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lnstrumentation
& Medical Llectronics
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JOURNAL II
With Analog Devices ICs inside their designs, medical engineers are
dramatically improving the diagnostic experience for patients and
practitioners everywhere. That’s because ADI offers an industry-
leading portfolio of standard and application-tuned amplifiers, data
converters, microcontrollers, MEMS, low drop out regulators, and
digital isolators with unequaled performance, size, cost, and power
advantages. From imaging to monitoring to instrumentation, from
medical to consumer to communications—wherever user experience
defines the design, ADI is there.
To experience what Analog Devices ICs can do for your designs, visit
www.analog.com/medical-ad1-EU.
User experience defines the design;
ADI defines the possibilities
ICs that enable world-class diagnostics
for any patient, anywhere.
AD9271: 8-Channel Ultrasound Receiver
Combined LNA, VGA, AAF, ADC blocks reduce signal path
size by 50%, power by 25%. Enables a new level of patient
care with accurate images in battery-powered equipment
for nontraditional environments.
AD8339: Doppler Phase Shifter
Replaces crosspoint switches and analog delay lines,
saving up to 75% of board space, 30% of power
consumption. Allows increased channel density and
CW Doppler capabilities in portable equipment.
AD7982: 1 MSPS, 18-Bit, 7 mW ADC
Combines high accuracy, 95% less power, 80% less
space than other ADCs. Enables patients to carry their
cell-phone sized heart monitor all day long during their
hospital recovery.
ADuM240x: iCoupler
®
4-Channel Digital Isolator
Replaces optocouplers with an integrated solution to
reduce costs and space up to 60%. Multiple channels of
5 kV reinforced insulation in a single package simplifies
design, improves reliability. Approved for medical grade
isolation per IEC 60601-1.
Our newest medical innovations
ADI is a member of Continua Health Alliance, an international group of technology,
medical device, and health and fitness industry leaders, dedicated to making
personal telehealth a reality.
www.analog.com/medical-ad1-EU
Tel: +44 (0)1932 358 530
E-mail: newsletters@analog.com
©2008 Analog Devices, Inc. Product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their
respective owners.
We|coæe to tbe secord ed|t|or of Iecbro|oov f|rst, Preæ|er farre||'s faosb|p tecbr|ca| æaoaz|re.
Th- na,azin- is d-si,n-d :o al-r: you :o :h- la:-s: advanc-s in :-chnolo,y [ron around :h- world, and
:o k--¡ you abr-as: o[ :h- la:-s: innova:ions [ron Ir-ni-r Farn-ll con¡ani-s :o sa:is[y :h- n--ds o[
-l-c:ronics d-si,n -n,in--rs ,lobally.
Th-r- hav- b--n nany -xci:in, n-w s-rvic-s o[[-r-d by Ir-ni-r Farn-ll sinc- :h- las: issu-. Th- la:-s:
and nos: -xci:in, n-w s-rvic- con-s [ron our n-wly o¡-n-d Global T-chnolo,y C-n:r- (GTC) wi:h
[acili:i-s in India and China. Th- GTC will add ano:h-r din-nsion o[ advanc-d :-chnical su¡¡or: :o our
nul:ichann-l, nul:idin-nsion :-chnical ca¡abili:i-s Fx¡-ri-nc-d a¡¡lica:ion -n,in--rs, s¡-cializin,
in nany :-chnolo,y s-,n-n:s a: :h- GTC, will b-,in :o roll ou: nany n-w and uniqu- :-chnical s-rvic-s
:o our cus:on-rs, and will au,n-n: our -xis:in, r-,ional :-chnical su¡¡or: in[ras:ruc:ur- :o ¡rovid-
around:h-clock :-chnical su¡¡or: :o cus:on-rs worldwid-. Mcrc ir[crrviicr cr i|c IrJivr vrJ C|ircsc
GTCs .vr |c [cvrJ cr )vqc .8.
Our ,lobal :-chnolo,y d-si,n con:-s:, Liv- Fd,-, has -n:-r-d i:s s-cond y-ar and w- hav- add-d an -x:ra
ca:-,ory [or s:ud-n:s. Vi:h :h- abili:y :o r-:ain II ri,h:s, a ,-n-rous cash ¡riz- and h-l¡ :o ,-: :h- d-si,n
in:o ¡roduc:ion, :h-r-'s no r-ason no: :o -n:-r. Vha:'s nor-, you will also b- h-l¡in, :h- -nvironn-n:
a: :h- san- :in-. Mcrc Jcivi|s vrc cr )vqc ·..
Th- :h-n- o[ :his issu- is Irsirvrcriviicr vrJ McJi.v| E|c.ircri.s. This is on- o[ :h- [as:-s: ,rowin, ar-as
o[ :h- -l-c:ronics indus:ry, and all o[ :h- naior con¡on-n: nanu[ac:ur-rs hav- d-v-lo¡-d nany n-w
¡roduc:s in :his s¡-cihc s-,n-n:. Th- Mark-:wa:ch colunn on ¡a,- 6 :ak-s an ind-¡:h look a: :h-
¡o:-n:ial siz- o[ :h- nark-:, and a: son- o[ :h- :-chnolo,i-s :ha: hav- :h- b-s: chanc- o[ succ--din,.
Ins:run-n:a:ion and M-dical Fl-c:ronics is an anbi:ious subi-c: :o cov-r in on- issu-, d-vic-s in :his
nark-: ran,- [ron -x:r-n-ly hi,h ¡-r[ornanc- ,ra¡hical nani¡ula:ion in a¡¡lica:ions, such as MII
scann-rs :o ¡or:abl- wir-l-ss d-vic-s, as w-ll as hi,hly ru,,-diz-d ins:run-n:s. I :hink :h- issu- cov-rs
:h- whol- s¡-c:run o[ -l-c:ronics and :h-r- should b- son-:hin, [or -v-ryon-, wh-:h-r you ar- dir-c:ly
conn-c:-d :o :h-s- :wo h-lds or no:.
And hnally, w- had son- r-ally ,r-a: [--dback [ron our hrs: -di:ion, so :hank you :o all who wro:- in.
V- lov- :o h-ar wha: you :hink o[ :h- na,azin-, and i: h-l¡s us brin, you :h- na:-rial you r-ally wan:
:o s--. So k--¡ wri:in, in :o ZY^idg5egZb^Zg[VgcZaa#Xdb.
David Sh-n
Global H-ad, T-chnical Mark-:in,, Ir-ni-r Farn-ll
Printed on papers produced from renewable resource wood (sustainable
forests). Please recycle after use.
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CON1LN1S
HVciV8aVgV!86 Na:ional
S-niconduc:or has -s:ablish-d a s-:
o[ Iow-rVis- n-:rics :o h-l¡ sys:-n
d-si,n-rs -asily con¡ar- and s-l-c:
-n-r,y-[hci-n: analo, con¡on-n:s
and subsys:-ns. D-¡-ndin, on
:h- :y¡- o[ IC, Na:ional us-d
¡roduc:s¡-cihc, ¡rac:ical [ornulas
incor¡ora:in, -n,in--rin,
n-asur-n-n:s :o d-:-rnin- -ach
-[hci-ncy s¡-cihca:ion [or .¡
¡roduc: [anili-s.
BVakZgc!E6 Vishay
In:-r:-chnolo,y's n-w :oroidal, hi,h
curr-n:, hi,h:-n¡-ra:ur- induc:or
o[[-rs wha: :h- con¡any clains
is :h- indus:ry's hi,h-s: ra:-d and
sa:ura:ion curr-n:, and :h- indus:ry's
low-s: induc:anc- and DCI. Vi:h a
hi,h o¡-ra:in, :-n¡-ra:ur- ra:in,
:o +.oo`C and a :oroidal d-si,n :o
r-duc- FMI, :h- Tl¸HT induc:or is
o¡:iniz-d [or nany a¡¡lica:ions.
@ndid!?VeVc IOHM launch-d an
IC chi¡ which in:-,ra:-d nonvola:il-
lo,ic circui:ry in :h- r-,is:-r. Th-
con¡any's n-w [-rro-l-c:ric s-¡ara:-
s:ruc:ur-, conbin-d wi:h ori,inal
:-chnolo,y allows :h- r-,is:-r :o b-
nad- nonvola:il- wi:hou: harnin,
:h- lo,ic ¡-r[ornanc- or r-liabili:y
o[ :h- IC.
;jZghiZc[ZaYWgjX`!<ZgbVcn
Fairchild S-niconduc:or has
d-v-lo¡-d a ¡ow-r su¡¡ly r-[-r-nc-
d-si,n, which shows how :h-
conbina:ion o[ :h- con¡any's Gr--n
FIS ¡ow-r swi:ch and Iow-rSIM
cr-a:-s a d-si,n wi:h -[hci-ncy a:
nor- :han o.` ¡-rc-n:, -xc--din,
:h- 8` -[hci-ncy :ar,-: ¡ro¡os-d by
:h- FuI.
HjccnkVaZ!86 Maxin's +Vir-
s-cur- n-nory d-vic-s hav- b--n
chos-n by Al:-ra [or a s-curi:y
solu:ion [or :h- Al:-ra Cyclon- III and
Cyclon- II FIGA [anili-s. Maxin's
s-cur- n-nory d-vic-s incor¡ora:-
bo:h :h- S-cur- Hash Al,ori:hn
(SHA+), and :h- cos:-[[-c:iv- +Vir-
in:-r[ac-.
<ZcZkV!Hl^ioZgaVcY!VcY
:^cY]dkZc!I]ZCZi]ZgaVcYh
NXI and STMicro-l-c:ronics will
[orn a ioin:v-n:ur- con¡any, which
will b- ¡osi:ion-d [or UMTS as w-ll
as o:h-r c-llular, nul:in-dia and
conn-c:ivi:y ca¡abili:i-s. Th- lV will
in:-,ra:- :h- Silicon Labora:ori-s'
wir-l-ss and GloNav's GIS o¡-ra:ions
r-c-n:ly acquir-d by NXI.
Id`nd!?VeVc Sanyo and
Volkswa,-n AG will d-v-lo¡ li:hiun
ion ba::-ri-s [or hybrid v-hicl-s.
Sanyo will inv-s: 8o billion y-n (USD
.6oM) :o -x¡and ¡roduc:ion by
.o+· o[ such ba::-ri-s, wi:h ¡lans :o
s:ar: nass ¡roducin, :h-n by n-x:
y-ar.
8VbWg^Y\Z!J@ Canbrid,-
Consul:an:s d-nons:ra:-d i:s
'V-na' ¡la:[orn [or n-dical d-vic-
in:-ro¡-rabili:y. Th- lowcos: sin,l-
chi¡ solu:ion allows n-dical d-vic-s
:o :ransni: da:a wir-l-ssly. Th-
¡la:[orn allows d-vic-s :o d-liv-r
n-dical r-adin,s :o a c-n:ral noni:or
loca:-d in :h- hon-, or :o an onlin-
h-al:h r-cord.
BVcX]ZhiZg!J@ ACAL
succ-ss[ully o¡-ra:-d a con¡l-:-ly
n-w :y¡- o[ [u-l c-ll sys:-n bas-d
on r-circula:in, liquid ca:hod-
:-chnolo,y, known as FlowCa:h.
Th- ·oV [ully in:-,ra:-d nul:ic-ll
sys:-n ¡roduc-d hi,h-r ¡ow-r l-v-ls
:han -x¡-c:-d. FlowCa:h r-¡lac-s
:h- ¡la:inun ca:hod- [ound in
conv-n:ional [u-l c-lls wi:h a liquid
non¡r-cious n-:al ca:alys: sys:-n.
9Zigd^i!B> Vind Iiv-r is
collabora:in, wi:h In:-l :o cr-a:-
an o¡-n sourc- Linux ¡la:[orn [or
:h- inv-hicl- in[o:ainn-n: nark-:.
Th- o¡-n sourc- ¡la:[orn will b-
o¡:iniz-d [or In:-l's A:on ¡roc-ssor.
Vind Iiv-r will nak- availabl- o¡-n
sourc- s¡-cihca:ion and cod- [ron
:h- ¡la:[orn via :h- n-w inv-hicl-
in[o:ainn-n: s-,n-n: wi:hin
Moblin.or,.
HVc?dhZ!86 Ava,o T-chnolo,i-s
clains i:s VMML.xo¸ is :h-
world's snall-s: IF an¡lih-r. Vi:h
o¡o. ¡acka,- din-nsions and
no wir-bonds, :h- VMML.xo¸
an¡lih-rs -x¡-ri-nc- alnos: no
si,nal loss and nininal ¡arasi:ics.
Fully na:ch-d SMT d-si,n is
o¡:iniz-d [or ·ooMHz :o +.GHz
[r-qu-nci-s.
C^h`VnjcV!CN GF Global
I-s-arch succ-ss[ully d-nons:ra:-d
wha: i: says is :h- world's hrs:
roll:oroll nanu[ac:ur-d or,anic
li,h:-ni::in, diod- (OLFD) li,h:in,
d-vic-s. OLFDs hav- :h- ¡o:-n:ial :o
d-liv-r in¡rov-d l-v-ls o[ -[hci-ncy
and -nvironn-n:al ¡-r[ornanc-,
whil- achi-vin, :h- san- quali:y o[
illunina:ion [ound in :radi:ional
¡roduc:s. „
CALIFORNIA
PENNSYLVANIA
JAPAN
GERMANY
SWITZERLAND
THE NETHERLANDS
UNITED KINGDOM
MICHIGAN
NEW YORK
Glob al News
LlVLWlRL
5
Th- nassiv- d-no,ra¡hic shi[: :ha: is now occurrin, is on-
o[ :h- k-y r-asons [u-lin, :ha: ¡r-dic:ion, as :h- naiori:y o[
:h- °baby boon¯ ¡o¡ula:ion will b-,in :o :urn 6· b-:w--n
.o+o and .o.o. Accordin, :o Vorld lank -s:ina:-s, :h-
,lobal s-nior ci:iz-n ¡o¡ula:ion will ,o [ron ¡6oM in .oo·
:o +..¡l in .o.¡. S¡-ndin, ¡a::-rns vary wid-ly by coun:ry,
bu: [or :h- sak- o[ r-[-r-nc-, An-rican ou:lays ar- -x¡-c:-d :o
n-arly doubl- [ron USD ...¸l in .oo :o USD .¡..l in .o+,
accordin, :o :h- US C-n:-rs [or M-dicin- 8 M-dicaid S-rvic-s.
Th- n--d [or cos:-[[-c:iv- ¡r-v-n:ion and :r-a:n-n: :o
s-rv- :his nark-: has s¡ark-d :h- d-nand [or nicrosco¡ic
siz- ins:run-n:s and l-ss invasiv- ¡roc-dur-s. Accordin, :o
Mark-:I-s-arch.con, :h- ,lobal nark-: [or nininally invasiv-
d-vic-s and ins:run-n:s will ,row [ron USD .+.l in .oo·
:o USD .+8.·l by .o++. I-s-arch-rs and -n,in--rs around
:h- world, workin, wi:h n-dical ¡ro[-ssionals, ar- r-,ularly
¡ion--rin, n-w nicrosur,ical d-vic-s and n-w nanona:-rials
:o s¡--d and in¡rov- ¡a:i-n: ou:con-s [or -v-ry:hin,
[ron :h- connon cold :o canc-r. For -xan¡l-, :h- r-c-n:ly
d-v-lo¡-d °vir:ual colonosco¡y¯ is no: only l-ss invasiv-,
i:'s on-:hird :h- cos: o[ :h- :radi:ional ¡roc-dur-, and nay
¡rov- :o b- ius: as -[[-c:iv-.
Fnablin, :h- ¡roli[-ra:ion o[ nor- acc-ssibl-, nor-
a[[ordabl- consun-r -qui¡n-n: is :h- on,oin, -volu:ion
and in:-,ra:ion o[ s-niconduc:or :-chnolo,i-s. Con¡on-n:
nanu[ac:ur-rs hav- alr-ady r-co,niz-d :h- :r-n-ndous
,row:h o¡¡or:uni:y, and ar- nakin, sizabl- inv-s:n-n:s :o
addr-ss :his r-dho: nark-:.
For -xan¡l-, a: r-c-n: D-v-lo¡-r Con[-r-nc-,
TI's Ir-sid-n: and CFO Iich T-n¡l-:on laid ou: :h-
hnancial inc-n:iv-s [or inv-s:in, in :h- n-dical
-l-c:ronics nark-:. TI -s:ina:-s :ha: i: curr-n:ly
,-n-ra:-s a¡¡roxina:-ly USD .+·o..ooM o[ i:s
annual r-v-nu- [ron :h- h-al:h car- s-,n-n:, and
T-n¡l-:on r-c-n:ly ass-r:-d °This nark-: (H-al:h
Car-) could b-con- a USD .+l nark-: [or us.¯
New Trends in Medicine
T-chnolo,ical ca¡abili:i-s ar- conv-r,in, wi:h :h-s-
drana:ic social and -cononic [orc-s :o ¡rovid- [or
hu,- ,row:h o¡¡or:uni:i-s in :h- n-dical -l-c:ronics
h-ld. Th-s- hav- ,iv-n ris- :o a nunb-r o[ in:ri,uin,
Across the globe, one ol the hottest emerging
growth sectors lor electronic equipment is in the
medical leld. Currently, the World Healthcare
Organization estimates that USD S5.3 trillion is
spent on health care, and that lgure is expected
to grow rapidly in the next 5 · ¹0 years.
'n-,a:r-nds' :ha: includ-
:-l-n-dicin-, ¡a¡-rl-ss hos¡i:als
and hon- dia,nos:ic sys:-ns.
°T-l-n-dicin-¯, [or -xan¡l-,
incor¡ora:-s n-dical :-chnolo,y,
:-l-connunica:ions, and
-l-c:ronics. I-al:in- :-l-n-dicin-
could b- as sin¡l- as a :-l-¡hon-
call or as con¡l-x as robo:ic
sur,-ry. I: r-quir-s :h- ¡r-s-nc- o[
bo:h ¡ar:i-s a: :h- san- :in- and a
connunica:ions link b-:w--n :h-n :ha: allows a r-al:in-
in:-rac:ion :o :ak- ¡lac-. Vid-ocon[-r-ncin, -qui¡n-n:
is on- o[ :h- nos: connon [orns o[ :-chnolo,i-s us-d in
synchronous :-l-n-dicin-. Th-r- ar- also ¡-ri¡h-ral d-vic-s
which can b- a::ach-d :o con¡u:-rs or :h- vid-ocon[-r-ncin,
-qui¡n-n:, which can aid in an in:-rac:iv- -xanina:ion or
sur,ical ¡roc-dur-.
T-l-n-dicin- nak-s r-no:- dia,nosis and ¡a:i-n: car-
a r-ali:y, and is -x¡-c:-d :o r-volu:ioniz- :h- ¡rac:ic- o[
n-dicin-, as c-r:ain as¡-c:s o[ h-al:h car- b-con- wholly
:rans¡or:abl- across bord-rs. Iural ar-as and d-v-lo¡in,
coun:ri-s ar- -x¡-c:-d :o b-n-h: :h- nos: [ron :his :r-nd.
Ano:h-r -n-r,in, :r-nd is °¡a¡-rl-ss hos¡i:als¯. Di,i:al
¡a:i-n: r-cords will allow doc:ors :o vi-w n-dical in[orna:ion
ins:an:ly, anywh-r-, which will s¡--d :r-a:n-n: ¡lans and
r-cov-ry :in-. This :r-nd s¡urs :h- n--d [or d-v-lo¡in, di,i:al
dia,nos:ic ina,in, -qui¡n-n:, such as xrays and CT scans,
wi:h uni[orn us-r in:-r[ac-s.
Th- nark-: [or hon- dia,nos:ic -qui¡n-n: [or n-asurin,
blood ¡r-ssur-, blood su,ar and -l-c:rocardio,ran r-adin,s is
ra¡idly risin, in bo:h -s:ablish-d -cononi-s and d-v-lo¡in,
coun:ri-s. As a r-sul:, -qui¡n-n: and d-vic-s :o ¡rovid- MII's,
an,io,rans and ul:rasounds ar- b-conin, snall-r and nor-
¡or:abl-.
