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6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1/31

Top left: Downtown Cairo; top right: Ibn Tulun Mosque;
middle: Cairo Citadel; bottom left: Nile Felucca; bottom middle:
Cairo Tower; bottom right: Muizz Street
Nickname(s): the city of a thousand minarets, capital
of the Arabic and Islamic world
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cairo (/karo/ KYE-roh ; Arabic: =Isl) is the capital
of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and
Africa. Its metropolitan area is the 16th largest in the
world. Located near the Nile Delta,
it was founded
in CE 969. Nicknamed "the city of a thousand
minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture,
Cairo has long been a center of the region's political
and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid
dynasty in the 10th century CE, but the land
composing the present-day city was the site of national
capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old
Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt as it
is close to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and
Fustat which are near the Great Sphinx and the
pyramids of Giza.
Egyptians today often refer to Cairo as Mar ([ms],
..), the Egyptian Arabic pronunciation of the name
for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's continued role in
Egyptian influence.
Its official name is =Isl al-
Qhirah , means literally "the Vanquisher" or "the
Conqueror"; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [elq()
he], sometimes it is informally also referred to as
,I Kayro [kjo].
It is also called Umm al-
Dunya, meaning "the mother of the world".
Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music
industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's
second-oldest institution of higher learning, al-Azhar
University. Many international media, businesses, and
organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the
Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most
of its existence.
With a population of 6.76 million
spread over 453
square kilometers (175 sq mi), Cairo is by far the
largest city in Egypt. With an additional 10 million
inhabitants just outside the city, Cairo resides at the
center of the largest metropolitan area in Africa and the
Arab World as well as the tenth-largest urban area in
the world. Cairo, like many other mega-cities, suffers
from high levels of pollution and traffic. Cairo's metro
one of only two metros on the African continent (the
Coordinates: 303N 3114E
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Egypt: site of Cairo (top center)
Coordinates: 303N 3114E
Country Egypt
Governorate Cairo
City 528 km2 (204 sq mi)
Urban 6,740 km2 (2,600 sq mi)
Metro 93,369 km2 (36,050 sq mi)
Elevation 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2011)
City 10,230,350
Density 19,376/km2 (50,180/sq mi)
Urban 18,290,000
Metro 20,439,541
Demonym Cairene
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Area code(s) (+20) 2
other the Algiers Metro)ranks among the fifteen
busiest in the world,
with over 1 billion
passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was ranked
first in the Middle East
and 43rd globally by
Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index.
1 History
1.1 Initial settlements
1.2 Foundation and expansion
1.3 Ottoman rule
1.4 Modern era
1.4.1 Cairo during 2011 Egyptian
1.5 Satellite cities
2 Geography
2.1 Climate
2.2 Division
3 Infrastructure
3.1 Health
3.2 Education
3.3 Transportation
3.4 Sports
4 Culture
4.1 Cairo Opera House
4.2 Khedivial Opera House
4.3 Cairo International Film Festival
4.4 Cairo Geniza
4.5 Religions
4.6 Nightlife
5 Economy
5.1 Cairo's automobile assembler and
6 Historical sites and landmarks
6.1 Tahrir Square
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Louis Comfort Tiffany (American,
1848-1933). On the Way between Old
and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of
Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the
Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas.
Brooklyn Museum
6.2 The Egyptian Museum
6.3 Cairo Tower
6.4 Old Cairo
6.5 Islamic Cairo
6.6 The Citadel of Cairo
6.7 Khan El-Khalili
7 Pollution
8 International relations
8.1 Twin towns Sister cities
8.1.1 Middle East
8.1.2 North America
8.1.3 Asia-Pacific
8.1.4 Europe
9 Famous people born in Cairo (Cairenes)
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 Further reading
14 External links
14.1 Photos and videos
Initial settlements
The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis, had long
been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just
upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city
is generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first
millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century,
as Memphis was
continuing to decline in importance,
the Romans established a
fortress town along the east bank of the Nile. This fortress, known as
Babylon, remains the oldest structure in the city. It is also situated at
the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from
the Roman and Byzantine church in the late 4th century. Many of
Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are
located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as
Coptic Cairo.
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A rendition of Fustat from
A. S. Rappoport's History of
Cairo map 1847
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the
late 19th century, was commissioned
by Saladin between 1176 and 1183
Foundation and expansion
In 969, the Fatimids were led by General
Gawhar al-Siqilli with his Kotama army,
establish a new capital for the Fatimid dynasty.
Egypt was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya
and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was
established. It took four years for Gawhar to
build the city, initially known as al-
which was to serve as the new
capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar
also commissioned the construction of al-Azhar
Mosque, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo
would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo
containing hundreds of thousands of books.
When Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din
Allah finally arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973,
he gave the city its present name, al-Qahira ("The Victorious").
For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat.
