 75.3 to 91.0 per cent and seedling
survival on transplanting from 76.3 to 96.6 per cent. Time taken for production of marketable
seedling as well as attaining marketable cabbage heads reduced from 53 to 45.6 days and 85.3
to 75.3 days, respectively. Low tunnel cultivation advanced the growing of crop by around two
months. The total cabbage yield was significantly higher under low tunnels as compared to
open field conditions. Higher net returns per unit area were realized under low tunnel cultivation
of cabbage than open cultivation due to early maturity, early market entry of produce and
evading market glut.
Key Words: Low tunnel, Cold arid, Cabbage, Ladakh.
INTRODUCTION
With increased health awareness among
general public vegetables are now becoming an
integral part of average house hold’s daily meals.
In addition, high population growth rate,
availability of packaged and air lifted fresh
vegetable from distant markets has therefore
generated a year round high demand for vegetable
in this region. However, farmers have yet not
been able to encash this opportunity and still
follow traditional methods of production. This
results in highly volatile vegetable supply in
market wherein the market is flooded with seasonal
vegetables irrespective of demand on one hand
and extremely poor supplies and high priced
vegetable during off season on the other hand.
Ladakh, the cold arid region of Jammu and
Kashmir State experiences prolonged severe
winters and has a short cropping season starting
from last week of March to last week of September
in double cropped areas and from first week of
May to Last week of August in monocropped
areas. Due to high altitude the intensity of solar
radiation and long photoperiod (12 to 14 h) is good
enough to support crop growth but the aridity and
speedy wind dips temperature which limits
growing of vegetable crops for large part of the
year (Sharma, 2000). Plasticulture involves using
plastic soil mulches and crop covers to improve
microclimate conditions surrounding the crop,
thereby enhancing earliness, improving yields and
increasing profitability (Waterer, 2000).
For tapping the solar energy various types of
forcing structures like green house, Ladakhi green
house and trench have been successfully
introduced but lack ready acceptability due to
limitations in term of high initial costs, continuous
power requirement, maintenance and replacement
of soil after every 2-3 years for protection against
soil borne disease and insect pest. Hence, a low
cost and low maintenance technique, low tunnel
technology was tried that ensures supply of
vegetable during scarcity and help the grower to
obtain reasonable and profitable return of their
produce. By increasing air temperature, reducing
wind damage and providing a degree of frost
protection, the low tunnels accelerate crop
production and extend the growing season
* Corresponding Author’s email: pckvkbandipora@gmail.com
1. Krishi Vigyan Kendra SKUAST-K Bandipora, Potushai Bandipora, 193502
2. Krishi Vigyan Kendra SKUAST-K, Kargil -194103
3. Krishi Vigyan Kendra SKUAST-K, Kupwara.
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 19-21
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 19-21
20
(Waterer, 2003). In the present investigation, an
on farm trial was conducted to compare the
efficiency of low tunnel technology and traditional
open field growing of cabbage hybrid S 92.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
On farm trials on cabbage hybrid S-92‘Mitra’
was conducted during the years 2006, 2007 and
2008 at 3 locations in the Kargil district. The
supporting structure of low tunnel was made by
using locally and abundantly available 2.5 m long,
freshly cut willow sticks of 1.5 to 2 cm diameter.
To obtain uniform curvature sticks were moulded
by keeping them fixed in 0.5 m long strong pegs,
nailed into ground at 5 different points along a
prefixed curve, to obtain a diameter of 1m till the
time these were dry and hard enough to provide
sufficient support without losing the shape. After
drying, arc shaped willow sticks were fixed at the
proper site by inserting 15 cm deep into the soil
at intervals of 75 cm to 90 cm, depending upon
the diameter of the sticks. Seed for raising nursery
were sown in the first week of February and
transplanted in third week of March. The tunnel
was covered with ordinary transparent polythene
(2.4 m wide), with lateral supports and packed
from all the sides. The polythene covering was
removed gradually as the outside temperature
became favorable for plant growth, starting with
opening of tunnel at both ends followed by
complete lifting during day time. The covering
was removed completely after mid May. As
dictated by weather, under open field conditions
sowing and transplanting operations were possible
only in the first week of April and third week of
May, respectively. Observations on germination
percentage, days taken to attain marketable
seedlings, survival of transplants and percentage
head formed plants were recorded. Harvesting of
cabbage head was done by keeping unwrapped
leaves intact with plant and allowing the plant to
produce super heads. For calculating average head
weight 30 randomly selected heads from each trial
were weighed and yield per unit area was
calculated by multiplying average head weight and
number of head formed. Most of the new head
sprouts were rubbed retaining a maximum of two
heads per plant in order to obtain saleable heads.
The yield of super heads was also recorded. The
data were analyzed using the test of two
independent means suggested by Herzberg
(1983).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect on seed germination and seedling survival
The seed germination percentage ranged from
87 to 96 per cent in low tunnel compared to 70 to
84 per cent under open field condition. This
technology reduced days taken to reach the 3 to
4 leaf stage, which is considered fit for
transplanting, from 53 to 45 days. Good moisture
supply and protection from fluctuating
temperature under low tunnel may be the cause
of increased germination percentage and rapid
growth. It is worth to note that the survival of
seedlings after transplanting is very critical in
Ladakh condition due to prevalence of dry
weather and high speed desiccating winds. Under
low tunnel structures, survival of seedlings after
seven days was found to be superior (96.6 %)
while as in open condition only 76.3 per cent
seedlings survived. Flood irrigation immediately
after transplanting might be the cause of reduced
survival percentage in open field condition which
Table 1. Comparison of growth and yield of cabbage hybrid under low tunnel and open field conditions.
Character Location -1 Location -2 Location -3 Average
Low Open Low Open Low Open Low Open
tunnel field tunnel field tunnel field tunnel field
Germination (%) 90 72 96 84 87 70 91* 75.3
Days to maturity of seedlings 46 52 48 54 46 51 46.6* 53.0
Transplantation survival (%) 98 81 98 75 94 73 96.6* 76.3
Days to head maturity 72 88 70 86 75 82 72.3* 85.3
No. of head formed plant (%) 96 91 98 90 95 88 96.3* 89.6
Average head weight (kg) 0.86 1.01 0.96 0.98 0.81 0.82 0.87 0.93
Yield (q/ha) 555.79 652.56 633.34 587.88 518.02 562.32 569.0 600.9
Yield of super heads (q/ha) 278.58 191.55 301.92 186.76 280.30 180.43 290.2* 186.2
Saleem et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 19-21
21
most of the time becomes necessary due to high
evaporation rate coupled with porous soils. To
keep the soil moist, in open planting, manual
fountain bucket watering, 2-3 time a day is
required, which is laborious and adds to the cost
of cultivation while in low tunnel single manual
fountain bucket watering is quite sufficient for
three to four days, which meets the requirement
because of drastically reduced rate of evaporation
and recycling of the evaporated moisture.
Improved microclimate resulted in early
maturation coupled with increased proportion of
head formed plant in low tunnels (Table 1).
Effect on yield and maturity
The average head weight was more in open
field because of the high light intensity, which
increase the rate of photosynthesis (Jain, 2005)
but was not able to compensate the yield
difference. The early maturation of heads under
low tunnel provided sufficient time to gain size
and firmness of super heads which resulted in 55.8
per cent increase in yield of super heads over open
field grown cabbage.
Under low tunnel the heads were ready for
harvest in the first fortnight of June and reaped
the early market high price (Rs. 10 to Rs.14/kg.)
as at this point of time only distant produced
vegetables are available in the market. Further due
to nuclear family system the demand of super
heads which weigh about 200-400g was
preferred, purely for economic reasons, as open
Table 2. Economics of cabbage hybrid under low tunnel and open field conditions.
Location Yield of Return Yield of Return Gross Cost of Net
main crop (Rs./ha) super (Rs./ha) income input profit
(q/ha) heads (Rs./ha) (Rs./ha) (Rs/ha)
(q/ha) (3+5)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Low tunnel 569.05 6,82,860 290.26 2,32,208 9,15,068 95,200 8,20,008
Open field condition 600.92 4,80,736 186.24 1,48,992 6,29,728 - 6,29,728
% increase over open field 42.2 55.82 30.21
• Cost of input includes only cost of polythene and willow sticks keeping a life span of 1 and 3 years respectively.
• Sale rate of main crop under low tunnel (off season) Rs.12/kg and rest @ Rs. 8/kg
field grown big sized cabbage heads weighing
around two kg are only available in the market
during this period and not required by small
families. Early maturation of main crop and small
compact super heads produced under low tunnel
not only protected grower from market glut but
also raised net profits, to as high as Rs. 8,20,008/
ha against Rs. 6,29,728 /ha earned from the crop
grown in open field condition.
CONCLUSION
The low tunnel technology is a suitable
technology for the region, which is low cost than
other forcing structures, has potential to increase
the per unit area returns and can play a positive
role in nutrition by making vegetable available in
the off-season. The technology needs testing for
other crops as well.
REFERENCES
Herzberg P A ( 1983). Principles of Statistics. John Wiley and
Sons, Singapore. Pp. 249-52.
Jain V K ( 2005). Fundamentals of Plant Physiology. S. Chand
company Ltd. New Delhi. Pp. 225-27.
Sharma J P ( 2000). Climate of cold arid region: An Agricultural
perspective. In “Dynamics of cold arid agriculture”. (eds.
Sharma, J.P and Mir, A.) Kalyani publisher. Pp. 19-36
Waterer D R (2000). Effect of soil mulches and herbicides on
production economics of warm season vegetable crops in cool
climate. HortTechnology 10: 154-59.
Waterer D R (2003). Yields and economics of high tunnels for
production of warm season vegetable crops. HortTechnology
13(2): 339-43.
Received on 20-01-2014 Accepted on 18-03-2014
Cultivation of Cabbage under Low Tunnel in Ladakh
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 19-21
22
Development and Evaluation of Dietetic Products
Prepared From Bael (Aegle marmelos) Fruit
Sangita Sood and Suruchi Katoch
Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology
College of Home Science
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalya, Palampur 176062 (Himachal Pradesh)
ABSTRACT
Bael fruit with nutritive and medicinal value was processed into products especially for diabetics
patients. The preparation was done using sorbitol a non-nutritive sweetener in place of sugar.
These were then analyzed for TSS, pH, Vitamin C, acidity and sugars. The products contained
good amount of vitamin C, less acidity and less sugar, beneficial for the patients.
Key Words: Bael, Diabetes mellitus, Beverages, Dietetic products, Aegle marmelos.
INTRODUCTION
With the advancing of age, Diabetes mellitus
is one of the prominent metabolic disorders
commonly noticed among the people. The
incidence of diabetes is increasing all over the
world and becoming a problem of significant
importance. Diet plays a very important role and
restricts a person to a specific diet. This makes
the individual devoid of certain sweet products
which are palatable and enjoyed from time to time.
Moreover, providing a suitable combination of
diet with respect to other health problems rising
along with diabetes is meant to be a sole
responsibility. Bael occupies an important place
among the indigenous fruits of India. The
importance of its fruit lies in its nutritive and
curative properties – a well known fact. It is a
concentrated source of riboflavin and ascorbic
acid. The pulp although a little acrid bitter but is
aromatic and acts as a sweet cooling tonic for heart
and brain. The pulp is mildly laxative and simple
remedy for dyspepsia, diarrhea and
dysentery.Since this fruit is widely grown in the
Changer areas of Distt Kangra ,Himachal Pradesh
generally go waste for the want of technical
know-how. Therefore, an effort was made to
process bael into dietetic products using sorbitol,
a non-nutritive sweetener to provide suitable
health drinks and enjoyable items especially for
the diabetic patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Bael fruits were procured from the changer
areas and was processed into pulp according to
Roy and Singh (1979). Thereafter the pulp was
freezed to process into different products like
squash, ready-to-serve beverage (RTS), jam and
toffee, according to FPO specification; except
sorbitol was used in place of sugar.The method
for the preparation of the products in the form of
flow-sheet are shown in Fig. 1, 2, 3 and 4. The
prepared products were then analyzed for TSS
by using hand sugar refractometer, pH through
pH meter, acidity, Vitamin C and sugars by
Ranganna (1995).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Table (1) shows the nutritive content of bael
products. The TSS value obtained for RTS, squash,
jam and toffee are 18.5, 48.6, 68.8 and 3
0
Brix.
The values obtained are quite less than that noted
by Jauhari and Singh (1971) within the range of
32-36
0
Brix in different bael fruit varieties. This
might be due to the presence of sorbitol in the
products. However, a close value of 50
0
Brix in
bael squash was observed by Roy and Singh
(1979). Moreover, the Brix should be high in bael
squash as compared to citrus and most other fruit
squashes. This is because the fruit is not acidic
and mucilage contributes a lot towards the soluble
solids of the pulp. The pH values in the RTS and
squash was found to be 3.3 and 3.2 respectively
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 22-24
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 22-24
*Corresponding Author’s Email: sangitasood@rediffmail.com
23
Fig .1 Preparation of Bael RTS
Fruit pulp/juice

Mixing with strained syrup solution
(Sorbitol+water+acid, heated just to dissolve)

Homogenization

Bottling

Crown corking

Pasteurization for about 90
0
C for 25 minutes

Cooling and Storage
Fig. 2 Preparation of Bael Squash
Juice

Preparation of syrup (Sorbitol+water+acid, heated just
to dissolve)