Th- lon,:-rn ¡o:-n:ial o[ :his s-c:or a¡¡-ars unlini:-d, bo:h
in :-rns o[ ¡ur- nark-: valu-, as w-ll as :h- drana:ic in¡ac: i:
will hav- on :h- quali:y o[ li[- [or nillions around :h- ,lob-. „
“Boomers”
d rive the b oom
in glob al med ic al eq uip ment market
By Jack Murray, Market Research Manager, Newark
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045
Worldwide population over age 65 (Millions)
P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

>

6
5

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e
a
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s
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
6
MARKL1WA1CH
FIA T-chnolo,y, l-,isla:iv-
consul:an:s bas-d in Surr-y UL,
-xanin-d wh-:h-r or no: i: would b-
¡ossibl- :o includ- ca:-,ori-s 8 and o
wi:hin sco¡-. I]Z^gXdcXajh^dclVh
nZh!Wjil^i]hZkZgVadWhZgkVi^dch/
Th-r- would b- a n--d [or nany ·
nor- -x-n¡:ions
Th-r- was a dan,-r o[ s:ihin, ·
innova:ion i[ i: was don- wron,
(-.,. inhibi:in, :h- d-v-lo¡n-n:
o[ nov-l s-nsors usin, r-s:ric:-d
subs:anc-s, :h- us- o[ which [ar
ou:w-i,hs :h- snall anoun:s us-d)
Th-s- ar- r-la:iv-ly slow novin, ·
indus:ri-s in :-rns o[ d-si,n cycl-s.
I[ a r-s:ric:ion was brou,h: in
:oo -arly i: could [orc- ¡roduc:s
o[[ :h- nark-: -arly, dana,in,
indus:ry and a[[-c:in, us-rs such as
hos¡i:als, ¡a:i-n:s
Th- ra¡id in:roduc:ion o[ a ·
r-s:ric:ion would ¡u: an -nornous
s:rain on a hni:- r-sourc- (:h-
d-si,n :-an) in indus:ri-s wh-r-
:h-r- ar- nany div-rs- d-si,ns sold
in r-la:iv-ly low volun-.
FIA advis-d :ha: i: would b- ·
[-asibl- :o brin, nos: ¡roduc:s
wi:hin sco¡- [ron .o+. -xc-¡: [or
In vi:ro dia,nos:ics (IVD) wh-r-
.o+6 was ¡ro¡os-d
Indus:rial :-s: and n-asur-n-n:
ins:run-n:s in .o+6.o+8
Ac:iv- in¡lan:-d d-vic-s such
as ¡ac-nak-rs wh-r- .o.o was
r-conn-nd-d or ind-hni:-ly
-xclud-d i[ r-liabili:y canno: b-
assur-d
Th- FIA s:udy ¡rovid-d an in¡u: :o
:h- IoHS r-vi-w which, a: :h- :in- o[
wri:in,, is s:ill on,oin,. Any chan,- in
sco¡- wi:h r-,ard :o ca:-,ori-s 8 and o
will only ha¡¡-n wi:h a r-vision o[ :h-
dir-c:iv- i:s-l[. Th- FC in:-nds :o :abl-
a n-w IoHS dra[: by around Nov-nb-r
.oo8. I: is unlik-ly :ha: ca:-,ori-s 8
and o will b- brou,h: wi:hin sco¡-,
i[ :ha: is wha: :h-y d-cid- :o do, un:il
.o+. a: :h- -arli-s:.
I: is ¡ossibl- -v-n :h-n, :ha: :h-y
nay -xclud- ¡ar: or all o[ :h-s-
ca:-,ori-s du- :o h-al:h and sa[-:y
[-ars or :h- [ac: :ha: ca:-,ori-s 8 and
o r-¡r-s-n: only +`, or :h-r-abou:s,
o[ all -l-c:rical -qui¡n-n: ¡u: on
:h- nark-:, and :ha: nos: ¡roduc-rs
ar- ,oin, con¡lian: anyway. To
:ha: -x:-n: IoHS has ¡r-::y nuch
don- i:s iob alr-ady. Fi:h-r way, bo:h
ca:-,ori-s would r-nain wi:hin :h-
VFFF Dir-c:iv- and would n--d :o b-
-[hci-n:ly, and sa[-ly r-cycl-d, a: -nd
o[ li[-.
Ine^XVaegdYjXihi]VildjaY[Vaa
l^i]XViZ\dg^Zh-VcY./
8ViZ\dgn-/ Iadio:h-ra¡y -qui¡n-n:,
cardiolo,y, ¡ulnonary v-n:ila:ors,
nucl-ar n-dicin-, labora:ory
-qui¡n-n: [or invi:ro dia,nosis,
analys-rs, [r--z-rs, [-r:iliza:ion :-s:s
and o:h-r a¡¡lianc-s [or d-:-c:in,,
¡r-v-n:in,, noni:orin,, :r-a:in,,
all-via:in, illn-ss, iniury or disabili:y.
8ViZ\dgn./ Snok- d-:-c:ors, h-a:in,
r-,ula:ors, :h-rnos:a:s, n-asurin,,
w-i,hin, or adius:in, a¡¡lianc-s [or
hous-hold or as labora:ory -qui¡n-n:
and o:h-r noni:orin, and con:rol
ins:run-n:s us-d in indus:rial
ins:alla:ions such as in con:rol ¡an-ls.
Obviously such -qui¡n-n: would
n--d :o b- :o:ally r-liabl-, and :h-s-
:wo ca:-,ori-s w-r- ori,inally
-xclud-d b-caus- o[ conc-rns ov-r :h-
us- o[ l-ad[r-- sold-rs. Today :h-r- is
nor- conhd-nc- in :h- sold-r, and i: is
[-l: :ha: :his can no lon,-r b- a r-ason
[or n-dical d-vic-s and noni:orin,
and con:rol ins:run-n:s :o r-nain
ou:sid- :h- sco¡- o[ :h-
IoHS dir-c:iv-. „
Article 6 ol 2002/95/LC RoHS (Restriction ol
Hazardous Substances) Directive requires the
Luropean Commission (LC) to carry out a review
ol the directive within lour years ol its adoption.
The main issues incIude:
1he possibility ol including categories 8 (medical devices) and 9 ·
(monitoring and control instruments) ol the WLLL (Waste Llectrical
and Llectronic Lquipment) Directive within the scope ol RoHS
1he possibility ol restricting more substances that are ·
hazardous, are used in signilcant quantities and where there
are suitable substitutes
All ol the existing exemptions to be reviewed, and may be ·
either modiled, be more restrictive or removed completely
Other aspects, such as where delnitions and scope are unclear, ·
as well as the sub|ect ol enlorcement
Med ic al Devic es
Und er RoHS Review
By Gary Nevison, Legislation and Environmental Affairs Manager, Premier Farnell
7
LLClSLA1lON
I: wasn': only our r-ad-rs :ha: w-r-
-xci:-d by IoadT-s:, our su¡¡li-rs also
wish-d :o ,-: in on :h- ac:, so nuch so
:ha: w- hav- had :o doubl- :h- l-n,:h
o[ :his [-a:ur-. This non:h w- hav- :wo
,r-a: ,iv-aways. TI would lik- us :o ,iv-
away .· o[ :h- con¡any's -z¡¸oIF.¡8o,
a USlbas-d wir-l-ss d-nons:ra:ion
ki:, and Iico would lik- you :o :-s: i:s
,roundbr-akin, IicoSco¡- ·.o¡.
Texas Instruments eZ430·PF24S0
zi,l-- is :h- ,lobal wir-l-ss lan,ua,-
conn-c:in, -ss-n:ially di[[-r-n: d-vic-s
:o,-:h-r :o -nhanc- -v-ryday li[-.
How-v-r, in:-,ra:in, an IF n-:work
can b- con¡l-x and :in- consunin,.
TI's zAcc-l [anily o[ ..¡GHz zi,l--
c-r:ih-d n-:work ¡roc-ssors ¡rovid-s
-n,in--rs con¡l-:- zi,l--
[unc:ionali:y, wi:hou:
havin, :o l-arn :h-
con¡l-xi:i-s o[ a
[ull zi,l-- s:ack,
nakin, i: -asy :o
in:-,ra:- zi,l-- in:o
a wid- vari-:y o[
a¡¡lica:ions,
such as
hon- and
buildin, au:ona:ion and indus:rial
noni:orin, and con:rol,
wi:h nininal d-v-lo¡n-n: -[[or:.
Th- hrs: ¡roduc: in :h- con¡any's
zAcc-l [anily o[ ..¡ GHz zi,l--
c-r:ih-d n-:work ¡roc-ssors is :h-
CC.¡8o. Th- CC.¡8o handl-s all :h-
:inin,cri:ical and ¡roc-ssin,in:-nsiv-
zi,l-- ¡ro:ocol :asks, whil- l-avin,
:h- r-sourc-s o[ :h- a¡¡lica:ion MCU
[r-- :o handl- :h- a¡¡lica:ion. Th-
CC.¡8o connunica:-s wi:h :h- MCU
via an SII or UAIT in:-r[ac-, and i:
can b- conbin-d wi:h any hos: MCU,
[or -xan¡l- TI's ul:ralow ¡ow-r
MSI¡¸oF..¡.
Th- d-vic- su¡¡or:s Sin¡l-AII, which
has only +o AII calls :o l-arn, and
[-a:ur-s -xc-ll-n: radio ¡-r[ornanc-,
low ¡ow-r consun¡:ion and an
au:ona:ic low¡ow-r nod- in
idl- ¡-riods.
Our ,iv-away is :h- -z¡¸oIF.¡8o
D-no Li:, a con¡l-:- USlbas-d
MSI¡¸o wir-l-ss d-nons:ra:ion :ool
¡rovidin, :h- hardwar- and so[:war-
r-quir-d :o -valua:- :h- CC.¡8o ..¡GHz
zi,l-- n-:work ¡roc-ssor and also :h-
MSI¡¸oF..¡ nicrocon:roll-r.
Th- -z¡¸oIF.¡8o D-no Li: u:iliz-s
a [r-- Licks:ar: v-rsion o[ :h- IAI
Fnb-dd-d Vorkb-nch IDF :o wri:-,
download, and d-bu, a¡¡lica:ions.
Th- d-bu,,-r is unob:rusiv-, allowin,
:h- us-r :o run an a¡¡lica:ion a: [ull
s¡--d wi:h bo:h hardwar- br-ak¡oin:s
and sin,l- s:-¡¡in, availabl-, whil-
consunin, no -x:ra hardwar- r-sourc-s.
I]ZZO)(%"G;')-%9ZbdchigVi^dc
@^i[ZVijgZh/
Thr-- zi,l-- Nod-s ·
(-z¡¸oIF.¡8o Tar,-: loards)
On- USl don,l- in:-r[ac- ·
(MSI-z¡¸oU)
Two la::-ry¡ow-r-d boards ·
(-z¡¸oll)
Four AAA ba::-ri-s ·
zi,l-- Acc-l-ra:or San¡l- ·
A¡¡lica:ion (zASA) [or :-n¡-ra:ur-
and ba::-ry vol:a,- s-nsor r-¡or:in,
usin, :h- -z¡¸oIF.¡8o S-nsor
Moni:or IC a¡¡lica:ion :ool
San¡l- Hos: Iroc-ssor Cod- :o ·
d-nons:ra:- conh,ura:ion, n-:work
ins:an:ia:ion or s-l-c:ion, bindin,,
and connunica:ion
Fiv- availabl- GIIO d-v-lo¡n-n: ¡ins ·
Hi,hly in:-,ra:-d, ul:ralow¡ow-r ·
MSI¡¸o MCU
Two ,-n-ral¡ur¡os- di,i:al I/O ¡ins ·
conn-c:-d :o ,r--n and r-d LFDs [or
visual [--dback
In:-rru¡:ibl- ¡ush bu::on [or ·
a¡¡lica:ion con:rol
I[ you'r- in:-r-s:-d in :-s:in, :his ki:,
-nail ZY^idg5egZb^Zg[VgcZaa#Xdb
wi:h your nan-, iob :i:l- and ¡os:al
addr-ss. Il-as- ¡u: -z¡¸o in :h- subi-c:
lin- o[ your -nail. In r-:urn, w- would
lik- you :o wri:- a shor: r-vi-w o[ :h-
d-no ki:, d-:ailin, how you [ound i:
:o us-.
Texas Instruments eZ430·PF24S0
U5B demonstration kit
Sign up to test the latest d evic e
Judging by the response we got lor our 11i PSA270¹1 test, it's clear
that most designers are lascinated by gadgets. Unlortunately, we
had only six to give away, and it would have taken hundreds to satisly
the demand. 1hanks to those who did apply, and il you weren't lucky
enough to receive one, your luck will improve this month.
1he six PSA270¹1s are with the testers at the moment, and because
ol tight deadlines, we can't bring the reviews to you in this issue.
However, by the time you are reading this, you can lnd lull reviews on
our Llectronics Design World website at www.eIectrcnicsdesicnwcrId.
ccm/reviews. 1his review page is one that we hope to build on in the
luture, adding comments lrom both internal sources and lrom readers.
And thanks again to 11i lor the loan ol the PSA270¹1 analyzers.
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
8
ROAD1LS1
Pico Technology
Pico5cope 5204
AAAAAAAA
UUUUU
111111111111
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
llllllll
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
UUUUUUUUUUUUU
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LLL
C
11111111111111111111111111111111111111
lllllllllllllllllllllllll
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
A
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l
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1
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Pico Technology Pico5cope 5204
Th- Iicosco¡- ·.o¡ dualchann-l
IC oscillosco¡- has a bandwid:h
o[ .·oMHz, a n-nory d-¡:h o[
+.8 nillion san¡l-s and a r-al
:in- san¡lin, ra:- o[ +GS/s. O:h-r
oscillosco¡-s in :his ¡ric- ran,- [orc-
a con¡ronis- on on- o[ :h-s- :hr--
k-y s¡-cihca:ions. Th- IicoSco¡- ·.o¡
-xc-ls in all :hr-- o[ :h-s- ar-as, a: an
-asily a[[ordabl- ¡ric-.
Conn-c:in, :o :h- USl ¡or: o[ any
Vindows la¡:o¡ or d-sk:o¡ IC, :h-
IicoSco¡- ·.o¡ o[[-rs an array o[ hi,h
-nd oscillosco¡- [-a:ur-s, includin,
advanc-d :ri,,-rin, and an -quival-n:
:in- san¡lin, nod- :ha: can boos: :h-
san¡lin, ra:- :o .oGS/s [or r-¡-:i:iv-
wav-[orns. O:h-r advanc-d [unc:ions
includ- a buil:in .·oMHz s¡-c:run
analyz-r and a +.bi:, +.·MS/s
arbi:rary wav-[orn ,-n-ra:or.
Th- IicoSco¡- ·.o¡ is su¡¡li-d wi:h
IicoSco¡- 6, :h- la:-s: r-l-as- o[ Iico's
oscillosco¡- so[:war-, which :ak-s
advan:a,- o[ :h- ¡ow-r o[ a nod-rn
IC :o o[[-r hi,h-nd oscillosco¡-
[-a:ur-s wi:h an -asy:ous- Vindows
in:-r[ac-. N-w [-a:ur-s includ-
a wav-[orn bu[[-r :ha:
au:ona:ically r-cords :h-
las: ¸. wav-[orns, and a
°¡rob- nana,-r¯ :ha: includ-s
su¡¡or: [or cus:on ¡rob-s,
such as curr-n: clan¡s, and
allows us-rs :o d-hn- :h-ir
own ¡rob-s, -v-n :hos- r-quirin,
nonlin-ar corr-c:ions. Vi:h i:s USl
s:r-anin, ca¡abili:y a: s¡--ds o[ u¡
:o 6MS/s, :h- oscillosco¡- is id-al [or
hi,hs¡--d da:a acquisi:ion, as i: can
r-cord hu,- s-qu-nc-s o[ ,a¡[r--
da:a lini:-d only by :h- n-nory o[
:h- IC. IicoSco¡- 6 can also dis¡lay
au:ona:-d n-asur-n-n:s :ha: ran,-
[ron a sin¡l- nul:in-:-rs:yl- vol:a,-
r-adou: :o advanc-d s:a:is:ical and
noni:orin, [unc:ions.
Th- nov-l d-si,n o[ :h- -nclosur-
allows :h- oscillosco¡- :o b- ¡lac-d
-i:h-r v-r:ically or horizon:ally :o :ak-
u¡ :h- nininun o[ d-sk s¡ac-, and
wh-n us-d [or nobil- a¡¡lica:ions,
:h- IicoSco¡- ·.o¡ is snall -nou,h :o
b- carri-d in :h- san- ba, as a la¡:o¡.
Th- oscillosco¡- is su¡¡li-d in a
carryin, cas- and includ-s swi:chabl-
¡rob-s, ¡ow-r su¡¡ly, so[:war- and
docun-n:a:ion. Driv-rs and -xan¡l-s
ar- su¡¡li-d [or ¡o¡ular ¡ro,rannin,
lan,ua,-s, as w-ll as :hird¡ar:y
a¡¡lica:ions such as LabVi-w, VFF
and Fxc-l. So[:war- u¡da:-s ar-
availabl- [r-- o[ char,- [or
:h- li[-:in- o[ :h- ¡roduc: [ron :h-
Iico T-chnolo,y w-bsi:-.
Iico T-chnolo,y has kindly loan-d
us · IicoSco¡- ·.o¡s :o ,iv- r-ad-rs
[or a ¸ non:h :rial. As b-[or-, all
:ha:'s r-quir-d is [or you :o wri:-
a shor: r-vi-w [or our r-ad-rs,
which will a¡¡-ar on lll#
ZaZXigdc^XhYZh^\cldgaY#Xdb$
gZk^Zlh. I[ in:-r-s:-d, -nail
ZY^idg5egZb^Zg[VgcZaa#Xdb wi:h
nan-, iob :i:l- and ¡os:al addr-ss,
and also :h- r-ason you wan: :o :-s:
:h- sco¡-. Il-as- us- IicoCco¡- in :h-
subi-c: lin- o[ your -nail. „
9
ROAD1LS1
Focused on meeting your application
needs through superior innovation.
www.molex.com
At Molex, we manufacture
some of the most innovative
and reliable interconnect
products in the world. Our
broad portfolio, combined with
our comprehensive expertise,
provides unlimited possibilities
for applications in the medical
electronics industry. We
also understand you may
face challenges that require
additional innovation. That’s
why Molex includes integrated
and custom solutions in our
offering.
Whether you are around the
world or around the corner,
we can assist you in reaching
all of your design goals –
with exceptional quality and
efficiency.
Visit www.farnell.com, enter the
keyword “Molex” to obtain
data-sheets, prices, availability
and details of our ever
increasing range, currently
17,000 product line range
including 15,600 RoHS
compliant items.
C. When I changed Irom one !6 x 2 Alphanumeric
LCD display to a cheaper brand, I could not get the
display to come on. What could be the problem?
A. Mos: al¡hanun-ric LCD nodul-s u:iliz- a driv-r
chi¡ :ha: is bas-d on :h- ori,inal Hi:achi HD¡¡8o
driv-r. Al:hou,h :his chi¡ is now ou: o[ ¡roduc:ion,
:h- ¡ro:ocols :ha: i: us-d w-r- acc-¡:-d as a d-
[ac:o 's:andard' in :h- indus:ry. Mos: LCD nodul-
nanu[ac:ur-rs incor¡ora:- a driv-r chi¡, which -nula:-s
:h- connand cod-s and [unc:ionali:y o[ :h- Hi:achi
chi¡, clos- con¡a:ibili:i-s o[ u¡ :o o·` ar- connon.
Th- ¡oin:s :o b- car-[ul o[ :hou,h, ar- usually :h- si,nal
:inin,s [ron :h- con:rol circui: :o :h- driv-r chi¡ as
:ol-ranc-s [ron on- su¡¡li-r :o ano:h-r nay b- di[[-r-n:
by s-v-ral nicros-conds.
Th- n-x: ¡oin: :o look [or is :h- LCD bias or con:ras:
vol:a,- as :h- l-v-l o[ o¡-ra:ion do-s vary [ron -ach
driv-r chi¡ su¡¡li-r. I[ :h- a¡¡lica:ion has hx-d r-sis:ors
on :h- ICl :o ,-n-ra:- :h- r-quir-d bias, :h-n i: nay b-
wor:h r-s-l-c:in, :h- r-sis:or valu-s :o incr-as- :h- driv-
l-v-l. A :y¡ical driv- l-v-l should l-av- :h- LCD ¡ix-ls
ius: visibl- wh-n 'o[[' and black wh-n 'on'.
1he world ol technology is changing at an
ever more rapid rate·so last that it is even
hard to lnd solutions/answers on the internet.
At Premier Farnell, we are completely
immersed in technology, speaking to over a
million customers and thousands ol suppliers
each week. Our technical support centers
are located around the globe and respond to
customer questions by phone and by email.
Cet Tech is your chance to Cet advice on any
technical query you may have. We will answer
all questions and publish the most interesting
in the next issue ol 1echnology First.
Below are some ol the questions most
lrequently addressed by our technical teams.
Please leel lree to comment on any ol these,
or send in your own question to
editcr©premierfarneII.ccm
C. I have selected a control relay with !0A
rated contacts to control a small, single·
phase AC motor, but need some additional
contacts.
Can you advise me?
A. Vi:h a no:or load o[ +oA, i: is no: sui:abl- :o
us- a con:rol r-lay, as :his is d-si,n-d [or con:rol
circui:ry, no: induc:iv- no:or loads. A con:ac:or
wi:h AC¸ du:y class +oA ra:in, is r-quir-d.