However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of Vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's
capture by the Crusaders.
Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, which was eventually
expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of al-Askar and al-Qatta'i. While the Fustat
fire successfully protected the city of Cairo, a continuing power struggle between Shawar, King Amalric I of
Jerusalem, and the Zengid general Shirkuh led to the downfall of the Fatimid establishment.
In 1169 Saladin was appointed as the new vizier of Egypt by the Fatimids and two years later he would seize
power from the family of the last Fatimid caliph, al-'id.
As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin established
the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad.
During his reign, Saladin also constructed the Cairo Citadel, which served as the seat of the Egyptian
government until the mid-19th century.
In 1250 slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks, seized control of
Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the
capital of their new dynasty. Continuing a practice started by the
Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was
sold and replaced by newer buildings.
Construction projects
initiated by the Mamluks pushed the city outward while also bringing
new infrastructure to the centre of the city.
Meanwhile, Cairo
flourished as a centre of Islamic scholarship and a crossroads on the
spice trade route among the civilisations in Afro-Eurasia. By 1340,
Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest
city west of China.
Ottoman rule
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Cairo in the 19th century
Although Cairo avoided Europe's stagnation during the Late Middle
Ages, it could not escape the Black Death, which struck the city more
than fifty times between 1348 and 1517.
During its initial, and
most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the
and, by the 15th century, Cairo's population had been
reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000.
The city's status was
further diminished after Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route around
the Cape of Good Hope, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid
Cairo's political influence diminished significantly after the
Ottomans supplanted Mamluk power over Egypt in 1517. Ruling
from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a mere
province, with Cairo as its capital.
For this reason, the history of Cairo during Ottoman times is often
described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods.
However, during the
16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre. Although no longer on the
spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, primarily to Anatolia,
North Africa, and the Balkans. Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz,
especially during the annual hajj to Mecca.
It was during this same period that al-Azhar University
reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today;
pilgrims on their way
to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt's body of
Islamic scholars.
By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower
floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to
Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel.
The city was the
second-largest in the empire, behind only Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source
of Cairo's growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious
minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean.
Still, when Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798,
the city's population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamlukand
Caireneinfluence in the mid-14th century.
The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizable Albanian
contingent, recaptured the country in 1801.
The British vacated Egypt two years later, leaving the
Ottomans, the Albanians, and the long-weakened Mamluks jostling for control of the country.
Continued civil war allowed an Albanian named Muhammad Ali Pasha to ascend to the role of commander
and eventually, with the approval of the religious establishment, viceroy of Egypt in 1805.
Modern era
Until his death in 1848, Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned
him the title of founder of modern Egypt.
However, while Muhammad Ali initiated the construction of
public buildings in the city,
those reforms had minimal effect on Cairo's landscape.
Bigger changes
came to Cairo under Isma'il Pasha (r. 18631879), who continued the modernisation processes started by his
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Nile view of Grand Hyatt
Cairo at night
William Holman Hunt, A
Street Scene in Cairo; The
Lantern-Maker's Courtship,
Tahrir Square in 1958
Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on
8 February 2011
grandfather. Drawing inspiration from Paris, Isma'il environs a city of maidans and wide avenues; due to
financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo, came to fruition.
Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighboring settlements, by establishing a
public works ministry, bringing gas and lighting to the city, and opening a theater and opera house.
The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's
projects provided a pretext for increasing
European control, which culminated with the
British invasion in 1882.
The city's
economic centre quickly moved west toward
the Nile, away from the historic Islamic
Cairo section and toward the contemporary,
European-style areas built by Isma'il.
Europeans accounted for five percent of
Cairo's population at the end of the 19th
century, by which point they held most top
governmental positions.
The British occupation was intended to be
temporary, but it lasted
well into the 20th
century. Nationalists
staged large-scale
demonstrations in Cairo
in 1919,
five years
after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate.
Nevertheless, while this led to Egypt's independence in
1922, British troops remained in the country until 1956.
During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges
and transport links, continued to expand to include the
upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City, Zamalek, and
Between 1882 and 1937, the population
of Cairo more than tripledfrom 347,000 to 1.3 million

and its area increased from 10 to 163 square kilometres (4 to

63 sq mi).
The city was devastated during the 1952 Cairo Fire, also known
as Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700
shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in Downtown
The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian
Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs
of abating. Seeking to accommodate the increasing population,
President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Midan Tahrir and the
Nile Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and
Meanwhile, additional controls of the Nile fostered
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A protester holding an Egyptian
flag during the protests that
started on 25 January 2011
development within Gezira Island and along the city's waterfront. The metropolis began to encroach on the
fertile Nile Delta, prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-
dwellers to move to them.
Despite these efforts, Cairo's population has doubled since the 1960s, reaching close to seven million (with an
additional ten million in its urban area). Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic
hub for North Africa and the Arab World, with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the
Arab League, operating out of the city.