Straining

Mixing with juice
Addition of preservative

Bottling

Capping

Storage
Fig. 3 Preparation of Jam
Pulp

Addition of sorbitol

Boil and add citric acid

Cook till TSS 68-70%

Fill hot into sterilized bottles and cool

Waxing

Capping

Storage
Fig. 4 Preparation of Toffee
Fruit pulp

Addition of sorbitol+glucose

Cook till sufficiently solid

Transfer pulp to heated pan

Add milk powder dissolved in little water

Remove from fire and mix

Spread mass in 0.5-0.75 cm thick layer on smeared tray

Cool for 4 hours and cut into pieces of suitable size

Wrap in butter paper
showing the acidic nature of the products which
can enhance their storage life.Whearas, the value
for Vitamin C content was found to be
15.0,12.0,21.0 and 31.5 mg/100 g in case of RTS,
squash ,jam and toffee, respectively. This
indicates that the products contain antioxidant
property suitable for the oldies. As far as acidity
is concerned a range of 0.38-1.15 per cent was
obtained. Roy and Singh (1979) prepared bael
products ranging in acidity from 0.3-1.5 per cent.
Very less amount of sugars were obtained when
analyzed. Reducing sugars were found to be less
in RTS and squash as compared to toffee and jam.
This might be because sorbitol contains sugar in
reduced amount. The values for total sugars
ranged from 14.72-50.00 per cent. Generally, fruit
toffees are more nutritious than ordinary toffees
which are mostly prepared from starch along with
other ingredients. Sugar content obtained directs
that the products prepared are safe for diabetics
and for health conscious subjects. Bael fruit toffee
can have additional advantage because of its
medicinal properties.
The addition of sorbitol in the processing of
bael products proved to be of great importance.
The results obtained show that these products
Sood and Katoch
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 22-24
24
Table 1. Nutritive value of Bael Products
Product TSS Degree pH Vitamin C Acidity Reducing sugars Total sugars
Brix (mg/100g) (%) (%) (%)
RTS 18.5 3.3 15.0 0.70 3.87 14.71
Squash 48.6 3.2 12.0 1.15 7.48 15.06
Jam 68.3 - 21.0 0.64 27.17 49.02
Toffee 69.0 - 31.5 0.38 27.78 50.00
cannot bring any harm when given to diabetics
and can also be prepared in homes as and when
required.
CONCLUSION
With changng life style and feeding habbits
health problems are on the rise. Now, the
emphasis is on those foods or procesed products
that have nutriotional value and some theraupatic
effect. Toffees, jam and squash etc. prepared from
bael have great important for health. Fruit based
processed products need to be introduced in the
market to cater the growing demand for these
natural products.
REFERENCES
Jauhari O S and Singh R D (1971). Bael - a valuable fruit. Indian
Horticulture (4-6) : 9.
Singh V P and Misra, K K (2003). Bael : A panacea for all. Indian
farmer’s Digest (1) : 41-42.
Roy S K and Singh R N (1979). Studies on utilization of bael fruit
for processing-II. Extraction of bael fruit pulp. Indian Food
Packer (1): 5-9.
Ranganna S (1995). Handbook of Analysis and Quality control
for fruit and vegetable products. 3rd Edition.
Received on 29-09-2013 Accepted on 25-03-2014
Evaluation of Dietetic Products Prepared from Bael Fruits
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 22-24
25
Effect of Salix spp. Spacing on the Growth and Yield
of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Shallow
Water Table Conditions
Sunil Kumar, B C Saini and R K Jha
Department of Agronomy
G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145 ( Uttaranchal)
ABSTRACT
The field experiment was conducted to study the effect of Salix alba spacing on the growth
and yield of wheat under shallow water conditions. Two clones of Salix alba (Salix alba cv.
coerulea and Salix alba cv. vitellina), planted four years earlier at four different spacing of 4 m
× 5 m, 6 m × 5 m, 8 m × 5 m and 10 m × 5 m, one treatment being control i.e., without any tree,
were tried in split plot design with three replications. Wheat variety PBW 343 was sown in
between the rows of Salix trees. Almost all plant characters like germination, plant height,
number of tillers, spike length, number of fertile spikelets, number of sterile spikelets, grains
per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and above ground biological yield were found
statistically at par due to tree clone. However, the treatments having lesser tree population were
significantly superior over the treatments having greater tree population in all the growth and
yield attributing parameters. The highest grain yield (3898 kg/ ha) was obtained from the
treatment having no trees followed by the treatment having tree spacing of 10 m × 5 m (3533
kg / ha) and 8 m × 5 m (3533 kg/ha). The lowest grain yield (3161 kg / ha) was obtained from
the treatment having tree spacing of 4 m × 5 m. Tree height and tree diameter at breast height
(DBH) taken before and after wheat crop were also found non-significant due to Salix clones
and Salix spacing.
Key Words: Salix alba, Wheat, Intercropping ,Tree spacing.
INTRODUCTION
It is a well known fact that the population of
India is increasing at a fast rate and the pressure
of population on the land resource is increasing.
At the same time, the existing tree population and
natural forests are being exhausted to meet the
food demand. The agroforestry system thus seems
to be the only option accommodating both forestry
and agronomic crops. Wheat is the second most
important crop in India contributing about 32.0
per cent of the total cereal production and 22.7
per cent of the total area under cereal crops. As
wheat requires high temperature during vegetative
stage and low temperature during post anthesis
stage, it can be suitably placed as an intercrop in
the agroforestry system. Unfortunately, most of
the agroforestry trees are unsuitable for wheat.
Salix trees shed leaves during winter and sprout
early in the spring so wheat can perform better
because it will permit sufficient sunlight to wheat
in early stage and protect the plant during later
stages. Therefore, the field experiment was
conducted during the rabi season of 2002-2003
in the Agroforestry Research Block of
Horticultural Research Centre, G.B.P.U.A.T.
Pantnagar to study the effect of Salix alba spacing
on the growth and yield of wheat under shallow
water conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two clones of Salix alba (Salix alba cv.
coerulea and Salix alba cv. vitellina) planted four
years earlier were treated as the main plots. Four
spacing of 4 m × 5 m, 6 m × 5 m, 8 m × 5 m and
10 m × 5 m and one treatment being control i.e.,
without any tree, were kept as sub plots in the
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 25-27
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 25-27
*Corresponding Author’s Email: kvksaran@yahoo.co.in
26
split plot design with three replications. Wheat
variety PBW 343 was sown in between the rows
of Salix trees at a row spacing of 23 cm.
Recommended dose of NPK@ 120:80:60 kg/ha.
was given uniformly to all the plots. Only one
irrigation was done at CRI stage and weedicide
spray was done through Isoproturan @ 0.75 kg
a.i. / ha at 32 days after sowing.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tree Growth Characteristics
The Salix clones, tree spacing and their
interactions were found non-significant on the
height of trees and tree diameter at breast height
(DBH) before and after sowing of wheat. The data
on height of trees and tree diameter at breast
height have been presented in Table1.
Wheat growth and yield
The height of wheat plant was not significantly
affected by the two clones of Salix however, the
tree spacing significantly affected the height
primarily due to more solar inception. This is in
confirmation with the findings of Tripathi (2001)
who reported higher plant height under sole crop
than under agroforestry system. The spike length
per spike, Number of fertile spikelets/spike, 1000
grain weight and straw yield were found non-
significant between the two clones of Salix,
however, the grain yield under Salix alba cv.
coerulea was found significantly higher over Salix
alba cv. vitellina. Spike length was significantly
Table 2. Effect on wheat parameters.
Treatment Height (cm) Spike length Fertile 1000 Grain Yield Straw Yield
at 120 DAS /Spike(cm) spikelets/ grain wt. (kg/ha) (kg/ha)
spike (g)
Salix clones
Salix alba cv. coerulea 99.8 10.6 48.3 54.9 3611 4951
Salix alba cv. vitellina 95.4 10.3 48.2 53.4 3462 5085
CD (5%) NS NS NS NS 119 NS
SEm± 0.9 0.1 0.3 0.5 20 82
Salix Spacing
No trees 100.1 11.6 52.3 58.5 3898 5243
4 m × 5 m 92.4 9.6 44.1 50.3 3161 4898
6 m × 5 m 94.5 10.0 47.6 51.3 3364 4989
8 m × 5 m 96.1 10.3 48.0 54.3 3533 4935
10 m × 5 m 97.3 10.8 49.6 56.5 3726 5027
CD (5%) 2.4 0.4 2.6 1.3 73 211
SEm± 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.4 24 70
Table 1. Value on tree height and diameter.
Treatment Tree height (m) Tree DBH (cm)
Before wheat crop After wheat crop Before wheat crop After wheat crop
Salix clones
Salix alba cv. coerulea 4.3 4.8 4.2 4.6
Salix alba cv. vitellina 4.5 5.1 4.8 5.2
CD (5%) NS NS NS NS
SEm± 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
Salix Spacing
No trees(control) - - - -
4 m × 5 m 4.6 5.2 4.6 5.0
6 m × 5 m 4.4 4.9 4.3 4.7
8 m × 5 m 4.3 4.9 4.5 4.8
10 m × 5 m 4.4 4.9 4.6 5.0
CD (5%) NS NS NS NS
SEm± 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
Kumar et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 25-27
27
affected by tree spacing and highest spike length
was found under control followed in the order by
decreasing tree spacing. This could be due to
reduced availability of light under trees (Saxena,
2002). Sharma et al (1996) also observed almost
similar results in wheat. The number of fertile
spikelets per spike was also found to highest under
control and there was 15.6, 8.9, 8.2 and 5.1 per
cent decrease in the number of fertile spikelets
per spike in tree spacing of 4 m × 5 m, 6 m × 5 m,
8 m × 5 m and 10 m × 5 m, respectively. This
could be because of lesser shading effect under
wider tree spacing (Saxena, 2002). The grain yield
was significantly influenced by Salix clones and
tree spacing, however, interaction between these
factors was non-significant. Highest grain yield
was found under control and there was 18.9, 13.6,
9.3 and 4.4 per cent reduction in yield under tree
spacing of 4 m × 5 m, 6 m × 5 m, 8 m × 5 m and
10 m × 5 m, respectively. This could be because
of reduction of light under trees in agroforestry
system as compared to sole crops. This was again
in confirmation with the findings of Savin and
Slafer (1991) and Saxena (2002).
REFERENCES
Savin R and Slafer G A (1991). Shading effects on the yield of an
Argentinian wheat cultivar. J Agric Sci (Camb),116 :1-7.
Saxena Ruchi ( 2002). Studies on growth and productivity of
wheat crop under poplar (Populus deltoids Bart. Ex. Naren.)
based agroforestry system. Thesis M.Sc.Ag. G.B. Pant Univ.
of Agric. and Tech., Pantnagar. P. 41-44.
Sharma K K, Khanna P and GulatiA ( 1996). The growth and
yield of wheat and paddy as influenced by Dalbergia sisso
Roxb. Boundary plantation. Indian Forester.122 (12):1114-
1126.
Tripathi M K (2001). Growth and yield of late sown wheat under
modified microclimate of mix Salix-Dalbergia plantations in
an agroforestry system. Thesis M.Sc. Ag. G.B. Pant Univ. of
Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar.
Received on 10-07-2013 Accepted on 15-03-2014
Effect of Salix spp spacnig on wheat yield
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 25-27
28
INTRODUCTION
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important
vegetable crop cultivated extensively in
Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. It is cultivated
for green chillies as vegetable throughout the year
and for dry chillies during rabi season. Most of
the area is under conventional farming. The normal
rainfall is 931 mm but 60 per cent (559 mm)
rainfall received during November-December
months in 20-25 rainy days. The remaining
quantity of rainfall is received in 15-25 rainy days
throughout the year. During 2007-08, the concept
of precision farming was introduced with the
adoption of various technologies viz., chisel
ploughing, drip irrigation, fertigation, use of
hybrids and seedling production in protrays. The
feedback study was conducted during 2009 to
analyze the adoption level of precision farming.
The study showed that cost of water soluble
fertilizers like potassium nitrate (KNO
3
), mono
potassium phosphate, calcium nitrate and sulphate
of potash were very high compared to
conventional fertilizers like urea, diammonium
phosphate, muriate of potash. As the purchasing
power of the farmer is very low, hence, the present
study was conducted to analyse the effect of water
Effect of Water Soluble and Conventional Fertilizers
on Growth and Yield of Chillies
V Krishnamoorthy and Noorjehan A K A Hanif
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Vamban Colony , Pudukkottai – 622 303 (Tamil Nadu)
ABSTRACT
Increased and efficient use of nutrients is one of the options for increasing vegetable crop
productivity. Among the various factors affecting the production of chillies, the role of fertilizers
assumes a greater significance. Taking this aspect into consideration, a field investigation was
carried out during 2009-10 at farmer’s field of Minnathur village of Pudukkottai district to
study the effect of application of recommended dose of N, P and K fertilizers (RDF: 120:20:80
kg/ ha.) as water soluble and conventional fertilizers in the proportion of 100:0, 50:50, 25:75,
respectively as T
1
, T
2
and T
3
. The results revealed that the maximum plant height (80 cm),
number of branches/ plant (18), number of leaves/ plant (137), leaf area index/ plant (1228),
number of fruits/ plant (110), fruit length (11.5 cm), fruit weight (8.7 g) and yield/ plant (960 g)
were recorded in treatment T
1
where 100 per cent fertilizer application was done through water
soluble fertilizers. The highest benefit cost ratio (1:3.27) was also accrued under treatment T
1
.
Key Words: Fertigation, Split application, Water soluble fertilizer, Urea.
soluble and conventional fertilizer application in
fertigation (through drip system) on growth, yield
and benefit cost ratio of chilly cultivation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted during 2009
Rabi season at ten farmer’s field at Minnathur
village, Gandarvakottai block, Pudukkottai district
of Tamil Nadu as per following treatment details.
T
1
: Application of recommended dose of N, P
2
O
5
,
K
2
O (120:20:80 kg/ha) as 100 percent water
soluble fertilizers through potassium nitrate
(13:0:45), monoammonium phosphate
(12:61:00), sulphate of potash (0:0:50), NPK
complex 19:19:19.
T
2
: Application of 50 percent recommended dose
of N, P
2
O
5
, K
2
O (60:10:40 kg/ha) as water
soluble fertilizers and 50 percent as
conventional fertilizers viz. Urea (127 kg),
Single super phosphate (63 kg soil-basal
application) and muriate of potash (67 kg).
T
3
: Application of 25 percent recommended dose
dose of N, P
2
O
5
, K
2
O (30:5:20 kg/ha) as water
soluble fertilizers and 75 percent as
conventional fertilizers viz. Urea (190 kg),
*Corresponding Author’s Email: krishorttnau@gmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 28-30
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 28-30
29
Single super phosphate (94 Kg soil-basal
application) and muriate of potash (100 Kg).
Super phosphate in the above treatments was
applied as basal dose in soil at the time of the last
ploughing. The fertigation schedule was given at
four stages of crop growth from days after
transplanting (DAP) viz. establishment stage (1-
10 DAP), vegetative stage (11-40 DAP), flowering
and fruiting stage (41-70 DAP) and maturity and
harvest stage (71-90 DAP).
The soil nutrient status was N (185 kg/ha),
P
2
O
5
(9 kg/ha) and K
2
O (225 kg/ha). The soil and
plant nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
contents were estimated by Microkjedhal method
(Pipper, 1966), Vanadomolybdate phosphoric
yellow method (Jackson, 1967) and flame
photometer method (Jackson, 1967), respectively.
The fertigation was given at three days interval
and total 50 times during the entire crop period.
The study was conducted by replicating at10
farmer’s field. The plot size per treatment was 0.2
ha. The drip was installed in all the trials. The
distance between laterals was five feet and distance
between drippers was two feet. The discharge rate
of drippers was 4 l/hr and the type of dripper was
inline. The hybrid seedlings (Siara) raised in
protrays were transplanted at the age of 25 days.
The plant to plant and row to row spacing was 60
cm x 60 cm respectively. The observations on
growth and yield characters of the crop were
recorded by using standard procedures. The data
obtained were subject to statistical analysis for
analysis of variance (Cochron and Cox, 1992).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
An appraisal of the data presented in Table 1
revealed that the highest values for plant height
(80cm), number of branches per plant (18),
number of leaves per plant (137), and leaf area
index (1228) were recorded in application of
recommended dose of N, P
2
O
5
, K
2
O was
120:20:80 kg/ha followed by application of 50
per cent of recommended dose of N, P
2
O5, K
2
O /
ha. as water soluble fertilizers. It might have been
attributed by the solubility that the uniform
distribution of nutrients in the granules might have
increased the nutrient availability in the root zone.
Similar results were reported in tomato by Hebber
et al (2004) and in bitter gourd by Meenakshi and
Vadivel (2005).
The yield parameters (Table 1) showed that
significantly higher number of fruits per plant
(110), more fruit length (11.5 cm), fruit weight
(8.7g), yield per plant (960g), yield per hectare
(26.4 t) with the application of 100 per cent
recommended dose fertilizer as water soluble
followed by 50 per cent of RDF as water soluble
Table 1: Effect of NPK fertilizers on growth, yield and benefit cost ratio of chillies.
Parameters T
1
: RDF T
2
: RDF T
3
: RDF SEd CD(p=0.05)
100% WSF 50%WSF: 25% WSF:
50% CF 75% CF
Plant height (cm) 80 71 65 2.81 6.14
No. of branches /plant 18 16 13 1.1 2.4
No. of leaves / plant 137 115 96 2.12 4.46
Leaf area index/plant 1228 841 574 14.13 28.32
No. of fruits/plant 110 96 88 2.14 4.94
Fruit length (cm) 11.5 9.4 7.8 0.72 1.64
Fruit weight (g) 8.7 7.8 6.5 0.36 0.82
Yield/plant (g) 960 756 574 14.16 32.14
Yield / ha (t) 26.4 20.8 15.8 0.86 2.14
Economics
Gross cost (Rs/ha) 80804 70872 65902
Gross return (Rs/ha) 264000 208000 158000
Net return (Rs/ha) 183196 132128 92093
Benefit cost ratio 3.27 2.94 2.40
* RDF: Recommended dose of fertilizers @ 120:20:80 kg of N, P
2
O
5
, K
2
O / ha.
** WSF: Water soluble fertilizers
*** CF: Conventional fertilizers
Krishnamoorthy and Hanif
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 28-30
30
plus 50 per cent as conventional fertilizers. The
lowest number of fruits per plant (88 g), fruit
length (7.8 cm), fruit weight (6.5 g), yield per plant
(574 g) and yield per hectare (15.8 ton) were
recorded in treatment T
3
. It might be attributed by
highest fertilizer use efficiency of water soluble
fertilizers (Mohanaramya et al. 2010). Similar
results were reported in chillies by
Muralikrishnasamy et al (2006) in capsicum by
Sanchita et al (2010) and in cauliflower by
Ilakiyanila (2012).
The economics were calculated based on the
existing market price. The gross cost was also high
due to high cost of water soluble fertilizers. Though
the prices of water soluble fertilizers were high,
the gross and net profit was higher when compared
to application of 50 per cent RDF and 25 per cent
RDF as water soluble fertilizers. It was reflected
in benefit cost ratio of 3.27 obtained with 100 per
cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water
soluble.
CONCLUSION
Application of recommended dose of
120:20:80 Kg/ha of N, P
2
O
5
, K
2
O as water soluble
fertilizer recorded highest yield and benefit cost
ratio compared to application of 50 per cent and
25 per cent application of recommended dose of
nutrient as water soluble and remaining 50 per
cent and 75 per cent as conventional fertilizer.
So, it can be concluded that the water soluble
fertilizers increases the nutrient use efficiency due
to uniformity of fertilizer distribution in active root
zone.
REFERENCES
Cochron W G and Cox G M (1992). Experimental Designs (2
nd
Ed), John Wiley and Sons, Singapore. pp.53-58.
Hebber S S, Ramachandrappa B K, Nanjappa H V and Prabhakar
M (2004). Studies on drip fertigation in field grown tomato.
European J Agron 21:117-127.
Ilakiyanila K S (2012). Standardization of spacing and fertigation
in cauliflower. M.Sc.Thesis, submitted to HC & RI, TNAU,
Coimbatore.
Jackson M L (1967). Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of
India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. pp.111-125.
Meenakshi N and Vadivel E (2005). Effect of drip irrigation and
fertigation in bitter gourd. Prog Hort 37(1):48-55.
Mohanaramya M, Rajamani K, Sooriyanathasundaram K and
Rangasami M V (2010). Effect of drip fertigation on yield,
tuber characters and quality characters of glory lily. South
Indian Hort 58:97-101.
Muralikrishnasamy K, VeerabadranV, Krishnasamy S, Kumar
V and Sakthivel S (2006). Drip irrigation and fertigation in
chillies. Seventh International Micro Irrigation Congress held
at PWTC, Kualalumpur.
Pipper C S (1966). Soil and plant analysis. Hans Publishers,
Bombay, India. pp.7-279.
Sanchita B, Luchon S, Pankaj B, Tridip and Bhaskarjyothi (2010).
Studies on effect of fertigation with different levels of N and
K fertilizers on growth, yield and economics of early season
capsicum under cover. Veg Sci 37(2):160-163.
Received on 20-02-2014 Accepted on 20-04-2014
Effect of Fertilizers on Yield of Chillies
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 28-30
31
Effect on Yield and Yield Component of Maize (Zea
mays L.) Due to Planting Patterns and Different
Irrigation Levels
Rima Taipodia
1
and N. D. Singh
2
Krishi Vigyan Kendra
West Kameng, Dirang-790 101 (Arunachal Pradesh)
ABSTRACT
To study the effect of two planting patterns viz.60 cm apart single rows and 30/90 cm apart
double row strips (30 cm from row to row and 90 cm from strip to strip) and different irrigation
levels viz. 0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 irrigations on growth and yield of maize, a field trial was carried. The
growth and yield of maize were not influenced by planting patterns but number of plants per
plot at harvest, number of grains per cob, 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and
harvest index were significantly affected by different irrigation levels. When planting spacing
was kept at 30/90 cm apart; double row strips (30 cm from row to row and 90 cm from row to
row) and 6 irrigations, maximum grain yield (7.37 t ha
-1
) was produced.
Key Words: Yield components; Maize, Planting patterns; Irrigation levels
INTRODUCTION
Maize is used as food grain for human
consumption in some parts of India. It is being
used for manufacturing industrial products like
starch, syrup, alcohol acids, etc. More than 90 per
cent of the people use the maize oil for
consumption purpose in USA. In addition it is also
used as an important feed and fodder for animals.
Tollenaar and Aguilera(1992) reported that growth
and yield of maize significantly influenced by
planting patterns. Toor( 1990) found that grain
yield was influenced up to a measurable extent
by the planting geometry. The planting geometries
did not affect significantly days taken to tasseling,
grain weight per cob, 1000-grain weight, dry stalk
weight, and harvest index.
At critical stages of plant growth, availability
of adequate amount of moisture not only optimizes
the metabolic process in plant cell but also
increases the effectiveness of the mineral nutrients
applied to the crop. Any degree of water stress
may, consequently produce deleterious effects on
growth and yield of the crop. Dai et al (1990)
found that growth and development of all the
cultivars and hybrids of maize at different growth
stages are inhibited by water stress.
The present study, in view of importance of
planting patterns and irrigation levels at different
growth stages, was undertaken to find their
suitable combination for augmenting maize yield
under agro-ecological conditions of Dirang,
Arunachal Pradesh.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To evaluate the effect on yield and yield
component of Maize (Zea mays L.) due to planting
patterns and different irrigation levels, a field
experiment was conducted at the KVK farm,
Dirang, West Kameng, Govt. of Arunachal
Pradesh. Planting patterns were 60 cm apart single
row and 90 cm apart double row strips. Irrigation
levels were I
0
= no irrigation, I
1
= one irrigation
during vegetative growth + one irrigation at
tasseling + one irrigation at silking, I
2
= three
irrigations during vegetative growth + one
irrigation at grain formation, I
3
= two irrigations
during vegetative growth + one irrigation at
tasseling + one irrigation at silking + one irrigation
at maturity and I
4
= two irrigations during
vegetative growth + one irrigation at tasseling +
*Corresponding Author’s Email: rtaipodia@yahoo.com
1 STO O/O Deputy Commissioner, Dibang Valley, Annini, Arunachal Pradesh
2 Programme Coordinator, KVK, West Kameng, Kirang.
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 31-34
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 31-34
32
one irrigation at silking + one irrigation at grain
formation + one irrigation at maturity.
Randomizing planting patterns in main plots and
irrigation levels in sub plots, the experiment was
laid out in randomized complete block design with
split-plot arrangement. The net plot size was 8 x
3.6 m. By using the standard procedures, the
observations on growth and yield characteristics
of the crop were recorded. Using Duncan’s
Multiple Range (DMR) test at 5% probability level.
Data were analyzed statistically and treatments
comparison was done as per statistical procedures
reported by Steel and Torrey (1984).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect on plant population
The plant population was not significantly
affected by planting patterns (Table I). The
average value varied from 165.1 to 163.5. Simon
(1991) reported that with high level of irrigation,
number of plants / m
2
were higher. In this
experiment, the plant population/ plot was
significantly affected by irrigation levels. At
irrigation level I
4
, significantly higher numbers of
plants (173.3) were recorded but were statistically
at par with I
3
, I
2
and I
1
. In case of control, the
minimum numbers of plants (135.0) per plot were
recorded. At harvest, interaction affect of planting
patterns and irrigation levels on number of plants/
plot was also found to be non-significant.
Number of cobs per plant
Data (Table1) showed that the number of cobs/
plant were not influenced by the planting pattern.
Significant effect of cultivar and planting patterns
upon number of cobs per plant were observed by
Thomson and Jordan (1995). Statistically, similar
number of cobs/plant were given by irrigation
levels I
4
, (1.22), I
3
(1.19), I
2
(1.12) and I
1
(1.04).
I
0
produced the minimum number of cobs /plant
(0.64). The interaction effect of planting patterns
and different irrigation levels was also found to
be non-significant.
Number of grains per cob
Ali (1995) reported that planting pattern had
non-significant effect on number of grains per
cob. Similarly, planting patterns had no significant
effect on number of grains/cob. The number of
grains/cob ranged between (451.5 to 455.5) and
were significantly affected by irrigation levels.
Wajid (1990) found that numbers of grains/cob
were significantly affected by high irrigation
levels. In case of I
4
, The maximum numbers of
grains (603.9)/ cob were recorded and minimum
(153.7) in case of control. Infact, interaction effect
of planting patterns and different irrigation levels
was found to be non significant.
Similarly data (Table1) showed that the effect
of planting pattern on 1000-grain weight was not
significant whereas effect of irrigation was
significant and was highest (276.8 g) in treatment
I
4
.
Biological yield (t ha
-1
). On biological yield,
the planting patterns had non-significant effect
(Table 1). However, when the maize crop was
planted in 30/90 cm apart; double row strips,
maximum biological yield (16.57 t ha
-1
) was
obtained. Puste and Kumar (1988) reported that
during the vegetative stage than during the grain-
filling phase, maize growth was more sensitive to
water stress. Similarly, when the crop was planted
in 30/90 cm apart; double rows strips at I
4
irrigation levels, the maximum biological yield
(23.28 t ha
-1
) was obtained. Table.1 showed that
with increasing number of irrigation levels, there
was a gradual increase in biological yield. At
irrigation level I
4
maximum biological yield (23.28
t ha
-1
) was achieved over I
3
, I
2
, I
1
and I
0
(21.02,
18.87, 15.76 and 3.85 t ha
-1
respectively.
Grain yield (t ha
-1
). Significantly, higher
yield recorded in 60 cm apart single rows than
30/90 cm apart double rows Kalia (1992). Table
1 showed that in various planting patterns, grain
yield exhibited non-significant differences.
Rizzardi et al. (1994) concluded that neither
spacing patterns nor planting patterns could differ
grain yield and yield components.
Ghinassi and Trucchi (1999) reported that
from the last vegetative period, maize pollination
was particularly sensitive to water stress. Similarly,
the grain yield was significantly affected by
different irrigation levels. In I
4
,the highest grain
yield (7.37 t ha
-1
) was obtained. In control, the
lowest grain yield (0.40 t ha
-1
) was recorded. Water
stress also affected other parameters such as plant
height, lodging percentage and commercial grain
yield. On grain yield, interaction effect of planting
Taipodia and Singh
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 31-34
33
patterns and different irrigation levels was found
to be non-significant.
Harvest index (%). Toor (1990) found that
planting pattern had non significant effect on
Harvest Index. Similarly, table-1 showed non-
significant effect on harvest index by planting
patterns. Wajid (1990), reported that irrigation
frequencies significantly affected harvest index.
Similarly,with each successive increase in
irrigation, there was progressive increase in
harvest indices. The highest harvest index (31.82
%) was showed by I
4
levels, which was statistically
at par with I
4
(29.51 %). likewise, I
3
and I
2
are
also statistically at par while I
2
is statistically
different from I
4
but In control, lowest harvest
index (10.02 %) was observed.
CONCLUSIONS
It may be concluded that in combination i.e.
planting pattern of 30/90 cm apart double row
strips and irrigation level I
4
(two irrigations during
vegetative growth + one irrigation at tasseling +
one irrigation at silking + one irrigation at grain
formation + one irrigation at maturity) as
compared to other treatments were found to be
more efficient.
REFERENCES
Anonymous(2004). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, 2003
published by Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
El-Monayeri A, Hagazi M, Ezzat N H, Salem H M and
Tohaun M (1984). Growth and yield of some wheat and some
barley varieties grown under different moisture stress levels.
Ann. Agric. Sci., Moshtobog, 20: 231-43 (Field Crop Absts,
38(3): 1092; 1985).
Dai J Y, Gu W L, Shen X Y, Zheng B, Qi H and Cai S F(1990).
Effect of drought on the development and yield of maize at
different growth stages. J. Shenyang Agri. Univ., 21: 181
(Field Crop Absts., 44: 7130; 1991).
Ghinassi G and Trucchi P( 1999). Yield response of maize (Zea
mays L.) to limited water supply in a semi-arid climate.
Irrigazione-e- Drenaggio, 46: 34-8 {Field Crop Absts., 53(3):
1624; 2000).
Kalia R D, Singh R V and Singh R(1992). Performance of soybean
intercropping with maize in different planting patterns under
rain-fed conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Haryana J. Agron.,
8:78 (Field Crop Absts, 47: 6247; 1994).
Puste A M and Kumar T K(1988). Grain yield of winter maize
and its attributes as influenced by irrigation. Environ. Ecol., 6:
399-401 (Irrigation and Drainage Absts., 15(2): 802; 1989).
Rizzadri M L, Beller W and Dalloglio B (1994). Spacing of maize
plants within row and its effects on yield components. Pesquisa
Agropecuaria Brasileria, 29: 1231-6 (Field Crop Absts., 48:
4087; 1995).
Simon( 1991). Study of the performance of irrigated maize for
grain grown on light soils. Scientia Agric. Bohemoslovaca
23: 273 (Field Crop Absts., 45: 4284; 1992).
Table 1. Effect on yield and yield components of maize.
Treatments No.of No.of No.of 1000- Grain Biological Harvest
Plantsper cobs grains grain yield yield index
plot plant
-1
cob
-1
wt.(g) (t ha
-1
) (t ha
-1
) (%)
atharvest
Planting patterns
P
1
= 60 cm 165.07 1.02 451.5 203.3 4.54 16.54 24.46
P
2
= 30/90 cm 163.48 1.02 455.5 203.8 4.59 16.57 25.05
LSD N.S N.S N.S N.S N.S N.S N.S
Lrrigation levels
I
0
135.01 b 0.64 b 152.8 d 116.3 e 0.31 e 03.85 e 10.02 d
I
1
169.18 a 1.04 a 419.5 c 170.5 d 3.95 d 15.76 d 25.30 c
I
2
171.34 a 1.12 a 556.5 b 204.5 c 5.03 c 18.87 c 27.11 bc
I
3
172.51 a 1.19 a 534.9 b 249.7 b 6.15 b 21.02 b 29.51 ab
I
4
173.34 a 1.22 a 603.9 a 276.8 a 7.37 a 23.28 a 31.82 a
LSD 4.359 0.181 26.80 30.28 0.371 1.112 2.381
I
0
= No irrigation; I
1
= One irrigation during vegetative growth + one irrigation at tasseling + one irrigation at silking;
I
2
= Three irrigations during vegetative growth + one irrigation at grain formation; I
3
= Two irrigations during vegetative
growth + one irrigation at tasseling + one irrigation at silking + one irrigation at maturity; I
4
= Two irrigations during
vegetative growth + one irrigation at tasseling + one irrigation at silking + one irrigation at grain formation + one
irrigation at maturity; NS= Non-significant; Any two means not sharing a common letter differ significantly at 5%
level of significance
Effect of Planting Pattern and Irrigation Levels on Maize Yield
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 31-34
34
Steel R G D and Torrie J H ( 1984). Principles and Procedures of
Statistics. p. 173. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc.
Singapore.
Tiwari K N (2001). Phosphorus need of Indian soils and
crops. Better Crops Int. 15(2): 6-10.
Thomson P R and Jordan(1995). Plant population effects on corn
hybrid differing in ear growth habit and prolificacy. J.
Production Agri., 8930: 94 (Field Crop Absts., 48(11): 7969;
1995).
Tollenaar M and Aguilera A( 1992). Radiation use efficiency of
old and new maize hybrids. Agron. J, 84: 536-41.
Toor M S ( 1990). Effect of NPK application on the growth and
yield of new maize genotype planted in the two geometrical
patterns. M.Sc. (Hons.) Agri. Thesis, Deptt. Agron., Univ.,
Agric., Faisalabad.
Wajid S A (1990). Effect of different mulching material and
irrigation levels on the growth and grain yield of spring maize.
M.Sc. (Hons.) Agri. Thesis., Uni. Agric., Faisalabad.s
Received on 15-02-2014 Accepted on 28-04-2014
Taipodia and Singh
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 31-34
35
Evaluation of Different Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii
Bolus) Cultivars for Growth and Flower Characters
under Assam Conditions
Kankana Deka and Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar
Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University
Jorhat-785013 (Assam)
ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out to study the performance of twelve cultivars of
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) under open field conditions in Assam. Vegetative, flowering
and flower characters varied significantly among the cultivars. Mean performance of the cultivars
revealed that Pride of Sikkim attained the highest plant height (61.8 cm) and longest stalk
length (49.5cm). Cultivar Red Gem produced maximum number of leaves per plant (46.6),
plant spread (54.1 cm) and number of suckers per plant (24.0). Days taken to bud visibility and
full bloom varied greatly. Cultivar Pink Melody took minimum days of 63.8 and 76.0 for bud
visibility and full bloom, respectively. With respect to flower characters, Red Gem recorded the
maximum number of flowers per plant (53.2) and possessed longest self life (19.9 d) and vase
life (9.8 d). Largest flower diameter was found in Orange Gleam (11.2 cm) followed by Classic
Beauty (10.9 cm). The maximum fresh weight of flower was recorded in Classic Beauty (16.7g).
Flowering duration was longest in Red Gem (130 d). Wide variation in flower colour was also
observed among the cultivars. Cultivar Red Gem exerted best performance on various growth
and flower characters along with Orange Gleam, Classic Beauty and Pink Melody.
Key Words: Gerbera, Evaluation, Performance, Assam
INTRODUCTION
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) with
chromosome number 2n = 50 commonly known
as Transvaal Daisy, Barberton or African Daisy
is considered as one of the nature’s beautiful