Th- con:ac:or r-la:-s :o :h- no:or's [ull load
runnin, curr-n:, and ca:-rs :o :h- inrush
curr-n:, which can b- 6 :in-s nornal curr-n:.
Th- con:ac:or has ¸ nain ¡ol-s NOT [ully ra:-d,
bu: addi:ional auxiliary con:ac:s, which ar- [or
con:rol circui:ry, can b- add-d :o :h- :o¡ o[
con:ac:or.
C. When I put my microcontroller into the low·power
standby mode, I notice the current consumed is a
lot higher than the !00nA quoted. What I am doing
wrong?
A. Al:hou,h you hav- ¡u: :h- nicrocon:roll-r ':o sl--¡',
you also hav- :o disabl- or ¡ow-rdown any in:-rnal
¡-ri¡h-rals b-[or- you invok- :h- 'sl--¡' nod-, as :h-y
will con:inu- :o consun- ¡ow-r o:h-rwis-.
C. I have a motor that will not run properly, and have
been told it could be the capacitor that is strapped/
bolted to the side oI it causing the problem. How
do I tell iI it is a MCTCP PUN or MCTCP 5TAPT
type so that I may search your online catalogue Ior
a suitable replacement?
A. Th- -asi-s: way o[ :-llin, is by :h- ca¡aci:anc- shown
on :h- ca¡aci:or body. MOTOI IUN will b- a ¡r-cis- and
low valu- -.,. ·, +o, .oμF -:c, usually und-r 6oμF. MOTOI
STAIT will b- a hi,h-r and non¡r-cis- valu- o[:-n
shown as a ran,-, -.,. +.o+8oμF -:c
C. I have a 5MD microcontroller, but I can't ñnd
suitable adapter sockets to program the devices.
Are there any other ways to program the chips?
A. Mos: nicro¡roc-ssors u:iliz- a snall nunb-r o[ ¡ins
by which :h- ¡ro,rann-r uni: connunica:-s wi:h
:h- chi¡. In nos: sc-narios, you will hnd :ha: :h- chi¡
nay only n--d :h- ¡ins 'clock' 'da:a' 'r-s-:' '¡ow-r' and
',round' :o b- acc-ss-d by :h- ¡ro,rannin, uni:. This
l-ads :o :h- ¡ossibili:y o[ ¡ro,rannin, :h- chi¡ whil- i:
is on :h- ':ar,-:' a¡¡lica:ion board usin, 'In Circui: S-rial
Iro,rannin,' (ICSI), nakin, i: -asy :o in¡l-n-n: any
u¡:oda:- ¡ro,ran chan,-s b-[or- a ¡roduc: is shi¡¡-d.
Th- us- o[ a d-dica:-d SMD ada¡:-r sock-: is no: r-quir-d.
C. I want to add U5B Iunctionality to a design, but I
do not have the experience or program space to
implement it onto my current microcontroller.
A. For a¡¡lica:ions wh-r- USl [unc:ionali:y would -nhanc-
a ¡roduc:, bu: :h- in¡l-n-n:a:ion would b- :oo daun:in,
wi:h :h- USl ¡ro,ran 's:ack' -:c, you could u:iliz- :h-
ran,- o[ hardwar- chi¡s and nodul-s [ron FTDI. Th-y
will handl- :h- USl ¡ro:ocol and conv-rsion :o a nor-
usabl- s-rial or IS.¸. ¡ro:ocol. Mos: nicrocon:roll-rs
will hav- a: l-as: on- S-rial UAIT chann-l alr-ady
in¡l-n-n:-d, so :h- in:-r[ac- would b- nuch sin¡l-r. „
FAQs
1 1
CL1 1LCH
1he topic lor this issue ol 1echnology First is
instrumentation and medical electronics. Both these
sub|ects may seem quite dillerent at lrst glance,
and can cover almost the whole spectrum ol the
electronics industry, but the articles here will locus
on |ust two aspects: high·end systems lor imaging
and portable diagnostics systems. 1hese two types ol
applications have similar needs, components that will
deliver high perlormance and high precision.
Power supplies in medical electronics ............................................14
Getting a clearer view of medical imaging ......................................16
Innovative connector technology keeps medical market healthy .....18
Signal conditioning in portable medical applications .......................19
Integrated solutions for passive interface filtering
and linear active filter design ..........................................................20
Challenges for processors in portable medical equipment ..............22
Relay design considerations ...........................................................24
Making the right display choice for industrial applications ..............25
Instrumentation
& Medical
Electronics
Th- abov- sys:-ns r-quir- accura:- n-asur-n-n:, ¡r-cis- si,nal
¡roc-ssin, and hi,hly con¡l-x di,i:al ¡roc-ssin,, -s¡-cially i[
:h- ou:¡u: is in :h- [orn o[ an ina,- or vid-o. Th-s- :-chnolo,i-s
also :ransla:- in:o o:h-r ar-as, such as nili:ary/a-ros¡ac- and
:rans¡or:a:ion.
Advanc-s in silicon d-si,n n-ans :ha: :h- ¡r-cision o[ k-y
s-niconduc:ors has b--n vas:ly in¡rov-d in ¡ar:icular
DSIs, FIGAs, nicro¡roc-ssors and hi,h¡-r[ornanc- analo,
con¡on-n:s. Sinilarly, as :ouch scr--n dis¡lays and nor-
so¡his:ica:-d hunan in:-r[ac- ar- incor¡ora:-d in:o :h- d-si,n
o[ :h-s- a¡¡lica:ions, ina,in, :-chnolo,y is n-r,in, wi:h nor-
:radi:ional s-niconduc:or ar-as.
Processing
Many ins:run-n:a:ion and n-dical sys:-ns us- vid-o and ina,-s
as an ou:¡u: :o allow [or -asi-r dia,nosis, and as such, nak- h-avy
us- o[ si,nal ¡roc-ssin, :-chnolo,i-s.
A [-w -xan¡l-s o[ :h-s- a¡¡lica:ions includ- radio,ra¡hy,
:ono,ra¡hy, ul:rasound, and huorosco¡y.
1 2
Th- ran,- o[ :-chnolo,i-s :o in¡l-n-n: :h-s- [unc:ions is
broad, bu: a :rad-o[[ b-:w--n ¡-r[ornanc- and ¡ow-r s:ill -xis:s
(-v-n :hou,h :his :rad-o[[ is shrinkin, wi:h -v-r advancin,
:-chnolo,i-s) :o h-l¡ hon- in on :h- a¡¡ro¡ria:- :-chnolo,y :o
us-. Tradi:ionally, a: :h- hi,h-nd o[ ¡roc-ssin, ar- ¡ro,rannabl-
lo,ic solu:ions and DSIs, whil- a: :h- low-nd, wh-r- ¡ow-r
consun¡:ion is :h- k-y [ac:or, ar- nicrocon:roll-rs. S:ill, :h-
di[[-r-nc- b-:w--n :h-s- :-chnolo,i-s is shrinkin, a: a ra¡id ra:-,
and ¡ro,rannabl- solu:ions can now b- [ound -v-n on
handh-ld d-vic-s.
Iro,rannabl- lo,ic such as FIGA and CILD now incor¡ora:-
con¡l-:- nicrocon:roll-rs and o:h-r d-dica:-d so[: II blocks. Th-y
also boas: a nul:i¡lici:y o[ rou:in, chann-ls :ha: ar- conh,ur-d in
¡arall-l :o ¡-r[orn -n:ir- al,ori:hns in clock cycl-s as shor: as on-.
No:- :ha: such sys:-ns incor¡ora:- lon, ¡i¡-lin-s, n-anin, :ha:
:h- al,ori:hn is ¡roc-ss-d in on- clock cycl-, bu: a la:-ncy -xis:s
b-:w--n an in¡u:s acquisi:ion and i:s -[[-c: on :h- ou:¡u:.
Sinc- :h-s- al,ori:hns ar- in¡l-n-n:-d wi:h di,i:al n-ans,
¡-r[ornanc- is a conc-rn. Th- [as:-r :h- al,ori:hn can b-
¡roc-ss-d, :h- nor- h-xibl- and :h- nor- valuabl- :h- ¡roduc: is.
How-v-r, hi,h s¡--d can n-an nor- ¡ow-r and a shor:-r
ba::-ry li[-.
FIGAs can o[[-r nany advan:a,-s ov-r :radi:ional con¡on-n:s,
-s¡-cially [or low :o n-diun ¡roduc:ion d-vic-s.
Th- ¡ro,rannabl- [-a:ur- o[ :h- chi¡ can r-duc- d-v-lo¡n-n:
:in- by u¡ :o ¸o`, whil- allowin, [or [u:ur- u¡,rad-s. Usin,
FIGAs also avoids :h- ¡ossibili:y o[ cos:ly silicon r-s¡ins, which
ar- b-conin, nor- connon as :h- con¡l-xi:y o[ chi¡ d-si,ns, and
silicon ¡roc-ss :-chnolo,y b-con-s nor- con¡l-x,
For o:h-r a¡¡lica:ions, :h-r- is a lar,- choic- o[ ¡roc-ssor
cor-s :o choos- [ron. In indus:rial a¡¡lica:ions, wh-r- IISC
is nor- connon, :h- AIM cor- is now w-ll -s:ablish-d by
nicrocon:roll-r nanu[ac:ur-rs such NXI, A:n-l, ST and Analo,
D-vic-s, wi:h :h- AIMo ,rowin, in ¡o¡ulari:y. Fr--scal-'s i.MX
a¡¡lica:ion ¡roc-ssors, which ar- bas-d on :h- AIMo ¡roc-ssor
wi:h :i,h:ly in:-,ra:-d LCD con:roll-rs, ar- ,ainin, naior :rac:ion
in :h- ina,in, ar-a.
For ina,in, a¡¡lica:ions, MIIS is also :ryin, hard :o br-ak in:o :his
nark-: [ron i:s s:ron, ¡osi:ion in :h- consun-r/conn-c:ivi:y ar-a,
wi:h Microchi¡ usin, :h- MIIS¸. cor- [or i:s d-bu: in :h- ¸.bi:
ar-na. D-si,n-rs ¡r-[-rrin, CISC archi:-c:ur- can hnd -xan¡l-s
[ron con¡ani-s such as In:-l and I-n-sas.
For r-al:in- ina,in,, DSIs s:ill donina:- d-s¡i:- a s:ron,
chall-n,- [ron FIGAs. N-w ¡la:[orns ar- b-conin, availabl-
con¡risin, bo:h MCU and DSI on :h- san- silicon, allowin, [or
bo:h ina,- ¡roc-ssin, and ,-n-ral ¡ur¡os- ¡roc-ssin,. T-xas
Ins:run-n:s' la:-s: varian:, Davinci, is d-si,n-d s¡-cihcally [or
nul:in-dia a¡¡lica:ions. V-ry ca¡abl- solu:ions ar- also availabl-
[ron bo:h Fr--scal- and Analo, D-vic-s.
High perIormance analog
S-nsin, i:s-l[ is bi, busin-ss in bo:h ins:run-n:a:ion and
n-dical a¡¡lica:ions. For -xan¡l-, :h- in:roduc:ion o[ Cy¡r-ss
S-niconduc:or's Ca¡S-ns- and Analo, D-vic-s' Ca¡Touch
:-chnolo,i-s brin, n-w ¡ossibili:i-s :o in¡l-n-n: innova:iv- HMI
solu:ions :o :ouch scr--n :-chnolo,y.
In n-dical and ins:run-n:a:ion a¡¡lica:ions, as w-ll as o:h-r
indus:ri-s such as ATF and nil/a-ro, r-quir-n-n:s [or analo,
con¡on-n:s ar- all r-narkably sinilar. All d-nand lownois-, low
dis:or:ion, hi,hs¡--d, low¡ow-r an¡lih-rs, di,i:al ¡ro,rann-d
ins:run-n:a:ion an¡lih-rs and wid-bi: conv-rsion (u¡ :o .¡bi:).
The human touch
Hunans ar- ,-n-rally [-d :h- ou:¡u:s o[ ins:run-n:s and n-dical
d-vic-s. This n-ans in:-r¡r-:a:ion and ¡r-s-n:a:ion o[ da:a nus:
b- cl-an and, in :h- cas- o[ n-dical -l-c:ronics :ha: nus: in:-rac:
wi:h :h- body, such as a h-ar: d-hbrilla:or, :h- ou:¡u: nus:
b- ¡r-cis-.
FSD ¡lays a si,nihcan: ¡ar: h-r-, inconsis:-nci-s in air :-n¡-ra:ur-
nak- FSD a ¡ar:icularly :ricky ¡aran-:-r :o ¡r-dic:. A r-c-n:
ar:icl- [ron Lin-ar T-chnolo,y su,,-s:-d :ha: walkin, across a
wool car¡-: wi:h l-a:h-r sho-s on a dry win:-r day nay ,-n-ra:-
a char,- o[ +okV :o +·kV, wh-r-as :h- san- ac:ion on a hunid
day in :h- sunn-r nay ¡roduc- l-ss :han .kV. This build u¡ o[
s:a:ic char,- in :h- hunan body is known as :ribo-l-c:rici:y, and
is no snall conc-rn :o :h- d-si,n -n,in--r, wi:h :h- hunan body
ca¡abl- o[ buildin, u¡ :o ¸·kV in son- cas-s. As a r-sul:, various
connonly ado¡:-d :-s:s hav- b--n d-si,n-d :o nininiz- dana,-
:o :h- -qui¡n-n: in us- and ¡rovid- con:inuous o¡-ra:ion. On-
o[ :h- nos: connon :-s:s in :h- US, :h- Hunan lody Mod-l, in
con¡arison :o i:s harsh-r la¡an-s- varian:, :h- Machin- Mod-l,
sinula:-s :h- FSD dischar,- wav-[orn s--n [ron hunan con:ac:
:o a ¡i-c- o[ -l-c:ronic -qui¡n-n:. Ty¡ically, a IS.¸. :ransc-iv-r
should b- ca¡abl- o[ wi:hs:andin, in -xc-ss o[ ±+okV wh-n :-s:-d
wi:h :h- Hunan lody Mod-l. Th- nor- connonly ado¡:-d :-s:,
IFC8o+, -nsur-s ±.·kV. Lin-ar T-chnolo,y's LTC.8·o is an
-xan¡l- o[ :his.
Th- FCC and o:h-r in:-rna:ional r-,ula:ions ar- d-si,n-d :o
nininiz- radia:-d -nissions [ron -l-c:ronic -qui¡n-n:. FMI
(-l-c:rona,n-:ic in:-r[-r-nc-) rul-s r-duc- in:-r[-r-nc- b-:w--n
-l-c:ronic d-vic-s and addr-ss h-al:h and sa[-:y conc-rns.
D-si,n-rs can con:rol radia:-d -nissions by shi-ldin, radia:in,
circui:ry and cablin, sys:-ns, by¡assin,, board layou:, and
nany o:h-r :-chniqu-s. S-v-ral Maxin/Dallas oscilla:or and
clock,-n-ra:ion ¡roduc:s includ- lowFMI d-si,ns. A r-c-n:
d-v-lo¡n-n: is °s¡r-adin,,¯ or di:h-rin,, :h- c-n:-r [r-qu-ncy o[
clocks us-d in con¡u:-rs and ¡ow-r su¡¡li-s :o s¡r-ad radia:-d
-nission -n-r,y ov-r a band o[ [r-qu-nci-s, ra:h-r :han havin, all
:h- -n-r,y -ni::-d a: on- [r-qu-ncy.
It always comes down to power
Iow-r can b- sourc-d [ron s-v-ral ar-as. ba::-ri-s :o hi,h¡ow-r
AC nains. H-arin, aids, ¡ac-nak-rs, and handh-ld ins:run-n:s
s:riv- [or :h- lon,-s: ba::-ry li[- ¡ossibl-. wh-r-as Ma,n-:ic
I-sonanc- Ina,in, (MII) and XIay nachin-s r-quir- shor:
dura:ion hi,h ¡ow-r, hi,h vol:a,- :o ¡ow-r :h-ir IF-ni::in,
:ransduc-rs, and son- d-vic-s hav- ¡a:i-n: b-d sys:-ns
incor¡ora:in, s-rvo no:ors [or ¡a:i-n: nov-n-n: and ¡lac-n-n:.
Th- rou:in, o[ ¡ow-r is -qually in¡or:an:, no: only in :h- ¡ow-r
nana,-n-n: o[ :h- circui:, bu: also in :h- ¡-ri¡h-ral con¡on-n:s
:h- r-sis:ors, induc:ors, ca¡aci:ors, r-lays and conn-c:ors. Th-
ar:icl-s :ha: [ollow -xanin- son- o[ :h- s:r-n,:hs and w-akn-ss-s,
as w-ll as :h- l-,isla:iv- an,l-, o[ son- o[ :h-s- ¡roduc: ar-as.
What's next?
I: is cl-ar :h- n-x: +o y-ars will b- a ,row:h nark-: [or h-al:hcar-
involvin, ins:run-n:a:ion, ina,in, and ¡a:i-n: noni:orin,. Th-
advanc-s :ha: will abound will also a[[-c: subsidiary d-v-lo¡n-n:
in cor- ins:run-n:a:ion, au:ono:iv- and indus:rial a¡¡lica:ions.
V- ain :o k--¡ a clos- -y- on :h-s- d-v-lo¡n-n:s, :o -nsur- :h-
la:-s: ¡roduc:s ar- brou,h: :o nark-: as quickly as ¡ossibili:y :o
:ak- advan:a,- o[ :h-s- -xci:in, ¡ro,r-ssiv- s:-¡s in :-chnolo,y. „
"Cain an overview to the latest Medical and
lnstrumentation products in 1echnology First
online at www.eIectrcnicsdesicnwcrId.ccm
1 3
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
dir-c:ly a¡¡li-d :o ¡a:i-n:s n--ds :h-
hi,h-s: s¡-cihca:ion wi:h r-s¡-c: :o
isola:ion. V- :h-r-[or- hav- :hr--
¡ro,r-ssiv- sa[-:y l-v-ls :o consid-r
r-,ardin, isola:ion and ¡ro:-c:ion
wh-n d-si,nin, n-dical -l-c:ronic
-qui¡n-n:.
Th- basic sa[-:y r-quir-n-n:s o[ ·
FN6oo·o :ha: a¡¡ly :o all nains
conn-c:-d -l-c:ronic -qui¡n-n:
Th- nor- ri,orous IFC6o6o++ ·
s:andard [or -qui¡n-n: us-d in
¡a:i-n: vicini:y
Th- r-quir-n-n: [or an addi:ional ·
isola:ion barri-r in -qui¡n-n:,
which is in in:-n:ional ¡hysical
con:ac: wi:h ¡a:i-n:s
EN60950 and levels oI protection
(LCP)
'L-v-ls o[ Iro:-c:ion', or LOIs, ar-
us-d :o d-hn- sa[-:y s¡-cihca:ions
[or all -l-c:ronic -qui¡n-n:. An LOI
is ¡rovid-d by insula:ion or by a
¡ro:-c:iv- -ar:h and [us-. Insula:ion is
d-hn-d as on- o[ hv- :y¡-s (Scc Tv||c
: wi:h varyin, LOI ra:in,s. Sinilarly,
an -ar:h can b- classih-d as [unc:ional
or ¡ro:-c:iv-, wi:h no ¡ro:-c:ion
¡rovid-d by a [unc:ional -ar:h and
on- l-v-l o[ ¡ro:-c:ion by a ¡ro:-c:iv-,
or [us-d, -ar:h. Th- basic ¡rinci¡l- is
:o ¡rovid- :wo LOIs a,ains: -l-c:ric
shock.
Fach o[ :h- insula:ion :y¡-s is d-hn-d
in :-rns o[ air cl-aranc- and cr--¡a,-
dis:anc-s. Cr--¡a,- lini:s includ-
s¡-ci[yin, :h- nininun s¡acin, o[
con¡on-n:s on :h- ¡rin:-d circui:
board [or a ,iv-n AC and DC a¡¡li-d
vol:a,-.
L-aka,- curr-n: s¡-cihca:ions ar- also
a k-y ¡ar: o[ sa[-:y r-,ula:ions.
Where IEC6060!·! diIIers Irom
EN60950
Th- nain di[[-r-nc-s b-:w--n
IFC6o6o++ s¡-cihca:ions, :h-
s:andards [or -qui¡n-n: us-d in :h-
¡a:i-n: vicini:y, and :hos- o[ FN6oo·o,
r-la:- :o incr-as-d air cl-aranc-,
Th- d-si,n o[ ¡ow-r su¡¡li-s [or us-
in :h- n-dical indus:ry is driv-n as
nuch by l-,isla:ion as i: is by :h-
:-chnical r-quir-n-n:s o[ ¡ow-rin,
:h- -nd -qui¡n-n:. Sys:-n d-si,n-rs
:h-r-[or- n--d an und-rs:andin, o[
:his l-,isla:ion, and o[ :h- nark-:s
in:o which :h-ir ¡roduc:s will b- sold.
