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RT Formulas for Calculations

RT Formulas for Calculations

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The thickness of any given material where 50% of the incident energy has been

attenuated is know as the half-value layer (HVL). The HVL is inversely

proportional to the attenuation coefficient (m) and the two values are related by

the following equation. Since m is normally given in units of cm

-1

, the HVL is

commonly expressed in units of cm.

This relationship comes from the intensity attenuation equation.

It can be seen that if an incident energy of 1 and a transmitted energy is 0.5 (1/2

the incident energy) is plugged into the equation, the thickness (x) multiplied

by m must equal 0.693 (since the number 0.693 is the exponent value that give a

value of 0.5). X in this case is the half-value layer.

Example Calculation

What is the HVL for a material with a attenuation coefficient of 0.45/cm?

Radiographic Inspection - Formula Based on

Newton's Inverse Square Law

Radiographic Inspection - Exposure-Distance

Relationship

Where:

E

1

= Exposure at D

1

E

2

= Exposure at D

2

D

1

= Distance 1 from source

D

2

= Distance 2 from source

When producing radiographs, it is sometimes necessary to change the source-to-

film distance. Since the intensity of the source varies inversely with the square

of the distance from the source, the exposure must be adjusted. When the

exposure at one distance is known, this information can be used to calculate the

new exposure with the equation above. Since exposure is the product of time

and amperage, either of these variables can be substituted directly for exposure

in the equation.

Example 1) An exposure of 560 milliampere seconds produces an acceptable

radiograph at a source-to-film distance of 30 inches. What would the exposure

need to be if the source-to-film distance is decreased to 24 inches?

Solve the equation for E

2

, plug in known values, and solve.

Example 2) An exposure time of 1.86 minutes and an amperage of 5.6 mA

produces an acceptable radiograph at a source-to-film distance of 30 inches.

What would the exposure time need to be to produce a similar radiograph at a

source-to-film distance of 24 inches.

Solve for E

2

or in this case T

2

since only the exposure time will be adjusted.

Then plug in the known values and solve for the new exposure time.

Example 3) An exposure of 5.6 milliamperes with a 30 inch tube to film

distance produced a good radiograph. What would the milliamperes need to be,

if the tube to film distance is changed to 24 inches?

Solve for E

2

or in this case C

2

since only the exposure current will be adjusted.

Then plug in the known values and solve for the new exposure time.

In radiographic inspection, the radiation

spreads out as it travels away from the gamma

or X-ray source. Therefore, the intensity of the

radiation follows Newton's Inverse Square

Law. As shown in the image to the right, this

law accounts for the fact that the intensity of

radiation becomes weaker as it spreads out

from the source since the same about of

radiation becomes spread over a larger area.

The intensity is inversely proportional to the

distance from the source.

In industrial radiography, the intensity at one distance is typically known and it

is necessary to calculate the intensity at a second distance. Therefore, the

equation takes on the form of:

Where:

I

1

= Intensity 1 at D

1

I

2

= Intensity 2 at D

2

D

1

= Distance 1 from source

D

2

= Distance 2 from source

Note: This is the commonly found form of the equation. However, for some it

is easier to remember that the intensity time the distance squared at one location

is equal to the intensity time the distance squared at another location. The

equation in this form is:

I

1

x d

1

2

= I

2

x d

2

2

Example 1) Use Newton's Inverse Square Law to calculate the intensity of a

radioactive source at a different distance than the distance it was originally

measured. If the intensity of a Iridium 192 source was found to be 62

milliroentgen/hour 100 feet, what is the exposure at a distance of 1 foot.

Where:

I

1

= Intensity at D

1

I

2

= Intensity at D

2

D

1

= Distance 1

D

2

= Distance 2

Reworking the equation to solve for I

2

Substitute in the known values and solve for I

2

Example 2) A source is producing an intensity of 456 R/h at one foot from the

source. What would be the distance in feet to the 100, 5, and 2 mR/h

boundaries.

Convert Rem per hour to mRem per hour

456R/h x 1000 = 456,000 mR/h

Rework the equation to solve for D

2

Plug in the known values and solve

D

2

= 67.5 feet

Using this equation the 100mR/h boundary would be 68 feet, the 5mR/h

boundary would be 301.99 feet, and the 2mR/h boundary would be 477.5 feet.

Time-Current Reciprocity Calculations

Radiographic exposure is the product of the X-ray system current and the time

of the exposure. If it is necessary to change the current or the exposure time

while maintaining the overall exposure, the Law of Reciprocity can be used.

The equation for this specific case is:

Where: C

1

= Current 1

C

2

= Current 2

T

1

= Time at current 1

T

2

= Time at current 2

Example Calculation

An acceptable radiograph is produced using a current of 5mA and an exposure

time of 10 minutes. If it is necessary to use a current of 8mA instead of 10mA,

what does the new exposure time need to be to produce a similar radiograph?

First solve the equation for T

2

.

Substitute in the known values and solve.

Radiographic Inspection - Exposure-Density Relationship

When it is necessary to adjust the density of a radiography, a simple ratio can be

used to estimate the exposure necessary to produce the change. In the straight

line portion of the characteristic curves of many films, it can be seen that

doubling the exposure will produce a doubling of the film density. Therefore,

the following equation can be used to estimate the change in exposure needed to

produce a change in the film density. A more accurate calculation can be made

using the film characteristic curve and the characteristic curve must be used

when one exposure is outside the straight line portion of the curve.