creations because of excellent flowers with
exquisite shape, size and bewitching colour. It
finds utility in garden beds, borders and rock
gardens. It belongs to the family of Asteraceae
having single and double flowers. The major
importance of gerbera in the international market
is as cut flower and also used extensively in flower
arrangements. Among flowers, the gerbera has
comparatively long vase life of usually 10-15 days
which can be extended up to 30 days with suitable
cultivars and pre-harvest treatment (Nanjan 1994).
Nowadays, gerbera cultivation has become one
of the most important commercial flower crops
for domestic and international markets.
Considering the importance of this cut flower, an
attempt was made to study the performance of
different cultivars of gerbera and to identify the
best promising cultivar under Assam conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out at the
Experimental Farm of the Department of
Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University,
Jorhat for two years during 2010-12 in a
randomized block design, replicated thrice.
Geographical location of the site falls between
latitude of 26
o
47’N and a longitude of 94
o
12’E
and altitude of 86.8 m above the mean sea level.
The reason witnessed 2500 mm rainfall but
unevenly distributed throughout the year with
highest intensity during monsoon season (June-
October). Twelve cultivars of gerbera with
uniform vigor and age were selected and planted
during last week of October of both the years at a
spacing of 30 x 30 cm. The beds were of 3 m
2
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 35-38
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 35-38
*Corresponding Author’s Email: kankanadeka.ghy@gmail.com
36
and were raised to 25 cm to avoid water stagnation.
All the recommended packages of practices were
followed. Data on plant growth and flowers was
recorded after four months after planting when
the plants were fully grown. All the mean values
of the recorded data were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Vegetative Growth Parameters
The results obtained from the present
investigation on various parameters exhibited
significant differences among the cultivars as was
evident from Table 1 and 2. It was noticed that
cultivar Pride of Sikkim recorded maximum plant
height (61.8 cm), followed by Indukumari (57.7
cm), and whereas the lowest plant height was
recorded by cultivar Pink Melody (42.3 cm).
Number of leaves per plant varied from 30.3
(Jawahar) to 46.5 (Red Gem). Longest (21.7 cm)
and broadest (9.0 cm) leaves were produced by
Red Gem and Pride of Sikkim respectively,
whereas Pink Melody recorded shortest leaves
(17.3 cm) and Avon produced narrower leaves
(6.7 cm). Plant spread was recorded highest in
Red Gem (54.1 cm) followed by Orange Gleam
(50.2 cm) while the lowest was recorded under
Pride of Sikkim (41.1 cm). Variation in plant
spread was due to the additive gene effects
(Vidalie et al. 1985). Maximum number of suckers
were produced by Red Gem (24.0) followed by
Orange Gleam (18.0) while Jawahar (7.2)
produced minimum suckers among all the Gerbera
Cultivars. From the data it can be inferred that
there exists positive correlation between the
number of suckers and total number of leaves
produced per plant. In the present investigation
the cultivars Red Gem, Orange Gleam which
produced higher number of suckers also produced
higher number of leaves compared to other
cultivars.
The varietal difference can be attributed to the
genetic makeup of the variety (Hemlata et al.
1992). Such variation in vegetative growth
parameters of gerbera cultivars has also been
reported earlier by Singh and Ramachandran,
(2002). Similar results on vegetative characters
have also been reported by Mahanta et al (2003)
and Reddy et al (2003) in gerbera.
Flowering Characters
The flower quality parameters i.e. flower size,
fresh weight and stalk length significantly varied
among the cultivars (Table 2). Maximum flower
size was recorded in the cultivar Orange Gleam
(11.2 cm) followed by Classic Beauty (10.9 cm),
both were at par; while the minimum size (8.8
cm) was recorded in Indukumari. The maximum
fresh weight of flower was recorded in Classic
Beauty (16.7 g) followed by Pink Melody (16.3
g), while the minimum was recorded in Avon
(8.1g). Longest stalk length was recorded in Pride
of Sikkim (49.5 cm) and the shortest length of the
stalk was observed in Avon (37.7cm). These
differences in cut flower quality characters may
Table 1. Vegetative growth parameters of gerbera cultivars.
Cultivar Plant Number Leaf Leaf Plant Number
height of leaves length breadth spread of suckers
(cm) per plant (cm) (cm) (cm) per plant
Red Gem 46.9 46.6 21.8 7.4 54.1 24.0
Pride of Sikkim 61.8 35.0 20.8 8.8 41.2 14.2
Avon 46.4 31.9 20.6 6.7 43.7 13.1
Jawahar 39.6 30.3 18.3 8.0 42.9 7.3
Orange Gleam 53.2 43.7 20.8 8.7 50.2 18.0
Indukumari 57.8 33.2 20.3 8.3 46.0 12.0
Classic Beauty 49.3 39.9 20.2 7.9 47.7 16.3
Pink Melody 42.3 37.9 17.3 8.6 48.8 17.8
Pride of India 50.9 34.1 17.9 8.2 44.1 10.7
Popular 53.2 35.0 19.8 7.9 45.9 14.0
Dream Time 49.5 31.6 18.4 8.6 45.4 9.8
Yellow Queen 45.8 38.7 20.4 8.3 48.3 7.9
CD(P=0.05) 0.82 0.94 1.10 0.18 1.42 0.71
Deka and Talukdar
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 35-38
37
be due to inherent characters of the individual
cultivars. These findings were in accordance with
the results of Singh and Ramachandran (2002),
Mahanta et al. (2003) and Reddy et al. (2003)
who have reported wide difference in quality
parameters among gerbera cultivars.
Flower production per plant was observed to
vary significantly among the cultivars (Table 2).
The maximum number of flowers per plant (53.1)
followed by Orange Gleam (46.1) and Pink
Melody (43.8). The differences in flower
production among the cultivars might be due to
temperature, prevailing in the region along with
their genetic variability. Also, additive genes
determine the productivity in gerbera plants. This
was in accordance to the findings of Barooah and
Table 2. Flower characters of gerbera cultivars.
Cultivar Flower Flower Stalk Number Self life Vase life
size weight length of flowers (days) (days)
(cm) (g) (cm) per plant
Red Gem 9.6 11.3 46.6 53.2 20.0 9.8
Pride of Sikkim 10.9 10.0 49.5 42.7 15.0 7.1
Avon 9.7 8.1 37.7 33.3 12.3 5.1
Jawahar 9.4 8.7 40.7 36.8 10.8 4.1
Orange Gleam 11.2 12.6 48.4 46.2 18.5 8.5
Indukumari 8.8 11.5 49.3 32.7 14.1 8.0
Classic Beauty 11.0 16.7 42.5 42.9 17.1 8.3
Pink Melody 9.0 16.3 39.3 43.9 15.9 6.9
Pride of India 9.2 8.3 43.9 34.3 12.3 6.7
Popular 10.4 13.0 45.6 23.3 17.3 8.2
Dream Time 8.9 12.6 46.6 28.0 14.4 6.9
Yellow Queen 9.9 13.8 43.0 22.3 16.7 8.6
CD(P=0.05) 0.66 0.73 1.11 2.37 0.97 0.64
Table 3. Flowering characters of gerbera cultivars.
Cultivar Days to flower Days to full Flowering duration Flower colour
bud visibility bloom
Red Gem 64.3 76.1 130.0 Red
Pride of Sikkim 64.6 78.0 119.1 White
Avon 103.7 113.1 94.5 Red
Jawahar 74.8 85.9 105.2 Light Pink
Orange Gleam 69.8 82.5 123.8 Dark Orange
Indukumari 66.3 78.7 93.8 Mezenta
Classic Beauty 68.2 80.3 124.3 Orange
Pink Melody 63.8 76.0 118.0 Pink
Pride of India 77.8 87.8 103.2 Light Orange
Popular 66.6 80.1 113.0 Pink
Dream Time 70.0 81.2 96.7 Dark Pink
Yellow Queen 75.8 90.8 96.5 Yellow
CD (P=0.05) 2.36 2.83 5.83
Talukdar (2009).
The difference in shelf life and vase life were
found significant among the cultivars. It is evident
from Table 2 that the cultivar Red Gem recorded
maximum shelf life (19.9 ). Minimum self life was
recorded in cultivar Jawahar (10.7) and Pride of
India (12.3). Minimum vase life was recorded in
Jawahar (4.1) and Avon (5.1). It has been
emphasized that variation in vase life of different
accession might be attributed to genotypic
differences. The variation in vase life observed
among the cultivars has been attributed to
difference in number of thick walled supporting
cells in xylem element and phloem fibers and
presence or absence of complex ring of secondary
thickening in the flower peduncle.
Evaluation of Gerbera Cultivars
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 35-38
38
The perusal of data (Table 3) revealed that
flowering characters varied significantly among
the cultivars. Pink Melody took minimum duration
for flower bud visibility (63.8) followed by Red
Gem (64.3) and they were at par. Maximum
duration for flower bud visibility was recorded in
Avon (103.3). Pink Melody and Red Gem
recorded minimum period (76.0), (76.1)
respectively from planting to full bloom and Avon
took longest duration (113.1). Since early and late
flowering characters are genetically controlled,
cultivars might be chosen accordingly for getting
prolonged flowering duration. Longest flowering
duration was recorded in cultivar Red Gem (130.0)
while minimum was recorded in cultivar
Indukumari (93.8) and Avon (94.5), both were at
par. The cultivar Red Gem due to its long vase
life is very popular in the wholesale market.
CONCLUSION
Out of the twelve cultivars, most attractive
colour was found in Red Gem (bright red) which
have higher acceptability in the market along with
Orange Gleam (orange) and Pink Melody (pink).
The cultivar Red Gem was found to be the best
among all the cultivars showing highest mean
values for most of the growth and flower
characters. The other promising cultivars suitable
for Assam conditions are Orange Gleam, Classic
Beauty, Pink Melody and Pride of Sikkim.
REFERENCES
Barooah L and Talukdar M C (2009). Evaluation of different
(Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker F.) cultivars under agro
climatic conditions of Jorhat, Assam. J. Ornamental Hort.
12(2): 106-110.
Hemlata B A, Patil, A and Nalwaadi U G( 19920. Variability
studies in chrysanthemum in Progressive Hort, 24(1): 55-59.
Mahanta P and Paswan L (2003). Assessment of Comparative
Performance of Some Gerber (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus)
cultivars under open condition and plastic rain shelter in Assam
condition. Nation. Symp. Recent, Adv. in Indian Flori. Trichur
12-14 Nov., Proc. Indian Soc. Orna. Hortic., pp. 154-165.
Reddy B ,S Kulkarni B S, Manjunath H K and Shiragur M
(2003). Performance of gerbera cultivars under naturally
ventilated greenhouse. Paper presented in All India Seminar
on Potential and Prospects for Protective Cultivation, pp. 91-
92.
Singh K P and Ramachandaran N( 2002). Comparision of
greenhouses having natural ventilation and fan pad evaporative
cooling systems for gerbera production. J. Ornamental Hort.,
5(2): 15-19.
Vidalie Hi, Laffaire Mi, Rivere L M and Charperitier S( 1982).
First results on the gerbera cultivated on rock wool. Revue
Horticole, 262: 13-16.
Received on 20-03-2014 Accepted on 26-04-2014
Deka and Talukdar
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 35-38
39
INTRODUCTION
India has the largest population of dairy
animals and is largest producer of milk in the
world. The livestock sector in India contributes
to the rural economy by providing milk, meat,
wool, manure, urine energy etc. This sector
provides an avenue for huge self-employment
especially for rural youth. This is evident by the
fact that more than 50 per cent of the rural
population is engaged in rearing of livestock and
its contribution in the total GDP is estimated to be
about 9.0 per cent, which itself depicts its valuable
contribution to socio-economic upliftment of the
downtrodden section of the society.
According to Ingavale (2012) dairy sector in
India is characterized by large number of cattle
and low productivity. Though India has largest
dairy animal population, the average productivity
of milch animals is quite low but the demand of
milk is increasing day by day and is expected to
reach 180 MT by 2020. For this, annual growth
rate of milk production needs to be increased from
present level of 2.5 per cent to 5.0 per cent (Bhattu
et al, 2013). The low milk yield is mainly
attributed to low genetic potential for milk
production, poor nutrition and poor management
and care of the animals. Dairy animals in India
are fed on poor quality crop residues, which are
not only deficient in nitrogen, minerals and
vitamins, but also have poor digestibility due to
presence of lignin in them. Hence, proper feeding
of the animals is essential for improving their
Feeding of UMMB Licks to Dairy Animals: A
Farmers’ Reactive Study
Manoj Sharma
1
,Gurdeep Singh
2
and Keshava
3
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala 144620 ( Punjab)
ABSTRACT
Livestock sector has significant contribution in GDP of India. India ranks first in milk production
but this is attributed to large livestock population and not to the productivity. However, the
average livestock productivity in India is quite low due to low genetic potential, poor nutrition
and poor management of animals. Poor nutrition is due to unavailability of green fodder
throughout the year. In order to provide the balanced nutrition to the dairy animals, urea
molasses mineral block (UMMB) lick technology can play a major role but the adoption of this
technology is low. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra made an attempt to popularize this technology
amongst dairy farmers of district Kapurthala. Farmers were provided with UMMB licks and
were asked to observe the effect of its feeding on the dry matter intake, water consumption,
milk production and overall health status of their animals. After three months of UMMB feeding,
a study was carried out to know the reactions of the farmers. Results of the study showed that
with the use of UMMB licks, milk yield and fat percentage increased in 44.0 and 11.5 per cent
cases, respectively. Similarly, farmers observed improvement in the dry matter intake (73.1%)
and water intake (46.5%). More than eighty per cent of the dairy farmers were satisfied with
this technology. The results of the technology were almost immediate and observable. It was
concluded that farmers are ready to adopt this technology but availability of UMMB licks, as
and when required, due to limited production is hindrance in its adoption. It was suggested that
farmers should be trained in the preparation of UMMB licks for enhancing the adoption of this
technology.
Key Words: Feeding , Dairy animals, Farmers, UMMB, Milk production, Water intake.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: drmanojsh1@gmail.com
1
Associate Director (Training), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala-144620 (Punjab)
2
Assistant Professor (Extension Education), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mansa-151505 (Punjab)
3
Principal Scientist, Zonal Project Directorate, Zone 1 ICAR, PAU Campus, Ludhiana.
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
40
production potential. Most of the small-scale dairy
farmers’ animals survive on crop residues namely
rice straw, wheat straw, maize stalks and natural
herbage like grass, tree leaves etc. Such feeding
practice does not provide adequate nutrients to
the animals for improving their growth and
exploiting their full production potential. In
general, low quality crop residues are deficient in
fermentable nitrogen, carbohydrates and
important minerals. Thus, prevailing practices of
keeping dairy animals solely on wheat straw and
a small amount of poor grade concentrate is not
satisfactory.
For supplementing the poor diet such as wheat
straw / paddy straw or any other crop residue-
based diet of large and small ruminants, the use
of urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) licks has
been recommended by many livestock
researchers. The main aim is to improve the
nutritive value of the traditional straw-based diet,
which promotes healthy growth and milk
productivity of dairy animals.
Further, ruminants have the unique ability to
convert non-protein nitrogen (NPN) compounds
in their diet to a microbial protein of high biological
value. Considering these facts, UMMB was
developed to supplement the diet of ruminants fed
on poor quality roughages. As the name suggests,
these blocks contain urea, molasses, minerals and
binding agent. The benefits of using UMMB are
well documented by various researchers.
However, research on fate of UMMB licks
technology at farmers’ field, particularly among
dairy farmers in developing countries is very
limited. Even in India, where UMMB production
technology was introduced in the co-operative
dairy sector in 1984, research on impact of this
technology at field conditions is very limited.
Therefore, present study focusing on impact
of technology at field level and its adoption among
dairy farmers was planned. Efforts were made to
get feedback from dairy farmers about the utility
of UMMB licks in the daily feeding schedule of
animals and its effects on dry matter, water intake,
milk production and overall health status of
animals kept at their homes. Specifically, an
attempt was made to study the reaction of dairy
farmers towards UMMB lick technology in order
to find out whether there is a need to change or
modify the technology, extension and
popularization methods and also the approach to
developing such technology. This on farm study
was conducted to study the impact of UMMB licks
on of milch animals, reactions of the farmers
towards UMMB lick technology and the feeding
strategy used by the dairy farmers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This on farm study to evaluate impact of
UMMB licks on animals, its adoption and reaction
of farmers towards this technology was conducted
in the year 2012-13 in Kapurthala district of
Punjab (India). Data were collected from eight
villages. Two villages each from four blocks of
Kapurthala district viz; Dhilwan, Kapurthala,
Phagwara and Sultanpur Lodhi were purposively
selected where dairy farmers were made available
UMMB licks for feeding to their milch animals.
Reactions of the farmers who were provided these
UMMB licks were solicited by purposively
developed interview schedule. Data were collected
by conducting interviews telephonically. To know
the reaction of farmers about impact of UMMB
licks on milk yield, fat percentage, feed and water
intake, animal health etc., a total of 25 farmers
from each selected village were randomly
interviewed. Thus, data from 200 famers were
collected using semi-structured interview
schedule. Data for 400 animals (two animals per
farmer) were collected during the study. Farmers
were also interviewed about feeding strategy used
by them.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
After conducting demonstrations on
supplementing UMMB in daily feeding schedule
of crossbred cows and buffaloes, the owners of
the dairy farms were interviewed to know the
effects of UMMB licking on fodder consumption,
water intake, milk yield, milk fat and overall health
status of their animals.
Effects on water intake and dry matter
consumption
During the investigation, majority of the
respondent farmers (46.5 %) reported that water
intake was increased whereas only 28.9 per cent
of the respondent farmers had indifferent reaction
about effect of UMMB feeding on water intake in
Sharma et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
41
Fig 1: Reaction of farmers about impact of UMMB
licks on dairy animal (n =200)
dairy animals. On the other hand, about 21 per
cent of them did not take note of water
consumption. Similarly, majority of the
respondent farmers (73.1%) reported that animals
had higher dry matter intake with the use of
UMMB licks. Only about 4 per cent of the
respondent farmers reported that it has no effect
on dry matter intake. About twenty per cent had
no record on this account (Fig 1).
Impact on animal health
As data pertain to the use of UMMB licks for
three months only, no significant impact of UMMB
licks on animal health could be found (Fig 1).
Large numbers of respondent farmers (84.6%),
therefore, were indifferent about the effect of
UMMB licks on animal health. About twelve per
cent respondent farmers reported positive effect
of this technology on the health of dairy animals
under study. Only about 4 per cent of respondent
farmers observed negative effect of use of UMMB
licks on the health of the animals. This was
probably due to the fact that the animals could
take large amount of UMMB lick, when provided
ad lib. and thus could have created imbalance in
rumen digestion.
Effect on milk yield
Majority of the respondent farmers (44.0%)
informed that there was an increase in the milk
yield varying from 0.5 kg. to 2.0 kg./d/animal
whereas 28.0 per cent of them were indifferent
about the effect of UMMB licks feeding on milk
yield. Increase in milk yield from 1.0 to 1.5 kg
was also reported by Chen et al (1993). On further
probe from the respondents who were indifferent
about effect on milk yield, about 71.0 per cent of
them realized that unlike previous years there was
no reduction in the milk yield especially during
hot months (April to June). This means that
feeding of UMMB helped in sustaining the milk
yield in milch animals during the period when
there was a shortage of green fodder and thus
reduced dry matter intake. Farmers reported that
use of UMMB licks with wheat straw was able to
maintain milk yield equivalent to yield obtained
when animal was fed on berseem fodder. Thus,
by supplementing UMMB, the farmers could
harvest a yield similar to that of green fodder
feeding. Researches have revealed that wheat straw
along with UMMB licks is able to provide
maintenance energy to maintain the health of dairy
animals. Perhaps that’s why the animals were able
to maintain milk yield in absence of green fodder.
Only eight per cent of the respondent farmers
informed that there was no effect of feeding
UMMB on the milk yield. Since at most of the
dairy farms, major dairy farm operations are being
performed by hired casual labourers, so 28.0 per
cent farmers reported that they did not record the
milk yield but were happy with the performance
due to the fact that they were of the opinion that
animals relished the taste of UMMB (Fig 2).
Effect on milk fat
There is an inverse relationship between milk
fat and milk yield. This is evident from the
farmers’ observations as only 11.5 per cent
respondent farmers informed that fat percentage
increased whereas 44.0 per cent farmers informed
that milk yield increased. Similarly, 61.5 per cent
of them observed that fat percentage remained
same and 28.0 per cent informed that milk yield
remained same (Fig 2).
Reaction of Dairy Farmers towards UMMB
licks technology
It is very important for the research scientists
as well as extension workers to know the fate of
technologies generated and transferred by them
Figure 2 : Reaction of farmers about impact of using
UMMB licks on milk yield and fat percentage
Feeding of UMMB Licks to Dairy Animals
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
42
among the end users. With this concept in mind,
effort was made to know about the satisfaction
level reached by the dairy farmers after making
use of UMMB in the daily feeding schedule of
milch animals.
It was noticed that about 81.0 per cent of
respondent farmers were fully satisfied with the
results obtained and had adopted this technology
(Fig 3). That’s why all of them were ready to
purchase UMMB from the suppliers at their own
level. Non-availability of UMMB licks as and
when required by the farmers was observed as
the major hindrance in the adoption of this
technology. Only about 8.0 per cent respondent
farmers were not satisfied. Moreover, these were
the farmers who had adopted wrong strategy to
feed the animals. However, about 12.0 per cent
farmers were found to be partially satisfied.
Feeding strategy used by farmers
Licking of licks was normal almost in all the
animals. In some cases, initially animals did not
start licking. Farmers fed licks by mixing in
animal feed. In some cases there was over feeding
by the animals. Researches have proved the
variation in lick intake mainly due to the
composition and degree of hardness of the block.
Texture of the block as well as energy and protein
content of the basal diet also influence daily
intake. Thus, the feeding strategy used by the
farmers can be a single deciding factor in the
adoption decision making process of dairy
farmers. It is evident from Table 1 that majority
of respondent farmers (53.0 %) kept the full block
of 3 kg in the manger of animal and did not
monitor its consumption. Twenty one per cent of
them kept full UMMB licks for a specific time for
consumption of animals. This feeding strategy
resulted in over consumption of licks by animals.
It is important to mention that accidentally the
animal (cows) of one farmer took about more than
Fig 3 : Satisfaction level of farmers about the utility
of UMMB licks (n =200)
1 kg UMMB and did not take feed for about next
3 days. During this follow up study, it was found
that in totality only those farmers were not satisfied
with this technology where animals over fed the
licks. Moreover, in all the cases over feeding
occurred in cows only. Nearly one fourth (26.0%)
of the respondent farmers used specific size pieces
for feeding of their animals. All these dairy farmers
were satisfied with the UMMB technology.
Table 1: Feeding strategy of UMMB licks used by the
farmers (n =200).
Feeding strategy Number of Percentage of
respondents respondents
Full brick 106 53
Pieces 52 26
Full brick for specific time 42 21
Total 200 100
Reasons for Quick Adoption
The characteristics of any technology as
perceived by the potential adaptors play an
important role in its adoption by them. An effort
was also made in this study to know the farmers’
reactions about different characteristics of UMMB
licks. This technology has favourable
characteristics, which an innovation should have
(Table 2). The feeding of lick was found to be
convenient by majority of the respondent dairy
farmers (93.0%). Further, these blocks were easy
to transport and store as perceived by about 90.0
per cent of respondent farmers. Results of UMMB
feeding were quite observable as evident from
reactions of respondents about its impact on water
intake, dry matter intake and ultimately on milk
yield discussed above. Thus, farmers found
feeding of the blocks a convenient and
inexpensive method of providing a range of
nutrients required by the animal, which may be
deficient in their current diet. From manufacturers
point of view, these licks are easy to prepare and
convenient to pack.
Table 2: Characteristics of UMMB licks as perceived
by the farmers (n =200).
Characteristics Number of Percentage of
respondents respondents
Easy to transport 186 93
Easy to store 180 90
Convenient to feed 180 90
the animals
Sharma et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
43
CONCLUSION
The technologies developed by research
scientists at experimental stations are transferred
to farmers’ field by extension personnel. These
technologies are of importance only when farmers
find it useful in the field conditions. A farmer will
accept a new technology only if he is convinced
that the method is suitable and profitable to him.
The diffusion of innovation to small farmers, even
if they are appropriate, is one of the most difficult
tasks of research and extension personnel. The
technologies evolved in the field of animal
nutrition have far-reaching consequences in
bringing socio-economic transformation of the
rural and urban dairy owners of this country. The
UMMB lick technology has potential to improve
the productivity of animals. Majority of the
respondent dairy farmers found it useful at their
farms as results were immediate and observable.
Few cases of negative effect of feeding of UMMB
licks on water intake, dry matter intake and animal
health might be due to intake of large amount of
UMMB lick, when provided ad lib. Thus, non-
availability of UMMB licks and wrong feeding
strategies used by farmers may hinder adoption
of the technology. Though the numbers of
respondents with negative effect were less, the
extension personnel should keep in mind that few
cases of negative impact can ruin the fruits of
positive impact. Accordingly, the extension
personnel should properly demonstrate the right
way of offering UMMB licks to the animals to
avoid such negativism. As limited availability of
the UMMB licks is the major hindrance in the
adoption of this technology. There is need to train
the farmers in preparation of UMMB licks so that
this technology could reach at the door steps of
each and every dairy farmers and milk
productivity could be enhanced.
REFERENCES
Bhattu B S, Dhaliwal A S and Singh G (2013). Dairy farming
practices followed by different categories of dairy farmers in
south western Punjab. J. Krishi Vigyan, 1(2) :13-16.
Chen Y Z, Wen H, Ma X, Li Y, Gao Z and Peterson M A (1993).
Multinutrient lick blocks for dairy cattle in Gnsu province,
China. Livestock Research and Rural Development, 5 (3): 60-
63.
Ingavale D (2012). A Study of International Trade of Indian Dairy
Industry. J. App. Res., 1 (12): 127-28.
Received on 22-12-2013 Accepted on 14-03-2014
Feeding of UMMB Licks to Dairy Animals
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 39-43
44
Impact of KVK Training Programmes and Frontline
Demonstrations on Adoption of Pusa Basmati 1121
in Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir
A P Singh, Amrish Vaid and Vishal Mahajan
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kathua
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir)
ABSTRACT
The study was carried out in Kathua, Barnoti and Hiranagar blocks of Kathua district of Jammu
and Kashmir. These three blocks were purposely selected because, traditionally, these blocks
have maximum area under rice. Apart from training programmes and frontline demonstrations,
other extension methodologies viz., farmers-scientists interactions, field days and media coverage
were also employed to get the maximum impact. The data were collected through personal
contacts with the help of well structured interview schedule. Total thirteen practices were selected
as a criterion to evaluate the farmers for the extent of knowledge gained and adoption of
basmati rice production technologies as a result of the training programmes conducted by
KVK, Kathua. The results of the study revealed that the farmers had gained knowledge about
the production technologies for basmati ranging between 9.4 per cent in case of land preparation
to 86.6 per cent in case of high yielding Pusa basmati 1121 variety, after attending the training
programmes. It was noticed that none of the farmers were following the improved practices
viz., high yielding variety, seed treatment, soil testing and time and method of harvesting
before acquiring training whereas, after attending training programmes 86.6 per cent trainees
adopted Pusa basmati-1121, 73.3 per cent seed treatment, 46.6 per cent soil testing and 48.0
per cent adopted appropriate time and method of harvesting. Further, it was observed that after
attending the training programmes, the farmers started adopting the production technologies
ranging from 18.7 per cent for storage to 86.6 per cent for high yielding variety i.e. Pusa
basmati1121.
Key Words: Knowledge, Adoption, Impact, Basmati, Production technology, Training
INTRODUCTION
Training programmes organised by Krishi
Vigyan Kendra (KVK) are very effective tool in
any extension methodology being used for
dissemination of latest agricultural technologies
to the farmers. Besides this, the formulated course
content of training programmes specifically strives
to address the location-bound all types of
agricultural production constraints in particular
and consequently other socio-economic
constraints being faced by the farmers. There is a
growing demand to organise specialized training
programmes amidst the farming community as
farmer is at receiving end and direly requires
knowledge about improved production
technologies. Moreover, farmers’ quest to
understand the dynamics of agricultural
production system and selection of technologies
to make the most of the synergy existing between
these technologies is perhaps the driving force for
formulation of training programmes in KVKs.
Rice is an important kharif crop of Kathua
district of Jammu and Kashmir State and is next
to wheat. It is cultivated over an area of 33,000
ha. Traditionally, this area is known mainly for
growing coarse varieties of rice viz., Jaya, PR 113,
PR 118, K 343, IR 8 and PHB 71 etc. However,
cultivation of basmati rice was very limited and
was confined only to the Hiranagar tehsil and the
variety Basmati 370 was solely under cultivation
in the name of fine and basmati rice. The low
yields coupled with less returns from basmati rice
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
*Corresponding Author’s Email: amrishvaid@gmail.com
45
discouraged the farmers not to grow and adopt it
on a larger scale. Therefore, earlier whatever
basmati rice was being produced by the farmers,
a significant proportion of that was retained in
order to meet out their domestic requirement and,
as such, there was no surplus available for
marketing. Due to the liberalized trade related
policies of the Govt. of India and at State level,
basmati rice of Jammu province has got
recognition as a trade commodity not only at
national but at international level. The congenial
change in trade related policies along with the
increasing interest of the farmers and the release
of high yielding varieties of basmati rice provided
the impetus to KVK, Kathua to formulate and
design specialized farmers training programmes
to impart knowledge as well as skills involved in
the production of basmati rice. Besides this,
frontline demonstrations along with other
extension efforts were also planned and executed
to narrow down the time lag and ensured speedy
adoption of technologies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out in Hiranagar, Barnoti
and Kathua blocks of Kathua district of Jammu
and Kashmir. For the selection of respondents, a
list of basmati rice trainees of KVK during
preceding four years (2009 to 2012) was prepared.
Out of 205 trainees , only 75 farmers were
randomly selected from Hiranagar, Barnoti and
Kathua blocks with 25 farmers from each block.
The data were collected through personal contacts
with the help of well structured interview schedule.
The gathered data were processed, tabulated,
classified and analysed in terms of percentage with
a view to arrive at the findings in the fulfilment of
objectives of the study. Total thirteen practices
were selected as a criterion to evaluate the farmers
for the extent of knowledge gained and adoption
of basmati rice production technologies as a result
of the training programmes and frontline
demonstrations (FLD) conducted.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Gain in knowledge
It is assumed that the knowledge of a farmer
to a larger degree depends upon the extent of
exposure given to him about the technology. The
gain in knowledge by the respondents about the
improved package of practices of basmati rice was
measured in terms of percentage. The data towards
gain in knowledge about improved production
technologies for basmati rice were recorded under
two heads i.e. knowledge before training and
knowledge after training. Moreover, frontline
demonstrations laid out during the first year of
study (2009) had proved to be the most convincing
tool in further speedy adoption of variety Pusa
basmati 1121.
The data (Table 1) reveals that the beneficiary
farmers of the training programmes on improved
production technologies for basmati rice gained
highest knowledge about high yielding variety i.e.
Pusa basmati 1121 (86.6 %) followed by seed
treatment (73.3 %), time and method of harvesting
(59.0 %), weed management (58.7 %), nutrient
management (58.6 %), time of transplanting (53.3
%), method of transplanting (49.4 %), irrigation
scheduling (49.4 %), plant protection measures
(45.3 %), seed rate (40.0 %), time of sowing of
nursery (34.7 %), storage and marketing (32.0 %)
and land preparation (9.4 %). The findings of the
study also revealed that the respondents had
gained knowledge ranging from 9.4 per cent in
case of land preparation to 86.6 per cent in case
of high yielding variety after attending training
programmes. These findings were in
concomitance with Joseph (2008). This might be
due to the fact that the trainees got sensitized and
were convinced, and learned the skills, gained
knowledge, through training programmes about
improved production technologies for Pusa
basmati 1121. The contents and conduct of these
training programmes were designed and perceived
in a manner which could easily be understood by
the trainees and ultimately resulted into a
substantial gain in knowledge through work
experience.
Extent of adoption
The data presented in table 2 revealed that none
of the farmers were following the improved
practices viz., growing high yielding variety Pusa
basmati-1121, seed treatment, soil testing and time
and method of harvesting before acquiring training
whereas, after attending training programmes 86.6
per cent trainees adopted Pusa basmati-1121, 73.3
Singh et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
46
Table 1. Impact of training programmes on gain in knowledge of respondents.