O:h-rwis-, ¡ow-r solu:ions ar- a:
risk [or b-in, ov-rs¡-cih-d, ov-r
-n,in--r-d and -xc-ssiv-ly -x¡-nsiv-,
as a r-sul: o[ buildin, in :oo nuch
sa[-:y nar,in :o n--: l-,isla:iv-
r-quir-n-n:s.
In ¡rac:ic-, :h-r- is o[:-n son-
con[usion ov-r :h- r-l-van:
r-quir-n-n:s, and :h- :-nd-ncy
[or con¡ani-s :o ado¡: cus:on
¡ow-r solu:ions which involv- lon,
d-v-lo¡n-n: :in-s, lon, a¡¡roval
:in-s, hi,h cos:s, and a hi,h risk o[
-ndin, u¡ wi:h a l-ss :han o¡:inal
¡ow-r sys:-n. Th- us- o[ s:andard
conn-rcial ¡ow-r su¡¡li-s, wi:h
or wi:hou: in¡u: and ou:¡u:
condi:ionin,, is o[:-n ¡ossibl- and
can b- :h- nos: cos:-[[-c:iv- solu:ion
wi:hou: con¡ronisin, -qui¡n-n:
sa[-:y or ¡-r[ornanc-.
FN6oo·o is :h- sa[-:y s¡-cihca:ion
in:-rna:ionally a¡¡licabl- :o :h-
naiori:y o[ -l-c:ronic -qui¡n-n: :ha:
is ¡ow-r-d by u:ili:y nains. M-dical
¡ow-r su¡¡li-s also n--d :o n--: :h-
nininun r-quir-n-n:s s-: ou: in
:his s¡-cihca:ion. Th- in:-rna:ional
sa[-:y s:andard [or n-dical -qui¡n-n:
is IFC6o6o++ and :h-r- ar- :hr--
r-,ional varian:s. FN6o6o++ in
Furo¡-, UL6o6o++ in :h- US, and
CSA.... No 6o6o+.+ in Canada. In all
cas-s, :h- l-,isla:ion cov-rs ¡ro:-c:ion
a,ains: -l-c:ric shock, ¡ro:-c:ion
a,ains: hr- and n-chanical hazards.
Th- d-,r-- o[ ¡ro:-c:ion n--d-d in
any ¡ar:icular n-dical a¡¡lica:ion is
r-la:-d :o :h- ¡roxini:y o[ -qui¡n-n:
:o :h- ¡a:i-n:, -qui¡n-n: :ha: is
GZ[ZgZcXZ :Vgi]IneZ ADE
<; <kdYj_edWb &
F; Fhej[Yj_l[ '
GZ[ZgZcXZ >chjaVi^dcIneZ ADE
EF Ef[hWj_edWb &
8 8Wi_Y '
I Ikffb[c[djWho '
: :ekXb[ (
H H[_d\ehY[Z (
Table !: How levels oI protection can be
provided within electronic equipment
Power sup p lies
in med ic al elec tronic s
Source XP Power
1here can be lew more
critical applications
lor power supplies in
electronic equipment
than in the leld ol
medical electronics.
Medical equipment
will olten have lives
dependent upon its
reliable operation. Power
supplies must not only
deliver the speciled
electrical perlormance,
but must also meet
stringent specilcations
with respect to isolation
in order that patients
and medical stall are
protected lrom the risk
ol electric shock. LMC is
a critical issue too, both
in terms ol immunity and
emissions.
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
1 4
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
cr--¡a,- dis:anc-s and :-s: vol:a,-s,
as shown in Tv||cs . vrJ ·. In addi:ion,
:h- allowabl- l-aka,- curr-n: is nuch
low-r.
In addi:ion, :h- :-s: vol:a,-s a¡¡li-d :o
insula:ion ar- ,r-a:-r [or IFC6o6o++
:han [or FN6oo·o, as shown in iv||c ·.
A .·` ¸¸` incr-as- in con¡on-n:
cl-aranc-s and nor- subs:an:ial
insula:ion r-quir-n-n:s n-ans :ha:
IFC6o6o++ a¡¡rov-d ¡ow-r su¡¡li-s
ar- o[:-n lar,-r :han :h-ir non
a¡¡rov-d coun:-r¡ar:s.
Leakage current considerations
L-aka,- curr-n: s¡-cihca:ions [or
all IFC6o6o++ a¡¡rov-d ¡ow-r
su¡¡li-s ar- nor- s:rin,-n: :han [or
nonn-dical uni:s. Th- s¡-cihca:ions
d-hn- s-v-ral di[[-r-n: kinds o[
l-aka,- curr-n:, bu: :h- nos:
in¡or:an: wi:h r-s¡-c: :o ¡ow-r
su¡¡ly d-si,n ar-.
Far:h l-aka,- curr-n:. :h- curr-n: ·
howin, alon, :h- -ar:h conduc:or
Fnclosur- l-aka,- curr-n:. :h- ·
curr-n: howin, [ron :h- -nclosur-
:o -ar:h via :h- ¡a:i-n:
Maxinun l-aka,- curr-n: is d-hn-d
[or :hr-- nain :y¡-s o[ a¡¡lica:ion
wi:h r-s¡-c: :o IFC6o6o++ a¡¡rov-d
¡ow-r su¡¡li-s.
Ty¡- l. -qui¡n-n: wh-r- :h-r- ·
is no ¡hysical con:ac: wi:h :h-
¡a:i-n: (-.,, las-r :r-a:n-n: sys:-n)
Ty¡- lF. -qui¡n-n: wh-r- :h-r- ·
is in:-n:ional ¡hysical con:ac:
wi:h :h- ¡a:i-n: (-.,. ul:rasound,
various noni:ors includin, FCG
-qui¡n-n:, and o¡-ra:in, :abl-)
Ty¡- CF. -qui¡n-n: wh-r- :h-r- is ·
in:-n:ional cardiac ¡hysical con:ac:
wi:h :h- ¡a:i-n: (-.,. invasiv- h-ar:
noni:ors)
A connon nisund-rs:andin, is :ha:
l-aka,- curr-n: s¡-cihca:ions vary
wi:hin :h-s- :y¡-s o[ a¡¡lica:ion.
In [ac:, in all o[ :h-s- class-s o[
a¡¡lica:ion, :h- allowabl- l-aka,-
curr-n: is :h- san-. Tv||c ¡ shows
:h- ¡-rnissibl- l-aka,- curr-n:
l-v-ls [or FN6o6o++, :h- Furo¡-an
in¡l-n-n:a:ion o[ IFC6o6o++. Nor:h
An-rican s¡-cihca:ions ar- :i,h:-r.
For -xan¡l-, wh-r- o.·nA is allowabl-
in Furo¡-, ius: o.¸nA is ¡-rnissibl-
in :h- US and Canada, h-nc- :h- n--d
[or n-dical -qui¡n-n: d-si,n-rs :o
a¡¡r-cia:- wh-r- :h- sys:-ns :h-y
d-v-lo¡ nay b- sold.
I-ducin, l-aka,- curr-n: wi:hin
a ¡ow-r su¡¡ly usually n-ans
-linina:in, or lini:in, :h- valu- o[
Class Y hl:-r ca¡aci:ors [ron liv-
:o-ar:h and n-u:ral:o-ar:h. I: also
d-nands :ha: s:ray ca¡aci:anc- :o
-ar:h is nininiz-d :hrou,h car-[ul
d-si,n. Un[or:una:-ly, :h- ov-rall
-[[-c: o[ :h-s- n-asur-s :-nds :o
con¡ronis- FMC ¡-r[ornanc-,
al:hou,h nininizin, s:ray
ca¡aci:anc- can r-duc- connon
nod- nois-. As a r-sul:, IFC6o6o+
+ a¡¡rov-d ¡ow-r su¡¡li-s o[:-n
n--: FN··o../++ Class A ins:-ad o[
:h- nor- d-nandin, Class l FMC
s¡-cihca:ions. Th-y can b- d-si,n-d
:o n--: Class l, bu: only :hrou,h :h-
addi:ion o[ nor- con¡l-x hl:-rin, and
scr--nin, arran,-n-n:s, l-adin, :o
incr-as-d ¡ow-r su¡¡ly siz- and cos:.
In a¡¡lica:ions [allin, in:o :h- lF
or CF classihca:ions, o[:-n :-rn-d
'¡a:i-n: conn-c:', an addi:ional l-v-l
o[ isola:ion is r-quir-d :o isola:- :h-
¡a:i-n: [ron -ar:h, si,nal ¡or:s and
¡ow-r su¡¡ly ou:¡u:. This is n--d-d
:o ¡ro:-c: :h- ¡a:i-n: a,ains: sin,l-
[aul: condi:ions and :o nain:ain :h-
l-v-l o[ ¡a:i-n: l-aka,- curr-n: wi:hin
:h- lini:s ou:lin-d in :h- s:andard.
This isola:ion nay b- ¡rovid-d by
o:h-r i:-ns :ha: [orn ¡ar: o[ :h-
-nd -qui¡n-n:, [or -xan¡l- ¡las:ic
¡rob-s or :ubin, :ha: hav- su[hci-n:
insula:ion. Vh-r- an -l-c:rical
conn-c:ion :o :h- ¡a:i-n: is n--d-d,
>chjaVi^dcIneZ :C+%.*% >:8+%+%&"&
7_h9b[WhWdY[ 9h[[fW][Z_ijWdY[ 7_h9b[WhWdY[ 9h[[fW][Z_ijWdY[
8Wi_Yehikffb[c[djWho ($& )$( ($+ *$&
:ekXb[ehh[_d\ehY[Z *$& ,$& +$& .$&
7bbZ_ijWdY[i_dcc$
Table 2: EN60950 and IEC6060!·! compared · based on power supply with 250VAC input
8jggZci IneZ7 IneZ7; IneZ8;
D9 I<9 D9 I<9 D9 I<9
;Whj^b[WaW][ &$+ '$& &$+ '$& &$+ '$&
;dYbeikh[b[WaW][ &$' &$+ &$' &$+ &$' &$+
Dej[0D93dehcWbYedZ_j_edi1I<93i_d]b[\WkbjYedZ_j_ed
>chjaVi^dcIneZ :C+%.*%
IZhiKdaiV\Z
>:8+%+%&"&
IZhiKdaiV\Z
8Wi_Y '+&& '+&&
Ikffb[c[djWho '+&& (+&&
:ekXb[ehh[_d\ehY[Z )&&& *&&&
Table 3:
Insulation test voltages based on 250VAC input
on- a¡¡roach is :o us- an IFC6o6o+
+ a¡¡rov-d AC/DC ¡ow-r su¡¡ly
:o [--d on- or nor- isola:-d DC/DC
conv-r:-rs :o ¡rovid- :h- s-condary
isola:ion. Car-[ul s-l-c:ion o[ :h- DC/
DC conv-r:-r is n--d-d :o -nsur- :h-
isola:ion r-quir-n-n:s ar- n-:.
5ummary
In .oo· :h- ¸rd -di:ion, IFC6o6o++
..oo· was in:roduc-d. This s:andard
is nor- con¡r-h-nsiv- and has
ali,n-d nany ar-as wi:h IFC6oo·o.
I: now nak-s dis:inc:ion b-:w--n
circui:s :ha: ¡rovid- M-ans O[
O¡-ra:or Iro:-c:ion (MOOI) and
circui:s ¡rovidin, M-an O[ Ia:i-n:
Iro:-c:ion (MOII). Th- nor- r-lax-d
r-quir-n-n:s o[ MOOI can b- us-d i[,
:hrou,h a risk ass-ssn-n: ¡roc-ss, :h-
¡a:i-n: will no: nak- con:ac: wi:h :h-
n-dical d-vic-. This will, ov-r :in-,
¡rovid- nor- h-xibili:y o[ :h- :y¡-
o[ ¡ow-r su¡¡ly us-d wi:hin s¡-cihc
:y¡-s o[ -qui¡n-n:. M-dical d-vic-
nanu[ac:ur-rs ar- b-,innin, :o us-
:his n-w s:andard, al:hou,h i: will b-
son- :in- b-[or- i: is univ-rsally us-d
and :h- ¡r-vious -di:ion wi:hdrawn. „
1 5
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Getting a Clearer View
of Med ic al Imaging Source: Altera
Cone are the days ol visiting a doctor
or dentist to have an x·ray taken and
being told to wait hours, or even days,
to have results returned lrom a lab.
With a growing and aging population,
the public is now more involved and
knowledgeable about its healthcare
options than ever belore. For example,
it is not uncommon lor patients to
request several medical imaging scans,
or scans at regular intervals, to assure
their peace ol mind. ln many countries,
healthcare spending is soaring, while
healthcare budgets are not keeping
up, or are even declining. 1he result
is an increase in patient out·ol·pocket
expenses, which is also leading to
greater demands lor better value.
Th- h-al:hcar- nark-: is b-in, driv-n
:o n--: :h-s- d-nands, whil- b-in,
[orc-d :o incr-as- ¡roduc:ivi:y, du-
:o :i,h:-nin, bud,-:s. As a r-sul:,
in-[hci-n: ¡rac:ic-s and ou:da:-d
-qui¡n-n: ar- ¡ushin, nor- and nor-
h-al:hcar- [acili:i-s in:o hnancial
dis:r-ss. On- o[ :h- solu:ions :o :his
dil-nna is :h- nov- :owards di,i:iz-d
or °¡a¡-rl-ss¯ n-dical in[orna:ion usin,
-l-c:ronic n-dia :ha: can b- acc-ss-d
[ron nany loca:ions. Hos¡i:als and
h-al:hcar- [acili:i-s ar- in¡l-n-n:in,
in:-rnal n-:works :ha: conn-c: all
dia,nos:ic -qui¡n-n: (-.,., con¡u:-d
:ono,ra¡hy (CT) scans, xrays, ¡osi:ron
-nission :ono,ra¡hy (IFT) scans, -:c.)
so :ha: all dia,nos:ic da:a and ¡a:i-n:
in[orna:ion can b- [-d ov-r a n-:work :o
da:a s:ora,- s-rv-rs [or ins:an: acc-ss.
In :h- cas- o[ ¡a:i-n: noni:orin,
sys:-ns, b-dsid- ¡a:i-n: noni:ors
analyz-, docun-n:, and dis¡lay a
¡a:i-n:'s li[- sus:ainin, vi:al si,ns,
whil- :ransni::in, :h- san- da:a :o
a c-n:ral loca:ion wh-r- doc:ors and
o:h-r h-al:hcar- ¡rovid-rs can vi-w :h-
da:a wi:hou: walkin, :o -ach ¡a:i-n:'s
b-d. This driv-s n-dical -qui¡n-n:
v-ndors :o d-v-lo¡ con¡l-:- solu:ions
:ha: includ- no: only :h- dia,nos:ic or
noni:orin, -qui¡n-n:, bu: also :h- da:a
s:ora,- s-rv-rs, as w-ll as :h- in:-r[ac-
so[:war-. ly usin, :his n-:hod, nor-
¡a:i-n:s can b- noni:or-d by [-w-r
s:a[[ :hrou,h :h- us- o[ b-::-r and [as:-r
-qui¡n-n: :ha: is n-:work-d across
a h-al:hcar- [acili:y or con¡l-x, also
l-adin, :o -arly ailn-n: dia,nosis and
:r-a:n-n:. Vh-n :h- ¡a¡-rl-ss and
in:-rconn-c:-d hos¡i:al b-con-s a
r-ali:y, ¡roduc:ivi:y is [ur:h-r -nhanc-d
b-caus- o[ ins:an: connunica:ion o[
¡a:i-n: :-s: r-sul:s and acc-ss :o all
his:orical r-cords.
A k-y driv-r in :h-s- h-al:hcar-
advanc-n-n:s is :h- availabili:y and
,rowin, us- o[ ¡ro,rannabl- lo,ic
d-vic-s (ILDs). ILDs con:inu- :o s-- a
nuch hi,h-r ra:- o[ ado¡:ion :han o:h-r
s-niconduc:or :y¡-s, sinc- :h-y o[[-r a
viabl- and ¡ow-r[ul al:-rna:iv- :o bo:h
a¡¡lica:ions¡-cihc in:-,ra:-d circui:s
(ASICs) and a¡¡lica:ions¡-cihc s:andard
¡roduc:s (ASSIs) in n-dical -qui¡n-n:
d-v-lo¡n-n:. ILDs -linina:- :h- u¡
[ron: nonr-currin, -n,in--rin, (NIF)
cos:s and nininun ord-r quan:i:i-s
associa:-d wi:h ASICs, and :h- risk o[
nul:i¡l- silicon i:-ra:ions :hrou,h
:h- ca¡abili:y :o b- r-¡ro,rann-d as
n--d-d durin, :h- d-si,n ¡roc-ss. Vh-n
con¡ar-d :o ASSIs, ILDs ¡rovid- :h-
d-si,n h-xibili:y and board in:-,ra:ion
o¡¡or:uni:i-s :o di[[-r-n:ia:- a,ains:
con¡-:in, n-dical -qui¡n-n:
nanu[ac:ur-rs. Addi:ionally, ILDs can b-
u¡,rad-d in :h- h-ld as s:andards -volv-
or r-quir-n-n:s chan,-. Th- abili:y :o
r-us- a connon hardwar- ¡la:[orn
allows d-si,n-rs :o cr-a:- di[[-r-n:ia:-d
sys:-ns, which su¡¡or: a vari-:y o[
[-a:ur- s-:s wi:h on- basic d-si,n,
r-sul:in, in r-duc-d nanu[ac:urin,
cos:s.
On- naior ar-a wh-r- :h- b-n-h:s
o[ usin, ILDs can cl-arly b- s--n is
dia,nos:ic ina,in,. In dia,nos:ic
ina,in,, sha¡-s such as li,an-n:s,
or,ans, and bon-s ar- ori,inally ca¡:ur-d
in on-din-nsion [orna:s, bu: n--d
:o b- :rans[orn-d in:o :wo or :hr--
din-nsional [orna:s. Th- ca¡:ur-d
ina,-s r-quir- con¡-nsa:ion and
hl:-rin, :hrou,h si,nal ¡roc-ssin,
:-chniqu-s. This is don- in on- or
son-:in-s u¡ :o .o di[[-r-n: cos:
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
1 6
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
s-nsi:iv- da:a acquisi:ion cards. Onc- :h-
da:a is con¡-nsa:-d and hl:-r-d,
i: is s-n: :o a da:a consolida:ion card [or
bu[[-rin, and da:a ali,nn-n:. For CT
and IFT scann-rs, wh-r- :h- d-:-c:ors
ro:a:- around :h- body, :h- da:a is
s-rializ-d and s-n: across a sli¡ rin,
-l-c:ron-chanical subass-nbly. Onc-
:h- da:a has b--n coll-c:-d, i: is s-n: :o
:h- ina,-/da:a ¡roc-ssin, card, which
¡-r[orns :h- h-avydu:y hl:-rin, and
:h- nos: al,ori:hnin:-nsiv- ina,-
r-cons:ruc:ion. Th- hnal ina,- can b-
vi-w-d dir-c:ly on an a::ach-d dis¡lay.
A: :his ¡oin: :h- ina,- can also b-
con¡r-ss-d and :ransni::-d across
a n-:work [or s:ora,- or vi-win, in a
r-no:- loca:ion.
Throu,hou: :his ¡roc-ss s-v-ral
variabl-s nus: b- consid-r-d such as :h-
d-sir- [or .D v-rsus ¸D ina,in,, ina,-
r-solu:ion r-quir-n-n:s, ¡or:abili:y,
and :h- nunb-r o[ chann-ls r-quir-d in
:h- sys:-n. Fach o[ :h-s- [ac:ors ¡os-s
di[[-r-n: r-quir-n-n:s in :h- d-vic-
s-l-c:ion ¡roc-ss. ILDs can ¡rovid-
[avorabl- solu:ions :o d-si,n-rs o[
dia,nos:ic ina,in, -qui¡n-n:. For
cos:s-nsi:iv- da:a acquisi:ion cards,
lowcos: h-ld¡ro,rannabl- ,a:- arrays
(FIGAs), such as Al:-ra's Cyclon- III ar-
-xc-ll-n: candida:-s b-caus- :h-y o[[-r
abundan: di,i:al si,nal ¡roc-ssin, (DSI)
nul:i¡li-rs :o in¡l-n-n: :h- ina,-
con¡-nsa:ion and hl:-rin, [unc:ions.