In 1992, Cairo was hit by a damaging earthquake, that caused 545 deaths, 6512 injuries and left 50,000 people
Cairo during 2011 Egyptian revolution
Cairo's Tahrir Square was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian
Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.
Over 2 million
protesters at Cairo's Tahrir square. More than 50,000 protesters first
occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless
services were reported to be impaired.
In the following days Tahrir
Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo.
as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25
January 2011 and is still continuing as of February 2012. The uprising
was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a
series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour
strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and
religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly
peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes
between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and
6,000 injured. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other
cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian
president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak
resigned from office.
Satellite cities
6th of October City, west of Cairo, and New Cairo, east of Cairo, are major urban developments which have
been built to accommodate additional growth and development of the Cairo area.
New development
includes several high-end residential developments.
Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the
Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal.
The city is along
the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into
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Cairo's focal point, the Nile, adjacent
to the European-inspired districts near
the city's centre
The river Nile flows through Cairo,
here contrasting ancient customs of
daily life with the modern city of
Aerial view looking south, with the
Zamalek and Gezira districts on
Gezira Island, surrounded by the
the low-lying Nile Delta region. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions,
the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453
square kilometres (175 sq mi).
Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams,
levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly
susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Over the years, the
Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the
eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the
city now stands. The land on which Cairo was established in 969
(present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three
hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built.
Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to
the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first
appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland.
Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra district.
The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century
that now composes Zamalek and Gezira. Land reclamation efforts by
the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the
east bank of the river.
Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the cityGarden
City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalekare located closest to the
The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's
embassies, are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older
parts of the city. Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the
remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian
community, Coptic Cairo. The Boulaq district, which lies in the
northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port
and is now a major industrial centre. The Citadel is located east of the
city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid era
and the foundation of Cairo. While western Cairo is dominated by
wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European
influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the
centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and
Islamic architecture.
Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite
towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they
developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate
the city's rapid growth. The western bank of the Nile is commonly
included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of
Giza and the Giza Governorate. Giza has also undergone significant
expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb
of Cairo, has a population of 2.7 million.
The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan
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Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off
and annexed into the new governorate,
to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the
Cairo Governorate.
A panorama of the Nile showing Cairo tower in the middle and two major bridges on the far right and left
In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate (BWh according to the Kppen
climate classification system
), but often with high humidity due to the river valley's effects. Wind storms
can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April (see Khamasin).
High temperatures in winter range from 19 to 29 C (66 to 84 F), while night-time lows drop to below 11 C
(52 F), often to 5 C (41 F). In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 C (104 F), and lows drop to about
20 C (68 F). Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers do cause harsh
flooding. Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel, widely believed to be snow, fell on Cairo's
easternmost suburbs on 13 December 2013, the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in
many decades.
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Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Climate data for Cairo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high C
Average high C
Daily mean C (F)
Average low C
Record low C (F)
Precipitation mm
Avg. precipitation
days ( 0.01 mm)
3.5 2.7 1.9 0.9 0.5 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1.3 2.8 14.2
% humidity 59 54 53 47 46 49 58 61 60 60 61 61 56
Mean monthly
sunshine hours
213 234 269 291 324 357 363 351 311 292 248 198 3,451
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN) (19712000),
NOAA for mean, record high and low and humidity
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute for sunshine (19311960)
The Greater Cairo is the largest metropolitan area in Egypt and in Africa. It consists of Cairo Governorate,
parts of Giza Governorate, and parts of Qalyubia Governorate.
Cairo, as well as neighbouring, has been established as Egypt's main
centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the
most advanced level of medical care in the country. Cairo's hospitals
include the JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital
Corniche El Nile, Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350
beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar El Fouad Hospital, as well
as Kasr El Aini Hospital.
Greater Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational
services for Egypt and the region. Today, Greater Cairo is the centre
for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational
system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher learning institutes among other cities and
governorates of Egypt.
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Cairo University is the largest
university in Egypt, and is located in
The Universit Franaise d'gypte
Ain Shams University, College of
The Cairo Metro
Some of the International Schools found in Cairo:
Universities in Greater Cairo:
Date of
Al Azhar University 975
Cairo University 1908
American University in Cairo 1919
Ain Shams University 1950
Arab Academy for Science & Technology and
Maritime Transport
Helwan University 1975
Sadat Academy for Management Sciences 1981
Higher Technological Institute 1989
Modern Academy In Maadi 1993
Misr International University 1996
Misr University for Science and Technology 1996
Modern Sciences and Arts University 1996
Universit Franaise d'gypte 2002
German University in Cairo 2003
Arab Open University 2003
Canadian International College 2004
British University in Egypt 2005
Ahram Canadian University 2005
Nile University 2006
Future University in Egypt 2006
Cairo has an extensive road
network, rail system, subway
system and maritime services.