Sr. No. Recommended technology Respondents having knowledge Gain in
Before training After training knowledge
1. Land preparation (puddling) 68 (90.6) 75 (100.0) 7 (9.4)
2. Seed treatment 00 (00.0) 55 (73.3) 55 (73.3)
3. High yielding variety (Pusa basmati-1121) 00 (00.0) 65 (86.6) 65 (86.6)
4. Time of sowing of nursery 25 (33.3) 51 (68.0) 26 (34.7)
5. Seed rate 20 (26.6) 50 (66.6) 30 (40.0)
6. Time of transplanting 15 (20.0) 55 (73.3) 40 (53.3)
7. Method of transplanting (spacing) 23 (30.6) 60 (80.0) 37 (49.4)
8. Irrigation scheduling 11 (14.6) 48 (64.0) 37 (49.4)
9. Nutrient management 12 (16.0) 56 (74.6) 44 (58.6)
10. Weed management 20 (26.6) 64 (85.3) 44 (58.7)
11. Plant protection measures 13 (17.3) 47 (62.6) 34 (45.3)
12. Time & method of harvesting 17 (22.6) 61 (81.3) 44 (59.0)
13. Storage and marketing 12 (16.0) 36 (48.0) 24 (32.0)
*Values in parentheses are in per cent
per cent seed treatment, 46.6 per cent soil testing
and 48.0 per cent adopted appropriate time and
method of harvesting. Such a higher level of
adoption in case of Pusa basmati 1121 coupled
with other improved practices had actually paved
the way for its wider spread at speedy rate. In case
of other technologies, only 65.3 per cent farmers
were practicing land preparation before attending
training programmes and the remaining 21.3 per
cent started after acquiring training programmes.
Regarding time of sowing of nursery, only 17.3
per cent farmers were sowing their nurseries at
appropriate time. As the farmers of district Kathua
were traditionally coarse rice growers and as such
they continued their practice of early nursery
sowing as was suited in case of coarse rice (15
th
to 20
th
May). However, after attending training
programmes, 65.3 per cent of the trainees started
sowing nursery for Pusa basmati 1121 at
appropriate time (5
th
to 10
th
June). Before
attending training programmes the farmers were
practicing other improved practices like seed rate
(12.0 %), time of transplanting (13.3 %), method
of transplanting (22.6 %), irrigation scheduling
(13.3 %), nutrient management (20.0 %), weed
management (17.3 %), plant protection measures
(12.0 %) and storage (14.6 %) at very low level.
Infact, after acquiring training, more number of
farmers started practicing improved practices like
seed rate (64.0 %), time of transplanting (65.3 %),
method of transplanting (73.3 %), irrigation
scheduling (60.0 %), nutrient management (68.0
%), weed management (62.6 %) and plant
protection measures (81.3 %) for Pusa basmati
1121. These findings were in agreement with
Patel et al. (2003). Only 33.3 per cent of the
farmers started safe storage of Pusa basmati 1121
produce. This was mainly due to the lack of storage
space available with the farmers as well as at the
village level, in most of the cases compelled the
farmers to sell their surplus produce immediately
after trashing and that too at throw away price.
After attending training programmes, the
farmers started adopting the production
technologies ranging from 18.7 per cent for
storage to 86.6 per cent for high yielding variety
i.e. Pusa basmati-1121. This might be due to the
fact that gain in knowledge, skills and confidence
level of farmers through training programmes on
different production technologies such as high
yielding variety (Pusa basmati-1121), seed
treatment, soil testing and time and method of
harvesting, seed rate, time of transplanting,
method of transplanting, irrigation scheduling,
nutrient management, weed management, plant
protection measures and storage etc. has helped
in improving the productivity of Pusa basmati
1121 and consequently its speedy adoption
among the farmers.
Impact of Frontline Demonstrations
The data (Table 3) revealed that there is
sizeable increase in the area from 3.0 ha in 2009
to 28.0 ha in 2012 under FLDs’ laid out on Pusa
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
Adoption of Basmati Growing Practices
47
Table 2. Change in adoption level of the respondents regarding basmati rice production technologies.
Sr. No. Recommended technology Respondents having knowledge Change in
Before training After training adoption level
1. Land preparation (puddling) 49 (65.3) 65 (86.6) 16 (21.3)
2. Seed treatment 00 (00.0) 55 (73.3) 55 (73.3)
3. High yielding variety (Pusa basmati-1121) 00 (00.0) 65 (86.6) 65 (86.6)
4. Time of sowing of nursery 13 (17.3) 49 (65.3) 36 (48.0)
5. Seed rate 9 (12.0) 48 (64.0) 39 (52.0)
6. Time of transplanting 10 (13.3) 49 (65.3) 39 (52.0)
7. Method of transplanting (spacing) 17 (22.6) 55 (73.3) 38 (51.0)
8. Irrigation scheduling 10 (13.3) 45 (60.0) 35 (46.7)
9. Soil testing 00 (00.0) 35 (46.6) 35 (46.6)
10. Nutrient management 15 (20.0) 51 (68.0) 36 (48.0)
11. Weed management 13 (17.3) 47 (62.6) 34 (45.3)
12. Plant protection measures 9 (12.0) 61 (81.3) 52 (69.3)
13. Time & method of harvesting 00 (00.0) 36 (48.0) 36 (48.0)
Storage 11 (14.6) 25 (33.3) 14 (18.7)
*Values in parentheses are in per cent
basmati 1121 by KVK, Kathua. In 2009 only four
farmers were covered under FLDs’ but in the
subsequent years their number rose to 43 till 2012.
This subsequent increase in area as well as farmers
coverage played a catalytic role in further
dissemination of Pusa basmati 1121 in Kathua
district. It was also revealed that there was
significant increase recorded in grain yield of Pusa
basmati 1121 which ranged from 27.6 per cent to
43.3 per cent over local check i.e. basmati 370.
This is in conformity with findings of Haque
(2000) and Sharma et al. (2011). Similarly, benefit
cost (B:C) ratio ranged between 2.76 to 3.52 under
demonstrations which was far less in case of local
check. These findings are in agreement with Tiwari
and Saxena (2001). The field performance of Pusa
basmati 1121 under FLDs’ strongly narrate its
superiority, in terms of per cent increase in yield
and B:C ratio over local check, among the other
farmers. This leads to the sharing of farm saved
seed of Pusa basmati 1121 among the farmers and
in other words to the speedy spread of Pusa
basmati 1121 in district Kathua.
CONCLUSION
Thus, it can be concluded that training
programmes backed by the field demonstrations
conducted by KVK, Kathua with the apparent
objective for popularization of Pusa basmati 1121
in the district have proved to be the most effective
and come up as an effective tool in the result
oriented speedy dissemination of knowledge and
technical skills to the farmers. Agricultural
extension activities has resulted in increase in area
under recommended variety Pusa basmati 1121
and other agronomic practices. Further efforts are
being made by way of organising different
extension activities for motivation of the farmers
for further popularization and adoption of Pusa
basmati 1121.
REFERENCES
Haque M S (2000). Impact of compact block demonstration on
increase in productivity of rice. Maharashtra J. Ext. Edu. 19
(1): 22-27.
Joseph R (2008). Impact of krishi vigyan Kendra training
programme on maize production. Evaluation capacity building
in rural resources management: A manual. Indian Agricultural
Table 3. Performance of frontline demonstrations on Pusa basmati 1121 laid by KVK, Kathua.
Year Area No. of Yield (q/ha) under demonstration Local % increase Net B:C
covered farmers check in grain returns Ratio
(ha) Highest Lowest Average (Basmati 370) yield (Rs/ha)
2009 3.0 04 32.88 29.75 31.50 24.50 28.57 36,866.0 2.86
2010 8.0 15 37.50 31.25 34.67 27.17 27.60 56,734.0 3.10
2011 30.0 33 42.00 30.00 26.48 24.04 52.10 51,939.0 2.76
2012 28.0 43 42.00 40.20 40.70 25.10 43.30 29,780.0 3.52
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
Singh et al
48
Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi.
Kumar A, Kumar R, Yadav V P S and Kumar R (2010). Impact
assessment of Frontline Demonstrations of Bajra in Haryana
State. Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 10 (1): 105-108.
Patel M M, Chatterjee A and Khan M (2003). Adoption of wheat
production technology. Indian J. Ext. Edu. XXXIX (1&2)
58-62.
Sharma P K, Khar S, Kumar S, Ishar A, Prakash S, Mahajan V.
and Jamwal S (2011). Economic impact of front line
demonstrations on cereals in Poonch district of Jammu &
Kashmir. J. Progressive Agri. 2(1):21-25
Tiwari K B and Saxena A (2001). Economic Analysis of FLD of
oil seeds in Chindwara. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika.
16 (3&4): 185-189.
Received on 02-04-2014 Accepted on 15-04-2014
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 44-48
Adoption of Basmati Growing Practices
49
INTRODUCTION
The success of any training programme
depends on periodic appraisal so that required
changes can be made to improve the efficiency
and effectiveness of the programmes. The concept
of training programmes on organic farming
through National Centre of Organic Farming
(NCOF)/Regional Centre of Organic Farming
(RCOF) grew well due to greater demand for
promotion of organic farming among field
functionaries. All extension officers are directly
or indirectly responsible for promotion of any
technology that is beneficial for the farming
community. These training programmes were
framed to impart latest knowledge to the extension
officers/ agricultural students through work
experiences by applying the principles of
“Teaching by doing and “Learning by doing”.
Organic farming is being adopted in more than
100 countries of the world. Adoption of organic
farming is gradually increasing and it is practiced
in nearly 100 countries (The Hindu , 2014). Due
to ill effect of various chemicals and pesticides
utilized in agriculture, there is change in mindset
Impact of Training Programme on Adoption of
Organic Farming Technology in Central Zone
A S Rajput, R P Singh , S Kumar and Ashish Jaiswal
Regional Center of Organic Farming, Nagpur -440 001 (Maharashtra)
ABSTRACT
National Centre of Organic Farming, Jabalpur is organizing various training programmes on
organic farming since last 15 years. The participants in such programmes are from state
government departments viz., Department of Agriculture, Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendras
and Non government Organizations (NGO) etc. During the year 2011-2013, more than 300
trainees have been trained by this institute. To study the impact of these training programmes
the data regarding gain in knowledge and adoption level about organic farming technology
before and after training were recorded. The finding of the study revealed that extension officers
had gained knowledge about organic farming technology ranging from 97.5 per cent for land
preparation to 45.0 per cent for seed treatment after acquiring training. Likewise, only 1.2 per
cent of extension officers knew about the soil treatment with punchgavya/jeevamrut, crop
rotation (15.0%), plant protection (45.0%) before training whereas after training they adopted
seed treatment with puncvhgavya (45.0%) crop rotation (60%) and plant protection by (95.0%).
The study also revealed that they were adopting the organic farming technologies ranging from
20.0 per cent to 48.0 per cent for storage and marketing after attending the training programme.
Key Words:-Training, Organic farming technology, Impact, Adoption
of not only producers but of consumers also.
Awakened consumers are now purchasing the
organic foods at premium prices. The organic
farming technology is gaining momentum across
the world. India has also developed National
Standards under National Programme for Organic
Production (NPOP) programme. The NCOF and
its six RCOF under Ministry of Agriculture are
promoting organic farming across the country and
providing various kind of assistance to organic
entrepreneurs, extension officers and farmers.
Keeping in view of an effective extension
approach of trainings for dissemination of
technology, it was thought to assess the impact of
training programmes organized by RCOF,
Jabalpur with the specific objective to find out
the extent of knowledge and adoption of organic
farming technology by the RCOF trainees.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Regional Centre of Organic Farming, Jabalpur,
is promoting organic farming as facilitator across
the central part of India and providing various
trainings with a view to ensure healthy food stuffs
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 49-52
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 49-52
*Corresponding Author’s Email: asrajput67@gmail.com
50
and attractive source of rural income generation.
For the selection of respondents, a list of RCOF,
Jabalpur during preceding three years (2011-12
to 2013-14) was prepared. Out of 360 participants,
80 extension officers were randomly selected
from RCOF Jabalpur training programmes. A
knowledge test was developed to study the
knowledge level of trainees before and after the
training programme. Knowledge test comprised
the statements regarding land preparation, seed
treatment, organic insect pest and disease control
measures, organic fertilizers and marketing etc.
Total twelve practices were selected to find out
the level of knowledge and extent of adoption of
organic farming technology. The data were
collected through personal discussions during
training programmes and after training
programmes with the help of well designed
interview schedule to study the gain in knowledge
and extent of adoption. The gathered data were
processed tabulated, classified and analyzed in
terms of percentage.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It was assumed that the knowledge of
extension officers depend upon the extent of
exposure given to them about the technology. The
data in relation to level of knowledge before and
after training were recorded on the basis of
different questions asked by the training
coordinator before and after training with
reference to different technological parameters of
organic farming viz., land preparation, seed
treatment, crop rotation, storage and market
development etc. Knowledge level of the
respondents were studied in relation to 12
practices of the organic farming technology, the
frequency and percentage of respondents having
correct knowledge before and after trainings were
calculated aspect-wise and are presented in Table
1. The data given in Table 1 depicts that the
beneficiary extension officers of the training
programmes gained knowledge about all the
aspects of organic farming. Maximum knowledge
gain was in case of seed treatment with culture/
cow urine where 73 participants (91.3 %) had
correct knowledge after completion of training
while before training only five (6.3 %) of the
participants had correct knowledge. Soil treatment
with punchgavya/jeevamrut was the aspect about
which none of the participant had correct
knowledge before the training while after training
90.0 per cent of the respondents had correct
knowledge. More than eighty percent of the
respondents had correct knowledge about 8
aspects of organic farming technology after the
trainings. More than 80 per cent (81.3 %)
respondents gained knowledge about organic
inputs (vermi-compost, city compost , rock
phosphate etc) followed by knowledge of
certification (70%) green manuring (57.5%) weed
management (52.5%), multi-cropping system
(55.0 %). The finding of the study also revealed
that they had gained knowledge ranging from 22.5
per cent in case of land preparation to 91.3 per
cent in case of seed treatment after training
Table 1. Impact of RCOF Jabalpur training programme about organic farming technology on gain in knowledge
of participants. (n = 80)
Sr. No. Technology Before Training After Training Gain in knowledge
1. Land Preparation 62 (77.5) 80(100.0) 18 (22.5 )
2. Soil treatment with punchgavya/jeevamrut 00 (00.0) 72 (90.0) 72 (90.0)
3. Seed treatment with culture / cow urine 05 (6.2 ) 78 (97.5 ) 73 (91.3)
4. Multi cropping system 25 (31.2) 69 (86.2) 44 (55.0)
5. Crop rotation 32 (40.0) 73 (91.2) 41 (51.2)
6. Use of Organic Inputs (Vermi-compost, 11 (13.7) 76 (95 .0) 65 (81.3)
city compost, Rock phosphate etc)
7. Green Manuring 32 (40.0) 78 (97.5 ) 46 (57.5)
8. Nutrient Management 14 (17.5 ) 48 (60.0) 34 (42.5)
9. Weed Management 18 (22.5 ) 60 (75 .0) 42 (52.5 )
10. Plant Protection Measures 16 (20.0) 47 ( 58.7) 31 (38.7)
11. Certification System 21 (26.2) 77 (96.2) 56 (70.0)
12. Storage & Marketing 13 (16.2) 36 (45 .0) 23 (28.8)
Figure in parentheses indicated percentage
Rajput et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 49-52
51
programnmes. These finding were similar with
Meena and Gupta (2013) who reported that the
knowledge levels were found to be increased for
land preparation, soil treatment, seed treatment,
high yielding variety, seed rate and spacing, plant
protection and storage and marketing of garlic
production technology after attending the training
programme by KVK(s). This may be due to the
fact that trainees were convinced through training
programme about importance of organic farming
technology by RCOF, Jabalpur which was
designed to import latest knowledge through
teaching and practical demonstrations in the
laboratories and through work experiences etc.
Extent of adoption
As per the data presented in Table 2, about
15 per cent of the respondents had adopted
organic practice of crop rotation, 10 participants
(12.5%) had adopted organic practice of soil
treatment while only five participants (6.2%) had
adopted the practice of seed treatment with culture
and cow urine. After attending training
programme 43.8 per cent of the respondents
adopted seed treatment and soil treatment practice
followed by crop rotation which was adopted by
45.0 per cent of the respondents. Seventy five per
cent of the respondents were already practicing
land preparation but after attending training
programmes 97.5 per cent of the respondents
practices land preparation practices recommended
in training programmes, thus there was adoption
extent to the tune of 21.5 per cent. Extent of
adoption in case of plant protection practices was
Table 2. Extent of adoption among of organic farming technology among trainees.
(n = 80)
Sr. No. Technology Before Training After Training Extent of adoption
1. Land Preparation 60 (75.0) 78 (97.5 ) 18 (21.5)
2. Soil treatment with jeevamruth 10 (12.5) 36 (45.0) 26 (32.5)
3 Seed treatment with culture / cow urine 05 (6.2) 40 (50.0) 35 (43.8)
4. Multi-cropping system 20 (25.0) 60 (75.0) 40 (50.0)
5. Crop rotation 12 (15 .0) 48 (60.0) 36 (45.0)
6. Use of Organic Inputs (Vermi-compost ) 25 (31.2) 65 (81.2) 40 (50.0)
7. Green Manuring 23 (28.7) 70 (87.5) 47 (58.8)
8. Nutrient Management 20 (25 .0) 60 (75 .0) 40 (50.0)
9. Weed Management 25 (31.2) 72 (90.0) 47 (58.8)
10. Plant Protection 36 (45.0) 76 (95.0) 40 (50.0)
11. Certification 35 (43.7) 50 (62.5) 15 (18.7)
12. Storage & Marketing 16 (20.0) 48 (60.0) 32 (40.0)
Figure in parentheses indicated percentage
50.0 per cent. Regarding use of organic inputs,
about one third (31.2 %) of the participants were
using organic inputs before attending trainings,
but after training programmes more than eighty
per cent (81.2 %) started using organic inputs in
their concerned area.
Maximum extent of adoption in terms of
number of trainees was in case of green manuring
(58.8%) and weed management (58.8%)
practices. One fourth (25.0%) of the participants
were following multi-cropping system and nutrient
management before attending training
programmes but after the training programmers
75.0 per cent of the trainees started following these
practices. Earlier only less than fifty per cent (43.7
%) of the participants were used to follow the
certification system but after the training 62.5
percent trainees adopted the procedure of
certification. Similarly, storage and market their
organic products major problem due to lack of
linkages with organic certification agencies and
organic entrepreneurs/ exporters etc but after
attending training programmes 60.0 percent after
trainees adopted proper marketing system.
The range of extent of adoption of organic
farming technology among extension officers was
from 18.7 per cent for certification to 58.8 per
cent for weed management and green manuring.
This might be due to the fact that increase in
knowledge, skills and confidence level of
extension officers through training programme
resulted in adoption of different aspect organic
farming practices viz., land preparation, soil
Adoption of Organic Farming Technology
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 49-52
52
treatment with punchgavya/ jeevamrut etc, seed
treatment with culture /cow urine, multi-cropping
system, crop rotation, use of organic inputs, green
manuring, plant protection, nutrient
management, certification and storage and
marketing etc.
CONCLUSION
The findings of the study revealed that trainees
had gained knowledge about organic farming
technology after attending training programmes
organized by RCOF, Jabalpur. The study also
showed that none of the extension officer were
knowing the soil treatment with punchgavya/
jeevamrut whereas after attending the training
programmes 72 participants (90.0%) gained
knowledge regarding this aspect and same number
(72) adopted soil treatment practices also. Thus,
it can be concluded that training programmes
conducted by RCOF is one of the important tool
for dissemination of knowledge and technical
skills to the extension officer of state government
and NGOs etc. As the extension workers are
directly responsible for promoting any technology
in their working, farmers are also indirectly
benefitted from these training programmes which
is evident from the increase in area under organic
farming in India.
REFERENCES
Meena R C and Gupta I N (2013). Impact of KVK Training
Programmes on Adoption of Garlic Production Technology.
J. Krishi Vigyan. 1 (2) ; 41-43.
The Hindu (2014) . ‘Organic farming gaining ground in India’
Coimbatore 23
rd
January 2014.
Received on 20-01-2014 Accepted on 15-03-2014
Rajput et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 49-52
53
INTRODUCTION
Bed planting of wheat is being followed by a
large number of farmers in Rampur district of Uttar
Pradesh as it helps in better irrigation and weed
management which leads to an increase in wheat
yield over traditionally sown wheat crop.
Therefore, intercropping in wheat raised on beds
offers a good scope for increasing the productivity
per unit area and income of the farmers. In bed
planting system, wheat seed is sown on raised beds
at 15 cm distance (three rows on 70cm beds ).
Mentha is coming up as a promising crop under
the irrigated conditions in district Rampur.
Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) is menthol rich
essential oil which is widely used in
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, flavour and
confectionary industries. In recent years, India has
become a major producer of Mentha arvensis L.
oil and menthol in the world and now its share is
around 85 per cent. Kosi is an early short duration
(90-100 d) variety of menthol mint and produces
higher oil content (0.8-1.0%) containing menthol
(81-83%). However, recently released variety
SimSaryu1 is of 100-110 d duration and contains
oil (0.8-0.9%). Mentha seems to have a good
Intercropping of Mentha (Mentha arvensis L.) in Bed
Planted Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Rampur
District of Uttar Pradesh.
A S Rathi, Ajay Kumar
1
, M K Mishra, Ravindra Kumar and Laxmi Kant
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rampur (Uttar Pradesh)
ABSTRACT
The present study was undertaken to compare the yield of bed planted wheat intercropped with
two varieties of Mentha arvensis. The field experiment was conducted at KVK farm and at 5
farmers’ field in the district. Four treatments were studied viz. T1,wheat crop sown with seed
drill. T2,wheat sown on raised bed. T3, wheat + mentha (variety Simsaryu1) on raised bed and
T4, wheat + mentha (variety kosi) on raised bed. The results revealed that bed planted wheat
resulted in 10.2 per cent higher grain yield over traditionally sown wheat crop with seed cum
fertilizer drill. Among the two mentha varieties, Simsaryu 1 resulted in higher herbage and oil
yield compared to Kosi variety. The B:C ratio of bed planted wheat was 2.14 and under
intercropping of wheat with mentha variety Simsaryu1 it was 2.84. Highest net return was also
recorded with intercropping of bed planted wheat with mentha variety SimSaryu1.
Key Words: Bed Planting, Wheat, Mentha, Kosi, SimSaryu 1
potential to become a substitute for summer paddy
as it is an economically profitable crop. However,
there is need to develop proper management
practices to ensure good production of oil.
Selection of variety is important factor influencing
productivity of mentha grown in between the
raised beds of wheat. Therefore, the present
investigation was carried out to assess the
performance of two mentha varieties grown as
intercrop with wheat crop sown on raised bed in
Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The field experiment was conducted at Farm
Science Centre (KVK) and five different locations
of farmers’ field in district Rampur during the year
2012-13. The experimental treatments
wereT1,normal wheat crop sown with seed drill.
T2,sole raised bed wheat. T3, raised bed wheat +
mentha (variety Simsaryu1) and T4,raised bed
wheat + mentha (variety Kosi). The soil of the
experimental field was sandy loam , pH 7.2 -
7.8, available nitrogen 150- 190 kg/ ha., available
Phosphorus 16-22 kg/ha., available Potassium
180-220 kg and organic carbon 0.48- 0.56 per
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 53-55
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 53-55
*Corresponding Author’s Email: rathindrakvk@gmail.com
1 SMS (Agronomy) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pithoragarh
54
cent. Wheat variety PBW 550 was sown in the
last week of November by bed planter (Three rows
on 70 cm bed) using seed rate @100 kg/ha. The
recommended dose of N:P:K was 160:60:40 kg./
ha. was applied. Zinc was also applied through
zinc sulphate @25 kg/ha. Nitrogen was applied
in three equal splits at sowing, tillering and after
harvesting wheat to mentha crop. One foliar
application of water soluble fertilizer (19:19:19)
was applied on both the crops. In wheat crop foliar
application was done at 45d after sowing whereas
in mentha, it was done 30 d after harvest of wheat
crop. After second irrigation (45 DAS) to wheat
crop, one row each of mentha variety Simsaryu1
and Kosi was sown between the raised beds with
sucker rate of 250 kg/ha., no additional fertilizer
was applied to mentha crop. Wheat crop was
harvested during last week of April and mentha
in the second fortnight of July. In order to control
weeds, Pendimethaline 30 EC @ 1.0 kg ai /ha was
applied within two days of wheat sowing. Under
farmers’ practice, sole mentha crop variety Kosi
was transplanted after harvesting of wheat crop
around 20 April and recommended dose of N:P:K
i.e. 120:60:40 kg/ha. was applied for mentha crop.
Oil content of mentha crop was extracted by steam
distillation meth ods using Clevenger’s type
essential oil apparatus. Grain yield of wheat and
herbage yield of Mentha were recorded and B:C
ratio was calculated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bed planting of wheat crop helped in better
irrigation of wheat crop. It also helped in better
weed management in both the crops. Bed planted
wheat recorded yield of 43 q/ha while wheat
grown with traditional method using seed drill
recorded yield of 39 q/ha (Table 1). Bed planting
of wheat gave 10.2 per cent higher grain yield
over traditional method probably due to
occurrence of better irrigation and weed
management.
Under farmers’ practice mentha crop was
transplanted after harvesting of wheat in the
second fortnight of April whereas for timely
transplanting of mentha suckers, a separate nursery
needs to be raised from January month. Therefore,
in bed planted wheat, early planting of mentha
was possible which resulted in higher herbage and
oil yield. Therefore, intercropping of wheat with
mentha variety Kosi resulted in 38 per cent higher
oil yield over farmers’ practice.
Under bed planting conditions, germination
of mentha crop was observed in January end and
very low vegetative growth of crop occurred till
March due to low temperature but after harvest of
wheat its vegetative growth increased. It was
noticed that there was less competition between
wheat and mentha crop due to the fact that less
vegetative growth took place in mentha till March.
The yield data showed that in bed planted wheat
intercropped with mentha gave lower grain yield
compared to sole bed planted wheat but the
additional income from mentha oil increased the
net return/ha. Among the varieties Simsaryu1 gave
higher herbage yield of 120.4q/ha which was 30
per cent higher over Kosi variety. The oil yield of
Simsaryu1 was 83 lt/ha and was 27.7 per cent
higher over Kosi variety.
ECONOMICS
Normal sown wheat recorded B:C ratio of
1.96, while bed planted wheat recorded B:C ratio
Table1. Performance of Mentha Varieties intercropped with Wheat on raised bed.
Treatment Grain Herbage Oil Cost of Gross Net B:C
yield yield yield cultivation return return
Wheat Mentha (kg/ha) (Rs/ha) (Rs) (Rs)
(q/ha) (q/ha)
Farmers’ Practice - 75.0 47.0 27,200 47,000 19,800 1.72
Normal sown Wheat 39.0 - - 25,100 49,196 24,096 1.96
Bed Planted Wheat 43.0 - - 28,100 60,200 32,100 2.14
Bed Planted Wheat + Mentha 39.0 120.40 83 48,300 1,37,600 89,300 2.84
(Simsaryu1)
Bed Planted Wheat + Mentha 39.0 90 65 48,300 1,19,600 71,300 2.47
(Kosi)
Rathi et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 53-55
55
of 2.14 (Table1). Among two mentha varieties
grown as intercrop Simsaryu1 gave higher B:C
ratio of 2.84. Under farmers’ practice where sole
mentha crop was raised after wheat harvesting,
B:C ratio was 1.72. and was lower as compared
to mentha variety Kosi grown under bed planted
condition. Similarly higher B:C ratio of mentha
cultivation was reported by Tuteja et.al. (2007).
REFERENCE
Randhawa G S, Satinder K, Kaur S and Craker L E (1995).
Optimization of harvesting time and row spacing for the quality
oil in Japanese mint variety. Acta Horti 426: 615-22.
Tuteja S S, R Lakpale, Singh A P and Tripathi R S (2007). Effect
of harvesting intervals on herbage, oil yield and economics of
different variety of Japanese mint ( Mentha arvensis). Indian
J. Agronomy 51(3):245-46
Received on 14-09-2013 Accepted on 17-04-2014
Intercropping of Mentha in Wheat
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 53-55
56
INTRODUCTION
Basmari rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation may
be one of the crop diversification options available
with the farmers of Punjab. A new variety of
basmati rice namely Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509 is
emerging as new economic pursuit for the farmers
who go for intensive cultivation as they prefer to
take three crops per year. Being a relatively recent
introduction of this variety in Punjab, adequate
information on the spacing aspects of this crop
are not locally available. The crop plants depend
largely on temperature, solar radiation, moisture
and soil fertility for their growth and nutritional
requirements. A thick population crop may have
limitations in the maximum availability of these
factors. However, farmers mostly maintained plant
population of 18-20 plants/m
2
due to the fact that
nursery is transplanted mainly by migrant labour
and due to peak transplanting season labour tries
to transplant maximum area in a day. So to
overcome the labour problem during peak
transplanting season, mechanical transplanting is
the one of the option with the farmers for timely
transplanting of basmati or paddy nursery in the
field for getting high yields. Simultaneously,
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana had
recommended a plant population of 33 plants/m
2
Performance of Different Plant Densities for Yield
and Yield Attributes of Basmati in the District
Kapurthala
Gurpreet Kaur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala-144620 ( Punjab)
ABSTRACT
A field study was conducted to see the effect of different plant densities for yield and yield
attributes of Basmati at Krishi Vigyan Kendra Farm, Kapurthala during Kharif 2013. The
experiment was laid out in randomised block design with three treatments viz; 18 plants/m
2
, 26
plants/m
2
and 33 plants/m
2
with five replications on loamy sand soils. Basmati rice when
transplanted with 18plants/m
2
gave significantly higher number of effective tillers/m
2
(16.7)
and significantly lesser unfilled grains per panicle (15.7). Lesser plant densities of 18 plants/m
2
also gave significantly higher grain yield (46.5 q/ha) and straw yields (61.3 q/ha) than the plant
densities of 26 plants/m
2
and 33 plants/m
2
. Highest harvest index was recorded with higher
plant densities of basmati rice.
Key Words: Basmati rice. Plant densities, Grain yield, Harvest Index
for getting better grain yields. In spite of best
efforts of all extension personnel farmers are
reluctant to maintain high plant population i.e. 33
plants/m
2
. Farmers are already getting higher grain
yields with lesser plant densities. The present study
was, therefore, undertaken with the objective to
assess the performance of Pusa Punjab Basmati
1509 under different plant densities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field study was conducted at Krishi Vigyan
Kendra Farm, Kapurthala during Kharif 2013. The
experiment was laid out in randomised block
design with three treatments viz; 18 plants/m
2
, 26
plants/m
2
and 33 plants/m
2
with five replications.
The soil of experimental field was loamy sand in
texture, low in available N, available P, available
K and organic carbon. Before sowing of nursery,
seeds were soaked for 24 hrs in water solution of
1g streptocycline + 20g bavistin per 8 kg. of seed.
After 24 hrs. of soaking, excess water was drained
out and seeds were kept in wetted jute bags for
next two days for sprouting to take place. Water
was sprinkled over the seeds as and when required
or jute bags dried. Seed of basmati variety Pusa
Punjab Basmati 1509 was sown on 10
th
of June,
2013 on prepared field and nursery was
*Corresponding Author’s Email: gurpreet-kpr@pau.edu
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 56-58
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 56-58
57
transplanted on 26
th
of July, 2013 at KVK, farm.
The recommended dose of fertilizers viz. 135 kg
Urea /ha, 67.5kg DAP/ha was used for raising the
crop. One spray of chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 l/ha. and
one spray of Tilt @ 500 ml./ha was applied at
panicle initiation stage for taking care of insect
pest and fungal diseases. The crop was harvested
on 1
st
of November, 2013 as per treatments. Data
pertaining to different yield attributes like plant
height, number of tillers/ hill, panicle length,
number of filled and unfilled grains/panicle, grain
and straw yield was recorded and statistically
analysed as per statistical methods of Cochran and
Cox (1966).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Yield attributes
The data (Table 1) indicated that wider spacing
had increasing effect on the performance of
individual plants. The plants grown with wider
spacing have more area of land around them to
draw the nutrition and had more solar radiation to
absorb for better photosynthetic process and
hence performed better as individual plants. The
data pertaining to different yield attributes of
basmati as affected by different plant population
revealed that number of effective tiller/hill, number
of spikelets/panicle, number of unfilled grains/
panicle, grain yield and biological yield
significantly affected with the varying plant
densities . Significantly higher number of effective
tillers/hill (16.7) were obtained in the treatment
where plant density was 18plants/m
2
followed by
26 plants/m
2
(13.0) were planted and significantly
lower number of effective tiller/hill (9.7) was
obtained in the higher plant density treatment i.e.
33 plants/m
2
. However, plant height at harvest,
panicle length, number of filled grains/panicle,
Table 1. Yield and yield attributes of Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509 as affected by different plant densities.
Treatments Plant No. of Panicle No. of No. of No. of Total 1000 Grain Harvest
height tillers/ length spikelets/ filled unfilled grains / grain yield Index
(cm) hill (cm) panicle grains/ grains/ panicle weight (q/ha) (%)
panicle panicle (g)
T
1
:18 plants/m
2
98.4 16.7 25.8 8.1 60.5 15.7 76.2 29.0 46.5 43.2
T
2
:26 plants/m
2
96.4 13.0 25.1 8.5 58.1 17.4 75.4 29.0 42.8 41.6
T
3
:33 plants/m
2
101.1 9.7 25.9 8.0 62.7 16.2 78.9 28.8 43.8 44.9
NS 2.3 NS 0.4 NS 1.0 NS NS 2.3 -
total grains/panicle and 1000 grain weight were
remained non significant with the changing plant
densities.
Grain and Straw yield
The treatment where plant density was
18plants/m
2
gave significantly higher grain yield
of basmati (46.5 q/ha) than the treatments where
plant density was 26 plants/m
2
and 33 plants/m
2.
.
Baloch et al (2002) also reported that the
performance of individual plant grown with wider
spacing was better as compared to the plant with
narrower spacing and concluded that the spacing
of 22.5 x 22.5 cm between hills and rows was