D-si,n-rs can also b-n-h: [ron o:h-r
[-a:ur-s ¡rovid-d by lowcos: FIGAs
ou:sid- o[ :h- [unc:ions r-quir-d [or
:h- da:a acquisi:ion cards. ly u:ilizin,
a so[:cor- ¡roc-ssor d-v-lo¡n-n:
-nvironn-n:, such as Al:-ra's Nios II
-nb-dd-d ¡roc-ssor, d-si,n-rs can
quickly and -[hci-n:ly ass-nbl- :h-
-l-n-n:s n--d-d :o driv- a wid- ran,-
o[ LCD ¡an-l conh,ura:ions. Func:ions
such as LCD con:rol, :inin, con:rol, and
in:-r[acin, :o -x:-rnal n-nory d-vic-s
can b- in¡l-n-n:-d as sin¡l- buildin,
blocks wi:hin a lowcos: FIGA. Th-r-
is also an incr-asin, :r-nd :owards
¡or:abl- ina,in, -qui¡n-n: sinc- i: has
:h- ¡o:-n:ial :o r-ach a wid-r consun-r
bas-. How-v-r, :his s¡ac-cons:rain-d
-qui¡n-n: r-quir-s lowcos:
s-niconduc:or con:-n: wi:h :h- low-s:
¡ow-r consun¡:ion and snall-s: [orn
[ac:or. A,ain lowcos: FIGAs can b-
an o¡:inal solu:ion as :h-y ¡rovid- a
hi,h l-v-l o[ [unc:ionali:y and consun-
v-ry li::l- ¡ow-r. Son- lowcos: FIGAs
o[[-r u¡ :o +.o,ooo lo,ic -l-n-n:s
wi:h .88 DSI nul:i¡li-rs and ¡Mbi: o[
-nb-dd-d n-nory whil- consunin,
l-ss :han .oonV o[ s:andby ¡ow-r.
Th-s- d-vic-s can also b- [ound in ar-a
o¡:iniz-d ¡acka,-s as snall as 8x8 nn.
Midran,- FIGAs such as :h- Arria GX
d-vic-s, or hi,h¡-r[ornanc- FIGAs
such as S:ra:ix IV and HardCo¡y IV
d-vic-s, ar- id-al [or da:a consolida:ion
and da:a ¡roc-ssin, cards. Th-s-
d-vic-s ,iv- sys:-n d-si,n-rs h-xibili:y,
¡-r[ornanc-, in:-,ra:ion, and d-si,n
r-sourc-s [or :h- hi,h-s: l-v-l o[ sys:-n
in:-,ra:ion and bandwid:h. This ran,-
o[ FIGAs ¡rovid-s d-dica:-d hi,h
¡-r[ornanc- DSI blocks and a vari-:y
o[ -nb-dd-d n-nory blocks :o ¡-r[orn
:h- h-avydu:y ina,- ¡roc-ssin,
[unc:ions, such as :h- [as: Fouri-r
:rans[orn (FFT) al,ori:hns, ina,-
r-cr-a:ion, and scalin, n--d-d in :h- da:a
¡roc-ssin, cards. Th- hi,h¡-r[ornanc-
and rich [-a:ur- s-: o[ :h-s- d-vic-s
can also h-l¡ v-ndors o[[-r nix-d
nodali:y -qui¡n-n: (-.,. conbin-d CT/
IFT nachin-s) :ha: -nabl- [-w-r and
shor:-r hos¡i:al visi:s. V-rsions o[ :h-s-
d-vic-s also [-a:ur- nul:i,i,abi: s-rial
:ransc-iv-rs ([ron +..· :o 8.·Gbi:/s)
n-c-ssary :o :rans¡or: hi,hs¡--d da:a
across sli¡ rin,s and back¡lan-s. For
-xan¡l-, FIGAs wi:h nul:i,i,abi:
s-rial :ransc-iv-rs can conn-c: scannin,
-qui¡n-n: :o a ICbas-d ¡la:[orn usin,
:h- ICI Fx¡r-ss ¡ro:ocol. Iaw da:a
conin, [ron an ul:rasound :ransduc-r
or MII scann-r can b- ¡r-[orna::-d [or
-asy connunica:ion :o :h- ICbas-d
analysis and dis¡lay ¡la:[orn.
As :h- world's ¡o¡ula:ion con:inu-s
:o ,row, ¡ar:icularly in d-v-lo¡in,
coun:ri-s, acc-ss :o :h- la:-s: h-al:hcar-
:-chniqu-s and -qui¡n-n: is b-conin,
a ,r-a:-r chall-n,-. Ul:rasound and
xray nachin-s ar- alr-ady s--in, hi,h-r
,row:h ra:-s in d-v-lo¡in, na:ions,
bu: :h- work nus: con:inu- :o ¡rovid-
univ-rsal acc-ss wi:h :h- l-v-l o[ quali:y
and [as: :urnaround :in- d-nand-d by
consun-rs :oday. D-si,n-rs nus: look
:oward n-w :-chnolo,ical advanc-n-n:s
such as ILDs :o low-r -qui¡n-n:
cos:s and incr-as- ¡roduc:ivi:y in :h-
h-al:hcar- nark-:. Vh-:h-r d-si,nin,
a MII nachin- or ¡a:i-n: noni:orin,
-qui¡n-n:, ¡ro,rannabl- lo,ic is a
h-xibl-, lowrisk ¡a:h :o succ-ss[ul
sys:-n d-si,n o[[-rin, o¡:inun cos:
-[hci-nci-s, whil- ¡rovidin, valu-add-d
di[[-r-n:ia:in, ca¡abili:i-s v-rsus o:h-r
n-dical -qui¡n-n: nanu[ac:ur-rs.
Las:ly, ILDs hav- a v-ry lon, li[- cycl-
and ¡ro:-c: cus:on-rs a,ains: ¡roduc:
obsol-sc-nc-, which is cri:ical in :h-
n-dical indus:ry b-caus- o[ lon,
¡roduc: cycl-s. „
1 7
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Vi:hin :h- n-dical indus:ry, :h- r-quir-d d-nands [or
conn-c:ors :-nd :o b- a¡¡lica:ions¡-cihc ra:h-r :han
indus:rys¡-cihc. Such d-nands can includ- hi,h na:in,
cycl-s, abili:y :o wi:hs:and s:-riliza:ion, n--:in, II6
s-alin, condi:ions or wi:hs:andin, na,n-:ic or Xray
-qui¡n-n: -nvironn-n:s. Th-r- is also :h- n--d :o -nsur-
con¡a:ibili:y wi:h n-dical s:andards. For -xan¡l-, bio
con¡a:ibl- na:-rials nus: n--: :h- FDA r-quir-n-n: [or
:h- class o[ d-vic-. Vh-n conn-c:ors ar- us-d on or wi:hin
:h- d-vic-, i: is :h- OFM who will driv- :h-s- a¡¡lica:ion
and con¡a:ibili:y issu-s and -nsur- :h- conn-c:or indus:ry
n--:s :h-n.
Medical Market 5ectors
Th-r- ar- [our naior nark-: s-,n-n:s in :h- n-dical
indus:ry :ha: con- und-r :h- s¡o:li,h: in r-la:ion :o :h-
-l-c:ronics indus:ry, ¡a:i-n: noni:orin,, :h-ra¡-u:ic
-qui¡n-n:, dia,nos:ic and ina,in, -qui¡n-n:, and hos¡i:al
and ¡a:i-n: car-. N-w n-dical :-chnolo,i-s ar- alr-ady
-nablin, doc:ors :o dia,nos- and :r-a: ¡a:i-n: illn-ss-s
-arli-r wi:h hon- and ¡oin:o[car- d-vic-s. I-liabili:y o[
:h- -l-c:ronics us-d is cri:ical :o :h- succ-ss[ul car- and
sa[-:y o[ :h- ¡a:i-n:, and in:-rconn-c:s ¡lay a crucial rol- in
:h- ov-rall r-liabili:y o[ :h- sys:-n.
Patient Monitoring
A naior drivin, [orc- in ¡a:i-n: noni:orin, is :ha:
-qui¡n-n: nanu[ac:ur-rs ar- ¡roducin, nor- con¡ac:
handh-ld noni:ors :o -nabl- :-s:in, in hos¡i:al clinics,
doc:ors' o[hc-s or -v-n a: hon-. ICl r-al-s:a:- is cri:ical
wi:hin :h-s- d-vic-s. Incr-asin,ly, nanu[ac:ur-rs ar-
s-l-c:in, snall-r ¡roduc:s, such as SlinS:ack o.¡onn,
o.·onn FFC, and +.oonn IicoClas¡, :o sav- s¡ac- on :h-ir
ICls.
Snall-r in:-r[ac-s lik- MicroUSl, Cradl-Con and
HandyLink ar- also ,ainin, in ¡o¡ulari:y, as nanu[ac:ur-rs
ar- ado¡:in, hi,h-r d-nsi:y da:a in:-r[ac-s in :h-ir
-qui¡n-n: :o -nsur- s-cur- rou:in, o[ da:a si,nals [or
bo:h :h-ir in:-rnal and -x:-rnal in:-r[ac-s. OFMs ar- also
workin, wi:h nanu[ac:ur-rs such as Mol-x :o d-v-lo¡
cus:on I/O conn-c:ors [or d-vic-s :ha: us-
cus:on-rs¡-cihc :-s: s:ri¡ solu:ions.
Therapeutic Equipment
Th-ra¡-u:ic d-vic- nanu[ac:ur-rs ar-
incr-asin,ly in¡rovin, :h- ¡or:abili:y o[
:h-ir d-vic-s and sin¡li[yin, :h-ir us-r
in:-r[ac-s :o -nsur- :ha: :h-y ar- bo:h
¡rac:ical and sa[-. Innova:iv- solu:ions such
as hn-¡i:ch wir-:oboard, board:oboard
and ¡ow-r conn-c:ors, and :h- abili:y :o r-¡lac- ICls wi:h
Co¡¡-r Fl-x ass-nbli-s, h-l¡s nanu[ac:ur-rs r-duc- :h- siz-
and cos: o[ -qui¡n-n: :o nak- i: nor- sui:abl- [or hon- or
o[hc- us-.
Diagnostic Imaging
Vi:hin MII, CT or Ul:rasound -qui¡n-n:, :h-r- is a s:ron,
n--d :o cr-a:-, nani¡ula:- and s:or- ina,-s in r-al :in-.
This involv-s ¡roc-ssin, lar,- anoun:s o[ da:a ra¡idly,
which r-sul:s in back¡lan-, s:ora,- and I/O conn-c:or
s¡--ds in -xc-ss o[ ·Gbi:/¡s.
N-w back¡lan- ¡roduc:s lik- VHDMHSD, GbX and hi,h
d-nsi:y MicroTCA back¡lan-s and s:ora,- ¡roduc:s such
as S-rial ATA ¡roduc:s, S-rial A::ach-d SCSI ¡roduc:s and
:h- iIass in:-rconn-c: sys:-n ar- s¡-cihcally d-si,n-d wi:h
in:-,ra:-d in:-rnal shi-ldin, :o o[[-r -xc-ll-n: ¡-r[ornanc-
a: :h-s- hi,h-r sys:-n and s:ora,- s¡--ds. Sinilarly,
n-w-r di,i:al dis¡lay in:-r[ac-s such as DVI, HDMI and
Dis¡layIor: ar- incr-asin,ly b-in, ado¡:-d as s:andard
in:-r[ac-s [or ¡a:i-n: dis¡lays o[ ina,in, -qui¡n-n: as :h-y
o[[-r in¡rov-d r-solu:ion ov-r -xis:in, analo,u- dis¡lays.
Conclusion
Th- [as: ,rowin, n-dical indus:ry n--ds a broad-r
ran,- o[ conn-c:or solu:ions :han -v-r b-[or-. This n--d
has ¡ron¡:-d conn-c:or nanu[ac:ur-rs such as Mol-x
:o b- nor- innova:iv- :han -v-r :o hnd n-w ways :o
¡rovid- solu:ions :ha: ar- nor- ru,,-d and hav- hi,h-r
da:a in:-,ri:y, and also :o ¡rovid- a broad-r ran,- o[
cus:oniza:ion o¡:ions. „
1he rapid market growth in the medical device industry is driven
by a number ol socio·demographic lactors, such as escalating
population growth rate and longer lile expectancy. But it is the
huge increases in government investment towards healthcare, lor
both developed and emerging economies, that is attracting the
attention ol big industry players. 1hese OLMs are no longer |ust
developing diagnostic or therapeutic devices but are locusing on
the entire patient care cycle · diagnosis, treatment, management
and rehabilitation · to improve the overall level ol care to the
patient. As with most last·moving industry sectors, it is design
innovation that is key to growing market share and reducing costs.
Innovative c onnec tor
tec hnology
keep s med ic al market healthy Source: Molex
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lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Th- si,nal ¡a:h has :o d-al wi:h di[[-r-n: sourc-s o[ nois-, r-i-c:in, DC nois- only
r-quir-s hi,h¡ass hl:-rs :o b- in¡l-n-n:-d. :h- nain di[hcul:y is ·oHz nois-,
which is in :h- san- [r-qu-ncy ran,- o[ :h- si,nal :o b- n-asur-d. To -linina:-
:his connon nod- nois-, an ins:run-n:a:ion an¡lih-r is id-al, b-caus- i: r-i-c:s
connon nod- vol:a,- whil- an¡li[yin, di[[-r-n:ial vol:a,-, allowin, :h-
s-¡ara:ion o[ :h- low l-v-l si,nals [ron :h- back,round nois-.
As illus:ra:-d in Iiqvrc :, :h- ins:run-n:a:ion an¡lih-r is in¡l-n-n:-d usin, :h-
LMI..¸¡ and ¡r-cision r-sis:ors (o.+`).
Th- LMI..¸¡ is d-si,n-d [or ba::-ry ¡ow-r-d a¡¡lica:ions, wi:h a +.8 :o ·.·V
o¡-ra:in, vol:a,- ran,- and qui-sc-n: curr-n: su¡¡ly o[ ¸6²A. Hi,h in¡-danc-
CMOS in¡u:s nak- i: id-al [or ins:run-n:a:ion and o:h-r s-nsor in:-r[ac-
a¡¡lica:ions.
Th-r- ar- :wo s:a,-s in :his
ins:run-n:a:ion an¡lih-r. Th- ou:¡u:
s:a,- is a di[[-r-n:ial an¡lih-r, which
has :h- abili:y :o r-i-c: DC l-v-ls,
in:-r[-r-nc- and nois- vol:a,- connon
:o bo:h in¡u:s. Th- :wo an¡lih-rs o[
:h- hrs: s:a,- ar- conh,ur-d as bu[[-rs
:o isola:- :h- in¡u:s. Th- ¡roduc: o[ :h-
:wo s:a,-s o[ ,ain will ,iv- :h- ,ain o[
:h- ins:run-n:a:ion an¡lih-r.
Th- ou:¡u: vol:a,- is d-hn-d as

Vout = (Vin2-Vin1) x (1+2x ) ( )
R3
R4
R8
R6
Th- naxinal an¡li:ud- o[ :h- in¡u:
si,nal is ·nV bu: :o s-: u¡ :h- ,ain an
-l-c:rod- DC o[[s-: :ha: can b- u¡ :o +/¸oonV has :o b- consid-r-d. Th- ,ain will
b- s-: :o · :o na:ch :h- ou:¡u: ran,- o[ :h- an¡lih-r, which is su¡¡li-d wi:h ¸.¸V.
A hi,h ¡ass hl:-r is :h-n in¡l-n-n:-d in ord-r :o su¡¡r-ss :h- DC con¡on-n:s,
which can caus- sa:ura:ion in :h- n-x: ,ain s:a,-. Th- cu: o[[ [r-qu-ncy [or :h-
hi,h ¡ass hl:-r is o.·Hz. Th- hl:-r is in¡l-n-n:-d usin, :h- .nd ord-r Sall-n L-y
lu::-rwor:h :o¡olo,y. Th- n-x: s:a,- is a low ¡ass hl:-r wi:h a cu:o[[ [r-qu-ncy o[
+ooHz and a ,ain o[ +oo, in¡l-n-n:-d
as w-ll wi:h :h- Sall-n L-y :o¡olo,y.
Analo, ac:iv- hl:-rs such as Sall-n L-y
ar- buil: around o¡-ra:ional an¡lih-r
wi:h r-sis:ors and ca¡aci:ors.
Th- hl:-rs ar- in¡l-n-n:-d wi:h
:h- LMV··. low ¡ow-r o¡-ra:ional
an¡lih-rs, which [-a:ur- ¸MHz o[
bandwid:h whil- consunin, ¸¡μA o[
curr-n: ¡-r an¡lih-r.
Th- sys:-n is ba::-ry o¡-ra:-d, a DC/
DC s:-¡ u¡ is n-c-ssary :o ¡rovid-
:h- ¸.¸V vol:a,- n--d-d [or :h-
si,nal ¡a:h. Th- LM.6.¸ is a hi,h
-[hci-ncy, ,-n-ral ¡ur¡os-, s:-¡
u¡ DCDC swi:chin, r-,ula:or [or
ba::-ry¡ow-r-d and low in¡u: vol:a,-
sys:-ns.
Th- r-cord ac:ivi:y o[ :h- h-ar: can b-
:ransni::-d :o a IC, a nobil- ¡hon- or
a IDA, :hanks :o wir-l-ss :ransnission.
llu-:oo:h is on- o[ :h- ¡r-[-rr-d
wir-l-ss :-chnolo,i-s [or ¡a:i-n:
noni:orin,, du- :o robus:n-ss, -as-
o[ us-, r-asonabl- cos: and su[hci-n:
ran,-.
For :h- ¡a:i-n:'s s-curi:y, isola:ion is
n--d-d. This can b- don- wi:h ,alvanic
isola:ion, ¡ho:oo¡:o cou¡lin,,
ca¡aci:iv- cou¡lin, and na,n-:ic
cou¡lin,. This ar:icl- is [ocus-d on :h-
FCG [ron:-nd, bu: wh-n d-v-lo¡in,
a n-dical -l-c:ronic sys:-n all sa[-:y
s:andards hav- :o b- r-s¡-c:-d.
Ior:abl- n-dical -qui¡n-n:, such as
-l-c:rocardio,rans, ar- in¡l-n-n:-d
wi:h :ou,h r-quir-n-n:s in ord-r
:o ,uaran:-- ¡a:i-n: s-curi:y and
nobili:y. In d-si,nin, a sys:-n, as
w-ll as n--:in, :h- s¡-cihc n--ds o[
n-dical a¡¡lica:ions, ul:ra low ¡ow-r
consun¡:ion and hi,h ¡r-cision ar-
also r-quir-d. „
Signal c ond itioning
in p ortab le med ic al ap p lic ations
Source: National Semiconductor
An electrocardiogram (LCC) is a recording ol the heart's electrical activity
over time. 1he signal is measured by connecting three small electrodes
to the human body, and is characterized by lve specilcs points P, O, R, S
and 1, which allow the diagnosis ol possible heart diseases.
1he LCC signal can range lrom a ^00μV to 5mV peak, with 3dB corner
lrequencies at 0.05Hz and ¹00Hz. 1his signal is disturbed by various
types ol interlerence such as: electrode contact noise, power·line noise,
respiration, muscle activity, interlerence lrom other electronics devices.
Figure !: Instrumentation Ampliñer
1 9
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Determining the Pesponse Curve
Th- nos: connon :radi:ional
r-s¡ons- curv-s o[ lu::-rwor:h, l-ss-l,
Ch-bysh-v ar- shown in iv||c :.u.
Many o:h-r r-s¡ons- curv-s -xis:, bu:
son- ar- bas-d on :h-s- basic curv-s
wi:h hi,h-r ord-rs, [or -xan¡l- :h-
.:h ord-r Linkwi:zIil-y connon in
hi,h -nd audio crossov-rs is con¡os-d
o[ :wo +s: ord-r lu::-rwor:h hl:-rs.
7jiiZgldgi] is :h- nos: connon
:y¡- o[ hl:-r, as i: is has :h- nos:
na:h-na:ically ha: ¡ass band o[ any
o:h-r hl:-r. lu::-rwor:h is a class.
hl:-r n-anin, :h- ri¡¡l- is conhn-d :o
:h- s:o¡ band.
8]ZWnh]Zk is a class + hl:-r wi:h a
r-s¡ons- [-a:urin, a s:--¡-r [r-qu-ncy
slo¡- :han :h- lu::-rwor:h, bu: i:
su[[-rs [ron ri¡¡l- in :h- ¡ass band.
8VjZg r-s¡ons- can b- -i:h-r a class
+ or class . sinc- :h- ri¡¡l- in :h- ¡ass
band and s:o¡ band is ind-¡-nd-n:ly
adius:abl-. I: also has :h- [as:-s:
:ransi:ion in ,ain b-:w--n :h- s:o¡
band and ¡ass band [or ,iv-n valu-s o[
ri¡¡l-.
7ZhhZa r-s¡ons- is chos-n in sys:-ns
r-quirin, lin-ar ¡has- r-s¡ons-, and
has naxinun ha: ,rou¡ d-lay across
:h- ¡ass band. For :his r-ason :h-y
ar- ¡o¡ular in audio circui:ry wh-r-
¡r-s-rva:ion o[ wav- sha¡-
is in¡or:an:.