Road transport is facilitated
by personal vehicles, taxi
cabs, privately owned public
buses and Cairo microbuses.
Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire
Egyptian transportation network.
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Nasr city Autostrade
Cairo Taxi
Cairo yellow Taxi
Cairo Transport Authority
The subway system, officially called "Metro (..)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Metro
network covers Helwan and other suburbs. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the
fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want.
Trams in Greater Cairo (Heliopolis and Nasr City) exists now, while Cairo trolleybus was closed.
An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities
and villages. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of
the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. There are flyovers
and bridges, such as the Sixth of October bridge that, when the traffic
is not heavy, allow fast
means of transportation from one side of
the city to the other.
Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.
Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Drivers tend to be aggressive,
but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police
aiding in traffic control of some congested areas.
On 25 October 2009 a passenger train ran into another one near Giza,
just outside Cairo.
Local news agencies reported at least 25 people
A local resident, Samhi Saleh Abdel Al, told reporters that
"the first train stopped after hitting a cow and 10 minutes later the
second train arrived at full speed."
One of the two trains was
travelling from Cairo to Assiut, while the other was said to have been
en route to Fayoum from Giza.
Around 55 people were
Cairo International Airport
Ramses Railway Station
Cairo Tram
Cairo Transportation
Authority CTA
Cairo Taxi/Yellow Cab
Cairo Metro
Cairo Nile Ferry
Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national
and regional leagues. The best known teams are Al-Ahly, El Zamalek and Wadi Degla. Al-Ahly and El
Zamalek annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt as well as the African-
Arab region. Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second
champions in Africa and the Arab World. They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser
Stadium, which is Egypt's 2nd largest stadium, Cairo's largest one and one of the largest stadiums in the world.
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Cairo International Stadium with
75,100 seats
The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main
football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global
games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums
scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January 2006. Egypt later won the
competition and went on to win the next edition In Ghana (2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national
teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back
which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six
times in the history of African Continental Competition. This was
followed by a third consecutive win in Angola 2010, making Egypt
the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental
Football Competition winner. This achievement had also placed the
Egyptian football team as the #12 best team in the world's FIFA
Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer
Olympic Games, which was hosted in Beijing, China. However,
Cairo did host the 2007 Pan Arab Games.
There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in
several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several
smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt (not in area but in sports) are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek. They
have the two biggest football teams in Egypt.
Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian
Football Association. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was previously
located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's
crowded districts.
On October 2008, the Egyptian Rugby Federation was officially formed and granted membership into the
International Rugby Board.
Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and
junior divisions. Gizira Club in Zamalek is where former world #1 Amr Shabana and former world #1 Karim
Darwish practice. The Heliopolis Club in Heliopolis is the home of current world #1 Ramy Ashour and his
brother, world #24, Hisham Ashour. Other major squash-playing venues are The Shooting Club (Nadi el
Seid) in Dokki, The Maadi Club in Maadi and Wadi Degla in Degla.
Over the ages, and as far back as four thousand years, Egypt stood as the land where many civilizations have
met. The Pharaohs together with the Greeks, Babylonians and the Romans have left their imprints here.
Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula, led by Amr ibn al-A'as, introduced Islam into Egypt. Khedive
Mohammad Ali, with his Albanian family roots, put Egypt on the road to modernity. The cultural mixture in
this city is only natural, considering its heritage. Egypt can be likened to an open museum with monuments of
the different historical periods on display everywhere.
Cairo Opera House
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Khedivial Opera House 1869
President Mubarak inaugurated the new Cairo Opera House of the Egyptian National Cultural Centres on 10
October 1988, 17 years after the Royal Opera House had been destroyed by fire. The National Cultural Centre
was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent
feature for the Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the friendship between these two nations.
Khedivial Opera House
The Khedivial Opera House or Royal Opera House was the original
opera house in Cairo, Egypt. It was dedicated on 1 November 1869
and burned down on 28 October 1971. After the original opera house
was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two
decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in 1988.
Cairo International Film Festival
Egypt's love of the arts in general can be traced back to the rich
heritage bequeathed by the Pharaohs. In modern times, Egypt has enjoyed a strong cinematic tradition since
the art of filmmaking was first developed, early in the 20th century. A natural progression from the active
theatre scene of the time, cinema rapidly evolved into a vast motion picture industry. This together with the
much older music tradition, raised Egypt to become Hollywood Middle East and the cultural capital of the
Arab world.
For more than 500 years of recorded history, Egypt has fascinated the West and inspired its creative talents
from play writer William Shakespeare, poet and dramatist John Dryden, and novelist and poet Lawrence
Durrell to film producer Cecil B. DeMille. Since the silent movies Hollywood has been capitalising on the
box-office returns that come from combining Egyptian stories with visual effects.