most suitable for obtaining optimum grain yield
in the rice crop. Highest straw yield (61.3 q/ha)
was recorded with lesser plant density of 18 plants/
m
2
and closely followed by 26 plants/m
2
but the
lowest straw yield was obtained with higher
number of plants per unit area i.e. 33 plants/m
2
(fig.1). However, maximum harvest index (44.9%)
was recorded with 33 plants/m
2
.Optimum plant
spacing influences the availability of sunlight and
nutrients for growth and development. Among the
different factors of rice productivity, desired
number of plant spacing per unit area is an
important one for getting higher yield (Soratto,
2004). Similar finding was also reported by Sohel
et al (2009) and Rao et al (1990) which might be
due to the fact that under wide spacing, plant get
more nutrients and moisture which eventually led
to the development of more grains as compared
to closer spacing. These results were also in
consistent with those of Ghosh et al (1988).
Sterility percentage was recorded highest in the
treatment where plant density was 26plants/m
2
where as treatments with 18plants/m
2
and
33plants/m
2
have recorded almost same sterility
percentage (fig. 2).
Gurpreet Kaur
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 56-58
58
CONCLUSION
It was concluded from the field experiment
that basmati rice when transplanted with 18 plants/
m
2
gave higher effective tillers/m
2
, grain and straw
yields and lesser unfilled grains/ panicle than the
plant densities of 26 plants/m
2
and 33 plants/m
2
.
Highest harvest index was recorded with higher
plant densities of basmati rice.
Fig.2: Effect of different plant densities on effective
tillers per hill and sterility (%)
Fig.1: Grain yield and straw yield as affected by
different plant densities
REFERENCES
Baloch W, Soomro A M, Javed, M A, Ahmed M, Bughio H R,
Bughio M S and Mastoi N N (2002). Optimum Plant Density
for High Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian J Plant Sciences
1(1): 25-27.
Cochran W G and Cox G M (1966). Experimental Designs. Ed.
John Willy and Sons. Inc New York.
Ghosh B C, Reddy M A, and Reddy B B (1988). Effect of seedling
density on growth and yield of transplanted rice. Central Rice
Res. Inst., Cuttack, Orissa, India. 21(1): 13-21.
Miah M H, Karim M A, Rahman M S and Islam M S (1990).
Performance of Nizersail mutants under row spacings.
Bangladesh J Training Dev. 2(2):31-34.
Rao K S, Moorhy B T S, and Manna G B (1990). Plant population
for higher productivity in Basmati type scented rice. Int. Rice.
Res. Notes (IRRN), 15(1): 25.
Sohel M A T, Siddique M A B, Asaduzzaman M, Alam M N and
Karim M M (2009). Varietal performance of transplant aman
rice under different hill densities. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res.
34(1) : 33-39.
Soratto, R P (2004) Nutrient exportation and grain quality of
upland rice as influenced by plant density and row spacing.
Agronomia. 36(1/2): 17-22.
Received on 22-03-2014 Accepted on 22-04-2014
Performance of Different Plant Densities of Basmati
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 56-58
59
INTRODUCTION
Piggery is the sector in the states of the North
Eastern (NE) India that directly indicates the
existence of deprivation among different strata of
population in the society and influences the socio-
economic status of the rural poor, more particularly
the tribal population of the country including the
downtrodden and socially weaker sections of the
society.
Although NE region provides ample scope for
piggery development because of the terrains
characterized by unevenness, turbulence in the
weather conditions and traditional involvement of
rural population in pig rearing. Their food habits
and absence of taboo against consumption of pork
and pork products also act as promoting factors.
Pigs serve as the primary source of meat in most
of the hilly areas but still farmers are facing many
difficulties.
The hilly terrain of Dima Hasao (erstwhile
N.C. Hills) district of Assam, India has difficult
agricultural practices in various areas due to
Problems Faced By Pig Farmers in Dima Hasao
District of Assam
Monosri Johari
1
, K K Saharia
2
, Leema Bora
3
, R Roychoudhury
4
, L Sanathoi Khuman
5
and Jupi Talukdar
6
Department of Extension Education
College of Veterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022 (Assam)
ABSTRACT
The pig farming in the hilly districts of North Eastern Region including Dima Hasao district of
Assam is a household traditional activity. It is also a dividend paying secondary source of
income. The study was conducted in the district among 100 pig farmers in two different blocks
namely Jatinga Valley Development Block and Diyungbra ITDP Block based on distance from
the headquarters and higher pig population. A pre-tested reliable and valid interview schedule
was used to get the responses. The study revealed that majority i.e. 78, 68 and 80 per cent of
the respondents in Block I, Block II and pooled sample were in medium category of perception
of problems relating to rearing of pigs. When specifically studied, it was revealed that high cost
of computed feed at 88 , 98 and 93 per cent and expensive nature of medicines and vaccines at
80 , 98 and 89 per cent in Block I, Block II and pooled sample were the major hindrance in pig
rearing. The present status demands scientific intervention from technical personnel of extension
agencies like KVKs.
Key Words: Pig farming, Problems, Socialtaboo, Training facility
*Corresponding Author’s: hazarkaonline@gmal.com
1 M.V.Sc. Student, 2 Professor,3 Assistant Professor, 4 Professor and Head, Department of Livestock Production and Management, 5
and 6 Ph.D. students
shortage of arable land with most of the people
living below the poverty line. Most of them
possess very limited cultivable agriculture land
to meet their requirements. Hence, the rearing of
animals is the major source of income for their
livelihood in addition to providing daily needed
hard cash on hand. As on today animal husbandry
in general and piggery in particular is an integral
part of almost every household in the hilly areas.
Of late, it was seen that those resorting to better
connections and smart marketing were reaping
more benefits than the actual rearers. Therefore,
a study was conducted to find out whether the
existing problems in pig rearing among the pig
farmers had to do anything with that disparity in
reaping benefits, which the rearers deserve.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was undertaken in two selected
blocks of Dima Hasao (the erstwhile North
Cachar) district of Assam during the month of
January to March, 2013. The blocks were
purposively selected in such a manner that both
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
60
had higher number of pigs, one block was nearest
to the district headquarters namely Jatinga Valley
Development Block and second block which was
located far off from the district headquarters
namely Diyungbra ITDP Block. From each
selected block, two villages were selected on the
basis of maximum number of pig rearers. Again
from each village a total of 25 pig farmers were
randomly selected for the present study making
the sample size 100. A structured interview
schedule was prepared in consultation with the
experts, professionals and experienced pig
farmers. Pre-testing was done to see the reliability
and validity of the interview schedule. The worked
out reliability coefficient was 0.93 and content
validation was ensured by consulting the experts,
experienced farmers and faculties serving in the
field, profession and the University respectively.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Problem normally means the extraneous
forces causing difficulty or completely hindering
the action and performances. For the present study
any difficulty that faced by the pig rearers in
rearing and marketing of pigs was considered as
“problem”. Table 1 showed that majority i.e. 78 ,
68 and 80 per cent of the respondents in Block I,
Block II and pooled sample were in medium
category of perception of problems relating to
rearing of pigs. By and large, this realization was
a serious matter. Although the pig farmers in the
area of the study were traditionally maintaining
the herds, they were definitely not very happy at
times. Rearing pigs traditionally and still
perceiving problems moderately definitely
indicated that there were some difficulties, which
need some intervention, negotiation or solutions.
Similar kind of finding was reported by
Zadeng (2012) in the state of Mizoram and
Hussain (2012) in Indo-Bang;ladesh Borders of
Assam. Table 1 further showed that there was
significant difference in mean values between the
respondents of the two block (t=2.98, P<0.01) with
Table 1. Distribution of respondents on the basis of problem.
Variable Block Mean SD Range Low Medium High ‘t’ value
Problem Block I 35.64 4.53 28-48 4 (8) 39 (78) 7 (14) 2.98**
Block II 33.22 3.57 25-40 6 (12) 34 (68) 10 (20)
Pooled 34.43 4.24 25-48 12 (12) 80 (80) 8 (8)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage.
regard to problems. The mean score of Block I
was more in comparison to Block II. This might
due to situational advantage of better realization
as they were more exposed to relatively more
open market and more cosmopolite societies,
which might have acted as eye opener. Against
it, although Block II was located near to the district
headquarters, it was in a relatively closed society
under land lock conditions. This finding was
similar to the expression made by Peak (2004)
and this certainly warranted that there should be
some statutory intervention for the betterment of
pig farmers.
Problems related to pig rearing
The above finding was not enough to indicate
the specific areas where actually the problems
existed. Therefore, in further analysis, Table 2
revealed that rearing of pig itself was the main
problem where 96 , 100 and 98 per cent agreed
in degreed to mostly degree in Block I, Block II
and pooled sample. This must have been because
of the fact that during the recent years, pig rearing
in the states of the North Eastern India had become
intensive activity due to the massive introduction
of crossbred or purebred pigs to the farms.
Actually before the introduction of such
breeds, although much profitable today, the pig
farmers were used to zero input – zero investment
method of rearing of local non descript pigs. So,
the farmers were yet to adopt or get adjusted to
the upcoming system of rearing pigs in their farms.
The similar kind of problem was also realized by
Shyam (2011) and Sarmah (2012).
Problems related to feed management for pig
rearing
High cost of computed feed was perceived as
problem most of time at 88 , 98 and 93 per cent
in the Block I, Block II and the pooled sample,
respectively. This was understandable if one
looked into the socio economic conditions of the
pig farmers in such localities and their food habits.
Johari et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
61
Table 2. Frequency distribution of respondents on the basis of their problems related to pig rearing.
Sr. Problem Block Perception of problem
No. Mostly Sometimes Occasionally
1. Rearing of pig Block I 48 (96) 2 (4) 0 (0)
Block II 50 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 98 (98) 2 (2) 0 (0)
2. Non-availability of high quality piglets Block I 30(60) 12 (24) 8 (16)
Block II 49 (98) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Pooled 79 (79) 13 (13) 8 (8)
3. Problem of arranging water on site Block I 10 (20) 24 (48) 16 (32)
Block II 34 (68) 7 (14) 9(18)
Pooled 44 (44) 31 (31) 25 (25)
4. Non-availability of land for expansion Block I 18 (36) 0 (0) 15 (30)
Block II 29 (58) 7 (14) 0 (0)
Pooled 47 (47) 7 (7) 15 (15)
5. Lack of good training facility Block I 15 (30) 11 (22) 5 (10)
Block II 0 (0) 8 (16) 1 (2)
Pooled 15 (15) 19 (19) 6 (6)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage.
The farmers were in the habit of somehow
making the two ends meet. As such purchasing
feed for pigs was a big problem; as they were not
in a position event to meet their daily
requirements. The same kind of expressions were
also made by several workers including Jakhmola
and Mishra (2000), Mishra and Pal (2003) and
Zadeng (2012).
Problems related to marketing
Although marketing of pigs was not major
problem but lack of proper market was perceived
as occasional problem by 38 per cent of the
respondents in Block I and 19 per cent in pooled
sample. Same response was obtained when
Table 3. Frequency distribution of respondents on the basis of problems related to feed management for pig.
Sr. Problem Block Perception of problem
No Mostly Sometimes Occasionally
1. Non availability of good feed at low cost Block I 41 (82) 6 (12) 3 (6)
Block II 37 (74) 8 (16) 5 (10)
Pooled 78 (78) 14 (14) 8 (8)
2. Local ingredients do not make balance feed Block I 32 (64) 14 (28) 4 (8)
Block II 49 (98) 8 (16) 0 (0)
Pooled 81 (81) 22 (22) 4 (4)
3. Lack of nearby sources of feed Block I 32 (64) 4 (8) 12 (24)
Block II 42 (84) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Pooled 74 (74) 5 (5) 12 (12)
4. High cost of computed feed Block I 44 (88) 2 (4) 4 (8)
Block II 49 (98) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 93 (93) 2 (2) 4 (4)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage
respondents were asked about lack of organized
market. Transportation for marketing was
problem for 30 per cent of the respondents in
Block I while in Block II transportation was not
perceived as problem. Nexus among vendors was
perceived as problem sometimes by about fifty
per cent (48%) of the respondents. Huge market
commission, false weighing and dogged
payments were also major problems.
Problems related to disease control for pig
rearing
Expensive nature of medicines and vaccines
was also realized as major problem by the
respondents at 80, 98 and 89 per cent in Block I,
Problems of Pig Farmers in Assam
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
62
Table 4. Frequency distribution of respondents on the basis of problems related to marketing.
Sr. Problem Block Perception about problem
No Mostly Sometimes Occasionally
1. Problem in marketing Block I 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (40)
Block II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (20)
2. Lack of proper market place Block I 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (38)
Block II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (19)
3. Lack of organized market Block I 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (38)
Block II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (19)
4. Transportation problem Block I 4 (8) 1 (2) 15 (30)
Block II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 4 (4) 1 (1) 15 (15)
5. Market operators demand huge commissions Block I 5 (10) 12 (24) 20 (40)
Block II 2 (4) 13 (26) 1 (2)
Pooled 7 (7) 25 (25) 21 (21)
6. Marketing of pigs and pork is in the whims Block I 0 (0) 28 (56) 10 (20)
of regular marketers only Block II 0 (0) 35 (70) 8 (16)
Pooled 0 (0) 63 (63) 18 (18)
7 Payments are mostly dogged by the Block I 5 (10) 38 (76) 3 (6)
marketers Block II 0 (0) 23 (46) 5 (10)
Pooled 5 (5) 61 (61) 8 (8)
8 There is problem of false weighing Block I 0 (0) 4 (8) 14 (28)
by vendors Block II 0 (0) 10 (10) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 14 (14) 14(14)
9 Vendors have a nexus of network to Block I 0 (0) 37 (74) 2 (4)
exploit producers Block II 0 (0) 11 (22) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 48 (48) 2 (2)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage
Block II and pooled sample (Table 4). The finding
might have been the result of same condition and
same perception of the farmers. Their low
economic status somehow did not allow them to
spend generously for the treatment and
vaccination of the animals, although they
somehow did it.
Social problems in pig rearing
Apart from already discussed problems social
unrest and social taboo on pig rearing are also the
hindrance in the success of pig rearing. Nearly
seventy percent (67%) respondents of pooled
sample had the perception that social unrest was
mostly the problem in pig rearing.
Johari et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
Table 5. Frequency distribution of respondents on the basis of problems releatd to disease control in pig .
Sr. Problem Block Perception of problem
No Mostly Sometimes Occasionally
1. Lack of easy approach to veterinarians Block I 7 (14) 12 (24) 9 (18)
Block II 2 (4) 17 (34) 0 (0)
Pooled 9 (9) 29 (29) 9 (9)
2. Medicines and vaccines are costly Block I 40 (80) 0 (0) 10 (20)
Block II 49 (98) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Pooled 89 (89) 1 (1) 10 (10)
3. Technical (veterinary) services are not Block I 7 (14) 13(26) 0 (0)
available at the time of urgency Block II 0 (0) 11 (22) 11 (22)
Pooled 7 (7) 24 (24) 11 (11)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage
63
These results of the study were in line with
those found by Midau et al. (2011) who reported
that the growth of smallholder pig production was
adversely affected by high cost of feed, medicines,
religious believe and inadequate capital.
CONCLUSION
The pig rearers in the hilly terrains of the North
Eastern Region in India in general and Dima Hasao
district of Assam in particular is a traditional are
facing many problems. The difference in
realization of problems on one hand and the
location specific problems on the other hand
warranted some support, intervention and
guidance from development organizations like
KVKs. There is a need to address the technical as
well as managerial problems related to pig
farming.
REFERENCES
Hussain L (2012). Animal Husbandry Patterns among Farmers
of Indo-Bangladesh International Border Areas of Assam, an
MVSc thesis submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Science,
Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam
Jakhmola R C and Mishra R K (2000). Feeding Strategies using
Unconventional Feeds. Proc III Biannual Conference, ANA
on Livestock Feeding in New Millennium, held at HAU, Hisar,
Haryana.
Mc Pean (2004). Contrasting Income Shocks with Asset Stocks
: livestock Sales in Northern Kenya, Oxford Econ. Papers
56(2),263-284.
Midau A, Augustine C, Mojaba D I, Fintan J S, Addass P A
and Iliyasu A H (2011). The effect of pig rearers personnal
characteristics and some constraints on small holder pig
production in Mubi zone of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Global
J. Sci. Frontier Res., 11;
Mishra R K and Pal P K (2003). Prospects and Constraints of
Dairyin in Rural Bengal, A case study. Indian Dairymen,
55(2), 55-59
Shyam J (2011). A study of the Entrepreneurial Behaviour of
Pig Farmers in Kamrup District of Assam, an MVSc thesis
submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Science, Assam
Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam
Sarmah D (2012). Popularity of Swine Breed and their Marketing
Patterns in Selected Districts of Assam, an MVSc thesis
submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Science, Assam
Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam
Zadeng L (2012). Pig Rearing By Above Povety Line Families In
Mizoram M.V.Sc. thesis, A.A.U., Guwahati.
Received on 14-12-2013 Accepted on 30-03-2014
Table 6. Frequency distribution of respondents on the basis of social problems in pig rearing.
Sr. Problem Block Perception of problem
No Mostly Sometimes Occasionally
1 Social taboo Block I 0 (0) 1 (2) 16 (32)
Block II 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Pooled 0 (0) 2 (2) 16 (16)
2 Social unrest Block I 18 (36) 16 (32) 15 (30)
Block II 49 (98) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pooled 67 (67) 16 (16) 15 (15)
Figures in the parenthesis indicate percentage
Problems of Pig Farmers in Assam
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 59-63
64
INTRODUCTION
The Protray nursery is an upcoming technique
for quality vegetable seedling production, where
seedlings are produced under shade net and such
seedlings have better germination, appears healthy
and are protected from pest and diseases and build
up well developed root system within 25-30 days.
The benefits of protray nursery includes
production of pest free quality seedlings, having
independent area for each seed, improved seed
germination, better root development, minimized
seedling mortality and damping off disease,
provides uniform, healthy and early maturity, easy
handling and cheaper transportation and good
main field establishment and crop stand. Since the
hybrid seeds are expensive, this method helps to
reduce cost by minimizing the seed wastage.
In Namakkal District, most of the vegetable
cultivating farmers purchase the seedlings from
local vendors and few farmers produce the
seedlings on flat beds. Some of the farmers raise
the seedlings on raised nursery bed having
dimensions 12 ft. x 3 ft. x 15 cm. Total 15 to 18
beds are required to produce seedlings for
transplanting in one ha. area. By this technology,
the farmers attain only 60-70 per cent germination
where the seedlings are usually age old, infested
by insect, pest and diseases having damaged root
portion. This results in mortality when seedlings
Raising of Hybrid Vegetable Seedlings under
Protrays
Sharmila Bharathi C, B Mohan and S Alagudurai
Krishi Vigyan Kendra
Veterinary College and Research Institute Campus,
Namakkal 637 002 ( Tamil Nadu)
ABSTRACT
The growing of vegetable seedlings under protray is gaining importance for the production
of pest free healthy seedlings. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Namakkal has initiated the production of
hybrid vegetable seedlings during 2007 where seedlings were raised under fifty per cent shade
net. The side portion of the shade net area was covered with sixteen mesh white net to prevent
the entry of sucking pest. Nearly seven lakh seedlings were supplied to the farmers in the
district and the technology was disseminated through training programmes and demonstrations.
Through this intervention, area under hybrid vegetables cultivation increased up to 400 ha.
Key Words: Shade net, Protrays, Hybrid vegetable seedlings.
are planted in the main field resulting in the low
yield. By keeping in view, the high incidence of
mortality of seedlings (10-15%) on raised nursery
bed, KVK, Namakkal planned to start the protray
nursery unit to reduce the seedling mortality,
producing elite healthy seedlings and supplying
the same to the farming community (Anon,2003).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Construction of protray nursery
10 ft high stone pillars or G.I pipes were used.
The stone pillar was placed at an interval of 10 ft.
with a depth of 2 ft. The height of the portray unit
was maintained up to 8 ft. Rubber tubes were
used to cover the top portion of the stone pillar
before shadenet covering to prevent the damage
to the shade net. The entire unit was covered with
50 per cent shade net and interior of the side
portion was lined with 16 mesh white net. 98
celled protrays (50 cm x 20 cm x 4 cm) were used
for raising seedling of tomato, chillies and brinjal.
Rooting media
Well sterilized and decomposed coco peat was
used as a rooting media, which prevented
damping off disease in the nursery and also
possessed high water holding capacity and good
texture, improved air circulation, encouraged seed
germination and root growth.
* Corresponding Author’s Email: namakkalkvk@gmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
65
Shade net
One hundred and fifty sq.m of 50 per cent
green colour shade net was required to cover one
per cent Protray nursery. These are ideal for the
production of vegetable seedlings as they are
comparatively more economical and feasible. It
protected the seedlings from radiation,
temperature, wind, rain and sucking pest viz.,
thrips, mite, aphid and white fly.
Procedure for raising hybrid vegetable seedlings
First the protrays for raising seedlings were
disinfected by dipping in copper fungicide
solution prepared by mixing 3 g chemical per liter
of water. Protrays were filled with rooting media
coco peat @ 1.25 – 1.5 kg of coco peat per tray.
Small depressions were made in the centre of each
cell in the protray and one seed per cell was sown
and covered with same media. 10 trays one over
the other was kept and covered with a plastic sheet
and left for about 3- 4 days. This helped in
increasing temperature of media, maintained the
humidity level and also enhanced the seed
germination. Raised beds were prepared having
110 cm width, 15 cm height and convenient length
with slope on both the side. 2 ft space was left for
watering. The beds were then mulched with black
or blue colored plastic sheet which avoided the
penetration of seedling roots in to the soil. The
trays were arranged 5 days after sowing (DAS) in
double row over mulched beds and watered once
in a day. The seedling growth was encouraged
by foliar application of water soluble fertilizers
19:19:19 @ 3 g/ lt on 12 and 20 DAS. Watering
was stopped 2 days prior to sales, this practice
helped in hardening the seedlings. The seedlings
were ready for selling in 25 to 30 days .
Protection during rainy season
During rainy season, the rain protection was
Fig.-1: Protrays filled with coco peat Fig.-2: Seeds sown on protrays
Fig.-3: Protrays with seed Fig.-4: 10 trays kept one over other for 5 days
Sharmila Bharathi et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
66
Fig.-5: Germinated seedlings Fig.-6: Protection during rainy period
made over the growing beds used to keep trays.
Over the beds, low tunnel structures made up of
bamboo sticks of 1.5 inch diameter were placed
and covered with white poly sheet. KVK,
Namakkal produced seedlings of hybrid tomato
(Lakshmi and Padmavathi), hybrid chillies (Indra
and Priyanka) and hybrid brinjal (Mohini) from
2007 to till date (2014). The observations were
recorded during the growing stage.
Fig.-7: Seedlings sent for sale Fig.-8: Watering stopped 2 days prior to sale for
seedling hardening
Table 1. Germination percentage and leaf development stage of hybrid tomato Lakshmi.
S. No Date No. of seedlings germinated Germination Leaf development stage
per Protray % Protray
1. 7 DAS 78.7 80.3 First pair of leaves
2. 8 DAS 86.9 88.6 Second pair of leaves
3. 9 DAS 88.7 90.5 Third pair of leaves
4. 11 DAS - - Fourth pair of leaves
5. 13 DAS - - Fifth pair of leaves.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In hybrid tomato, maximum germination
percentage of 90.5 was recorded at 9 DAS under
Namakkal condition (Table 1). The seedling
attained 10.6 cm height at 27 DAS (Table 2).
Maximum germination percentage of 97.4 %
was noticed in hybrid chilly seedlings (Indra)
during 10 DAS. An average of 96 seedlings
germinated / protray and recorded 16.2 cm height,
Raising of Hybrid Vegetable Seedlings
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
67
Fig.-9: One month old tomato seedlings Fig.10: One month old chilli seedlings
Table 2. Height of hybrid tomato Lakshmi seedlings (cm).
Sr. Days Average Morning 9 AM Mid day 1 PM Evening 4 PM
No height of the Humidity Temp. Humidity Temp. Humidity Temp.
seedling (cm) (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C )
1. 7 DAS 2.9 49 34.6 40.0 36.4 46 33.9
2. 8 DAS 3.5 43 36.8 39.0 37.3 52 31.9
3. 9 DAS 3.8 62 30.2 39.0 37.5 45 36.5
4. 10 DAS 5.8 42 32.3 39.1 37.4 48 30.1
5. 13 DAS 5.9 56 30.0 40.0 35.2 41 35.0
6. 15 DAS 6.9 56 31.5 39.0 37.5 48 33.8
7. 16 DAS 7.3 51 33.8 44.0 34.8 38 36.0
8. 17 DAS 7.6 52 32.0 57.0 31.1 59 30.8
9. 18 DAS 8.1 53 30.0 46.0 33.9 52 32.6
10. 19 DAS 8.5 73 29.2 36.0 38.2 70 27.4
11. 20 DAS 8.7 72 30.5 44.0 34.8 60 28.3
12. 21 DAS 8.7 38 36.3 39.0 37.5 39 35.7
13. 22 DAS 8.9 45 36.5 40.0 35.2 38 36.7
14. 23 DAS 9.2 56 31.5 39.0 37.5 48 33.8
15. 24 DAS 9.5 56 30.0 39.0 37.3 41 35.0
16. 25 DAS 9.6 42 32.3 40.0 36.4 48 30.0
17. 26 DAS 10.1 62 30.2 42.0 34.3 45 36.5
18. 27 DAS 10.6 43 36.8 42.0 34.1 52 31.9
Table 3. Germination percentage of hybrid tomato Padmavathi.
Sr. Days No. of Germination Morning 9 AM Mid day 1PM Evening 4 PM
No seeds %
germinated / Humidity Temp. Humidity Temp. Humidity Temp.
Protray (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C )
1. 7 DAS 92.0 93.8 45 36.5 36 38.2 38 36.7
2. 8 DAS 93.0 94.8 56 31.5 44 34.8 48 33.8
3. 9 DAS 93.2 95.1 56 30.0 39 37.5 41 35.0
Sharmila Bharathi et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
68
Table 4. Height of hybrid tomato Padmavathi seedlings (cm).
Sr. Days Average Morning 9 AM Mid day 1PM Evening 4 PM
No Height of the Humidity Temp. Humidity Temp Humidity Temp.
seedling (cm) (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C ) (%) (
0
C )
1. 8 DAS 4.1 56 31.5 44 34.8 48 33.8
2. 9 DAS 4.3 56 30.0 39 37.5 41 35.0
3. 10 DAS 4.7 42 32.3 40 35.2 48 30.1
4. 11 DAS 5.3 62 30.2 39 37.5 45 36.5
5. 14 DAS 5.5 43 36.8 39 37.3 52 31.9
6. 15 DAS 6.5 49 34.6 40 36.4 46 33.9
Table 6. Germination and Growth parameters of hybrid brinjal Mohini seedlings (cm).
Sr. Days No.of Germi nation Height Morning 9 AM Mid day 1PM Evening 4 PM
No seedlings % of the
germinated seedling Humidity Temp Humidity Temp Humidity Temp
(cm) %
0
C %
0
C %
0
C
1. 8 DAS 89.0 90 2.1 49 34.6 40 36.4 46 33.9
2. 9DAS 90.8 92 2.3 43 36.8 44 35.1 48 33.8
3. 10 DAS 95.4 96 2.8 42 32.3 44 34.8 45 36.5
Table 5. Germination and growth parameters of hybrid chilly Indra seedlings (cm).
Sr. Days No .of Germi Height Morning 9 AM Mid day 1PM Evening 4 PM
No seedlings nation of the
germinated % seedling Humidity Temp Humidity Temp Humidity Temp
(cm) %
0
C %
0
C %
0
C
1. 8 DAS 92.7 94.5 1.32 49 34.6 40 36.4 46 33.9
2. 9DAS 94.5 95.0 1.60 43 36.8 44 35.1 48 33.8
3. 10 DAS 96.2 97.4 2.72 42 32.3 44 34.8 45 36.5
4. 11 DAS - - 4.74 51 34.3 39 37.5 46 33.9
5. 12 DAS - - 4.81 56 31.5 40 35.2 52 31.9
6. 17 DAS - - 6.50 38 36.3 40 36.4 52 32.6
7. 30 DAS - - 16.2 43 36.8 39 37.5 52 31.9
7-9 leaves and 38 - 43 fibrous root on 30 DAS
(Table 5). In hybrid Brinjal, 10 DAS, 95.4 per
cent of seedlings germinated (Table 6).
CONCLUSION
Farmers had accepted the benefit of raising
nursery in protrays rather than on nursery bed.
Because of better establishment of seedlings,
farmers felt that gap filling is much minimized as
protray seedlings established well and also came
to yield early.
Raising of Hybrid Vegetable Seedlings
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 64-68
REFERENCES
Anonymous (2003). Report of ICAR Adhoc scheme on
mechanization of nursery raising and transplanting operations
for vegetable crops. IIHR, Bangalore.
Received on 18-11-2013 Accepted on 02-04-2014
69
Socio Economic Profile of Successful Beekeepers and
Profitability of Bee Keeping in Muktsar District of
Punjab
Karamjit Sharma and N S Dhaliwal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Muktsar (Punjab)
ABSTRACT
The main feature of bee-keeping enterprise is low capital investment and quick and high
returns. Since 2006, more than one hundred rural youths have been trained in bee-keeping
enterprise through seven vocational training courses conducted by KVK, Muktsar. Out of total
120 trainees, 28 trainees were continuing the bee-keeping enterprise with great success. Present
case study was conducted to know the impact of bee-keeping enterprise on the income of 28
successful bee-keepers. Findings of the study revealed that bee-keepers were in the age group
of 26-42 yrs of age. Majority of them (35.7 %) were having education up to middle followed by
matriculation (32.1%). Four bee-keepers (14.3%) were landless, more than half (53.6%) of
these bee-keepers were small and marginal farmers and nine (32.1%) were medium farmers. It
was found that 16 bee-keepers (57.1%) were having small scale of enterprise (10-50 colonies),
while five (17.9%) were having medium scale of enterprise (51-100 colonies) and 7(25.0%)
were having large scale of enterprise (>100 colonies). The average income range in small scale
of enterprise varied from 0.20 to1.28 lac. In medium scale of bee-keeping enterprise, average
income varied between1.30 to1.92 lac. It was found that seven farmers were having more than
one hundred bee colonies (up to 350 bee colonies) and their average income varied from 1.95
to 6.20 lac per annum. The bee-keepers were earning income from the sale of honey, bee
colonies and bee wax.
Key Words: Bee-keeping, Enterprise, Impact, Economics.
INTRODUCTION
The profession of bee-keeping offers an
immense potential for providing employment to
rural masses in India where many crops,
vegetables, evergreen trees, forests etc. provide
required flora. The distinctive feature of bee-
keeping is the small capital investment required
as compared to other industries. Furthermore, it
does not need raw material in usual sense as nature
provides the same in the form of nectar and pollen.
It can be carried out by all age groups, i.e. by
men, women, grown- up children and even by
physically handicapped and retired person. It
produces honey, beeswax, pollen, propolis from
the flowers which can be sold out to earn income.
If conditions are favourable, level of bee-keeping
can be increased to semi-commercial or
commercial level.
According to Singh (2000), Monga and
Manoch (2011) honeybees increase agricultural
productivity to the tune of 30–80 per cent
annually through cross-pollination. The Apis
mellifera species has been established in the
Punjab state for commercial bee-keeping.
Favourable climatic conditions, flora, trainings and
extension, pest and disease control and marketing
of honey have helped in expanding the enterprise
since its start in 1960s. Punjab is having the largest
number of (2,50,000) colonies. There are 25,000
bee-keepers in Punjab and honey production is
10,000 MT which is about 30 per cent of country’s
total honey production. Although, Punjab is the
leading state in India in honey production, still
there is lot of scope for expanding this enterprise,
as there is sufficient area under agriculture crops
and wild flora, which can support 1.2 million
colonies (Dhaliwal and Singh ,2011).
Krishi Vigyan Kendras are training institutes
*Corresponding Author’s Email: sharma_karamjit@rediffmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
70
which are providing vocational trainings on bee-
keeping for generating employment among
unemployed rural youth. However, for the
effective popularization of apiculture in the
farming communities, it was necessary to identify
the socio-economic profile of successful bee-
keepers and the cost and return of bee-keeping to
understand the profitability of the bee-keeping
enterprise. This type of investigation was also
important in context of policy making regarding
bee-keeping. Therefore, the present study was
undertaken with the objective to study the socio-
economic profile of the successful bee-keepers
and the economics of bee-keeping enterprise in
the district Muktsar.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Present investigation was conducted in
Muktsar district of Punjab during the year 2013.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Muktsar conducted total
seven training courses on bee-keeping enterprise
during the years 2006-12. Total 120 farmers were
trained in these courses. Out of these 120 trainees,
28 continuous adopters of bee-keeping were
selected for the present study. Three categories
of these selected bee keepers were prepared on
the basis of number of colonies i.e. 10-50 (small
scale enterprise), 51-100 (medium scale enterprise)
and more than 100 colonies (large scale
enterprise). An interview schedule was developed
to collect the data regarding socio-economic
profile of the respondents and economics of bee-
keeping enterprise. Data were collected from all
the 28 successful bee-keepers using interview
schedule. The data were collected by conducting
personal interviews with the selected respondents.
The data from individual farmer was arranged from
the lowest to the highest, based on number of
colonies. The data collected from the respondents
were tabulated and analysed by using frequency
and percentage. The socio economic profile of
the trainees was studied in terms of age, education,
category, caste, land holding, extension contact
and occupation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Socio-economic profile of the respondents
It was found that majority of the successful
bee-keepers were in young age group (67.8%) and
remaining (32.2%) were in the middle age group
(Table 1). This shows that bee-keeping enterprise
can be successfully promoted in rural areas for
creating self- employment among rural youth and
also practising farmers. These results were in line
with the findings of the Moniruzzaman and
Rahman (2009).
Table 1. Socio-economic profile of the respondents . n=28
Sr. No. Particulars Category Score range Numbers Percentage
1. Age Young 21-35 19 67.8
Middle 36-50 09 32.2
2. Education Middle - 10 35.7
Metric - 09 32.1
10+2 - 08 28.6
Graduation - 01 03.6
3. Caste General - 23 82.1
SC - 02 07.2
BC - 03 10.7
4. Extension Contact Low 0-16 07 25.0
Medium 17-32 09 32.1
High 33-48 12 42.9
5. Land holding Landless 0 04 14.3
Marginal <1.0 ha 05 17.9
Small 1.0 to 2.0 ha 10 35.7
Medium 2.0 ha to 10 ha 09 32.1
6. Occupational status Farming - 21 75.0
Service - 2 07.1
Only Bee keeping - 5 17.9
Sharma and Dhaliwal