The Frequency Cradient
Th- nunb-r o[ r-ac:iv- -l-n-n:s
wi:hin :h- circui:, wh-:h-r induc:iv-
or ca¡aci:iv-, d-:-rnin-s :h- 'ord-r'
o[ :h- circui:. A sin¡l- r-sis:or ¡lus
ca¡aci:or would coun: as :h- +s: ord-r,
and -v-ry -x:ra r-ac:iv- con¡on-n:
add-d :o :h- circui: adds an -x:ra ord-r.
Fach ord-r, wh-n :un-d :o :h- san-
[r-qu-ncy, would caus- :h- ,radi-n:
:o b-con- s:--¡-r by an -x:ra 6dl ¡-r
oc:av-.
Th- hi,h-r :h- ord-r o[ :h- hl:-r, :h-
nor- :h- r-s¡ons- nov-s :owards :h-
v-r:ical as s--n in [qvrc :.u.
Analog or Digital
Usin, a di,i:al in¡l-n-n:a:ion
d-¡-nds on a nunb-r o[ [ac:ors, di,i:al
in¡l-n-n:a:ion will in ,-n-ral :ak-
lon,-r :o d-v-lo¡, n--d nor- r-sourc-s
and nay no: o[[-r :h- san- ¡ric-/
¡-r[ornanc- b-n-h:s o[ analo, hl:-rs.
Di,i:al hl:-rs [-a:urin, d-vic-s such
as FIGAs or CIUs, will r-quir- :h-
analo, si,nal :o b- :ransla:-d :o di,i:al
b-[or- hl:-rin,, and :ransla:-d back
la:-r. DSI solu:ions o[[-r so¡his:ica:-d
¡roc-ssin,, bu: :his -x:ra h-xibili:y
n--ds nor- d-v-lo¡n-n: and hi,h-r
associa:-d cos:s.
Integrated solutions
for p assive interfac e filtering and linear ac tive filter d esign
Source: John Siviter, Farnell Technical Support
GZhedchZ
IneZ
EVhh"WVcY
G^eeaZ
;gZfjZcXn
IgVch^i^dc
Hide"WVcY
G^eeaZ
8aVhh
E]VhZ
GZhedchZ
7jiiZgldgi] 8[ij_d9bWii CeZ[hWj[ 8WZ ( =eeZ
8]ZWnh]Zk CeZ[hWj[ =eeZ CeZ[hWj[ ' CeZ[hWj[
7ZhhZa CeZ[hWj[ CeZ[hWj[ CeZ[hWj[ ' =eeZ
8VjZg 7Z`kijWXb[ 8[ij_d9bWii 7Z`kijWXb[ 'eh( CeZ[hWj[
Table !: Filter characteristics
Almost every electronic system
has llters, whether passive, active
or digital. 1he engineer commonly
has a response and type ol llter
in mind right lrom the start. For
simple passive lltering, decoupling
ol supply voltages may be
sullcient, however more complex
lltering requires more thought.
For a larger choice ol integrated
solutions and decreased costs, a
little extra planning at the start ol
the pro|ect can reduce expenditure
and development time, as well as
increase perlormance.
From the design specilcation
stage, the engineer should have
a good indication ol the required
lrequency response ol each
llter, the amplitude vs lrequency
gradient and whether the llter
will be low/high pass, band·pass
or notch lltering. 1he llter may
have to be conlned to run oll
existing supply voltages: this is
ol particular importance, il lor
example, the system is going to
run oll low voltage batteries in a
portable application such as an MP3
player. When the supply voltages,
lrequency types and responses have
been decided, the next step is to
equate the desired characteristics
ol the response curves into
standard response types.
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2 0
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Th- d-cision should b- nad- ¡rinarily
on :h- con¡l-xi:y o[ :h- o:h-r in:-,ral
[unc:ional blocks in :h- d-si,n.
Traditional approaches to Filter
Design
Th- La¡lac- :rans[orn can [ound
:hrou,h calcula:ion or nor-
connonly look-d u¡ [ron s:andard
r-s¡ons- curv- -qua:ions.
H(s) = =
Vo(s)
Vi(s)
1
1+2s+2s
2
+2s
3
Fqua:ion +.o Trans[orn [or :h- ¸rd
ord-r lu::-rwor:h hl:-r, wh-r-.
s = + i , (r-al +con¡l-x ¡ar:s)
Th- :rans[orns nun-ra:or and
d-nonina:or nay :h-n b- [ac:oris-d
:o hnd :h- ¡ol-s and z-ros o[
:h- -qua:ion.
Filter 5tability using Poles and
Zeros
Iol-s ar- :h- 's' valu-s :ha: would caus-
:h- d-nonina:or :o -qual z-ro (or
H(s)=d) and 'z-ros', ar- :h- valu-s o[ 's'
:ha: caus- :h- nun-ra:or :o -qual z-ro.
For a hl:-r :o b- s:abl- i: nus: hav- a
nunb-r o[ ¡ol-s ,r-a:-r :han or -qual
:o :h- nunb-r o[ z-ros. Sinc- -qua:ion
+.o ¡rov-s only ¡ol-s -xis:, :his shows
:ha: :h- ¸rd ord-r lu::-rwor:h is
s:abl-, wi:hou: oscilla:ion.
I[ :h- hl:-rs' :in- vs. an¡li:ud-
r-s¡ons- r-quir-s -xanina:ion, :h-n
an inv-rs-La¡lac- nay b- ¡-r[orn-d
on :h- -qua:ion :o brin, i: back in:o
:h- :in- donain. I: is also wor:h
no:in, :ha: conv-rsion b-:w--n :h-
analo, 's' ¡lan- and 'z' ¡lan- [or di,i:al
in¡l-n-n:a:ion is :h-n ¡ossibl-.
The 5allen·Key Active Filter
Thou,h nany di[[-r-n: conh,ura:ions
can b- u:iliz-d :o nak- :h- hnal
circui:, bas-d on :h- na:h-na:ical
r-la:ionshi¡s, [or :h- ¡ur¡os-s o[ :his
ar:icl-, :h- Sall-nL-y .¡ol- (.nd
ord-r, +.db ¡-r oc:av-) hl:-r is chos-n,
as i: is :h- nos: ¡o¡ular o[ all :h- .nd
ord-r hl:-r conh,ura:ions [or low and
hi,h ¡ass hl:-rin,. Th-y ar- sin¡l- :o
cons:ruc: and ar- r-la:iv-ly r-sili-n:
:o con¡on-n: :ol-ranc-. Iiqvrc ..u
and ..: shows low and hi,h ¡ass
cons:ruc:ion r-s¡-c:iv-ly.
ly adius:in, :h- con¡on-n: valu-s,
any .nd ord-r low ¡ass r-s¡ons- nay
b- ,-n-ra:-d.
5ingle Chip 5olutions to Analog
Filtering
I[ hi,h ord-r hl:-rs ar- r-quir-d,
Sall-nL-y bas-d hl:-rs nay no: b- :h-
b-s: solu:ion. Fil:-rs u¡ :o 8:h ord-r
ar- ¡ossibl- usin, d-dica:-d swi:ch-d
ca¡aci:or :y¡- hl:-rs such as Maxin's
MAX.o¸. Transla:in, :h- in¡u: clock
[r-qu-ncy in:o d-sir-d rollon/roll
o[[ [r-qu-ncy nak- :h-s- h-xibl-,
how-v-r :h-y do su[[-r [ron hi,h-r
nois- :h-n con:inuous :in- hl:-rs.
TI's UAF¡. and Maxin's MAX.¡
hl:-rs hav- :h- advan:a,- o[
conbinin, low¡ass, hi,h¡ass and
band¡ass in:o a sin,l- ¡acka,-. Vi:h
hi,h accuracy :rinn-d in:-rnal
ca¡aci:ors so :h-y ar- l-ss susc-¡:ibl-
:o [r-qu-ncy varia:ions, which would
caus- nisali,nn-n: b-:w--n s:a,-s.
Thos- -n,in--rs wishin, :o chan,-
hl:-r s¡-cihca:ion 'on :h- hy' nay
wish :o consid-r Fi-ld Iro,rannabl-
Analo, Arrays (FGAA's), such as :hos-
[ron Anadi,n. Th-s- ar- availabl- in
snall [oo:¡rin: OFN ¡acka,-s, wi:h
[ully conh,urabl- analo, [unc:ion
blocks. Th- AN+.+Fo¡, [or -xan¡l-,
has [our conh,urabl- I/O c-lls and :wo
d-dica:-d ou:¡u: c-lls, so nul:i¡l-
analo, si,nals can b- ¡roc-ss-d
in ¡arall-l. „
Resp onse
Eq uations
3rd Crder Butterworth
TransIorm:
H(s) = =
Vo(s)
Vi(s)
1
1+2s+2s
2
+s
3
Chebyshev Equation:
1
Vh-r- is :h- ri¡¡l- [ac:or
T
n
is a Ch-bysh-v ¡olynonial o[
:h- n:h ord-r.
Caucer/Elliptic Equation:
1
Vh-r- R
n
is :h- n:hord-r -lli¡:ic
ra:ional [unc:ion
0
is :h- cu:o[[ [r-qu-ncy
is :h- ri¡¡l- [ac:or
is :h- s-l-c:ivi:y [ac:or
3rd Crder Bessel TransIorm:
H(s) =
15
s
3
+6s
2
+15s+15
2nd order 5allen·Key
TransIorm:
H(s) =
1
1+C
2
(R
1
+R
2
)s+C
1
C
2
R
1
R
2
s
2 Figure 2.0: Unity gain low·pass 5allen·Key
Figure !.0: Low·pass ñlter
Figure 2.!: Unity gain high·pass 5allen·Key
DgYZg Gdaa"d[[
'ij$$$$$$$$$ ,Z8%EYjWl[
(dZ$$$$$$$ '(Z8%EYjWl[
)hZ$$$$$$$$ '.Z8%EYjWl[
*j^$$$$$$$$ (*Z8%EYjWl[
+j^$$$$$$$$ *&Z8%EYjWl[
2 1
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
On- o[ :h- nos: in:-r-s:in, ,row:h ar-as is in ¡or:abl-
n-dical -qui¡n-n:. Anbulanc- cr-ws can hav- acc-ss
:o nor- advanc-d -l-c:ronics, [or -xan¡l- in dia,nos:ic
-qui¡n-n:, or d-hbrilla:ors :o h-l¡ sav- liv-s a[:-r cardiac
arr-s:s.
Ior:abl- noni:orin, -qui¡n-n: n-ans :ha:, [or a wid- ran,-
o[ n-dical condi:ions, ¡a:i-n:s can s:ay in :h-ir own hon-s
and carry on wi:h :h-ir nornal liv-s, ins:-ad o[ havin, :o
b- adni::-d :o :h- hos¡i:al [or noni:orin,. Advan:a,-s o[
hon- noni:orin, includ- in¡rovin, :h- ¡a:i-n:s' quali:y
o[ li[-, r-ducin, :h- risk o[ ¡o:-n:ially li[-:hr-a:-nin,
¡robl-ns by -arly d-:-c:ion, and cos: savin,s [or :h- ¡a:i-n:
and n-dical car- ¡rovid-r.
Si,nal ¡roc-ssin, ICs, bo:h analo, and di,i:al, hav- an
in¡or:an: iob :o ¡lay in in¡rovin, :h- ca¡abili:i-s o[
¡or:abl- -qui¡n-n:, [or -xan¡l-, in d-liv-rin, hi,h-r
¡-r[ornanc- wi:h low-r ¡ow-r consun¡:ion. Much
Medical technology is advancing at a dramatic rate, bringing with it
improvements in patient diagnosis and care, and driving down mortality rates.
As high·perlormance electronics becomes more allordable, health budgets
will stretch lurther and allow more patients to benelt lrom new technologies,
while reducing the burden ol ongoing monitoring on clinics and hospitals.
Medical technology is aiming to deliver improved image quality, laster
diagnostics, reliable dosage administration and user·lriendly interlaces.
Challenges for p roc essors
in p ortab le med ic al eq uip ment Source: Analog Devices
o[ :h- driv- [or in¡rov-n-n: has b--n in :h- us- o[
-nb-dd-d ¡roc-ssors, and in ¡ar:icular :h- balanc- b-:w--n
ca¡abili:i-s and ¡ow-r consun¡:ion, and h-nc- ¡or:abili:y
and ba::-ry li[-.
On- a¡¡roach :ha: has [ound [avor in ¡or:abl- n-dical
-qui¡n-n: is an -nb-dd-d ¡roc-ssor :ha: can handl-
si,nal ¡roc-ssin,, :radi:ionally handl-d by a DSI, and :h-
n-c-ssary con:rol ¡roc-ssin, :asks. An -xan¡l- o[ :his
kind o[ -n,in- is Analo, D-vic-s' llackhn ¡roc-ssor. Such
¡roc-ssors ar- incr-asin,ly o[[-rin, -nhanc-d Dynanic
Iow-r Mana,-n-n: (DIM) ca¡abili:i-s, which -nabl-
o¡-ra:ion down :o vol:a,-s as low as o.8V, and a nunb-r o[
¡ow-r savin, o¡-ra:ion nod-s :ha: shu: down ¡or:ions o[
:h- ¡roc-ssor wh-n :h- d-nands on :h- d-vic- ar- low.
Example application: Atrial Fibrillation
L-:'s look a: an -xan¡l- o[ a ¡or:abl- d-vic- in nor- d-:ail.
a noni:or [or d-:-c:in, a:rial hbrilla:ion (AF). This is a
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r-la:iv-ly connon con¡lain:, wi:h abou: + ¡-rson in .o
ov-r :h- a,- o[ .o d-v-lo¡in, AF, or nor- :han · nillion
¡-o¡l- worldwid-.
Nornally, :h- hunan h-ar: b-a:s a: a s:-ady ra:- b-:w--n
abou: 6o and +oo b-a:s ¡-r ninu:- (lIM). Durin, a:rial
hbrilla:ion, randon -l-c:rical in¡uls-s in :h- h-ar:
ov-rrid- :h- nornal r-,ular rhy:hn, and caus- :h- u¡¡-r
chanb-rs (a:ria) :o 'hbrilla:-', b-a:in, v-ry ra¡idly a: u¡ :o
¡oo :in-s ¡-r ninu:-, bu: only ¡ar:ially con:rac:in,. This
:h-n caus-s :h- low-r chanb-rs (v-n:ricl-s) o[ :h- h-ar:
:o b-a: irr-,ularly, usually b-:w--n +¡o and +8o :in-s ¡-r
ninu:-, wi:h :h- [orc- o[ -ach b-a: ¡ossibly also o[ di[[-r-n:
in:-nsi:i-s.
l-caus- o[ :his hbrilla:ion, :h- blood can ¡ool in :h- a:ria in
:h- h-ar: and [orn clo:s. I: is ¡ossibl- :ha: a clo: can br-ak
[r-- and :rav-l :hrou,h :h- bloods:r-an :o :h- brain, which
nay caus- a s:rok-. I-o¡l- wi:h AF ar- hv- :in-s nor-
lik-ly :han :h- ,-n-ral ¡o¡ula:ion :o su[[-r [ron a s:rok-.
Farly d-:-c:ion and :r-a:n-n: o[ a:rial hbrilla:ion can
si,nihcan:ly r-duc- :h- risk o[ h-ar: a::ack or s:rok-. Son-
¡-o¡l- do no: know :h-y ar- in a:rial hbrilla:ion, whil-
o:h-rs can -x¡-ri-nc- ¡al¡i:a:ions, -xhaus:ion, shor:n-ss
o[ br-a:h, dizzin-ss, or o:h-r syn¡:ons. Daily noni:orin,
o[ :h- h-ar: rhy:hn -nabl-s ¡a:i-n:s :o no:i[y :h-ir doc:or
inn-dia:-ly i[ a:rial hbrilla:ion occurs.
Portable AF monitoring
L-chnolo,i-s I-s-arch, Inc. has d-v-lo¡-d a ¡or:abl-
a:rial hbrilla:ion noni:or call-d AhbAl-r:. Curr-n:ly,
:h- AhbAl-r: is :h- only lon,:-rn hon- noni:or [or
:h- d-:-c:ion o[ AF. I: is d-si,n-d [or daily us- in :h-
hon- :o r-cord and analyz- h-ar: rhy:hn da:a, and
indica:-s via a r-d or ,r--n li,h: :h- lik-lihood AF
is occurrin,, and i[ :h- ¡a:i-n: should con:ac: :h-ir
¡hysician. To analyz- :h- da:a, which :ak-s around
¡· s-conds, :h- ¡a:i-n: -i:h-r ¡r-ss-s :h-ir :hunbs :o
-l-c:rod-s on :h- d-vic-, or us-s :h- su¡¡li-d cabl-
and wris: -l-c:rod-s.
Th- noni:or has b--n d-si,n-d :o b- s:rai,h:[orward :o
us- i: do-s no: r-quir- :h- ¡a:i-n: :o analyz- con¡lica:-d
da:a, bu: sin¡ly indica:-s wi:h a r-d li,h: wh-n :h-y should
:ransni: :h- da:a ca¡:ur-d :o :h-ir doc:or [or in:-r¡r-:a:ion.
A ¡ro¡ri-:ary al,ori:hn is us-d :o analyz- :h- FCG da:a and
d-:-rnin- i[ [ur:h-r n-dical in:-rv-n:ion is r-quir-d
A[:-r :akin, a :-s:, :h- ¡a:i-n: can u¡load :h- da:a usin, a
IC (conn-c:in, :h- AhbAl-r: via a USl cabl-) :o a s-cur-
s:ora,- ar-a on :h- AhbAl-r: w-bsi:- and :h-n con:ac: :h-ir
doc:or :o l-: :h-n know :ha: :h- da:a is r-ady. Or, :h-y can
Figure !: the AñbAlert AF monitor
sin¡ly :ransni: i: ov-r a s:andard ¡hon- lin- :o a doc:or
or s¡-cializ-d r-c-ivin, c-n:-r, by holdin, :h- noni:or :o
:h- ¡hon- hands-: and ¡ushin, a :ransni: bu::on. Th-
FCG s:ri¡ r-cord-d by :h- AhbAl-r: can b- r-vi-w-d by :h-
¡a:i-n:, as w-ll as :h-ir doc:or (scc Iiqvrc .).
Th- USl conn-c:ion can also b- us-d :o u¡da:- :h-
AhbAl-r: wi:h n-w v-rsions o[ so[:war- [ron :h- w-bsi:-,
allowin, i: :o u¡da:- :h- al,ori:hn us-d :o analyz- :h-
h-ar: rhy:hn da:a.
Th-r- ar- [our li,h:s :ha: indica:- di[[-r-n: [unc:ions on
:h- AhbAl-r:. Th- ,r--n li,h: n-ans :ha: da:a has b--n
succ-ss[ully s:or-d and :h-r- is a low ¡robabili:y :ha: AF
is ¡r-s-n:. Th- r-d li,h: indica:-s a hi,h ¡robabili:y o[
AF and :h- da:a should b- s-n: :o :h- ¡a:i-n:'s doc:or.
Th- y-llow li,h: si,nih-s wh-n :h-r- is ¡oor con:ac: wi:h
:h- -l-c:rod-s, and so :h- :-s: should b- r-¡-a:-d. Th- blu-
li,h: si,nih-s wh-n :h- r-cord-r is acquirin, and analyzin,
da:a. I: also indica:-s wh-n da:a is b-in, :ransni::-d. Th-
d-vic-'s LCD dis¡lay also shows :h- ¡a:i-n:'s h-ar: ra:-.
Th- AhbAl-r: has :hir:y n-nory slo:s in i:s hash n-nory,
on- :o s:or- a bas-lin-, ¡lus a sys:-n :ha: cycl-s u¡ :o :hir:y
:-s:s :hrou,h i:s n-nory sys:-n, r-¡lacin, :h- old-s:
r-cordin, wh-n a n-w s-: o[ da:a is ca¡:ur-d. U¡ :o :hir:y
r-cordin,s can b- u¡load-d :o :h- w-bsi:-, or u¡ :o hv- can
b- s-n: by :-l-¡hon-.
Embedded processing
Vi:h quali:y, siz- and ¡or:abili:y as :h- nos: in¡or:an:
[ac:ors in cus:on-r acc-¡:anc-, i: was in¡or:an: [or
L-chnolo,i-s :o build :h-ir ¡roduc: around an -[hci-n:
¡roc-ssor which naxiniz-d ba::-ry li[-, whil- usin,
con¡ac: c-lls. Th- AhbAl-r: us-s a llackhn lF·¸¸ ¡roc-ssor
[ron Analo, D-vic-s, which o¡-ra:-s :h- AhbAl-r:'s LCD
con:roll-r, LFD ou:¡u:s, audio ,-n-ra:ion, hash s:ora,-
and hi,hquali:y ADC. Th- llackhn ¡roc-ssor also ac:s as
a si,nal ¡roc-ssor, r-c-ivin, da:a [ron :h- nicrocon:roll-r
¡-ri¡h-rals and a¡¡lyin, di,i:al hl:-rin, and na:h-na:ical
and s:a:is:ical analysis :o ¡rovid- [--dback :o :h- ¡a:i-n:.