Egypt has also been a fount of Arabic literature, producing some of the 20th century's greatest Arab writers
such as Taha Hussein and Tawfiq al-Hakim to Nobel Laureate, novelist Naguib Mahfouz. Each of them has
written for the cinema.
With these credentials, it was clear that Cairo should aim to hold an international film festival. This dream
came true on Monday 16 August 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival was launched by the
Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. The Association ran the
festival for seven years until 1983.
This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a
competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. The request was granted.
In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who
was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba.
Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president.
For 33 years The International Festival has awarded dozens of international superstars, including John
Malkovich, Nicolas Cage, Morgan Freeman, Bud Spencer, Gina Lollobrigida, Ornella Muti, Sophia Loren,
Claudia Cardinale, Victoria Abril, Elizabeth Taylor, Shashi Kapoor, Alain Delon, Goldie Hawn, Kurt Russell,
Susan Sarandon, Greta Scacchi, Catherine Deneuve, Peter O'Toole, Charlize Theron, Julia Ormond, Mira
Sorvino, Stuart Townsend, Alicia Silverstone, Priscilla Presley, Christopher Lee, Irene Papas, Marcello
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Solomon Schechter studying
documents from the Cairo Geniza,
c. 1895
Mastroianni, Salma Hayek, Lucy Liu, Samuel L. Jackson, Tom Berenger and Omar Sharif, as well as
directors like Robert Wise, Elia Kazan, Vanessa Redgrave, Oliver Stone, Roland Joff, Carlos Saura, Ismail
Merchant and Michelangelo Antonioni, in an annual celebration and examination of the state of cinema in the
world today. The presidents of the Festival since it was founded in 1976 are Saad El-Din Wahba, Hussein
Fahmy and Sherif El Shoubashy. This year the festival a milestone of 30 years in an annual celebration and
examination of the state of cinema in the world today.
Cairo Geniza
The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish
manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue
(built 882) of Fustat, Egypt (now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east
of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo
in the later 19th century. These documents were written from about 870
to as late as 1880 AD and have now been archived in various American
and European libraries. The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University
of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts, a further 40,000 manuscripts
are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.
Most residents are Sunni Muslim. Al-Azhar University is the leading
authority of Sunni Islam. The number of mosques in the city is growing.
Most Christians are Copts. Until his death in March 2012, Pope
Shenouda III of Alexandria was the leader of the Coptic Orthodox
Church, whose residence is in Cairo. Cairo has several synagogues, but
only few Jews remain after Israel was established, and persecution
intensified. Tension between members of different religions has increased recently.
Cairo was ranked as the "world's most 24-hour city"
in a 2011 study conducted by the social networking
site Badoo, placing it well ahead of other famous big cities such as New York, London or Paris. The study's
rankings were determined by measuring the amount of online activity at night versus during the day and by
comparing peak-times for such activity in cities across the world.
Cairo's highly nocturnal lifestyle is
attributed not only to young people in nightclubs but also to the importance of cafs, which remain very active
at night as social gathering places to smoke shisha, and even to the late-night public activeness of families with
In October 2012, the Egyptian government under Mohammed Morsi even proposed a law forcing shops,
restaurants and cafs to close by midnight in order to reduce the country's energy consumption and increase
productivity. The proposal was widely debated and criticized in Egyptian society and media, with some
accusing the government of ideological motivations and many others calling the ban impracticable and unfair
to poorer businesses.
The application of the law was subsequently postponed by the government.
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 16/31
Parisian styled buildings in downtown
Cairo. In the centre is the statue of
Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the
modern Egyptian economy.
Cairo is also in every respect the centre of Egypt, as it has been almost
since its founding in 969 AD. The majority of the nation's commerce
is generated there, or passes through the city. The great majority of
publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all film studios are
there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. This
has fueled rapid construction in the cityone building in five is less
than 15 years old.
This astonishing growth until recently surged well ahead of city
services. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were
all suddenly in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of
the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".
Cairo's automobile assembler and manufacturer
Arab American Vehicles Company
Egyptian Light Transport Manufacturing Company (Egyptian NSU pedant)
Ghabbour Group
(Fuso, Hyundai and Volvo)
MCV Corporate Group
(a part of the Daimler AG)
Mod Car
Seoudi Group
(Modern Motors: Nissan, BMW (formerly); El-Mashreq: Alfa Romeo and Fiat)
(former Daewoo Motors Egypt; Chery, Daewoo)
General Motors Egypt
Historical sites and landmarks
For a complete list, see Visitor attractions in Cairo, list of mosques
Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. It
was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new
downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 the square became
widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square, though it was not officially renamed as such until after the 1952
Revolution which eliminated the monarchy. Several notable buildings surround the square including, the
American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the
headquarters of the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. Being at the heart of
Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. However, the most notable event in the
square was being the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.