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
71
More than two third (67.8) of the bee-keepers
were having education up to metric level, whereas,
28.6 per cent of respondents were having
education up to higher secondary. Only 3.6 per
cent of the respondents were having education
up to graduation level. These results were in
accordance with the study conducted by Lal et al
( 2012). This again supports the idea that in rural
areas where youth does not have requisite
education for gaining employment can be
engaged in the bee-keeping enterprise.
Data (Table 1) revealed that great majority of
the respondents (82.1%) were from general
category background while small proportion
(10.7%) from backward category. The number of
successful bee-keepers from schedule caste
category was only 7.2 per cent. This may be due
to the less participation of the backward and
schedule caste category trainees in the training
programmes on bee-keeping. This implies that
while selecting the trainees, special emphasis
should be on selecting the trainees from backward
and schedule caste category.
It was observed that the bee-keepers were in
constant touch with the experts of the KVK for
gaining recent knowledge regarding bee-keeping.
About forty three per cent (42.9%) of the
respondents were having high extension contact
with KVK scientists and Department of
Horticulture officials. About one third (32.1 %)
were having medium level of extension contact
while one fourth (25.0%) were having low
extension contact with the experts. There is need
to improve the contact with experts for enhancing
the profitability in bee-keeping.
More than one third (35.7%) of bee-keepers
were small category farmers having land holding
less than 2 ha., while 32.1 per cent were medium
category farmers. The successful bee-keepers
were also from marginal category (17.9%) and
14.3 per cent were landless. This indicates that
the economic status of the landless, marginal and
small farmers can be improved by motivating them
to adopt bee-keeping enterprise as main profession
or as subsidiary occupation with the agriculture.
Results showed that 75.0 per cent of the bee-
keepers were having farming as major occupation
along with bee keeping, about 18 per cent had
adopted bee keeping as main occupation. About
7.0 per cent of the bee-keepers were from the
service cadre. The results depicted that majority
of the bee-keepers had farming background and
they took the bee-keeping as subsidiary
occupation due to availability of bee flora around
their fields and positive outcome of bee-keeping
on crop yields.
Table 2. Average net returns per year for individual beekeeper in small scale bee-keeping enterprise (10-50
colonies). n=16
Respondents No. of Average Average Gross returns Cost Net Return
colonies honey produced sale rate (Rs) (Rs) (Rs)
(Kg)/per colony (Rs.)
n
1
10 37 80 29,600 9,600 20,000
n
2
10 35 90 31,500 10,400 21,100
n
3
10 20 170 34,000 10,450 23,550
n
4
10 24 150 36,000 11,200 24,800
n
5
15 38 85 48,450 18,600 29,850
n
6
15 37 88 48,840 18,500 30,340
n
7
25 36 78 70,200 25,380 44,820
n
8
30 33 78 77,220 24,550 52,670
n
9
30 32 78 74,880 25,430 49,450
n
10
35 27 76 71,820 22,570 49,250
n
11
35 28 76 74,480 25,490 48,990
n
12
35 27 80 75,600 23,100 52,500
n
13
50 36 76 1,36,800 59,900 76,900
n
14
50 35 78 1,36,500 57,460 79,040
n
15
50 32 80 1,28,000 55,900 72,100
n
16
50 46 80 1,84,000 56,000 1,28,000
Average 28.7 32.79 90.2 78,618.13 28,408.13 50,210
Socio Economic Profile of Bee Keepers
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
72
Economics of bee-keeping enterprise
Bee-keepers got income from sale of honey,
wax and pollen. Major expenditure was initial cost
on the purchase of bee boxes, colonies, honey
extracting machine, gloves, veil and other tools.
While calculating cost, all fixed and variable costs
were included in the study. The details of the total
cost and gross returns of different bee-keepers
based on the information collected from individual
bee-keepers have been calculated. The net returns
were calculated by subtracting total cost from
gross returns.
Small scale bee-keeping enterprise
From the perusal of data given in Table 2, it
was found that total 16 bee-keepers were practising
bee-keeping on small scale. The number of
colonies varied from 10 to 50 in this group. The
average numbers of colonies were 28.7. The
economics of individual beekeeper was calculated
based on the information provided by bee-keepers.
The net returns varied from Indian rupees 20,000
to 1,28,000 in this group. The average honey
production per colony was worked out to be 32.7
kg while average net returns were Rs.50,120/-.
Table 3. Average net returns per year for individual beekeeper in medium scale bee-keeping enterprise (51-100
colonies).
Respondents No. of Average Average Gross returns Cost Net returns
colonies honey production sale rate (Rs) (Rs) (Rs.)
(Kg) per colony (Rs)/Kg
n
17
70 36 75 1,89,000 59,000 1,30,000
n
18
70 32 100 2,24,000 59,540 1,64,460
n
19
80 37 80 2,36,800 68,350 1,68,450
n
20
100 35 80 2,80,000 93,680 1,86,320
n
21
100 36 78 2,80,800 88,730 1,92,070
Average 84 35.2 82.6 2,42,120 73,860 1,68,260
Two farmers in this group were selling the honey
after processing, resulting in high average sale rate
and thus more income.
Medium scale bee-keeping enterprise
The data (Table 3) indicated that five bee-
keepers were practising bee keeping on medium
scale enterprise having 51-100 colonies. The
average numbers of colonies were 84 and average
honey production was 35.2 kg/colony. The
average sale rate was Rs. 82.60/-kg. of honey.
Income of the bee-keepers in medium scale
enterprise varied from Rs.1,30,000/- to 1,92,000/-.
The average income of this group was Rs.
1,68,260/-.
Large scale bee-keeping enterprise
It is evident from the data presented in the
Table 4 that seven bee-keepers belong to large-
scale enterprise (>100 colonies). The average
numbers of colonies in this group were 192.
Average honey yield was 38.3 kg per colony and
average sale rate was Rs. 73.36 per kilogram of
honey. The low sale rate realization was due to
sale of raw honey by all the bee-keepers. In this
Table 4. Average net returns per year for individual beekeeper in large scale (> 100 boxes) bee-keeping enterprises
(>100 colonies).
Respondents No. of Average Average Gross returns Cost Net returns
colonies honey production sale rate (Rs) (Rs) (Rs.)
(Kg) /colony (Rs)/Kg
n
22
105 36 75 2,83,500 88,500 1,95,000
n
23
180 36 84 5,44,320 1,25,450 4,18,870
n
24
245 39 70 6,68,850 1,40,340 5,28,510
n
25
350 36 72 9,07,200 2,87,190 6,20,010
n
26
215 38 71.5 5,84,155 1,32,370 4,51,785
n
27
110 38 70 2,92,600 95,410 1,97,190
n
28
140 45 71 4,47,300 1,02,000 3,45,300
Average 192.1 38.3 73.4 5,32,560 1,38,751 3,93,809
Sharma and Dhaliwal
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
73
group the average income range varied from Rs.
1.95 lac to 6.20 lac.
It was evident from the results that the net
return of bee keepers increased with the increase
in the number of colonies. Kumar (2012) also
observed that returns from bee-keeping increases
with increase in number of colonies.
CONCLUSION
It may be concluded that by reaching the poor
and ensuring their involvement in training
programmes, the socio-economic status of the
rural poor can be improved. The majority of bee
keepers were in young age group, it is a good
sign for generating self employment for rural
youth. The need is to select the trainees on basis
of their resources and interest. Due to low
expenditure requirement and high income, bee-
keeping enterprise can be adopted by small
marginal and even landless farmers. Krishi
Vigyan Kendras are playing a pivotal role in
augmenting the income of poor farmers. The study
also concluded that the net return increases as
number of colonies increases. Further, the profits
can be enhanced further by involving the bee-
keepers in processing and self direct marketing
to consumer.
REFERENCES
Dhaliwal N S and Singh Gurmeet (2011). Important tips for
marketing of honey, Progressive Farming, 47 (12): 15-16
Kumar S (2012). Bee-keeping-An ideal option for prosperity,
Indian Farming, 62 (3):29-33
Monga K and Manocha A (2011). Adoption and constraints of
bee-keeping in District Panchkula (Haryana), India. Livestock
Research for Rural Development. 23 (5)
Moniruzzaman M and Rahman M S (2009). Prospects of bee-
keeping in Bangladesh, J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 7 (1) :
109-116
Ramesh Lal, Sharma S D, Sharma J K, Sharma V and Singh D
(2012). Impact of bee-keeping training on socio-economic
status of farmers and rural youths in Kullu and Mandi districts
of Himachal Pradesh, J Hum Ecol. 39(3): 205-08
Singh D, (2000). A focus on honey bees in the tropics, Current
Science, 79 :1155–57
Received on 31-03-2014 Accepted on 30-04-2014
Socio Economic Profile of Bee Keepers
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 69-73
74
INTRODUCTION
The ever-increasing population of India puts
constant pressure on agriculture to improve
productivity of crops. The misuse of pesticides in
such scenario is very likely. The harmful effects
of the pesticides are now established worldwide.
The harm caused may be acute or chronic in
nature. Farmers and agricultural labourers are the
direct users of pesticides and are more likely to
get affected by the acute toxicity of pesticides.
The chronic toxicity affects the whole population.
The farmers are unaware of the registered uses of
pesticides. They mostly use the pesticides as per
the recommendations of the pesticide dealers. The
outreach of state agriculture universities and state
extension departments to the farmers is minimal
as reported by Bhushan et al (2013).
Another fact is that the public extension
service by itself is not enough to handle the
multifarious demands of the farming community
and is usually being supplemented by private
Training Needs of Pesticide Retailers in Imphal
District of Manipur
Daya Ram
1
, M.K. Singh
2
and E. Priyadarshini
3
Department of Extension Education
College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal-795 004( Manipur)
ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted during the year 2013 in Manipur state of North-East India.
Out of total 9 districts of the state, two districts namely; Imphal-East and Imphal-West were
selected purposively for the present study. All pesticide retailers of both the districts (total 109
respondents) were surveyed through complete survey method using pre-tested structured
interview schedule. Risk bearing ability, achievement motivation, knowledge and aspiration
level of the pesticide retailers were found in medium level which were skewed towards low
level except in case of achievement motivation of pesticide retailers in the state. Identification
of different pest and pesticides emerged as the most needed training area followed by IPM
techniques. Among crop specific training needs, vegetable crops ranked first followed by rice.
Training on application ICTs in business were also needed. Seasonal business of pesticide, lack
of need-based training and higher transportation costs were the constraints as identified by the
pesticide retailers in Manipur.
Key words: Training need, Pest management, Information Communication and Technology,
Constraints.
extension, though on a limited scale, by the input
dealers, agencies like NGOs, farmer organizations
etc. About 2.82 lakh agri-input dealers are
operating in rural areas covering almost all parts
of the country. Pesticide dealers have become one
of the important sources of farm information to
the farming community although they themselves
are not equipped with adequate knowledge.
Considering that this dealer network has
spread out in almost all major villages of the
country and being an important mechanism to
reach out to large farming community, it is felt
necessary to expose them to scientific knowledge
of agriculture and build their capacity in handling
field problems and extension communication
abilities while increasing their skills in dealing
with inputs and discharging regulatory
responsibilities. Manipur is a hilly state at the nook
corner of the country blessed with rich bio-
diversity and is hugely dependent on the
agriculture with almost 75 per cent of the
*Corresponding Author’s Email: d.dram@rediffmail.com
1. Asstt. Professor, (Extension Education)
2. Assoc. Professor, (Extension Education)
3. M.Sc. (Ag.) Student, (Extension Education)
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
75
population engaged in farming. Hill agriculture
is comparatively more vulnerable to insect pest
infestation due to the occurrence of varied climatic
conditions. Microclimatic specificity of some hilly
pockets results in development of hot spot for
certain pests (Thakur et al, 2012). Farmers here
are more dependent on pesticide retailers for
getting information regarding insect pests and
disease control. Therefore, there is a need to
upgrade the knowledge and skills of the pesticide
dealers so, that they can better guide the farmers.
Hence, the present study was undertaken with the
objectives to study the personal and situational
characteristics of pesticide retailers and to assess
their training needs and business constraints.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted during the
year 2013 in Manipur state of North-East India.
Out of total 9 districts of the state, two districts
namely; Imphal-East and Imphal-West were
selected purposively for the present study. All
pesticide retailers of both the districts (total 109
respondents) were surveyed through complete
survey method using pre-tested structured
interview schedule. Important variables pertains
to profile of the pesticide retailers viz., managerial
ability was measured using the scale developed
by Samanta (1977), risk taking ability by Supe
(1969), achievement motivation by Banerjee and
Talukdar (1997), level of aspiration by Kilpatrick
and Cantril (1960) were used with suitable
modifications. After thorough review of relevant
literature and in consultation with experts of
relevant field the training areas were identified.
These areas were rated by the respondents on three
point rating scale as most needed, needed and not
needed. Training need was measured by
computing training need score. Simple statistical
measures like frequency distribution, percentage
and weighted mean were used to interpret the
data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Socio-economic profile of the pesticide dealers
The socio-personal profile, psychological
characteristics and business skills are the vital
factors to run a business and efficient delivery of
goods and services. Profile of the input dealers
has been compiled, tabulated and presented in the
Table1.
It is evident from Table 1 that majority (68.8%)
of the respondents belonged to middle age group
(37-57 yr) and 31.1 per cent were having education
up to graduate level followed by 28.4, 19.3, 16.5
and 3.7 per cent had education up to higher
secondary, post graduate, high school and middle
school, respectively. The reason might be due to
changing trend of compulsory education in our
society and public awareness on benefit of
education. Significant percentage (41.4%) of
respondents had sought financial assistance from
family and relatives followed by equal percentage
of respondents had fulfilled credit needs from
internal sources (self) and banks to maintain and
run their business.
In regard to managerial ability and
psychological characteristics about half of the
pesticide retailers (49.5%) had medium level of
managerial ability followed by 30.3 and 20.2 per
cent had high and low ability to manage their
business, respectively. Risk bearing ability,
achievement motivation, knowledge and
aspiration level of the pesticide retailers were found
in medium level which were skewed towards low
level except in case of achievement motivation.
Mande and Darade (2011) found that majority
(75.8 %) of the farm input dealers had medium
level of knowledge about advance technology
related to use of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.
Training needs of pesticide retailers
The training needs of the pesticide retailers in
common areas are given in Table 2. The
identification of different pests and pesticides
emerged as the most needed training area ranked
I with mean score (MS) 2.67. Other training areas
in descending order of training need are insect
pest, management and its components viz.,
cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical and
legal stood (II, mean score 2.61), diagnostic and
characteristic symptoms and damage caused by
insect pests (III,MS 2.58), bio-fertilizer-its use and
importance (IV, MS 2.49), trade name, chemical
name and properties of micro nutrients (growth
hormone) (V, MS 2.30), trade name, chemical
name and properties of pesticides (VI, MS 2.28),
trade name, chemical name and properties of
Ram et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
76
Table1. Profile of the pesticide retailers. (n=109)
Sr. No. Category Frequency Percentage
1. Age
Young(<36 yr) 17 15.6
Middle age (37-57 yr) 75 68.8
Old age (>58 yr) 17 15.6
2. Education
Up to Middle (VIII standard) 04 03.7
High school (X standard) 18 16.5
Higher secondary (XII standard) 31 28.4
Graduate 35 32.1
Post graduate and above 21 19.3
3. Sources of finance
Bank and other financial institutions 24 22.0
Friends/ partners 08 07.3
Family/ relatives 45 41.4
No outside source 24 22.0
Local money lender (Sensanbi) 08 07.3
4. Managerial ability
Low 22 20.2
Medium 54 49.5
High 33 30.3
5. Risk bearing ability
Low 20 18.3
Medium 74 67.9
High 15 13.8
6. Achievement motivation
Low 17 15.6
Medium 73 67.0
High 19 17.4
7. Knowledge level
Low 27 24.7
Medium 67 61.5
High 15 13.8
8. Level of aspiration
Low 34 13.2
Medium 64 58.7
High 11 10.1
weedicide (VII, MS 2.27) and precautions in
handling- storing and use of antidotes in case of
accidents (VIII, MS 2.26).
Control of non-insect pest, rat, birds, termites,
etc., maintenance, selection, use and care of
different sprayers, dusters, etc. their minor repairs,
crop management (herbicide tolerant programs
etc. different equipments for training, grafting,
spraying, etc. were ranked IX, X, XI and XII with
mean score 2.18, 2.17, 2.16 and 1.28,
respectively. Mande and Darade (2011) observed
that all farm input dealers (100.0%) of Latur
District in Marathwada region of Maharashtra
State perceived training needs on various aspects
of pesticides applications.
Crop specific training needs of pesticide retailers
Table 3 shows that among crop specific
training needs, vegetable crops ranked first with
weighted mean score 2.69. Rice (II, MS 2.52),
tuber crops (III, MS 2.40), cash crops (IV, MS
2.37), oil seed crops (V, MS 2.31). However,
wheat (VI, MS 2.30), flowers and fruits (VII, MS
2.28) and pulse crops (VIII, MS 2.24) were the
other areas need training.
Agro-climatic conditions are quite conducive
Training Needs of Pesticide Retailers
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
77
Table 2. Training needs of pesticide retailers in core areas of pest management.
Sr. Training areas Most Needed Not Weighted Rank
No. needed needed Mean
1. Identification of different pests and pesticides. 73(67.0) 36(33.0) 0(0.0) 2.67 I
2. Insect pest, management and its components 71(65.1) 33(30.3) 5(4.6) 2.61 II
viz., cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical
and legal.
3. Diagnostic and characteristic symptoms of 67(61.5) 38(34.9) 4(3.6) 2.58 III
damage caused by insect pests.
4. Bio-fertilizer - its use and importance. 64(58.7) 34(31.2) 11(10.1) 2.49 IV
5. Trade name, chemical name and properties 38(34.8) 66(60.6) 5(4.6) 2.30 V
of micro nutrients (growth hormone).
6. Trade name, chemical name and properties 33(30.2) 73(67.0) 3(2.8) 2.28 VI
of pesticides.
7. Trade name, chemical name and properties 34(31.2 70(64.2) 5(4.6) 2.27 VII
of weedicides.
8. Precautions in handling- storing and use of 39(35.8) 59(54.1) 11(10.1) 2.26 VIII
antidotes in case of accidents.
9. Control of non-insect pest, rat, birds, 33(30.3) 63(57.8) 13(11.9) 2.18 IX
termites, etc.
10. Maintenance, selection, use and care of 27(24.7) 73(67.0 9(8.3) 2.17 X
different sprayers, dusters, etc; their minor repairs.
11. Crop management (herbicide tolerant 39(35.8) 48(44.0) 22(20.2) 2.16 XI
programs, etc.)
12. Different equipments for training, grafting, 2(1.8) 26(23.9) 81(74.3) 1.28 XII
spraying, etc.
*Figure in parenthesis is percentage.
Table. 3. Crop specific training needs of pesticide retailers.
Sr. Training area Most Needed Not Weighted Rank
No. needed needed Mean score
Symptoms, spread and control of important insect pests of –
1. Vegetables 77(70.6) 30(27.6) 2(1.8) 2.69 I
2. Rice 62(56.9) 42(38.5) 5(4.6) 2.52 II
3. Tuber crops 46(42.2) 61(56.0) 2(1.8) 2.40 III
4. Cash crops 45(41.3) 59(54.1) 5(4.6) 2.37 IV
5. Oil seed 37(33.9) 69(63.3) 3(2.8) 2.31 V
6. Cereal other than rice (wheat) 36(33.0) 69(63.3) 4(3.7) 2.29 VI
7. Flowers and fruits 37(34.0) 65(59.6) 7(6.4) 2.28 VII
8. Pulses 30(27.5) 75(68.8) 4(3.7) 2.24 VIII
*Figure in parenthesis is percentage.
for vegetable cultivation and more than 20
vegetables belonging to cruciferous (cole crops),
solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, leguminous, tuber
crops and leafy vegetables are grown in the region.
Mono-cropping of vegetable crops especially in
the valley areas prompted the chances for
outbreaks of many insect pests (Thakur et al,
2012). Moreover, rice is the staple food crop and
is grown extensively in valleys, terraces, upland,
hill and jhum. Yellow stem borer, leaf folder, case
worm, hispa, gundhi bug, swarming caterpillar,
thrips, gall midge, and army worm are the
important pests prevalent in the region (Shylesha
et al, 2006). Hence, pesticide dealers were in need
of training to identify the symptoms, spread and
control of important insect pests of rice and
vegetables crops on priority basis.
Training needs in ICT application and record
keeping
The training needs of the pesticide retailers in
ICT areas are given in Table 4. The need for
Ram et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
78
learning application of computer ranked I with
mean score 2.47. Other training areas in
descending order of training need are record
keeping stood (II, mean score 1.31), record
keeping software (III,MS 1.28), E-mail (IV, MS
1.09), Internet (V, MS 1.07), VCR (VI, MS 1.04),
CD-ROM (VII, MS 1.03) and DVD (VIII, MS
1.02). The presence of ICT has brought about
accelerated changes in the world of work,
especially in the field of marketing. These changes
come along with the attendant problem of
enormous professional challenges to equip, train,
and retrain the personnel in sales and marketing
with modern skills.
Using information Communication
Technology (ICT), is crucial to most businesses,
regardless of size. It is important to a retailer
aiming to expand and to improve efficiency. The
use of good ICT also improves customer services
and customer demand.
Analysis of problem faced by pesticide retailers
It is evident from table 5 that large number of
pesticide retailers (92.7%) need based training
programmes as per their self disclosure. High cost
Table 4. Training needs in ICT application and record keeping.
Sr. Training area Most Needed Not Weighted Rank
No. needed needed Mean score
1. Computer 51 (46.8) 58 (53.2) 0 (0.0) 2.47 I
2. Record keeping 7 (6.4) 20 (18.4) 82 (75.2) 1.31 II
3. Record keeping software 5 (4.5) 21 (19.3) 83 (76.2) 1.28 III
4. E-mail 0 (0.0) 10 (9.2) 99 (90.8) 1.09 IV
5. Internet 0 (0.0) 8 (7.3) 101 (92.7) 1.07 V
6. VCR 0 (0.0) 4 (3.7) 105 (96.3) 1.04 VI
7. CD-ROM 0 (0.0) 3 (2.8) 106 (97.2) 1.03 VII
8. DVD 0 (0.0) 2 (1.8) 107 (98.2) 1.02 VIII
*Fig. in parenthesis is percentage
Table 5. Analysis of the problems faced by pesticide retailers.
Sr. No. Statements Frequency Percentage Rank
1. Lack of need based trainings 101 92.7 I
2. High cost in transportation 99 90.8 II
3. Lack of capital 90 82.6 III
4. Non-availability of bank loan 87 79.8 IV
5. Irregular contact of extension worker with the retailers 78 71.6 V
6. Lack of technical knowledge in maintaining stock book 76 69.7 VI
and sales register of the product
7. Delay in renewal of the license 66 60.6 VII
8. Lack of technical knowledge of the retailers about 52 47.7 VIII
different brands of product
in transportation was faced by 90.8 per cent of
the respondents. More than eighty percent (82.6%)
of the respondent expressed lack of capital and
79.8 per cent of the respondents faced problem
of non-availability of bank loans.
Further 71.6 per cent faces problem of
irregular contact with extension worker whereas,
69.7 per cent expressed lack of technical
knowledge in maintaining stock book and sales
register of the product, 60.6 per cent of the
respondents complained about delay in renewal
of license. Nearly fifty percent (47.7%) retailers
expressed lack of technical knowledge about
different brands of product.
Relation of socio-economic and psychological
characteristics of the respondents with training
needs
Coefficient of correlation was used to find out
the degree and type of association of training need
areas of pesticide retailers with the 13 independent
variables. The analysis was done taking all the
respondents in the sample i.e. n = 109. Out of
these 13 independent variables age, education,
experience of the retailers, total annual income,
Training Needs of Pesticide Retailers
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
79
Table-6 Correlation coefficient of training needs areas
of pesticide retailers.
Sr. Characteristics Correlation
No. coefficient ®
X
1
Age 0.344**
X
2
Education 0.555**
X
3
Experience of the retailers 0.547**
X
4
Total annual income 0.877**
X
5
Sources of finances 0.328**
X
6
Training exposure 0.546**
X
7
Extension contact 0.508**
X
8
Mass media exposure 0.379**
X
9
Information sources 0.471**
X
10
Managerial ability 0.228*
X
11
Risk bearing ability 0.272**
X
12
Achievement motivation 0.381**
X
13
Level of aspiration 0.245*
**Correlation is significant (P=0.01)
*Correlation is significant (p=0.05)
source of finance, training exposure, extension
contact, mass media exposure, information
sources, risk bearing ability and achievement
motivation were found to have positively
significant relationship with the training need areas
at 1 .0 per cent level of probability.
The independent variable managerial ability
and the level of aspiration had positive significant
relationship with the training needs of pesticide
retailers at 5 per cent level of probability.
CONCLUSION
It can be concluded that pesticide retailers
need intensive training in identification of insect
pests, symptoms of damage and their control
measures so that the end users may be benefitted.
Area specific training modules may be developed
for this purpose. With proper trainings, the
pesticide dealers can solve the insect pests, weeds
and plant disease problems of their clients in better
way and thus excessive pesticide/weedicide load
can be curtailed in crops. Farmers will also be able
to reduce input costs with proper advice from more
knowledgeable retailers. With correct information
problems related to crops can be solved effectively
and the yields thus income of farmers may be
enhanced. There is also a need for capacity
building of these retailers so that their problems
related to finances and stocks may be solved.
REFERENCES
Banerjee M and Talukdar R K (1997). Problem in Women
Entrepreneurship in Assam. Indian J Ext Edu., 33(3&4): 107-
15.
Bhushan C, Bhardwaj A and Misra S S (2013). State of Pesticide
Regulations in India, Centre for Science and Environment,
New Delhi .
[available at http://www.cseindia.org/userfiles/paper_pesticide.pdf]
Kilpatrick F P and Cantril H (1960). Self-anchoring scale: A
measure of the individual’s unique reality world. Journal of
Individual Psychology, 16 :158-70.
Mande J V and Darade N W (2011). Training Needs of Farm
Input Dealers for Transfer of Agricultural Technology.,
Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable
Development. 6(2): 141-44.
Samanta R K (1977). A study of some agro economic, socio
psychological and communication variables associated with
repayment behaviour of agricultural credit users of nationlised
banks. Ph. D thesis, BCKV, Nadia, West Bengal.
Shylesha A N, Azad Thakur N S, Pathak K A, Rao K R , Saikia
K, Surose S, Kodandaram N H, Kalaishekar A (2006).
Integrated management of insect pest of crops in north eastern
hill region. Technical Bulletin No. 19. ICAR, RC for NEH
Region, Umiam, p 50
Supe S V (1969). Factors related to different degree of rationality
in decision making among farmers in Buledana district. Ph.D.
thesis. IARI, New Delhi.
Thakur Azad N S, Firake D M, Behere G T, Firake P D, Saikia K
(2012). Biodiversity of Agriculturally Important Insects in
North Eastern Himalaya: An Overview. Indian J. Hill
Farming. 25(2):37-40.
Received on 03-02-2014 Accepted on 25-04-2014
Ram et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 74-79
80
INTRODUCTION
The oilseeds form the second largest
agricultural commodity in India after cereals
sharing 14 per cent of gross cropped area which
accounts for nearly 3 per cent of the gross national
product and 10 per cent of value of all agricultural
products. Among the edible oilseeds crops, niger
occupies an important position in Indian oilseeds
scenario. In Konkan region of Maharashtra, the
productivity of niger was 255 kg/ha during 2008-
2009. Though niger occupies important position
in the state still a vast yield gap exists between
potential yield of the variety and the yield obtained
under real farming situation. The poor productivity
is mostly due to resource-poor farmers who are
reluctant towards proper scientific management
of crop. With the available low cost technologies,
it is possible to bridge the yield gap and increase
the existing production level up to certain extent.
Keeping this in view, a study was conducted with
the objective to analyze the yield gaps in niger
cultivation through conductance of front line
demonstrations (FLD) on the newly recommended
Yield Gap Analysis in Niger Cultivation Through
Front Line Demonstrations in Konkan Region of
Maharashtra
Pramod Mandavkar and Manoj Talathi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Roha - 402 116 (Maharashtra)
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli (Maharashtra)
ABSTRACT
Niger is an important oilseed crop in Maharashtra but still a vast yield gap exists between its
potential yield and the yield obtained by the farmers of the area. In this study, it was observed
that average yield varied from 2.0q to 2.7 q/ha under farmers’ practice and 2.8q to 4.3 q/ha
under demonstration plots. Per cent yield improvement in demonstration plot was recorded
from 37.5 to 59.3 over farmers’ practice. It was found that variety IGP-76 and Phule Karala
performed better in Thane district where 53.3 to 59.3 per cent increase in yield over farmers’
practice was recorded. The technological gap was observed as minimum i.e. 0.61 q/ha and
0.70 q/ha in niger variety IGP-76 and Phule Karala, respectively. The extension gap ranged
between 0.8q to 1.6 q/ha under both the locations indicating the need to educate the farmers
through various extension approaches for the adoption of improved technologies. The lower
value of technology index in variety IGP-76 and Phule Karala indicated the feasibility of the
demonstrated niger crop technology.
Key Words : Niger, Demonstrations, Yield.
technologies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted in five
villages during kharif season of the year 2008 and
2009. For selection of respondents, a list of FLD
farmers was collected from two KVKs located in
Thane and Ratnagiri districts. By adopting
systematic sampling design 50 respondents who
had actually undertaken the demonstration with
control trial were selected for the study. The data
were collected through personal interview
technique with the help of interview schedule
developed for the study. During the period of
study, an area of 18 ha. was covered under FLD
with the active participation of farmers. The
difference between the demonstration package
and existing farmers’ practice are mentioned in
Table 1.
In demonstration plots, use of quality seeds
of improved variety, proper seed rate, seed
treatment, timely intercultural and weeding
operations as well as balanced fertilization were
*Corresponding Author’s Email: manoj84048@yahoo.co.in, mandavkarpm@rediffmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 80-82
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 80-82
81
Table 1. Comparison between demonstration package and existing farmers’practice for Niger cultivation.
Particular Niger
Demonstration package Farmers’ practice
Improved Varieties IGP-76 / Phule Karala Local
Seed rate(per ha) 4 kg 3 to 4 kg
Seed treatment Thiram@ 3 gm per kg Not followed
Fertilizer dose and 20 kg N + 20 kg P
2
O
5
Application- 50% N + 100% P
2
O
5
10 kg N
its application time at Sowing time and remaining 50% N at 30 DAS
Intercultural operation Thinning 15 to 20 DAS Not followed
Weed management Hand weeding 15 to 30 DAS Not followed
Plant protection measures Need based application of Neem extract @ 2 ml/l Not followed
to protect the crop against aphids
emphasized. The traditional practices were
maintained under farmers’ practices. The data on
output were collected from both FLD plots as well
as farmers’ practice plot and finally extension gap,
technology gap and technology index along with
benefit-cost ratio were calculated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The perusal of data (Table 2) indicated that
yield obtained under FLD was significantly higher
(3.6 q/ha) than farmers’ practice (2.4 q/ha).
Average yield level varied from 2.0 q to 2.7 q/ha
under farmers’ practice and 2.8 q to 4.3 q/ha in
case of FLD plots. Hence, 37.5 to 59.3 per cent
increase in yield was noticed under FLD over the
farmers’ practice. Further, it was found that variety
IGP-76 and Phule Karala performed better in
Thane district. On an average, there was 50.8 per
cent increase in yield under FLD plots over
farmers’ practices followed for cultivation of
Niger. These findings were in line with the
findings of Tiwari and Saxena (2001) and Patil et
al. (2004).
The technology gap was observed as
minimum i.e., 0.6 q/ha and 0.7 q/ha in Niger
variety IGP-76 and Phule Karala, respectively in
Thane district which reflected the farmer’s
cooperation in carrying out such demonstrations.
However, technology gap of these varieties was
observed at maximum in Ratnagiri district. This
may be attributed to the dissimilarity in soil fertility
status and weather conditions. The extension gap
ranged between 0.8 q to 1.6 q/ha at all the locations
which emphasized that there is need to educate
the farmers through various extension means for
the adoption of improved technologies to reverse
the trend of wide extension gap. The findings
were in line with the findings of Goswami and
Choudhary (1996).
The technology index was highest in Niger
variety IGP-76 (42.1 %) and Phule Karala (36.4%)
in Ratnagiri. However, both varieties had lowest
i.e.12.8 and 14.0 per cent technology index in
Thane district. As per the criteria lower the value
of technology index more is the feasibility of
technology. Hence, both IGP-76 and Phule Karala
varieties of Niger exhibited the feasibility of the
demonstrated crop technology in Thane district.
The results were in conformity with the findings
of Mitra and Samajdar ( 2010). The probable
reason that could be attributed to the high
feasibility of Niger production technology was
that the participant farmers were given opportunity
to interact with the scientist and they were made
to adopt recommended practices and skills during
the process of demonstration. Benefit-cost ratio
was recorded to be higher under demonstration
against control at both the locations.
CONCLUSION
It was thus, concluded that the use of scientific
method of Niger cultivation can reduce the
technological gap to a considerable extent thus
leading to increase productivity of Niger in Thane
and Ratnagiri districts of Konkan region of
Maharashtra. Moreover, extension agencies in the
region need to provide proper technical support
to the farmers through different educational and
extension methods to reduce the extension gap
for better oilseed production in the region.
Mandavkar and Talathi
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 80-82
82
REFERENCES
Goswami S N, Choudhary A N and Khan A K (1996). Yield gap
analysis of major Oilseed of Nagaland. J Hill Res 9 (1): 85-88
Tiwari K B and Saxena A (2001). Economic Analysis of Front
Line Demonstraions of Oilseed in Chhindwada” Bharatiya
Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 16(3&4): 185-189
Patil H S, Purkar J K, Dhadge S M, Shinde S H and Deshmukh
R B (2004). Front line demonstrations of Niger in Maharashtra
state: An overview. Res. on Crops 5 (1) : 36-40.
Mitra Biplab and Samajdar Tanmay (2010). Yield gap analysis of
rapeseed-mustard through front line demonstration. Agril Ext
Review 12(6) PP : 16-17
Received on 17-07-2013 Accepted on 15-02-2014
Yield Gap Analysis in Niger Cultivation
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 80-82
T
a
b
l
e