Where: E

1

= Exposure 1

E

2

= Exposure 2

FD

1

= Film density at exposure 1

FD

2

= Film density at exposure 2

Example Calculation

If a exposure of 6.2 mA-minutes produces a film density of 1.5, what exposure

will produce a film density of approximately 2.5? Assume that both densities

fall on the straightened portion of the film characteristic curve.

Solve the equation for E

2

, substitute in known values and solve for E

2

.

Procedure for Using the Film Characteristic Curve to Adjust the Exposure

1. Locate the measured density (D

m

) on the

characteristic curve of film being used.

2. Record the relative exposure corresponding to

this density. Call this value E

m

.

3. Record the relative exposure that would produce

the target density. Call this value E

T

4. Compute the ratio R=E

M

/E

T

. This is the amount

the actual exposure needs to be adjusted to

produce the target density.

5. Compute the adjusted exposure by dividing the actual exposure used to

produce the initial radiograph by this ratio (E

a

= E

i

/R).

Magnification Calculations

Sometimes the distance between test specimen and image detector is increased

to obtain magnification in the

image. Magnification is especially

useful when parts being inspected

and their details are very small. The

farther the test specimen is from the

image detector, the greater the

magnification achieved. The

amount of magnification can be

calculated using the following

formula.

M = (a + b) / a

Where: M = magnification

a = distance from source to object

b = distance from object to detector

Example Calculation

Calculated the geometric magnification when the source to object distance is

80cm and the object to detector distance is 30cm.

M = (a + b) / a

M = (80cm + 30cm)/80cm

M = 1.375

Geometric Unsharpness Calculations

When performing an X-ray inspection, the geometric unsharpness of the

inspection setup needs to be taken into consideration, especially when using

geometric magnafication. The size of the X-ray tube focal-spot and the

magnification factors, namely the source-to-specimen and specimen-to-detector

distances, are used to calculate the geometric unsharpness of the inspection

setup. The allowable amount of unsharpness is controlled by specification

being followed. In general, the allowable amount is 1/100 of the material

thickness up to a maximum of 1mm (0.040 inch).

Geometric unsharpness or the size of the penumbra (Ug) shown in the image

above can be calculated using the following equation:

Ug = f * b/a

Where: f = X-ray generator focal-spot size.

a = distance from x-ray source to front surface of

material/object

b = distance from the material/object to the detector

When magnafication is not needed, the test specimen is usually placed as close

as possible to the detector and the source is placed some distance from the

sample to minimize the penumbra. A greater distance between the source and

the object will reduce geometric unsharpness. However, the intensity of the

source decreases as the distance increases. Therefore, the source should be

placed only as far away as necessary to control the penumbra. If the test object

is placed in direct contact with the detector (like is often done in film

radiograph) the following formula can be used that takes into account the

material thickness instead of the object-to-detector distance. This formula is:

Ug = f * t/d

Where: f = X-ray generator focal spot size

t = the thickness of the material

d = distance from x-ray source to front surface of

material/object

Example Calculation

Calculate the geometric unsharpness when using an X-ray generator with a

3mm spot size and the test component is 100 cm from the x-ray tube and 50 cm

from the detector.

First convert all lengths to like units. Then plug the known information into the

equation and solving for Ug.

Ug = f * b/a

Ug = 0.3cm * 50cm/100cm

Ug = 0.15cm

Defect Depth Calculation

The depth of a object such as a defect

can be determined by taking two

exposures with the source shifted in

second exposure. As shown in the

image, a marker is placed on the surface

of the component. Two radiographs are

produced with the alignment between the source and the specimen different for

each exposure. Using the following equation, the depth of the defect can be

determined by relating the shift of the defect to the shift in the marker in the two

radiographs.

Where: D = Defect depth

t = thickness of the component

S

D

= Shift of defect in the radiographs

S

M

= Shift of marker in the radiographs

Example Calculation

When radiographing a component with a thickness of 1.5 inches, a defect is

detected. A second radiograph is produced with sample shifted relative to the

center of the source cone beam. A penetrameter on the surface of the

component is found to shift 0.45 inch between the two radiographs. The defect

is found to shift 0.18 inch between the two radiographs. Determine the depth of

the defect.

Substitute known values into the equation and solve for defect depth.

Attenuation Calculation

The linear attenuation coefficient (m) describes the fraction of a beam of x-rays

or gamma rays that is absorbed or scattered per unit thickness of the

absorber. m basically accounts for the number of atoms in a cubic cm volume

of material and the probability of a photon being scattered or absorbed from the

nucleolus or an electron of one of these atoms. m is used in the following

equation to calculate the intensity of a narrow beam of penetrating radiation

after it has traveled a given distance in a material.

Where: I

x

=

the intensity of photons transmitted across some

distance x

I

0

= the initial intensity of photons

m = the linear attenuation coefficient

x = distance traveled

Using the transmitted intensity equation above, linear attenuation coefficients

can be used to make a number of calculations. These include:

the intensity of the energy transmitted through a material when the

incident x-ray intensity, the material and the material thickness are

known.

the intensity of the incident x-ray energy when the transmitted x-ray

intensity, material, and material thickness are known.

the thickness of the material when the incident and transmitted intensity,

and the material are known.

and the material can be determined be determined from the value

of m when the incident and transmitted intensity, and the material

thickness are known.

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