The Egyptian Museum
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Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum
Interior Egyptian Museum.
Cairo Tower
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most
extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. It has 136,000 items on display, with many
more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Among its most famous collections on display are the
finds from the Tomb of Tutankhamun.
Cairo Tower
The Cairo Tower is a free-standing tower with a revolving
restaurant at the top. It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo to the
restaurant patrons. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira
Island in the Nile River, in the city centre. At 187 meters, it is 43
meters higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some
15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest.
Old Cairo
This area of Cairo is so-named as it contains the remains
of the ancient Roman fortress of Babylon and also
overlaps the original site of Fustat, the first Arab
settlement in Egypt (7th century AD) and the predecessor
of later Cairo. The area is also known as Coptic Cairo as
it holds a high concentration of old Christian churches
including the Hanging Church, the Greek Orthodox
Church of St. George, and other Christian or Coptic
buildings, most of which are located over the site of the
ancient Roman fortress. It is also the location of the
Coptic Museum, which showcases the history of Coptic
art from Greco-Roman to Islamic times, and of the Ben
Ezra Synagogue, the oldest and best-known synagogue
in Cairo, where the important collection of Geniza documents were
discovered in the 19th century.
To the north of this Coptic enclave is the
Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt and the most important
religious center of former Fustat, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab
conquest but rebuilt many times since.
Islamic Cairo
Cairo holds one of the greatest concentrations of historical monuments of
Islamic architecture in the world.
The areas around the old walled city and
around the Citadel are characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs,
madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from the Islamic
era and are often referred to as "Islamic Cairo", especially in English travel
It is also the location of several important religious shrines such
as the al-Hussein Mosque (whose shrine is believed to hold the head of Husayn ibn Ali), the Mausoleum of
Imam al-Shafi'i (founder of the Shafi'i madhhab, one of the primary schools of thought in Sunni Islamic
jurisprudence), the Tomb of Sayyida Ruqayya, the Mosque of Sayyida Nafisa, and others.
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 18/31
The streets of Islamic Cairo, adorned
by Islamic architecture, are narrower
and older than those in the city centre
Al-Azhar Mosque; Fatimid
courtyard and Mamluk minarets.
A medieval gate, Bab al-Ghuri, in
the Khan el-Khalili market.
While the first mosque in Egypt
was the Mosque of Amr ibn al-
As in Fustat, the Mosque of Ibn
Tulun is the oldest mosque to
retain its original form and is a
rare example of Abbasid
architecture, from the classical
period of Islamic civilization. It
was built in 876-879 AD in a
style inspired by the Abbasid
capital of Samarra in Iraq.
is one of the largest mosques in
Cairo and is often cited as one of
the most beautiful.
Another Abbasid construction, the Nilometer on Rhoda Island, is the
oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. It was designed to
measure the level of the Nile, which was important for agricultural and
administrative purposes.
The city named Cairo (Arabic: al-Qahira) was founded to the northeast
of Fustat in 959 AD by the victorious Fatimid army. The Fatimids built a
separate palatial city which contained their palaces and institutions of
government. It was enclosed by a circuit of walls, which were rebuilt in
stone in the late 11th century AD by the vizir Badr al-Gamali,
of which survive today at Bab Zuwayla in the south and Bab al-Futuh
and Bab al-Nasr in the north.
One of the most important and lasting institutions founded in the Fatimid
period was the Mosque of al-Azhar, founded in 970 AD, which
competes with the Qarawiyyin in Fes for the title of oldest university in
the world.
Today, al-Azhar University is the foremost center of
Islamic learning in the world and one of Egypt's largest universities with
campuses across the country.
The mosque itself retains significant
Fatimid elements but has been added to and expanded in subsequent
centuries, notably by the Mamluk sultans Qaitbay and al-Ghuri and by
Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda in the 18th century.
Other extant monuments from the Fatimid era include the large Mosque of al-Hakim, the al-Aqmar mosque,
and the Mosque of Salih Tala'i.
The most prominent architectural heritage of medieval Cairo, however, dates from the Mamluk period, from
1250 to 1517 AD. The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life,
commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa,
khanqah (for Sufis), water distribution centers (sabils), and mausoleum for themselves and their families.
Among the best-known examples of Mamluk monuments in Cairo are the huge Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan
Hasan, the Mosque of Amir al-Maridani, the Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (whose twin minarets were built
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 19/31
above the gate of Bab Zuwayla), the Sultan Al-Ghuri complex, the funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay in the
Northern Cemetery, and the trio of monuments in the Bayn al-Qasrayn area comprising the complex of Sultan
al-Mansur Qalawun, the Madrasa of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the Madrasa of Sultan Barquq.
The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans, also built wikalas or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due
to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy.
The most famous example still intact
today is the Wikala al-Ghuri, which nowadays also hosts regular performances by the Al-Tannoura Egyptian
Heritage Dance Troupe.