2
.
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
,

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

g
a
p
,

E
x
t
e
n
s
i
o
n

g
a
p

a
n
d

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

I
n
d
e
x

i
n

d
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
e
d

N
i
g
e
r

c
r
o
p


u
n
d
e
r

F
L
D
s
.
Y
e
a
r
V
a
r
i
e
t
y
A
r
e
a
L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
N
o
.

o
f
Y
i
e
l
d

(
q
/
h
a
)
P
e
r

c
e
n
t
T
G
E
G
T
I


















B
:
C

R
a
t
i
o
(
h
a
)
(
D
i
s
t
r
i
c
t
)
D
e
m
o
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
D
e
m
o
n
s
t
-
F
a
r
m
e
r
s
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
(
q
/
h
a
)
(
q
/
h
a
)
(
%
)
D
e
m
o
.
F
P
r
a
t
i
o
n
P
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
o
v
e
r
(
F
P
)
F
P
2
0
0
8
-
0
9
I
G
P
-

7
6
4
.
0
R
a
t
n
a
g
i
r
i
1
3
4
.
7
5
2
.
7
5
2
.
0
0
3
7
.
5
0
2
.
0
0
0
.
7
5
4
2
.
1
1
1
.
5
8
1
.
2
4
I
G
P
-

7
6
5
.
0
T
h
a
n
e
1
5
4
.
7
5
4
.
1
4
2
.
7
0
5
3
.
3
3
0
.
6
1
1
.
4
4
1
2
.
8
4
1
.
7
0
1
.
3
0
2
0
0
9
-
1
0
P
h
u
l
e

K
a
r
a
l
a
4
.
0
R
a
t
n
a
g
i
r
i
1
2
5
.
0
0
3
.
1
8
2
.
1
5
4
7
.
9
0
1
.
8
2
1
.
0
3
3
6
.
4
0
1
.
5
4
1
.
2
2
2
0
0
9
-
1
0
P
h
u
l
e

K
a
r
a
l
a
5
.
0
T
h
a
n
e
1
0
5
.
0
0
4
.
3
0
2
.
7
0
5
9
.
2
5
0
.
7
0
1
.
6
0
1
4
.
0
0
1
.
6
4
1
.
2
8
1
8
.
0
0
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
4
.
8
8
3
.
5
9
2
.
3
9
5
0
.
8
4
1
.
2
8
1
.
2
1
2
6
.
3
4
1
.
6
2
1
.
2
6
(
T
G
)


T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

g
a
p

=

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

Y
i
e
l
d

-

D
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

y
i
e
l
d
(
E
G
)


E
x
t
e
n
s
i
o
n

g
a
p

=

D
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

y
i
e
l
d
-

F
a
r
m
e
r
s

y
i
e
l
d
(
T
I
)


T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

I
n
d
e
x

=

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

Y
i
e
l
d

-

D
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

y
i
e
l
d

x

1
0
0

































































P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

Y
i
e
l
d
83
INTRODUCTION
Indigenous knowledge is, broadly speaking
the knowledge used by local people to make their
living in a particular environment. It can be
defined as “A body of knowledge built up by a
group of people through generations of living in
close contact with nature. It is usually a mistake
to think of indigenous knowledge as old
fashioned, backwards, static or unchanging.
Indigenous knowledge provides opportunities for
designing development projects that emerge from
priority problems identified within a community
and which build upon and strengthen community
level knowledge systems and organizations.
Indigenous technologies in agriculture are low
cost, organic and eco friendly in nature. They
don’t cause any damage to the air, water and soil,
safe to human beings and free from causing
environmental pollution.
Over generations of farming, farmers have
been experimenting several indigenous
alternatives to solve their problems in the farm
and home. The in built “trail and error” mechanism
of the farmers was the basis of the amassed wealth
of indigenous knowledge.
Indigenous people are the original inhabitants
of a particular geographic location, who have a
culture and belief system distinct from the
International system of knowledge eg., the tribal,
native first or aboriginal people of an area.
According to Indian anthropologists, a tribe
identifies the people who live in Primitive or
backward conditions under a head man or chief.
The tribes are also known as adivasees i.e.
aborginals.
Tribal farmers of Eastern Ghats of Andhra
Pradesh comprising the tribe of “Bhagatas, Konda
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Tribal Areas of
Eastern Ghats
P B Pradeep Kumar, Sri D Sekhar and K Dhanasree
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Chintapalli – 531111, Visakhapatnam
( Andhra Pradesh)
Doras, Muki Doras, Valmiki have been practicing
indigenous knowledge since time immemorial.
These tribal farmers are mostly marginal and small
farmers. Maundu (1995) stated that indigenous
knowledge is diminishing at an alarming rate with
ageing of those in the indigenous population with
strong links to the past.
The tribal farmers practice the ITK regardless
of the crop and the ITK was considered as general
practice. They practice agriculture with low input
production system. It is often marginalized that,
knowledge, skill and survival strategy of farmers
operating with low, external input have often been
ignored to promote modern agriculture. The
enhancement of the quality of life of the Indians
who in great majority live in and depend on
agricultural production systems would be almost
impossible if this rich tradition of ITK is kept inside
(Berkes and Folke,1994). The collection of
knowledge is of great significance in conserving
and maintaining sustainability of the environment.
Further it requires integration with modern
scientific knowledge to generate a wide range of
new ideas and practices of the betterment of
mankind.(Mishra, Singh and Sarvesh Kumar)
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out to document
indigenous knowledge from the tribal farmers of
Eastern ghats of Visakhapatnam district of High
Altitude and Tribal Zone of Andhra Pradesh as a
research proposal. Regional Agricultural Research
Station is located at Chintapalle mandal of
Visakhapatnam district, which is headquarters of
High Altitude and Tribal Zone of Acharya N.G.
Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh.
The total number of tribal farmers interacted was
(92 male farmers). The information was collected
*Corresponding Author’s Email: dhana.sree1@gmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 83-84
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 83-84
Short Communication
84
with the help of interpersonal interaction and focus
group discussion.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
INDIGENOUS TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
OF TRIBAL FARMERS
Indication of Rain
➢ Ants changing their eggs from one place to
another which indicates initiation of rains.
➢ Fowl stretch its feathers in hot summery days
which indicate rain.
➢ Hallow around the moon indicates occurrence
of rains.
➢ Streaks of lightening in the east with rainbow
in the west would lead to rain.
➢ If rainbow appears in the east in the evening
or west in the morning, it will rain.
Post harvest technology
➢ Cowpea seeds are filled in earthen pots in mix
with kitchen ash.
➢ Cucumber seeds are pasted to wall when they
are wet to store for 4-6 months.
➢ Seeds of paddy are stored in indigenously
constructed storage structures called Jaadi
made up of clay.
➢ Paddy seed is stored in butta (in telugu) made
with bamboo and seed covered with straw and
cow dung paste.
➢ To prevent termite problem, mucidi leaves
(Strychnos nux-vomica) are applied as green
manure in direct sown paddy.
Soil nutrient improvement
➢ Tentemu leaf (Cassia tora) and jeelugu
(Caryota urens) twigs are incorporated during
second ploughing for better decomposition
and utilization to improve soil fertility.
➢ Tribal farmers apply 50 kg of neem cake in
paddy field during puddling to control insect
pests and improve soil fertility.
➢ Tribal farmers incorporate ash in the soil
which believed to reclaim the soil gradually
and improves fertility.
➢ They apply soil from base of the hill to the
cultivated fields to increase the water holding
capacity and fertility of the soil.
➢ Laying of stone bunds around the fields across
the slope for preventing soil erosion and for
conserving moisture is practiced.
Plant protection
➢ Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is planted as fence
around the crop which repels goats and can
serve as a strong fence against animals.
➢ A man like effigy made up rice straw wearing
a dress and head is covered with a earthen
wear made like a human head is used to keep
in the centre of the field. The birds fly away
because of human appearance in the field.
➢ Leaves of vadisa plant (Cleistanthus sp) and
cow dung are broadcast around field bund if
leaf folder infestation is observed.
➢ In cashew orchards, during the months of
October to November, tribals practice
smoking of kodo millet straw to prevent tea
mosquito bug which attack during these
months.
➢ Tribal farmers dust the mixture of kitchen ash
and turmeric powder on vegetables to prevent
the aphid attack.
CONCLUSION
Blending of ITK with scientific knowledge
system is vital for sustainable intensification of
agriculture. Scientific procedures can identify the
active ingredients and could come up with
appropriate recommendations in terms of effective
application rates. It could be said that ITK provides
solutions for low external input but intensive
agricultural production. A systematic
documentation and blending of available ITK
facilitate the process in which researchers and
farmers learn one another. ITKs and blended
technologies can be an alternative to modern
technologies involving high external inputs.
REFERENCES
Berkes, F. and C.Folke. 1994. Linging Social and Ecological
Systems for resilience and sustainability. Paper presented at
the workshop on property rights and the performance of natural
resource systems. Stockholms: The Badger International
Institute of Ecological Economics, the Royal Swedish
Academy of Science.
Maundu, P.1995. Methodology for Collecting and Sharing
Indigenous Knowledge: A Case Study. Indigenous Knowledge
and Development Monitor, 3(2):25-27.
Mishra O P.;Singh A K and Sarvesh Kumar,2011. Indigenous
Knowledge of Bihar Farmers. Journal of Community
Mobilization and Sustainable Development,6(1):046-049.
Received on 28-11-2013 Accepted on 28-03-2014
Pradeep Kumar et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 83-84
85
INTRODUCTION
Banana is an important fruit crop of
Maharashtra state having about 80,000 ha. area
under cultivation (Anonymous, 2011). The state
is leading for productivity (62.9 MT) in the
country. In Maharashtra banana is grown in
Jalgaon, Dhule Nandurbar, Akola, Naded,
Parbhani, Solapur, Pune , Ahmednagar and
Ratnagiri districts. The highest area (49,000 ha.)
is concentrated in Jalgaon district. The average
productivity of Jalgaon is more than 65 MT, still
there is vast scope to increase the productivity of
banana in Jalgaon District. This indicates that
there is urgent need to know their existing
knowledge level, extent of adoption for deciding
the future strategy in respect of promoting the
recommended banana production technology. In
view of this the study was conducted with
objectives to know the level of knowledge of
banana and adoption of the recommended
package of practices of banana.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in nineteen villages
of five Talukas of Jalgaon district of Maharashtra
being the large area under banana cultivation
during 2007-08. The list of banana growing
villages and growers was obtained from Taluka
Agriculture Officer (TAO). From this list, nineteen
villages were selected and out of this hundred
banana growers were selected for this study. An
interview schedule based on the objectives was
prepared in local language (Marathi). The data
were collected with the help of pre-designed
interview schedule by contacting banana growers
personally. The information collected was
processed and data was presented in the form of
percentage.
Knowledge and Adoption of the Recommended
Package of Practices for Banana crop
C D Badgujar
Banana Research Station, Jalgaon-425001 ( Maharashtra)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Practice wise knowledge of recommended
package of practices of banana cultivation
The data (Table1) revealed that 92 and 4 per
cent of respondents, respectively had complete
and partial knowledge of selection of proper
planting material. The number of plants/ha., an
important cultivation aspect was known
completely to 58 per cent and partially to 28 per
cent of respondents. The knowledge of proper
time of planting was known by 56 per cent
respondents, however 42 per cent were aware of
it partially. 26 per cent respondents were knowing
correct organic and chemical fertiliser dose, while
it was known partially by 54 and 72 per cent
respondents, respectively. Majority of respondent
viz. 62, 46 and 60 per cent were knowing the
package of practices regarding watering, plant
protection and timely harvesting, partially,
however their complete knowledge was dealt by
38, 20 and 36 per cent respondents, respectively.
The package in respect of plant protection was
unknown to 34 per cent whereas use of organic
manure for banana crop was unknown to 20 per
cent of respondents. Therefore in order to boost
the productivity of banana, the extension efforts
on plant protection techniques and use of organic
manure should be on top priority for improving
the knowledge level of banana growers.
Ramshetwad et al. (2002) have reported similar
findings in respect of grower’s knowledge about
plant protection measures in banana cultivation.
From the data (Table 2) it was evident that majority
(60%) of respondents had medium level of
knowledge followed by 26 per cent having low
knowledge and only 14 per cent had high level
of knowledge. Thus, it can be concluded that
*Corresponding Author’s Email: badgujarcd@gmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 85-87
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 85-87
Short Communication
86
significant percentage of respondents were aware
about the recommended banana cultivation
practices. Similar findings were reported by Walke
et al. (1995) and Patil (1998).
Practice wise adoption of recommended
package of practices of banana cultivation
It was observed (Table 1) that 96 per cent
respondents completely adopted the package
regarding selection of planting material, while 46
per cent respondents adopted the proper plant
spacing and proper planting time. More than 50
per cent respondents partially adopted
recommended spacing, proper time of planting
and recommended organic and chemical fertilizers
along plant protection measures. The range of non
adopters for recommended package of practices
was 0 to 10 per cent. Proper time of harvesting
and water management were partially adopted by
44 and 34 per cent respondents. Majority (72%)
of respondents were having medium level of
adoption followed by 16 and 12 per cent of the
respondents with high and low level of adoption
for recommended package of practices of banana
cultivation respectively. These findings were in
the line with the findings of Walke et al. (1995);
Patil (1998); Pandya and Vekaria (1994) and
Waman and Wagh (2009).
CONCLUSION
The investigation was carried out in five tehsils
(Rawer, Muktainagar, Yawal, Chopada and
Jalgaon) of Jalgaon district where banana is more
extensively grown. The present investigation was
undertaken with a view to know the level of
knowledge and adoption of the recommended
package of practices of banana cultivation. The
results revealed that majority of banana growers
possessed medium level of knowledge and
adoption of recommended packages of practices
of banana cultivation. The significant findings
conclude that planned guidance through trainings
should be performed for expansion of knowledge
as well as adoption of recommended package of
practices.
It can be concluded that there is an urgent need
of conducting organised trainings for upgrading
of knowledge adoption of recommended package
of practices for banana crop.
REFERENCES
Anonymous (2011). Agricultural statistical information of
Maharashtra state, part-III.
Pandya R D and Vekaria RS (1994). Knowledge and adoption
behaviour of banana grower. Maharashtra Journal of
Extension Education, 13:289-90.
Patil N B (1998). A study of technological gap in adoption of
recommended technology of banana production in Yawal
taluka of Jalgaon district. M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, Mahatma Phule
Krishi Vidhypeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra.
Ramshetwad B R, Bhopale R S and Tekale V S (2002). Grower’s
Table 2: Distribution of banana growers according to
their level of knowledge and adoption.
Sr. Category Per cent Per cent
No respondents respondents
1 Low 26 12
2 Medium 60 72
3 High 14 16
Table 1. Distribution of banana growers according to practice wise knowledge and adoption of recommended
package.
Sr. Recommended package Per-cent respondent
No of practice Knowledge level Adoption
Complete Partial Un-known Complete Partial Non-adoption
1 Selection of planting material 92 04 04 96 02 02
(Suckers/Tissue culture plants)
2 Number of plants/ha (Spacing) 58 28 04 46 54 00
3 Time of planting 56 42 02 46 54 00
4 Recommended organic manures’ 26 54 20 30 60 10
5 Recommended chemical fertilizer 26 72 02 28 72 00
6 Recommended water management 38 62 00 64 34 02
7 Recommended plant protection 20 46 34 14 76 10
8 Harvesting of banana 36 60 04 56 44 00
Budgujar
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 85-87
87
knowledge and adoption about plant protection measures of
banana. Maharashtra Journal of Extension Education, 21
(2):95-97.
Walke P K, Wangikar S D and Rout A C (1995). Knowledge and
adoption of recommended package of practices of banana crop.
Maharashtra Journal of Extension Education, 14:201-04.
Waman G K and Wagh B R (2009). Extent of adoption of banana
production technology, Agricultural Update, 4 (1&2):149-
52.
Received on 01-03-2014 Accepted on 30-04-2014
Adoption of Package of Practices for Banana
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 85-87
88
INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest, richest and most
diverse cultural tradition associated with the use
of medicinal plants. Use of medicinal plants by
ancient people and handing over the uses from
one generation to next generation by tribal people
led to the study of plants covered under ethno
botany, where relationship between humans and
plants can be taken care of in health care
programmes and also for exploration of various
lives supporting species. It also studies useful
information about socio-cultural, medico-religious
lures and mores, phrases and proverbs, taboos and
totems prevailing in an area or in a society.
Himachal Pradesh is endowed with four agro-
climatic zones with district Hamirpur located in
subtropical climatic zone. The knowledge of the
curative properties of medicinal and aromatic
plants is acknowledged since time immemorial.
There are nearly about 15,000 species of
flowering plants, out of which only 17 per cent
are recognized as having potential medicinal
properties. Forest areas of district Hamirpur are
endowed with plants having useful medicinal
properties which are very well recognized by
village people and even now cure their ailments
by such plants. With the advancement of time and
technology, various pharmaceutical companies
have extended their efforts to recognize and
develop the worth of such plants but still more
efforts are required in this direction. However,
there exist numerous plants with medicinal
properties whose potential is yet to be recognized
and utilized for the benefit of mankind.
As most of the time collection and harvesting
Important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Their
Traditional Use in District Hamirpur–A Sub
Himalayan Tropical Region of Himachal Pradesh
Parveen Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Thakur, Gulshan, Deepika and Deep Kumar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Hamirpur at Bara 177 044
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidhalaya, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh)
of these medicinal plants is un-scientific and
therefore, results in depletion of their natural
population and even some time makes them
endangered. So there is urgent need to collect and
conserve the endemic diversity of medicinal plants
through efforts like creation of herbal garden,
arboretum, herbarium preparation and people
oriented extension awareness campaign and
promotion of farming and cultivation of these
plants by local people. The present study was
therefore undertaken with the objective to identify
some of the available aromatic and medicinal
plants and their probable use by the local people
in treating their livestock species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For the enumeration of important medicinal
and aromatic plants having use in treatment of
ailments of animals, data were collected by
observations, discussions with the local people
and study of available literature on medicinal
plants. In the present study, data regarding
identification of medicinal and aromatic plants
were collected by direct observations and study
of literature. Likewise, information regarding
method of use of different plant materials for cure
of different ailments were based on indigenous
knowledge which was collected through focused
group discussions.
RESULTS AND DISUCSSION
Land Use
According to estimates of revenue department
the total geographical area of district Hamirpur is
1,10,070 ha. Nadaun is largest and Bijhari is the
*Corresponding Author’s Email: praveenkumarsharma11@rediffmail.com
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 88-91
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 88-91
Short Communication
89
T
a
b
l
e

1
.

I
m
p
o
r
t
a
n
t

m
e
d
i
c
i
n
a
l

a
n
d

a
r
o
m
a
t
i
c

p
l
a
n
t
s

a
n
d

t
h
e
i
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t

o
f

a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.
S
r
.
L
a
t
i
n


N
a
m
e
L
o
c
a
l

N
a
m
e
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

U
s
e
d
A
i
l
m
e
n
t
M
e
t
h
o
d

o
f

u
s
e
N
o
.
1
.
M
a
l
l
o
t
u
s
K
a
m
a
l
S
e
e
d
s

a
r
e

p
o
w
d
e
r
e
d
W
o
r
m

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
,
T
h
e

b
r
i
c
k
-
r
e
d

p
o
w
d
e
r

o
f

s
e
e
d
s

o
f

K
a
m
i
l
a

t
r
e
e

(
2
5
g
)


a
l
o
n
g
w
i
t
h
p
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
n
s
i
s
a
n
d

u
s
e
d
.
P
i
c
a

a
n
d

C
o
n
s
t
i
p
a
t
i
o
n
1
0
0
g

r
a
y
a

m
i
x
e
d

i
n

1
.
5
l
t
.

o
f

l
a
s
s
i

i
s

g
i
v
e
n

t
o

a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.

T
h
i
s
c
a
u
s
e
s

c
l
e
a
n
i
n
g

o
f

s
t
o
m
a
c
h

a
n
d

a
n
i
m
a
l

i
s

c
u
r
e
d
.
2
.
B
u
t
e
a

m
o
n
o
s
p
e
r
m
a
P
a
l
a
h
S
e
e
d

o
f

p
a
l
a
s
W
o
r
m
-
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d
S
e
e
d
s

o
f

p
a
l
a
s

w
i
t
h

c
u
m
i
n

s
e
e
d
s

a
r
e

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

t
r
e
a
t
i
n
g

w
o
r
m
(
F
l
a
m
e

o
f

F
o
r
e
s
t
)
i
n
d
i
g
e
s
t
i
o
n
.
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

i
n
d
i
g
e
s
t
i
o
n

i
n

c
o
w
s

a
n
d

b
u
f
f
a
l
o
e
s
.
3
.
P
i
n
n
u
s

s
p
p
.
C
h
e
e
r
G
r
e
e
n

s
p
i
k
e
s

o
f

p
i
n
e
W
o
r
m
-
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
G
r
e
e
n

s
p
i
k
e
s

o
f

p
i
n
e

t
r
e
e

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

l
a
s
s
i

a
r
e

g
i
v
e
n

t
o

t
h
e
t
r
e
e

&

L
a
s
s
i
.
a
n
i
m
a
l

h
a
v
i
n
g

e
n
d
o
p
a
r
a
s
i
t
e
s
.
4
.
G
r
e
v
i
a

o
p
t
i
v
a
B
u
e
l
C
r
u
s
h
e
d

b
a
r
k

o
f

B
u
e
l
.
W
o
r
m
-
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
B
a
r
k

o
f

B
u
e
l

i
s

c
r
u
s
h
e
d

a
n
d

g
i
v
e
n

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

s
u
f
f
e
r
i
n
g
f
r
o
m

W
o
r
m
-
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
5
.
S
e
s
a
m
u
m

o
r
i
e
n
t
a
l
e
T
i
l
T
i
l

o
i
l
,

S
u
g
a
r

a
n
d

e
g
g
s
.
B
l
o
c
k
a
g
e

o
f

t
e
a
t
s

o
f
T
h
e

i
n
g
r
e
d
i
e
n
t
s

l
i
k
e
s

T
i
l

o
i
l

2
5
0
g

s
u
g
a
r

2
5
0
g

a
n
d

e
g
g
s
m
i
l
c
h

a
n
i
m
a
l
(
6

N
o
.
)

a
r
e

m
i
x
e
d

a
n
d

f
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

m
i
l
c
h

a
n
i
m
a
l

2
-
3

t
i
m
e
s
.
6
.
S
o
l
a
n
u
m

n
i
g
r
u
m
J
a
n
g
l
i

B
h
i
n
d
i
F
r
u
i
t
s

o
f

w
i
l
d

B
h
i
n
d
i
B
l
o
c
k
a
g
e

o
f

t
e
a
t
s

o
f
F
r
u
i
t
s

o
f

w
i
l
d

B
h
i
n
d
i

a
r
e

g
r
o
u
n
d

a
n
d

p
a
s
t
e

i
s

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

o
n
m
i
l
c
h

a
n
i
m
a
l
t
h
e

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

t
e
a
t
s

t
o

r
e
m
o
v
e

b
l
o
c
k
a
g
e
.
7
.
A
s
a
f
o
e
t
i
d
a
H
e
e
n
g
H
e
e
n
g
I
n
d
i
g
e
s
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

b
l
o
a
t
F
o
r

c
u
r
i
n
g

i
n
d
i
g
e
s
t
i
o
n
,

a

p
i
e
c
e

o
f

h
e
e
n
g

i
s

f
i
r
s
t

h
e
a
t
e
d

a
n
d
t
h
e
n

f
e
d

@

3
g
/
a
n
i
m
a
l

a
n
d

i
n

b
l
o
a
t

i
t

i
s

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

m
u
s
t
a
r
d
a
n
d

t
u
r
p
e
n
t
i
n
e

o
i
l
.
8
.
A
z
a
d
i
r
a
c
h
t
a

i
n
d
i
c
a
N
e
e
m
C
r
u
s
h
e
d

N
e
e
m

l
e
a
v
e
s
S
k
i
n

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
J
u
i
c
e

i
s

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

o
n

t
h
e

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

s
k
i
n
.
i
n

w
a
t
e
r
9
.
D
u
c
h
e
n
s
n
e
a

i
n
d
i
c
a
,
T
e
a

A
j
w
a
i
n
T
e
a

l
e
a
v
e
s
,

A
j
w
a
i
n
A
b
d
o
m
i
n
a
l

p
a
i
n
A

d
e
c
o
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
e
a

l
e
a
v
e
s

(
2
5
0
g
)
,

A
j
w
a
i
n

(
1
0
0
g
)

a
n
d

F
e
n
n
e
l
C
a
r
u
m

c
o
p
t
i
c
u
m
S
o
a
n
f
a
n
d

F
e
n
n
e
l
(
1
0
0
g
)

a
r
e

b
o
i
l
e
d

t
o
g
e
t
h
e
r

a
n
d

f
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

a
i
l
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
l
.
F
o
e
n
i
c
f
u
l
u
m

v
i
l
g
a
r
a
1
0
.
Z
i
z
i
p
u
s

j
u
j
u
b
a
,
J
a
r
e
r
,

K
a
n
g
o
o
S
a
r
s
o
n

o
i
l
F
o
o
t

a
n
d

M
o
u
t
h
R
o
o
t
s

o
f

J
a
r
e
r
,

b
a
r
k

o
f

K
a
n
g
o
o

a
n
d

H
a
l
d
i

a
r
e

b
o
i
l
e
d

i
n

w
a
t
e
r
.
C
u
r
c
u
m
a

l
o
n
g
a
H
a
l
d
i

&

S
a
r
s
o
n
D
i
s
e
a
s
e

(
F
M
D
)
T
h
e

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

h
o
o
f
s

a
r
e

w
a
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h

t
h
i
s

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
.