Th- llackhn is a +6/¸.bi: -nb-dd-d ¡roc-ssor :ha:
¡rovid-s -xc-ll-n: ¡-r[ornanc- and ¡ow-r -[hci-ncy. I: also
includ-s bo:h DSI [unc:ionali:y as w-ll as con:rol [unc:ions
in a sin,l- ¡roc-ssor cor-, so can b- us-d in a¡¡lica:ions :ha:
would ¡r-viously hav- r-quir-d a s-¡ara:- DSI
and nicrocon:roll-r. „
Figure 2: 5ample report Irom AñbAlert
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6cdgbVa]ZVgig]ni]b
2 3
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Relay d esign
c onsid erations
Source: Tyco Electronics
This ra¡id incr-as- in °-[hci-ncy¯ has
b--n driv-n by :h- incr-asin, d-nands
us-rs ar- r-quirin, [or :h-ir r-lays.
Th- n--d is [or ninia:uriza:ion and
r-duc-d ¡ow-r consun¡:ion, bu: wi:h
no r-duc:ion in con:ac: ¡-r[ornanc-.
Th- d-v-lo¡n-n: o[ na:-rials has
b--n an in¡or:an: [ac:or, bu: on-
o[ :h- nos: cri:ical ¡aran-:-rs is
:h- ¡ow-r consun¡:ion o[ :h- coil.
In :h- -arly +o8os, n-w d-si,ns [or
¡ow-r r-lays had coil consun¡:ion in
:h- ran,- ··onV :o ·onV, whil-
:oday's nod-rn d-si,ns hav- coil
¡ow-r consun¡:ion down :o +.onV
This is in¡or:an: [or s-v-ral r-asons,
includin, cos:, h-a: dissi¡a:ion,
anbi-n: :-n¡-ra:ur-, :ol-ranc-s and
-n-r,y consun¡:ion. Th- [ac: :ha: l-ss
-n-r,y is us-d is obvious, bu: :h- o:h-r
issu-s ar- no: as cl-ar.
Drive circuit considerations
A¡ar: [ron :h- ¡ow-r su¡¡ly us-d
:o o¡-ra:- :h- r-lay, :h-r- ar- o:h-r
con¡on-n:s involv-d. driv-r chi¡s,
FFTs, :ransis:ors, diod-s, r-sis:ors,
ca¡aci:ors, or -v-n ano:h-r r-lay. Vi:h
r-duc-d coil ¡ow-r consun¡:ion, :h-
ra:in,s o[ :h-s- :y¡-s o[ con¡on-n:s
can also b- low-r, :hus savin, in cos:
and ICl s¡ac-.
Thermal management
Vh-n a r-lay is -n-r,iz-d, :h- ¡ow-r
:hrou,h :h- coil will ,-n-ra:- h-a:.
This incr-as-s :h- :-n¡-ra:ur- o[ :h-
r-lay, du- :o :h- :h-rnal r-sis:anc- o[
:h- coil d-si,n.
For -xan¡l-, a :y¡ical ¡ow-r r-lay
wi:h a ¡oonV coil has a :h-rnal
r-sis:anc- o[ 6..·L/V, so -n-r,izin,
a: noninal vol:a,- will incr-as- :h-
Over the last 25 years, there has been a massive drive in
the relay market to get more lrom switching perlormance
lrom electromechanical relays with smaller package sizes
and lower coil consumption. 1he "ellciency" ol a relay can
be calculated using (switched power x no ol contacts) / (coil
power x volume). Since ¹980 to 2000, the "ellciency" has
increased by a lactor ol about 8
Power Relay Efficiency
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Development time line 1980 to 2000

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
:-n¡-ra:ur- by 6·.. x o.¡ = .·`C.
A +onV coil d-si,n nay hav- a
hi,h-r :h-rnal r-sis:anc-, ++oL/V
[or -xan¡l-, bu: :his ,iv-s in a
:-n¡-ra:ur- ris- o[ only ++o x o.+ =
+8.`C, ov-r .·` r-duc:ion in $T.
Mos: r-lay d-si,ns :oday ar- ra:-d
[or anbi-n: :-n¡-ra:ur-s o[ 8·`C,
and son- ++o`C or -v-n +.·`C. This
is du- :o :h- b-::-r na:-rials and
:h-rnal nana,-n-n: and low-r coil
¡ow-r dissi¡a:ion. In :h- -xan¡l-
abov-, :h- r-lay coil was ov-r 6`C
low-r in :-n¡-ra:ur-, allowin, [or a
con¡arabl- incr-as- in :h- anbi-n:
:-n¡-ra:ur-.
Higher coil over·voltage
Th- vol:a,- :ha: can b- a¡¡li-d :o a
r-lay coil is d-¡-nd-n: on anbi-n:
:-n¡-ra:ur- [or bo:h :h- nininun
o¡-ra:in, vol:a,- and :h- naxinun
vol:a,-. For nininun vol:a,-s,
:h- r-lay n--ds :h- san- curr-n: :o
,uaran:-- o¡-ra:ion irr-s¡-c:iv- o[
:-n¡-ra:ur-, and :h- coil r-sis:anc-
will chan,- wi:h :-n¡-ra:ur-, du- :o
:h- na:ur- o[ :h- co¡¡-r wir- us-d [or
:h- coil. Th- naxinun :-n¡-ra:ur- o[
a r-lay is d-:-rnin-d by :h- na:-rials
us-d in :h- cons:ruc:ion, and is a
sun o[ :h- anbi-n: :-n¡-ra:ur-, :h-
:-n¡-ra:ur- ris- [ron :h- con:ac:s
and :h- :-n¡-ra:ur- ris- [ron :h- coil.
Vi:h a hi,h-r r-sis:anc- coil, a hi,h-r
vol:a,- can b- a¡¡li-d :o ,iv- :h- san-
ov-rall r-lay :-n¡-ra:ur-.
A nor- s-nsi:iv- r-lay coil can ,iv-
bi, b-n-h:s, ¡lus :h-r- ar- o:h-r r-lay
d-si,ns :ha: can also r-duc- ¡ow-r
consun¡:ion and h-a: dissi¡a:ion. Th-
advan:a,- o[ bis:abl- r-lays is :ha: no
¡ow-r is us-d a[:-r swi:chin,, savin,
¡ow-r and r-ducin, r-lay :-n¡-ra:ur-.
As :h- nark-: con:inu-s :h- :r-nd [or
snall-r and snall-r r-lays wi:h b-::-r
-l-c:rical ¡-r[ornanc-, :h- °-[hci-ncy¯
o[ r-lays will con:inu- :o incr-as-.
As an -xan¡l-, Tyco Fl-c:ronics'
IF s-ri-s is .·oVAC 6A ra:-d in a
.ox+ox+o ¡acka,- and .oonV
bis:abl- coil. Th- IF Iow-r I-lay sav-s
s¡ac- and coil ¡ow-r as i: dis¡-ns-s
wi:h :h- :radi:ional arna:ur- r-:urn
s¡rin,. Ins:-ad, :h- swi:chin, s¡rin,
:ha: conduc:s :h- swi:ch-d curr-n: is
h::-d wi:h novin, con:ac:s and also
¡-r[orns :h- [unc:ion o[ :h- arna:ur-
r-:urn s¡rin,. „
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2 4
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
LCDs ar- curr-n:ly :h- doninan: dis¡lay :-chnolo,y,
how-v-r, :his ,uidanc- s:ands [or o:h-r :y¡-s o[ -nissiv-
and ¡assiv- dis¡lay :-chnolo,i-s. V-i,hin, :h- ¡ros and
cons o[ :h- [-a:ur-s and s¡-cihca:ions is an -ss-n:ial s:-¡
in any dis¡lay s-l-c:ion ¡roc-ss. Th- basic -l-n-n:s :ha:
should b- consid-r-d in -valua:in, any dis¡lay includ-.
Cptics perIormance
O¡:ics ar- always :h- hrs: i:-n :o consid-r wh-n discussin,
¡-r[ornanc-. For -xan¡l-, in nos: consun-r dis¡lays,
a con:ras: o[ .oo.+ nay su[hc-, how-v-r, in indus:rial
a¡¡lica:ions :ha: us- +o.¡, +..+, and +·inch dis¡lays,
a con:ras: ra:io o[ ¡·o.+ is id-al. Th- san- ¡-r[ornanc-
b-:w--n indus:rial and consun-r dis¡lays issu-s can also
occur in o:h-r s¡-cihca:ions, such as color, bri,h:n-ss,
r-s¡ons- :in-s and vi-win, an,l-.
Cther perIormance Iactors
Ou:sid- o[ o¡:ical ¡-r[ornanc- issu-s, :h-r- ar- o:h-r
s¡-cihca:ions :ha: di[[-r-n:ia:- b-:w--n indus:rial and
consun-r dis¡lays. Indus:rial dis¡lays usually n--d
:o b- nor- durabl-, as :h-y :-nd :o b- us-d in harsh-r
-nvironn-n:s. Th-y also :-nd :o b- us-d con:inuously, and
:h-r-[or- usually r-quir- a nininun o[ ·ok hours [or CCF
backli,h:in,. O:h-r ¡-r[ornanc- consid-ra:ions includ-
vibra:ion r-sis:anc-, and s¡-cihca:ions [or n-chanical
conh,ura:ion. Dis¡lays [or indus:rial a¡¡lica:ions should
also b- ,uaran:--d [or lon,-r, id-ally a: l-as: hv- y-ars.
Conñguration control
Th- d-hni:ion o[ conh,ura:ion con:rol is :ha: :h- dis¡lay
¡roduc: is nain:ain-d in a Forn/Fi:/Func:ion (FFF)
con¡a:ibl- nod- ov-r a c-r:ain ¡-riod, allowin, dis¡lay
nanu[ac:ur-rs :o chan,- subcon¡on-n:s :o k--¡ u¡ wi:h
:-chnolo,y or nark-: n--ds. I: also allows :h- us-r :o
:ransi:ion wi:h nininal d-si,n chan,-s.
Indus:rial dis¡lays ar- d-si,n-d :o allow [or chan,-s, :h-
nanu[ac:ur-rs s:riv- :o k--¡ :h- chan,-s nininal, and
wh-n :h-y hav- :o chan,- :h-y no: only hav- a w-ll
-s:ablish-d and acc-¡:-d Fn,in--rin,/Iroduc: Chan,-
No:ihca:ion (FCN/ICN) ¡lan, bu: :h- in[orna:ion is
conv-y-d :o :h- cus:on-r in :in- :o allow :h- cus:on-r
:o acconnoda:- :h- chan,-s wi:hou: in¡ac:in,
:h-ir busin-ss.
End·oI·liIe scenario
Vh-n a consun-r dis¡lay is s-l-c:-d [or Fndo[Li[-,
i: is :y¡ically b-caus- :h- ¡rinary us-r has ,on- away
or :ransi:ion-d :o a di[[-r-n: ¡roduc:. For indus:rial
a¡¡lica:ions, i: nay :ak- +.+8 non:hs l-ad:in- [ron
s-l-c:ion un:il :h- :in- :h- ¡roduc: ,o-s in:o nass
¡roduc:ion. Th- risk o[ usin, a consun-r dis¡lay in such
ins:anc-s can b- ca:as:ro¡hic.
Indus:rial,rad- dis¡lays :y¡ically hav- a lon,-r li[-cycl- o[
:hr-- :o hv- y-ars. Vh-n ¡roduc:s ar- s-l-c:-d [or FOL,
a no:ic- will b- dis:ribu:-d :o :h- cus:on-r. This is [ollow-d
by a Las:Tin-luy (LTl) o¡¡or:uni:y wi:hin ¸o+8o days
and a Las:Tin-D-liv-ry o[ :hr-- :o six non:hs b-yond
:ha:. This kind o[ ¡r-dic:abl- FOL ¡roc-ss allows OFMs :o
¡lan [or a snoo:h :ransi:ion :o ano:h-r dis¡lay wi:h
nininal disru¡:ion.
5erviceability/replacement parts
I[ :h-r- is a [ailur- in :h- consun-r,rad- dis¡lay,
:h- dis¡lay is :y¡ically scra¡¡-d. lu: in indus:rial nark-:s,
:h- OFM is -x¡-c:-d :o s-rvic- and r-¡air :h- ¡roduc: ov-r
a ¡-riod o[ a [-w y-ars. This is ¡ar: o[ :h- s-rvic- busin-ss
wi:h nany OFM cus:on-rs. Manu[ac:ur-rs :ha: o[[-r
indus:rial,rad- dis¡lays :y¡ically d-si,n :h-ir ¡roduc:s
such :ha: :h- backli,h:s ar- r-¡lac-abl-, and :h- dis¡lay
ass-nbly can b- disass-nbl-d -asily. Th-y also o[[-r s¡ar-s,
which :y¡ically consis: o[ backli,h:s, inv-r:-rs,
and o:h-r subcon¡on-n:s.
Conclusion
Conn-rcial dis¡lays ar- an -xc-ll-n: o¡:ion wh-n
¡-r[ornanc- and ¡ric- r-quir-n-n:s dic:a:-, how-v-r, in
son- a¡¡lica:ions, i: is ¡r-[-rabl- :o ¡ay a ¡r-niun :o
d-si,n usin, an indus:rial,rad- dis¡lay. Th- :in- you s¡-nd
u¡ [ron: s-l-c:in, a dis¡lay will ¡ay o[[ in :h- lon, run. „
Making the right d isp lay
c hoic e for ind ustrial ap p lic ations Source: Sharp
ln today's competitive marketplace it is essential to
have a comprehensive understanding ol how display
specilcations impact lnal products. 1o choose the
right display, it's important to know how an industrial
display dillers lrom a non·industrial or consumer
display, as well as the benelts realized by specilc
leatures, and how they impact the application.
2 5
lNS1RUMLN1A1lON & MLDlCAL
Lead ing ed ge 3 2 - b it
p roc essing p ower Source: Microchip Technology
Coming lrom a background ol desktop applications, it would seem
strange to consider using a processor that ollers anything less than
leading edge perlormance. For an engineer more entrenched in
embedded applications, processing power has always been measured
not |ust against the benelts it brings, but by the resources it consumes.
Vi:hin :h- -nb-dd-d donain, :h- irr-sis:ibl- [orc- :ha:
is '[as:-r, snall-r, ch-a¡-r' has always b--n s:yni-d by :h-
innovabl- obi-c: o[ availabl- r-sourc-s. This lon,s:andin,
s:al-na:- r-s:s on :h- no:ion :ha: :oo nuch ¡roc-ssin,
¡ow-r consun-s no: ius: sys:-n r-sourc-s, bu: hnancial
on-s :oo. An ov-rabundanc- o[ ¡-r[ornanc- or ¡-ri¡h-rals
n-r-ly -rod-s an alr-ady b-l-a,u-r-d bud,-:. How-v-r, :his
no:ion is chan,in,.
Th-r- can b- li::l- doub: :ha: :h- d-nand [or ¡roc-ssin,
¡ow-r is doin, any:hin, bu: incr-asin,, and as lon, as :h-
b-n-h:s ou:w-i,h :h- ¡-nal:i-s, :ha: sc-nario will con:inu-,
-v-n wi:hin :h- -nb-dd-d world. lu: wi:hin :ha: world,
i: is only r-c-n:ly :ha: :h- balanc- o[ ¡ow-r has swun,
si,nihcan:ly in [avor o[ nor- ¡roc-ssin, ¡ow-r, du- lar,-ly
:o :h- ¡roli[-ra:ion o[ ¸.bi: cor-s wi:hin nicrocon:roll-rs.
I: is in¡or:an: :o ¡oin: ou: :ha: any ¡osi:iv- chan,- in
-nb-dd-d -n,in--rs' a::i:ud-s :owards ¸.bi: d-vic-s is an
-[[-c:, as o¡¡os-d :o :h- caus-, o[ :h-ir ¡-n-:ra:ion in:o :h-
-nb-dd-d donain.
For nany y-ars :h- d--¡ly -nb-dd-d d-si,ns hav- [avor-d
snall-r, l-an-r d-vic-s und-r¡inn-d by :h- nan:ra o[ 'nor-
:han -nou,h isn': ,ood -nou,h', [or :h- r-asons ou:lin-d
abov-. Tha: do-sn': ius: a¡¡ly :o ¡roc-ssin, ¡ow-r in
:h- d--¡ly -nb-dd-d donain, ¡in coun: is kin,, so any
unn-c-ssary I/O is as nuch a sin as unus-d hors-¡ow-r.
Fnb-dd-d -n,in--rs nay hav- cov-:-d :h- [r--don a
¸.bi: d-vic- o[[-rs, bu: :h-y sin¡ly couldn': a[[ord i:, un:il
now. Th- la:-s: [abrica:ion :-chnolo,i-s, cou¡l-d wi:h
a,,r-ssiv- d-si,n o¡:iniza:ion o[ ¡roc-ssor cor-s, n-ans
:h- -nb-dd-d -n,in--r in ,-n-ral, and :h- nicrocon:roll-r
us-r in ¡ar:icular, can now a[[ord :o div- in:o :h-
¸.bi: ¡ool.
For a ¸.bi: nicrocon:roll-r :o b- succ-ss[ul, i: n--ds :o
obs-rv- :his his:ory o[ [ru,ali:y. I[ a [anily o[ d-vic-s con-s
wi:h a hidd-n cos: o[ ado¡:ion, :ha: cos: is unlik-ly :o ,o
unno:ic-d b-caus- -v-n :hou,h bud,-:s nay now s:r-:ch
[ur:h-r, :h-y s:ill hav- a lini:.
As d-si,n con¡l-xi:y incr-as-s, :ha: cos: nay r-la:- nor- :o
:h- cos: o[ d-v-lo¡n-n: :han :h- bill o[ na:-rials, so any ¸.
bi: d-vic- in:roduc-d :o :h- d--¡ly -nb-dd-d nark-: n--ds
:o o[[-r :h- ri,h: bl-nd o[ ¡-r[ornanc-, ¡-ri¡h-rals, :ools
and d-si,n solu:ions. Microchi¡ b-li-v-s i: has [ound :ha:
bl-nd, wi:h :h- in:roduc:ion o[ :h- IIC¸. [anily o[ ¸.bi:
nicrocon:roll-rs.
MIP5 M4K core
Microchi¡ has chos-n :h- MIIS¸. M¡L cor- :o ¡ow-r i:s
[anily o[ ¸.bi: d-vic-s, ins:-ad o[ choosin, :o d-v-lo¡ or
-x:-nd i:s own :-chnolo,y.
Figure !: PIC32 block diagram
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
2 6
LMBLDDLD CORNLR
Th- r-asons [or :his ar- bo:h :-chnical and conn-rcial. Th-
MIIS cor- o[[-rs a b-s:inclass +.·DMIIS/MHz o¡-ra:ion,
:hanks :o i:s ·s:a,- ¡i¡-lin- archi:-c:ur-. I: also ¡rovid-s
su¡¡or: [or :h- MIIS+6- cod- con¡r-ssion :-chnolo,y,
which -nabl-s cod- siz- r-duc:ions o[ u¡ :o ¡o`. lu:
in addi:ion :o :h-s- advan:a,-s, :h- MIIS archi:-c:ur-
is r-co,niz-d and su¡¡or:-d by a ,rowin, -cosys:-n o[
:hird¡ar:y :ools and so[:war- v-ndors. This -cosys:-n
b-con-s alnos: ins:an:ly availabl- :o all IIC¸. us-rs,
allowin, con¡l-x sys:-ns :o b- d-si,n-d wi:hou: r-lyin,
on on- ¡ar:icular v-ndor or :h- n--d :o d-v-lo¡ -v-ry:hin,
inhous-, which can dras:ically r-duc- :h- :in-:onark-:
¡r-ssur-s [ac-d by -n,in--rin, :-ans in all s-c:ors.
Accordin, :o MIIS' Vic- Ir-sid-n: o[ Fn,in--rin,, Ia: Hays,
:h- M¡L has b--n us-d in low ¡ow-r a¡¡lica:ions [or son-
:in-. This is lar,-ly du- :o i:s hi,h ¡-r[ornanc- and cod-
con¡r-ssion :-chnolo,y, aid-d by shadow r-,is:-r s-:s,
which -nabl- a [as: in:-rru¡: or con:-x: swi:ch r-s¡ons-,
which h-l¡s nak- i: a¡¡licabl- :o a¡¡lica:ions wh-r- r-al
:in- ¡-r[ornanc- nay b- n--d-d.