The famous Khan al-Khalili (see below) is a commercial hub which also
integrated caravanserais (also known as khans).
Ibn Tulun Mosque,
courtyard and minaret

The courtyard of the
Sultan Hassan mosque-

Bab Zuweila, a Fatimid
gate with the Mamluk
minarets of the Mosque
of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad
on top.

Sultan al-Ghuri
complex, with
mausoleum and
khanqah on the left,
and madrasa on the

The dome of Sultan
Qaytbay's mausoleum.

The Qalawun
mausoleum complex at
Bayn al-Qasrayn.
The Citadel of Cairo
The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Salah al-Din in 1176 AD on an outcrop of the Muqattam Hills as
part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo to the north and Fustat to the southwest.
It was the
center of Egyptian government and residence of its rulers until 1874, when Khedive Isma'il moved to 'Abdin
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 20/31
the Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of
Muhammad Ali above Cairo.
It is still occupied by the military today, but is now open as a tourist attraction comprising,
notably, the National Military Museum, the 14th century Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the 19th
century Mosque of Muhammad Ali which commands a dominant position on Cairo's skyline.
Khan El-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace. It
dates back to 1385, when Amir Jarkas el-Khalili built a
large caravanserai, or khan. (A caravanserai is a hotel for
traders, and usually the focal point for any surrounding
area.) This original carvanserai building was demolished
by Sultan al-Ghuri, who rebuilt it as a new commercial
complex in the early 16th century, forming the basis for
the network of souqs existing today.
Many medieval
elements remain today, including the ornate Mamluk-
style gateways.
Today, the Khan el-Khalili is a
major tourist attraction and popular stop for tour
Cairo is an expanding city, which has led to many environmental problems. The air pollution in Cairo is a
matter of serious concern. Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other
similar cities.
Air quality measurements in Cairo have also been recording dangerous levels of lead,
carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and suspended particulate matter concentrations due to decades of
unregulated vehicle emissions, urban industrial operations, and chaff and trash burning. There are over
4,500,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern
emission cutting features like catalytic converters. Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of lack of
rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. In recent years, a mysterious
black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) appeared over Cairo every Autumn and causes serious respiratory
diseases and eye irritations for the city's citizens. Tourists who are not familiar with such high levels of
pollution must take extra care.
Cairo also has many unregistered lead and copper smelters which heavily pollute the city. The results of this
has been a permanent haze over the city with particulate matter in the air reaching over three times normal
levels. It is estimated that 10,000 to 25,000 people a year in Cairo die due to air pollution-related diseases.
Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in
In 1995, the first environmental acts were introduced and the situation has seen some
improvement with 36 air monitoring stations and emissions tests on cars. Twenty thousand buses have also
been commissioned to the city to improve congestion levels, which are very high.
The city also suffers from a high level of land pollution. Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each
day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. This once again is a huge health hazard and the
Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. The Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency was
founded to collect and recycle the waste; however, they also work with the Zabbaleen (or Zabaleen), a
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/31
community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's waste since the turn of the 20th century and live in
an area known locally as Manshiyat naser.
Both are working together to pick up as much waste as
possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem.
The city also suffers from water pollution as the sewer system tends to fail and overflow. On occasion, sewage
has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer
system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. The dangerously high
levels of mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks.
International relations
Twin towns Sister cities
Cairo is twinned with:
Middle East
Amman, Jordan (1988)
Beirut, Lebanon
North America
New York City, United States (1982)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (1989)
Beijing, China (1990)
Xi'an, China (1997)
Tokyo, Japan (1990)
Seoul, South Korea (1997)
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 22/31
Frankfurt, Germany (1979)
Stuttgart, Germany (1979)
Paris, France (1985)
Istanbul, Turkey (1988)
Barcelona, Spain (1992)
Minsk, Belarus (1998)
Moscow, Russia
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (2006)
Famous people born in Cairo (Cairenes)
Abu Sa'id al-Afif, 15th century Samaritian
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, former Secretary-General of the United Nations
Naguib Mahfouz, novelist, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988
Mohamed ElBaradei, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005 Nobel
Peace Prize laureate
Dalida, Italian-Egyptian singer who lived most of her life in France, received 55 golden records and was
the first singer to receive a diamond disc
Yasser Arafat (19292004), Founder and first president of the Palestine Liberation Organization
Sir Magdi Yacoub (1935), world-famous cardiothoracic surgeon
Dorothy Hodgkin, British chemist, credited with the development of protein crystallography, Nobel
Prize in Chemistry in 1964
Naguib Sawiris, 62nd richest person on earth in 2007 list of billionaires, reaching US$10.0 billion with
his company Orascom Telecom Holding
Sherif Sonbol (1956), chief photographer of the Cairo Opera House and Al Ahram Weekly, book
author, first Egyptian photographer whose work has been subject of an exhibit at New York's Lincoln
Constantin Xenakis (1931), Greek artist
Ekmeleddin hsanolu, Turkish professor and the secretary general of the Organisation of Islamic
Voula Zouboulaki (1931), Greek actress
Raffi Cavoukian (1948), Canadian children's singer
Umar al-Tilmisani, 3rd General Guide (Murshid al-'Am) of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers
Alaa Abdelnaby, NBA player for the Portland Trail Blazers, Milwaukee Bucks, Boston Celtics,
Philadelphia 76ers, and the Sacramento Kings
Nora Valsami (1945), Greek actress
Maryem Tollar, Egyptian singer who primarily sings Arabic songs.