M
o
u
t
h
F
l
a
c
o
u
r
t
i
a

i
n
d
i
c
a
,
i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n

i
s

c
u
r
e
d

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

s
a
r
s
o
n

o
i
l
.
B
r
a
s
s
i
c
a

c
a
m
p
e
s
t
r
i
s
.
1
1
.
C
o
l
o
t
r
o
p
i
s

p
r
o
c
e
r
a
A
a
k
C
r
u
s
h
e
d

l
e
a
v
e
s

o
f

A
a
k
F
o
o
t

a
n
d

M
o
u
t
h
L
e
a
v
e
s

o
f

A
a
k

a
r
e

c
r
u
s
h
e
d

a
n
d

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
e

a
n
d
m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
e
D
i
s
e
a
s
e

(
F
M
D
)
t
h
e
n

f
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

a
i
l
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
l
.
1
2
.
C
u
s
c
u
t
a

r
e
f
l
e
x
a
A
m
b
e
r

b
e
l

,
E
x
t
r
a
c
t

o
f

A
a
k
a
s
h

B
e
l
F
o
o
t

a
n
d

M
o
u
t
h
A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

a
r
e

t
r
e
a
t
e
d

b
y

a
p
p
l
y
i
n
g

t
h
e

e
x
t
r
a
c
t

o
f
A
k
a
s
h

b
e
l
D
i
s
e
a
s
e

(
F
M
D
)
A
a
k
a
s
h

b
e
l

f
o
r

3
-
5

t
i
m
e
s
.
1
3
.
P
e
n
n
i
s
e
t
u
m

s
p
p
.
M
a
n
d
a
l
R
o
o
t
s

o
f

m
a
n
d
a
l

p
l
a
n
t
.
M
a
g
g
o
t

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
T
h
e

r
o
o
t
s

o
f

m
a
n
d
a
l

p
l
a
n
t
s

a
r
e

c
r
u
s
h
e
d

a
n
d

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

o
n
t
h
e

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

p
o
r
t
i
o
n

t
o

k
i
l
l

m
a
g
g
o
t
s
.
1
4
.
F
i
c
u
s

p
a
m
e
t
a
B
h
a
r
o
o
n
i
F
i
g

s
t
i
c
k
.
T
o
n
g
u
e

s
w
e
l
l
i
n
g
F
i
g

s
t
i
c
k

i
s

h
e
a
t
e
d

/
r
o
a
s
t
e
d

a
n
d

p
l
a
c
e
d

o
n

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

p
o
r
t
i
o
n
k
h
a
s
h
r
a
o
f

t
o
n
g
u
e
.
1
5
.
F
l
a
c
o
u
r
t
i
a

i
n
d
i
c
a
K
u
n
g
u
K
u
n
g
u

p
o
w
d
e
r
E
y
e

s
w
e
l
l
i
n
g
K
u
n
g
u

p
o
w
d
e
r

(
o
r
a
n
g
e

m
a
s
s
)

i
s

u
s
e
d

a
g
a
i
n
s
t

e
y
e

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
.
Sharma et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 88-91
90
1
6
.
A
c
a
c
i
a

f
i
s
t
u
l
a
A
m
a
l
t
a
s
h
B
e
a
d
s

o
f

A
m
a
l
t
a
s
h
C
o
n
s
t
i
p
a
t
i
o
n
2
0
-
2
5

s
e
e
d
s

o
f

A
m
a
l
t
a
s
h

a
r
e

b
o
i
l
e
d

i
n

w
a
t
e
r

a
n
d

t
h
e
n

l
u
k
e
w
a
r
m
s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

i
s

g
i
v
e
n

t
o

t
h
e

a
i
l
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
l
.
1
7
.
B
r
a
s
s
i
c
a

c
a
m
p
e
s
t
r
i
s
S
a
r
s
o
n
M
u
s
t
a
r
d

o
i
l
/
d
e
s
i

g
h
e
e
.
C
o
n
s
t
i
p
a
t
i
o
n
F
o
r

c
u
r
i
n
g

c
o
n
s
t
i
p
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

l
a
r
g
e

a
n
i
m
a
l
,

1
/
3

t
o
1
/
2
l
t

m
u
s
t
a
r
d
o
i
l

i
s

g
i
v
e
n

w
h
e
r
e
a
s

i
t

i
s

r
e
d
u
c
e
d

t
o

2
5
-
7
5

m
l

i
n

y
o
u
n
g

o
n
e
s
.
M
u
s
t
a
r
d

o
i
l

i
s

a
l
s
o

g
i
v
e
n

i
n

c
a
s
e

o
f

L
a
n
t
a
n
a

p
o
i
s
o
n
i
n
g
.
1
8
.
B
r
a
s
s
i
c
a

c
a
m
p
e
s
t
r
i
s
G
a
n
n
a
T
w
o

a
n
d

a

h
a
l
f

s
u
g
a
r
E
x
p
u
l
s
i
o
n

o
f

p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a
I
f

t
h
e

p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a

i
s

n
o
t

e
x
p
e
l
l
e
d

w
i
t
h

i
n

5
-
8

h
r
s

a
f
t
e
r

c
a
l
v
i
n
g
,
c
a
n
e

t
o
p
.
t
w
o

a
n
d

a

h
a
l
f

s
u
g
a
r
c
a
n
e

t
o
p

c
a
n

b
e

f
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l

f
o
r
e
x
p
u
l
s
i
o
n

o
f

p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a
.
1
9
.
A
l
l
i
u
m

s
a
t
i
v
u
m
L
a
h
a
s
u
n

k
a
l
i
j
i
r
i
O
n
i
o
n
,

H
u
k
k
a

(

a

l
o
c
a
l
E
x
p
u
l
s
i
o
n

o
f

p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a
M
i
x
t
u
r
e

o
f

c
r
u
s
h
e
d

o
n
i
o
n
,

h
u
k
k
a

w
a
t
e
r

a
n
d

k
a
l
i
j
i
r
i

i
s
G
l
o
r
i
o
s
a

s
u
p
e
r
b
a
d
e
v
i
c
e

u
s
e

t
o

s
m
o
k
e
)
g
i
v
e
n

o
r
a
l
l
y

t
o

t
h
e

a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.
w
a
t
e
r

a
n
d

k
a
l
i
j
i
r
i
2
0
.
C
i
t
r
u
s

p
s
e
u
d
o
l
i
m
o
n
,
G
a
l
g
a
l
,

A
d
r
a
k
D
r
i
e
d

g
a
l
g
a
l
,

g
i
n
g
e
r
,
C
o
u
g
h

a
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
D
r
i
e
d

G
a
l
g
a
l

i
s

b
u
r
n
t

a
n
d

t
h
e

a
s
h

i
s

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

g
i
n
g
e
r

a
n
d
Z
i
n
g
i
b
e
r

o
f
f
i
c
i
n
a
l
e
.
&

G
u
m
m
a
r
o
c
k

s
a
l
t
.
i
n
j
u
r
i
e
s
r
o
c
k

s
a
l
t

a
n
d

i
s

g
i
v
e
n

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l
.
N
a
m
a
k
.
2
1
.
O
r
y
z
a

s
a
t
i
v
a
D
h
a
n
n
P
a
d
d
y
C
o
u
g
h

a
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
P
a
d
d
y

i
s

f
e
d

t
o

a
n
i
m
a
l

f
o
r

c
u
r
i
n
g

r
e
s
p
i
r
a
t
o
r
y

a
i
l
m
e
n
t
s
.
i
n
j
u
r
i
e
s
2
2
.
F
o
e
n
i
c
u
l
u
m

v
u
l
g
a
r
e
S
o
a
n
f
F
e
n
n
e
l
.
P
r
o
l
a
p
s
e
d

o
f

u
t
e
r
u
s
1
0
0
-
2
0
0

g

o
f

S
o
a
n
f

i
s

s
o
a
k
e
d

i
n

w
a
t
e
r

o
v
e
r
n
i
g
h
t

a
n
d

t
h
e
g
i
v
e
n

t
o

t
h
e

s
u
f
f
e
r
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
l
,

t
o

c
u
r
e

t
h
e

p
r
o
b
l
e
m

o
f
p
r
o
l
a
p
s
e
d

o
f

u
t
e
r
u
s
.
2
3
.
M
u
s
a

s
a
p
i
e
n
t
u
m
K
e
l
a
,

k
a
n
n
a
k
F
l
o
w
e
r
s

o
f

b
a
n
a
n
a
T
o

b
r
i
n
g

a
n
i
m
a
l

i
n
t
o
F
l
o
w
e
r
s

o
f

b
a
n
a
n
a

a
r
e

c
r
u
s
h
e
d

a
n
d

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

w
h
e
a
t

f
l
o
u
r
T
t
r
i
t
i
c
u
m

a
e
s
t
i
v
u
m
m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

w
h
e
a
t

f
l
o
u
r
h
e
a
t
a
n
d

f
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l

f
o
r

2
-
3
d
.

T
h
e

f
e
m
a
l
e

a
n
i
m
a
l

w
i
l
l
c
o
m
e

i
n
t
o

h
e
a
t

w
i
t
h

i
n

1
5

d
a
y
s
.
2
4
.
C
u
r
c
u
m
a

l
o
n
g
a
,
H
a
l
d
i
,

S
a
r
s
o
n
.
P
o
w
d
e
r
e
d

t
u
r
m
e
r
i
c
A
n
t
i
s
e
p
t
i
c

a
n
d

B
l
o
o
d
2
0
-
3
0
g

o
f

p
o
w
d
e
r
e
d

t
u
r
m
e
r
i
c

o
r

b
l
a
c
k

p
e
p
p
e
r

i
s

m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

1
l
t
.
B
r
a
s
s
i
c
a

c
o
m
p
e
s
t
r
i
s
m
i
x
e
d

w
i
t
h

1
l
t
.
p
u
r
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

m
u
s
t
a
r
d

o
i
l
.

I
t

i
s

d
r
e
n
c
h
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

f
o
r

5

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
e
o
f

m
u
s
t
a
r
d

o
i
l
.
d
a
y
s
.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal Pradesh
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 88-91
91
smallest tehsil of the district. Cultivated area
constitutes 33.1 per cent of the total geographical
area. Bhoranj tehsil has relatively more cultivated
area (53.2%) followed by Hamirpur (38.7%),
Nadaun (29.9%), Barsar (28.6%), Bijhari (27.3%)
and Sujanpur (20.6%). The area under forest is
18.4 per cent of total geographical area, the
maximum being in Bijhari tehsil (36.0%) and least
in Bhoranj tehsil (5.4%). Area under permanent
pastures and grazing lands is only 0.36 per cent.
The cultivable waste land (5.21%) and un-
cultivable waste land (19.2%) whereas area under
fallow land is 6.86 per cent . Based upon the
survey, total cropped area is much higher owing
to multiple cropping.
CONCLUSION:
Present study will prove extremely useful in
assessing the status, utilization potential and future
strategies for the conservation of medicinal plant
resources. District is very rich in plants with
medicinal value and a concerted effort is needed
for their conservation. To check the loss of
biodiversity owing to over exploitation and habitat
degradation, effective measures for conservation
and management need to be put in place. Priority
should be given for conservation of high-value
species listed in this study. The involvement of
local inhabitants with their local tradition and
culture is very important for conservation of
indigenous knowledge and traditional practices.
REFERENCES
Anonymous Wildlife of Himachal, Department of Forest Farming
and Conservation, Himachal Pradesh. Shimla 1992:34
Badola HK Biodiversity Conservation Study of Kanawar wildlife
sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh, In: Research for Mountain
Development: Some Initiatives and Accomplishments,
Gyanadoya Prakashan, Nanital 1998: 407-430
Charaka Samhita. Chakrapani (Ed.) 1941, Mirsanyasgar Press,
Bombay.
Chauhan, NS and Khosla, PK. Commercially important medicinal
plants of Himachal Pradesh In: PK Khosla (Ed) Tends in Tree
Sciences ISTS Publications 1988: 81-89.
Chauhan NS Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal
Pradesh, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1999: 500
Chowdhery HJ, Wadhwa, BM Flora of Himachal Pradesh (Vol
3), Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, 1984: 276-278
Dhaliwal DS, Sharma M. Flora of Kullu District, Himachal
Pradesh. In: Singh B, Singh MP (Eds) Survey of Flora, Jaipal
Publications, Dehradun 3, 1999: 221
Samant, S.S., Shreekar Pant, Man Singh, Manohar Lal, Ashok
Singh, Aman Sharma & Sakshi Bhandari. Medicinal Plants in
Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India.
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and management
2007: 234-251.
Singh SK Ethnobotanical study of useful plants of Kullu district
in north western Himalaya, India. Journal of Economic and
Taxonomic Botany 23, 1999: 185-198
Singh SK, Rawat GS. Flora of Great Himalayan National Park,
Himachal Pradesh. In: Singh B, Singh MP (Eds) The Great
Himalayas, Jaipal Publications, Dehradun, 2000: 105-109
Received on 12-12-2013 Accepted on 14-04-2014
Sharma et al
J Krishi Vigyan 2014, 2(2) : 88-91
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The editorial office of Journal of Krishi Vigyan expresses its extreme gratitude to the following
honorable reviewers from across the country, for reviewing the manuscripts and providing their expert
comments. The valuable input by the worthy reviewers in terms of their precious time and sincere
efforts is greatly admirable.
Reviewer’s Name No. of Articles State
Ajay Srivastava 1 Uttrakhand
Ajit Singh 1 Bihar
Amit Sharma 1 Punjab
Anju Ahlawat 1 Haryana
Devender Tiwari 1 Punjab
Gurdeep Singh 3 Punjab
Hardeep Sabhikhi 1 Punjab
J K Grover 1 Punjab
Kiran Grover 1 Punjab
Kirandeep Kaur 1 Punjab
M I S Gill 1 Punjab
Minaxi K Baria 1 Gujarat
Parminder Singh 1 Punjab
S S Paliyal 1 Himachal Pradesh
Savreet Khehra 1 Punjab
Simerjeet Kaur 1 Punjab
Soma Banerjee 1 West Bengal
Tasneem Mubarak 1 J&K
Copyright and discalimer
Copyright © Authors. All rights reserved. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to
reproduce copyright material from other sources. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any
statement of fact or opinion or copyright violation in the published papers. The views expressed by
the authors do not necessarily represent the view point of the journal.

SOCIETY OF KRISHI VIGYAN
Secretarykvk2011@gmail.com
www.iskv.in

MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION FORM

1. Name in Capital letters

(Surname) (First Name) (Middle Name)
2. Membership Category (Please tick one)


For 1 year Rs.1000/- 3 years Rs.2500/- 5 years Rs.3500/- Life Member (10 years) Rs.5000/-
3. Designation


4. Date of Birth 5. Sex F M
DD MM Year
6. Organization currently attached to

7. Mailing Address & Contact Details

City Pin Code
State Country
Phone Off. Fax
Res.
E-mail
8. Academic Qualifications
Degree Institution Year Major field of study




9. Professional Experience (Scientific/ Technical/ Administrative/ Managerial)
Name of Organization
Work period
Job Description/ Title
From To



10. Mode of Payment
Demand Draft/ Cash______________ dated_________ for Rs.________ favoring Treasurer,
Society of Krishi Vigyan, Payable at Ludhiana and/or
Funds Can Be Transferred Electronically In Society’s Saving Account No.29380100008424 In
Bank Of Baroda, Ludhiana and The IFSC Code of the Branch is BARBOPAULUD.

Please complete this form, and mail to:
Dr. Manoj Sharma, Secretary (SKV)
KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA, KAPURTHALA 144620 (PUNJAB)
E-mail: secretarykvk2011@gmail.com
Call 09872745890
Signature of the Applicant
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
The Journal of Krishi Vigyan, a peer-reviewed, half yearly, journal is being published by the
Society of Krishi Vigyan. The publication is aimed at providing access to academicians, researchers,
extension workers and industry professionals from across the globe to publish their work on all aspects
of agriculture and allied fields through research papers, short communications and review articles.
The editorial board of SKV welcomes the submission of manuscripts within the aim and scope of
the journal for publication. The articles may be submitted via regular mail in duplicate, each with a set
of original figures and photographs to the Editor, Journal of Krishi Vigyan electronically in MS WORD
format as e-mail attachments to the editoriskv@gmail.com or secretarykvk2011@gmail.com .
Please refer to the instructions for authors before submitting an article.
General guidelines
It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that
1. Papers are submitted strictly as per the style and format of JKV. The articles not confirming fully
to the style and format of JKV will be returned to author(s) by the editorial office for
amendment, prior to a review for its scientific merit.
2. Submission of an article is understood to imply that the article is original and has not been published
previously, is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and if accepted, it will not be
published elsewhere in the same form, in English or any other language. The submission of
the article has the approval of the all co-authors and the authorities of the host institute where work
has been carried out.
3. The editorial board of JKV discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with
related aspects from the same study; this includes different aspects of data derived from one
particular experiment, or cases in which the analytical techniques, animals or experimental
procedures are common to all papers. If author(s) have valid reasons for separation of reports of
one particular experiment or study into more than one paper, these must be submitted simultaneously.
4. The Author(s) may suggest the names of at least three experts/reviewers, not from the host
organization/institute where the work had been carried out (along with their complete mailing
address, contact nos. and e-mail id) whom they feel qualified to evaluate their research article.
These suggestions will only be considered if e-mail Ids are also provided. Submission of such
names does not imply that they will definitely be used for scrutiny.
5. The “Article submission certificate” duly signed by all the authors/head of host department / institute
(optional) on a prescribed format must be furnished along with article at the time of submission. If
the article is sent through e-mail, the scanned copy of certificate (signed / stamped) may be attached.
6. For publication of articles in JKV, all the contributing authors has to be the member (either life or
annual) of Society of Krishi Vigyan.
7. The submitted manuscripts will be assessed from editorial points of view, at first, and if found
suitable for publication, it will be sent for peer-review. The review process will be a double-blind
process where author(s) and referees are unaware of each others’ name. The author(s) must abide
by the suggestions of referee and the editorial board of JKV. The final decision to publish an
article will lie with the Editor and Publisher of the journal.
8. The corresponding author will be sent the PDF file of his/her published article free of cost via e-
mail. No hard copies of the reprints will be provided.
9. Journal of Krishi Vigyan has no page charges.
10. For enquiries regarding submission, please contact the editorial office at
secretarykvk2011@gmail.com
Manuscript preparation
Language: Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use UK
spelling conventions. It is up to the authors to make sure there are no typographical errors in the
manuscript.
Typescript: Manuscripts must be typed in Microsoft Word, using Times New Roman font at 12 points,
double spaced on one side of A4 size bond paper with 2.5 cm margin on all sides. All pages should be
numbered consecutively in the right corner on the top. Indent new paragraphs.
Words: Papers should not normally exceed up to 8000 words for review articles; 4000 words for
original full length papers and 1500 words for short communications.
Headings: Main Headings - Major headings are centered, all capitals, boldface in Times New Roman
font at 12 points, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND MATHODS,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (optional) and
REFERENCES.
First subheadings are placed in a separate line, begin at the left margin, and are in italics. Text that
follows should be in a new paragraph.
Second Subheadings should begin with the first line of a paragraph, indented and in italic. The text
follows immediately after the second subheading.
Contents: The contents must be arranged in an orderly way with suitable headings for each subsection.
The recommended subdivision of contents is as follows:-
Running head: The running head or short title of not more than 50 characters, in title case and
centered should be placed above the main title of the study.
Title: The title must be informative and brief. The initials and name of the author(s), the address of the
host institution where the work was done must follow the title.
Superscripts (1,2,3) should be used in cases where authors are from different institutions. The
superscript # should be appended to the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, and
indicated as such together with an e-mail address in the line immediately following the keywords. The
present postal address of authors, if currently different from that of the host institution should also be
superscripted appropriately and inserted in the lines following the key words.
Abstracts: It must summarize the major objectives, methods, results, conclusions, and practical
applications of the study conducted. The Abstract must consist of complete sentences and use of
abbreviations should be limited.
Keywords: The Abstract is followed by three to five keywords from the title to be used for subject
indexing. These should be singular (e.g. paper, not papers). The abstract, including key words should
be separated by horizontal lines places before and after the text.
Introduction: This should include a statement of why the subject under investigation is considered to
be of importance, a concise indication of the status quo of published work in this field and a declaration
of the aims of the experiment or study i.e. the hypothesis.
Materials and Methods: These should be concise but of sufficient detail to enable the experiment to
be replicated by an outside party. Particular care should be taken to ensure that the appropriate
statistical analyses have been carried out. Specify the design used, factors tested or the statistical
model employed. Non significant differences (P> 0.05) should not be discussed.
Results and Discussion: Results and discussion should be combined to avoid repetition. It should be
presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures. The repetitive presentation of the same
data in different forms should be avoided. The discussion should consider the results in relation to any
hypotheses advanced in the Introduction and place the study in the context of other work.
Conclusion: The conclusion should consist of a short integration of results that refer directly to the
stated aims of the experiment and a statement on the practical implications of the results.
Acknowledgements (optional): A brief and formal acknowledgment section, if desired, should follow
the conclusion statement. Do not include titles of persons; such as Dr., Mr., or Ms., use only initials
and surnames.
References: The existing relevant literature restricted to those with a direct bearing upon the findings
must be appropriately cited.
References appearing in the text – References in the text should be given as : Sharma and Rao
(1983). Use änd” and not “&”. A reference by three or more authors should be identified in the text
only by the first author followed by et al (in italic) and the year.
Where several references are quoted consecutively in the text, the order should be chronological or,
within a year, alphabetical (by first author or, if necessary, by first and second author(s).
Where references are made to several papers by the same author(s) in the same year, the year should
be followed by a, b, c, etc.
Personal communications and unpublished work should be cited in the text only and not in the reference
list, giving the initials, name: for example (M. S. Gill, unpublished), (M.S. Gill, personal
communication).
References to internet sites should be quoted in the normal way in the text e.g. FDA (2008). In the
reference list, the full URL must be given, followed by the date that the website was assessed.
References appearing in reference section : All publications cited in the text should be presented in
the list under Reference section, in alphabetical order. The title of the article should be given in the
reference and journal’s name should be cited in italic as abbreviated by the journal. It is the full
responsibility of the authors to cross check reference in the text of the article with those in the list of
references. In all cases, a reference must provide sufficient information to enables the reader to locate
it.
Examples of references – (Hanging indent 1 cm)
For journals/periodicals
Mufeed S (1998). Evaluating employee performance: A successful instrument for human resource
development. Indian J Trg and Dev 28 (2): 72-93.
For books
AOAC (1980). Official Methods of Analysis. 13
th
edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, DC.
For Chapters in book
Barnabas A P and Lakshmiswaramma M (1980). “Assessment of Evaluation system for Rural
development”. In: Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development: Some Asian Experiences.
(eds Kuldeep Mathu and Inayatulloah) Kuala Lumpur U.N. Asian and Pacific Development Centre.
Pp: 121-22.
Bray R A (1994). The leucaena psylid. In: Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture (eds. R C
Gutteridge and H M Shelton). CAB International, Oxford. Pp. 283-91.
For proceedings of conferences/symposia etc.
Vivero J L P (2002). Forest is not only wood: the importance of non-wood forest products for the food
security of rural households in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Fourth, Annual Conference forestry
society of Ethiopia 14-15 January 2002, Ethiopia pp 102.
Elangovan A V ,Tyagi P K, Mandal A B and Tyagi P K (2007). Effect of dietary supplementation of
stain on egg production performance and egg quality of Japanese quail layers. Proceedings of
XXIV Annual Conference of Indian Poultry Science Association and National Symposium , 25-27
April, Ludhiana, India, pp. 158 (Abstr.).
For theses
Fayas A M (2003). Viability of self help groups in vegetables and fruit promotion council Keralam- a
multidimensional analysis, MSc (Ag.) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University.
For online (internet site) citation
FDA (2008). Effect of the use of antimicrobials in food producing animals on pathogen load: Systematic
review of the published literature. www.fda.gov/cvm/antimicrobial/PathRpt.PDF Accessed January
11, 2012.
Tables/Figures/Illustrations : Tables should be self contained and complement, but not duplicate
information contained in the text. The table number (given as an Arabic numeral) should be given at
the top, followed by a concise title. Give essential details as footnotes. Keep the number of columns to
a minimum. Column headings should be brief, with the units of measurement clearly stated in
parentheses. Where one unit applies to all the data in the body of the table include it in the title. Cite all
tables in the text, in numerical order at first mention. Significant differences between means in columns
or rows should be indicated by superscript letters, and accompanied by a standard statement underneath
the table, e.g. “Means in columns not sharing a common superscript differ significantly (P<0.05)”.
Figures: Number all figures/illustrations consecutively, in order of appearance in the text, using Arabic
numerals. Keep lettering
on illustrations to a minimum and include essential details in the legend. Tables/Figures/illustrations
etc. should be submitted along with the main text of the paper with each on a new page, and should
take account of the page size of the journal. Wherever possible, figures should be suitable for subsequent
direct photographic reproduction.
Coloured figures : Use of coloured photographs is discouraged. If found necessary, the photographs
should be submitted as good quality, glossy colour prints.
Abbreviation and units: Use only standard abbreviations. The word ‘Figure’ should be shortened to
Fig. unless starting a sentence. SI units (metre, kilogram etc.) should be used wherever possible.
Statistics and measurements should always be given in figures; i.e. 15mm, except where the number
begins the sentence. When the number does not refer to a unit measurement (e.g. 15mm), it is spelt
out, except where the number is greater than nine.
Style and format of short communications: A short communication should be a maximum of 1500
words. It contains a very brief abstract followed by a brief introduction, text including tables and
figures and a brief conclusion followed by references. No subheadings are to be included except for
the abstract and reference section. Format, tables and figures must conform to the conventions of the
Journal.
ARTICLE SUBMISSION CERTIFICATE
Manuscript Title:
Manuscript type: Review article/Full length paper/Short communication (Check one):
Name(s) of the author(s):
Name and address of
corresponding author :
Contact No. # :
E-mail:
I (we) affirm that:
1. The manuscript has been prepared in accordance with the latest “Instructions for author’s guidelines of
the Journal of Krishi Vigyan.
2. The article is original and has not been published previously, is not under consideration for publication
elsewhere, and if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same or, in English or any other
language. The submission of the article has the approval of the all the authors and the authorities of the
host institute where work had been carried out.
3. All the authors have made substantive and intellectual contributions to the article and assume full
responsibility for all opinions, conclusions and statements expressed in the articles.
4. I (we) agree to abide by the comments of referees/editorial board and will modify the article as per their
recommendations for publication in Journal of Krishi Vigyan.
5. If the above article is published in Journal of Krishi Vigyan, the copyright of this article will vest with the
Society of Krishi Vigyan, who will have the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in
India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained
in it, and neither we nor our legal heirs will have any claims on royalty.
Name of the author(s) Designation Present official address Signature with date
1.
2.