Yakup Kadri Karaosmanolu, Turkish novelist
Sonja Zuckerman, socialite and philanthropist known for her charitable contribution to women's shelter
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 23/31
and homeless organisation,Richest woman in Egypt net worth of $5.3 billion
Mose Rahmani (1944), Belgian author
Antigone Costanda, Miss Egypt World 1954, Miss World 1954
See also
Charles Ayrout
Large Cities Climate Leadership Group
List of buildings in Cairo
List of cities in Egypt
Meir'enaim Synagogue
The Townhouse Gallery
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id=INsmT6zjAl8C&printsec=frontcover) (2nd ed.). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09626-4.
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Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32492-1.
Collins, Robert O. (2002). The Nile (illustrated ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-
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Further reading
Collins, Robert O. (2002). The Nile (illustrated ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-
Daly, M. W.; Petry, Carl F. (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt: Islamic Egypt, 640-1517. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47137-0.
Glass, Cyril; Smith, Huston (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd revised ed.). Singapore: Tien Wah
Press. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
Golia, Maria (2004). Cairo: city of sand (
Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-187-7.
Hawass, Zahi A.; Brock, Lyla Pinch (2003). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: Archaeology
(2nd ed.). Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 977-424-674-8.
Hourani, Albert Habib; Khoury, Philip Shukry; Wilson, Mary Christina (2004). The Modern Middle East: A
Reader (2nd ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-963-7.
nalck, Halil; Faroqhi, Suraiya; Quataert, Donald; McGowan, Bruce; Pamuk, Sevket (1997). An Economic and
Social History of the Ottoman Empire (illustrated, reprinted ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-57455-2.
McGregor, Andrew James (2006). A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the
Ramadan War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98601-2.
Meri, Josef W.; Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 0-415-96692-2.
Raymond, Andr (2000). Cairo. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00316-0.
Sanders, Paula (2008). Creating Medieval Cairo: Empire, Religion, and Architectural Preservation in Nineteenth-
Century Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 977-416-095-9.
Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-57958-453-5.
Shoshan, Boaz (2002). David Morgan, ed. Popular Culture in Medieval Cairo. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-89429-8.
Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the
Ottoman Empire (illustrated ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-96891-X.
Winter, Michael (1992). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 15171798. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-
Winter, Michael (2004). Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule, 15171798. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-
Nezar AlSayyad. Cairo: Histories of a City (Harvard University Press; 2011) 260 pages; Explores 12 defining
moments in the city's architectural history
Artemis Cooper, Cairo in the War, 19391945, Hamish Hamilton, 1989 / Penguin Book, 1995. ISBN 0-14-
024781-5 (Pbk)
Andr Raymond, Cairo, trans. Willard Wood. Harvard University Press, 2000.
Max Rodenbeck, Cairo the City Victorious, Picador, 1998. ISBN 0-330-33709-2 (Hbk) ISBN 0-330-33710-6
Wahba, Magdi (1990). Cairo Memories" in Studies in Arab History: The Antonius Lectures, 197887. Edited by
6/11/2014 Cairo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 30/31
External links
Cairo City Government (
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Wahba, Magdi (1990). Cairo Memories" in Studies in Arab History: The Antonius Lectures, 197887. Edited by
Derek Hopwood. London: Macmillan Press.
"Rescuing Cairo's Lost Heritage"
heritage.html). Islamica Magazine (15). 2006. Archived from the original
( on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 6
December 2006.
Peter Theroux, Cairo: Clamorous heart of Egypt National Geographic Magazine April 1993
Cynthia Myntti, Paris Along the Nile: Architecture in Cairo from the Belle Epoque, American University in Cairo
Press, 2003.
Cairo's belle poque architects 1900 1950 (, by Samir Raafat.
Antonine Selim Nahas (, one of city's major belle poque (19001950) architects.
Nagib Mahfooz novels, all tell great stories about Cairo's deep conflicts.
Paulina B. Lewicka, Food and Foodways of Medieval Cairenes: Aspects of Life in an Islamic Metropolis of the
Eastern Mediterranean (Leiden, Brill, 2011).
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