In addi:ion, [ur:h-r -nhanc-n-n:s w-r- d-v-lo¡-d by MIIS
[or Microchi¡'s [anily o[ ¸.bi: d-vic-s. MIIS and Microchi¡
also work-d :o,-:h-r :o [ur:h-r -x:-nd
so[:war- d-bu,,in, ca¡abili:i-s, wi:h
:h- addi:ion o[ con¡l-x hardwar-
br-ak¡oin:s and :h- n-w li,h:w-i,h:
iFlow:rac- :-chnolo,y.
Th- addi:ion o[ -nhanc-d d-bu,
[-a:ur-s will cl-arly h-l¡ in :h-
d-v-lo¡n-n: o[ -v-rnor- con¡l-x
[unc:ions, bu: ¡-rha¡s nor-
b-n-hcial, is :h- s-anl-ss ni,ra:ion
[ron Microchi¡'s 8 and +6bi: IIC
nicrocon:roll-rs, :hanks :o [ull
con¡a:ibili:y wi:hin i:s MILAl IDF
:ool chain.
Th- IDF will now su¡¡or: :h- IIC¸.'s
advanc-d d-bu,,in, [-a:ur-s, includin,
iFlow:rac- :-chnolo,y, :rac- d-bu,,in,
and con¡l-x br-ak¡oin:s. Th-
si,nihcanc- o[ :his is :ha: wi:h [ull AII
con¡a:ibili:y b-:w--n :h- C con¡il-rs,
-n,in--rs will hav- hi,hly o¡:iniz-d
cod- :ha: is ¡or:abl- across Microchi¡'s
+6bi: and ¸.bi: ¡or:[olios.
PIC32 Ecosystem
Microchi¡'s IDF is no: :h- only o¡:ion
[or d-v-lo¡-rs, a: launch, :h- IIC¸. is
su¡¡or:-d by a lar,- nunb-r o[ :hird¡ar:y :ools v-ndors,
includin, HITFCH So[:war-, who is also -n:-rin, :h-
¸.bi: nark-: [or :h- hrs: :in-. Th- :ools v-ndor has b--n
d-v-lo¡in, C con¡il-rs [or Microchi¡ d-vic-s sinc- +oo·,
and -nioys :h- lar,-s: nark-: shar- in Microchi¡ con¡il-rs
ov-r all o:h-r :hird ¡ar:i-s, :hanks in ¡ar: :o i:s ¡ro¡ri-:ary
'Onnisci-n: Cod- G-n-ra:ion' :-chnolo,y (OCG). Accordin,
:o :h- con¡any, OCG r-:urns as nuch as ¸·` ,r-a:-r cod-
d-nsi:y ov-r con¡-:in, con¡il-rs and i: is -x¡-c:-d :o b-
¡ar:icularly us-[ul in :h- ¸.bi: donain.
An in¡or:an: -l-n-n: in :h- 'Microchi¡ Mix' [or ¸.bi:
nicrocon:roll-rs s:ra:-,y is no: n-r-ly an -asy so[:war-
ni,ra:ion ¡a:h, bu: an -v-n sin¡l-r hardwar- ni,ra:ion
¡a:h. Vi:h ¡in con¡a:ibili:y across +6bi: and ¸.bi:
d-vic-s, cou¡l-d wi:h :h- unih-d so[:war- -nvironn-n:,
:h- d-cision :o us- a ¸.bi: d-vic- is nad- -v-n sin¡l-r.
Ano:h-r in¡or:an: addi:ion :o :h- -cosys:-n is Gr--n
Hills So[:war-. Th- con¡any's -nb-dd-d d-v-lo¡n-n:
solu:ions ar- r-co,niz-d indus:rywid- as l-adin, -d,-, and
i:s MULTI in:-,ra:-d d-v-lo¡n-n: -nvironn-n: -nabl-s
IIC¸. so[:war- d-v-lo¡-rs :o naxiniz- ¡-r[ornanc-, whil-
nininizin, cod- siz-, d-v-lo¡n-n: and ¡roduc: uni: cos:s.
O[ cours-, b-in, MIIS bas-d, :h- M¡L So[:war-
D-v-lo¡n-n: Fnvironn-n: (SDF), nay also a¡¡-al
:o -n,in--rs alr-ady [aniliar wi:h i:. Su¡¡or:in, bo:h
Microchi¡'s MILAl IDF and MIIS' SDF, Ashlin,
Microsys:-ns has also announc-d :ha: i:s Ia:hhnd-r
D-bu,,-r, AsIDF and -nula:ion :ools ar- availabl- [or :h-
IIC¸.. Fn,in--rs usin, Ashlin,'s IDF ar- [r-- :o swi:ch
b-:w--n Microchi¡'s and MIIS' con¡il-rs.
Low l-v-l so[:war- and niddl-war- can o[:-n b- a
si,nihcan: ¡ar: o[ any ¸.bi: d-v-lo¡n-n: and h-r-, a,ain,
Microchi¡'s choic- in ¡roc-ssor cor- brin,s a w-al:h o[
:hird¡ar:y assis:anc-. A r-al :in- o¡-ra:in, sys:-n (ITOS)
is o[:-n -ss-n:ial in hi,h-r -nd a¡¡lica:ions, and :o su¡¡or:
:h-s- d-vic-s, Microchi¡ has brou,h: in Fx¡r-ss Lo,ic's
Thr-adX ITOS which, in¡or:an:ly, alr-ady su¡¡or:s :h- +6
bi: Microchi¡ [anili-s.
In addi:ion, CMX Sys:-ns has announc-d i:s su¡¡or: [or
IIC¸., in :h- [orn o[ an ITOS and TCI/II s:ack (CMX
ITX and CMXMicroN-: r-s¡-c:iv-ly). Two o:h-r -xis:in,
Microchi¡ ¡ar:n-rs will also b- su¡¡or:in, :h- IIC¸. [anily
[ron i:s in:roduc:ion. G-rnany's S-,,-r Microcon:roll-r
Sys:-n- GnbH brin,s i:s ran,- o[ ITOS, ,ra¡hical us-r
in:-r[ac- and hl- sys:-n ¡roduc:s, whil- Micriun brin,s i:s
-nb-dd-d so[:war- con¡on-n:s includin, an ITOS, hl-
sys:-n, and TCI/II and USl s:acks.
Vhil- :h-r- will b- con:inu-d d-nand [or 8 and +6bi:
solu:ions, i: is cl-ar :ha: :h- :in- [or ¸.bi: nicrocon:roll-rs
has arriv-d. Vi:hou: :h- ri,h: nix o[ ¡roduc:s and s-rvic-s
:h- :ransi:ion could ¡rov- chall-n,in,, bu: Microchi¡
b-li-v-s i: has achi-v-d :ha: nix and will h-l¡ brin, :o
nark-: a n-w and -xci:in, br--d o[ -nb-dd-d d-vic-s. „
Figure 2 Migration diagram
2 7
LMBLDDLD CORNLR
Technical 5upport
As nor- o[ our busin-ss is :ransac:-d
:hrou,h :h- w-b, i: is -ss-n:ial :o
¡rovid- :-chnical su¡¡or: onlin-,
in addi:ion :o :h- ¡hon-. I-al:in-,
w-bbas-d :-chnical su¡¡or: is
r-quir-d :o sa:is[y :h- incr-asin,
nunb-r o[ -l-c:ronic d-si,n -n,in--rs
who ¡r-[-r :o connunica:- wi:h us
:hrou,h :h- w-b.
Our local :-chnical :-ans hav- b--n
r-s:ruc:ur-d :o su¡¡or: a .:i-r-d
:-chnical su¡¡or: nod-l. This nod-l
consis:s o[ L-v-l + basic ¡roduc: advic-
and L-v-l . :-chnical su¡¡or: in
s¡-cihc ar-as o[ :-chnolo,y. Oualih-d
:-chnical s¡-cialis:s will ¡rovid-
L-v-l . su¡¡or:, :o includ- such
s-rvic-s as ¡roduc: r-conn-nda:ions
and al:-rna:iv- su,,-s:ions usin,
¡aran-:ric na:chin,.
Th- .:i-r-d su¡¡or: s:ruc:ur- is
au,n-n:-d by a c-n:raliz-d Global
T-chnolo,y C-n:r- (GTC), s:a[[-d
wi:h -x¡-ri-nc-d A¡¡lica:ion
Fn,in--rs who can ¡rovid- hi,hl-v-l
a¡¡lica:ion -n,in--rin, su¡¡or: :o
back u¡ :h- local :-ans. Th- GTC also
,iv-s Ir-ni-r Farn-ll :h- ca¡abili:y
:o o[[-r round:h-clock :-chnical
New glob al
tec hnic al
c ap ab ilities
ln today's last paced
electronics market, it is
essential that Premier Farnell
keep up to speed on the
latest emerging technologies,
and more importantly, that
we inlorm you about these
exciting developments in
electronic components.
1o that end, we have
developed a 2·tier approach
to our technical ollering:
1echnical Support ·
1echnical lntelligence ·
su¡¡or:, via :h- ¡hon- and w-b. Vh-n
local :-chnical su¡¡or: s-rvic- hours
-nd, all inquiri-s will b- chann-ll-d :o
:h- GTC :o o[[-r a[:-rhours su¡¡or:.
Technical Intelligence
T-chnolo,y d-v-lo¡n-n: is an
in¡or:an: -l-n-n: o[ Ir-ni-r Farn-ll's
,lobal :-chnical o[[-rin,. Fss-n:ially,
w- -n¡loy ':-chnical -y-s and -ars'
worldwid- :o ¡in¡oin: -n-r,in,
:-chnolo,i-s, and :h-n w- work wi:h
our r-,ional ¡roduc: and conn-rcial
nark-:in, :-ans :o r-aliz- :h-s-
d-v-lo¡n-n:s :o nark-:, usin,
our uniqu- nul:ichann-l r-ach,
¡ar:icularly our w-b chann-l.
You can s-- our n-w-s: ¡roduc:s and
su¡¡li-rs, v-ry o[:-n uniqu- :o Ir-ni-r
Farn-ll, by clickin, on :h- N-w
Iroduc:s :ab on our local hon-¡a,-s.
Th-s- n-w :-chnolo,i-s ar- also
acc-ssibl- via our nul:ichann-l
Tc.|rc|cq. Iirsi ¡ro,ran, ¡ar:icularly
:h- quar:-rly ¡roduc: ca:alo, ¡roduc-d
in :and-n :o :his iournal, and also a
Tier !
Ceneralist 5upport
Tier 2
5pecialist 5upport
Tier 3
Clobal
Application
5upport
cus:on nicrosi:- a:
lll#ZaZXigdc^XhYZh^\cldgaY#Xdb
Our n-x: -di:ion o[ :his iournal will
[ocus nor- on :h- n-w -xci:in, :ools
b-in, d-v-lo¡-d on 'FDVorld'.
Vi:h :h- GTC, w- will b- abl- :o o[[-r
a [ull sui:- o[ advanc-d :-chnical
s-rvic-s :o our cus:on-rs in a nunb-r o[
in¡or:an: ar-as durin, :h- r-s-arch and
d-si,n ¡has- o[ ¡roduc: d-v-lo¡n-n:.
@ZnkVajZ"VYYZYhZgk^XZhd[[ZgZYWn
i]Z<I8l^aa^cXajYZ/
Fl-c:ronics D-si,n Con¡lianc- ·
r-vi-w
Con¡on-n: or subsys:-n sinula:ion ·
such as ¡S¡ic-, MATLAl
D-v-lo¡in, SV driv-rs [or -nb-dd-d ·
sys:-ns
Layou: I-vi-w and I-conn-nda:ions ·
D-si,n D-bu,,in, ·
Trainin, on us- o[ d-v-lo¡n-n: ·
:ools „
www.electronicsdesignworld.com
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
2 8
WORLDVlLW
Th-s- chall-n,-s hav- :o b- [ac-d by
vir:ually all con¡ani-s :oday, whil-
-nsurin, con¡lianc- wi:h :h- la:-s:
-nvironn-n:al r-,ula:ions, as w-ll as
o:h-r ,uid-lin-s, such as in:-rnal CSI
¡olici-s, ar- n-:. On- ¡ossibl- n-:hod
:o ov-rcon- :h-s- issu-s is :o [orn a
¡ar:n-rshi¡ wi:h a :rus:-d su¡¡li-r
lik- Ir-ni-r Farn-ll, which has a hrn
conni:n-n: :o CSI, and a: :h- san-
:in-, is :h- b-s: ¡ossibl- sourc- o[
in[orna:ion :o assis: wi:h con¡lianc- :o
any n-w r-,ula:ions.
C5P Policy
A: Ir-ni-r Farn-ll, CSI is d-hn-d as :h-
sus:ainabl- d-v-lo¡n-n: o[ :h- busin-ss
:h- balancin, o[ r-s¡onsibili:i-s :o
shar-hold-rs, :h- -nvironn-n: and
soci-:y. Th- con¡any was an -arly
ado¡:-r o[ :h- conc-¡: o[ CSI and has
¡ar:ici¡a:-d in :h- FTSF¡Good Ind-x
sinc- i:s launch in .oo+. Th- [ollowin,
y-ar Ir-ni-r Farn-ll ¡ublish-d a
social r-s¡onsibili:y r-¡or: and has
con:inu-d :o do so -ach y-ar sinc-. Th-
r-¡or: id-n:ih-s and :racks s¡-cihc
in¡rov-n-n: :ar,-:s. Ir-ni-r Farn-ll
has also ¡ar:ici¡a:-d in lusin-ss in :h-
Connuni:y's CI Ind-x sinc- .oo·. This
y-ar, :h- con¡any's 88` scor- nak-s i:
:h- six:hbi,,-s: in¡rov-r in :h- li:C
To¡ +oo. Now a: :h- :o¡ -nd o[ :h- Silv-r
Ca:-,ory, :h- con¡any is ainin, [or
Ila:inun in :wo y-ars' :in-.
Many ini:ia:iv-s hav- alr-ady b--n und-r:ak-n by Ir-ni-r Farn-ll :o in¡l-n-n:
:h- s:a:-d obi-c:iv-s d-:ail-d in i:s social r-s¡onsibili:y r-¡or:, wi:h nor- curr-n:ly
in ¡roc-ss. Th- con¡any has look-d a: nany ar-as o[ i:s o¡-ra:ions :o nak-
in¡rov-n-n:s, such as ¡rocur-n-n:, lo,is:ics, HI and :rainin, ¡roc-dur-s. Th- nain
:ar,-: ar-as [or i:s -nvironn-n:al ¡rac:ic-s includ- r-ducin, -n-r,y consun¡:ion and
in:roducin, r-cyclabl- ¡acka,in, . Social audi:s ar- curr-n:ly b-in, d-v-lo¡-d by :h-
con¡any's Asian ¡rocur-n-n: :-an :o id-n:i[y any issu-s r-la:-d :o labor s:andards
[or Ir-ni-r Farn-ll's ran,-s o[ i:s own brand-d ¡roduc:s.
As o[ lun- + .oo8, Farn-ll s:o¡¡-d ¡urchasin, incand-sc-n: lan¡s, ins:-ad o[[-rin,
a ran,- o[ -n-r,y -[hci-n: con¡ac: huor-sc-n: lan¡s, ,ivin, an av-ra,- o[ 8,ooo
hours li[- -x¡-c:ancy and -n-r,y savin,s o[ u¡ :o 8o`. Th- ran,- o[ LFD :-chnolo,y
li,h:in, availabl- has also b--n in¡rov-d by :h- r-c-n: addi:ion o[ Cr-- :o :h-
lin- card. Fxis:in, s:ock o[ incand-sc-n: bulbs will con:inu- :o s-ll un:il s:ock is
-xhaus:-d and low vol:a,- and s¡-cialis: bulbs will s:ill b- availabl-.
Ir-ni-r Farn-ll also wish-s :o nak- a con:ribu:ion :o :h- connuni:i-s in which i:
o¡-ra:-s, buildin, ,oodwill and a r-¡u:a:ion as a ,ood n-i,hbor and -n¡loy-r.
Th- con¡any's connuni:y inv-s:n-n: s:ra:-,y and chari:abl- ,ivin, ¡olicy su¡¡or:
:his ain.
Th- con¡any has achi-v-d :h-s- ,ains b-caus- :h- board o[ dir-c:ors is con¡l-:-ly
b-hind :h- CSI ¡lan, and -n¡loy--s ar- -a,-r :o ¡ar:ici¡a:- in and con:ribu:-
:o :h- d-v-lo¡n-n: o[ :h- ¡ro,ran. Incr-asin,ly, CSI is b-conin, a cor- ¡ar:
o[ :h- busin-ss.
Cl-arly, :h-r- is an -nvironn-n:al and soci-:al in¡ac: in :his a,-nda, bu: Ir-ni-r
Farn-ll is also id-n:i[yin, and -nbracin, :h- conn-rcial ¡o:-n:ial o[ CSI, workin,
:owards nakin, i: a k-y ¡ar: o[ :h- con¡any s:ra:-,y and i:s [ocus on -l-c:ronic
d-si,n -n,in--rs.
Lookin, :o :h- [u:ur-, :h- con¡any has d-hn-d i:s carbon [oo:¡rin: and d-v-lo¡-d
a s:ra:-,y and :hr--y-ar ¡lan :o r-duc- carbon -nissions :o :h- low-s: ¡rac:icabl-
and -cononic l-v-l. Includ-d in :h- carbon [oo:¡rin: ar- :hos- ac:ivi:i-s ov-r
which :h- con¡any has dir-c: con:rol all ac:ivi:i-s [ron :h- r-c-i¡: o[ ¡roduc:s
in:o war-hous-s, :o :h-ir dis¡a:ch :o cus:on-rs, :h- us- and dis¡osal o[ ¡acka,in,,
busin-ss :rav-l and :h- -n-r,y r-quir-d :o o¡-ra:- :h- con¡any's
[acili:i-s. In :hos- ar-as ou:sid- i:s dir-c: con:rol, Ir-ni-r Farn-ll
is workin, wi:h su¡¡li-rs and cus:on-rs :o b-::-r und-rs:and :h-
o¡¡or:uni:i-s [or in¡rov-d -[hci-ncy. „
Corp orate soc ial
resp onsib ility:
an inesc ap ab le resp onsib ility
By Caroline Walker, Group Head of CSR and Environmental Affairs, Premier Farnell plc
1here are many challenges lacing the world today, and one ol the most
important is global warming and the conservation ol our diminishing
natural resources. 1hese have to be carelully balanced with our need
to generate more power lor an expanding population that is constantly
demanding more leature·laden consumer goods. Much ol the onus has
lallen to designers ol electronics equipment to lnd solutions lor these
challenges by producing innovative, power·ellcient products.
More about Premier Farnell's CSR commitment
can be read at www.premierfarneII.ccm
2 9
PRLMlLR FARNLLL NLWS
Memory
I: nay s--n :o b- a bi: nuch :o call n-nory a n-w :-chnolo,y, bu: :h-
in¡rov-n-n:s in n-nory :-chnolo,y hav- nad- -l-c:ronics vas:ly nor-
sui:abl- [or us- in nany nor- n-dical and ins:run-n:a:ion a¡¡lica:ions. This
is :ru- wh-:h-r i: is :h- hi,h-s: ¡-r[ornin, n-nory wi:h hu,- bandwid:h [or
ina,in, a¡¡lica:ions, or low ¡ow-r n-nory [or ¡or:abl- a¡¡lica:ions, :o b-
consid-r-d [or :h-s- a¡¡lica:ions all :y¡-s o[ n-nory nus: b- s-cur- and r-liabl-
:o sa[-,uard ¡riva:- in[orna:ion.
:a^iZHZb^XdcYjXidgBZbdgnIZX]cdad\n, a Taiwanbas-d IC d-si,n
con¡any, ori,inally s¡-cializ-d in DIAM :-chnolo,y. Th- con¡any ¡rovid-s
a wid- vari-:y o[ s¡-cial:y DIAM ¡roduc:s (includin, FIM, FDO, SDIAM,
DDI, Mobil- SD/DDI -:c.). Mor- r-c-n:ly i: has also -n:-r-d :h- Flash n-nory
busin-ss wi:h a nunb-r o[ NOI FLASH ¡roduc:s, ran,in, [ron .Mb :o ¸.Mb
wi:h ¡arall-l and/or s-rial in:-r[ac-s.
Multimedia
In :h- ¡as: [-w y-ars, advanc-s in :-chnolo,y hav- ¡rovid-d nul:in-dia
solu:ions [or nany n-w a¡¡lica:ions in :h- n-dical and ins:run-n:a:ion h-lds.
Th-s- advanc-s hav- nad- i: ¡ossibl- [or doc:ors and :-chnicians :o visualiz-
in[orna:ion [ron s-nsin, d-vic-s, such as scann-rs, :o ¡rovid- a b-::-r n-:hod :o
accura:-ly dia,nos- ¡robl-ns, -v-n r-no:-ly.
GZVaiZ`HZb^XdcYjXidg, loca:-d in :h- Hsinchu Sci-nc-bas-d Indus:rial Iark,
Taiwan, has a worldwid- r-¡u:a:ion in advanc-d cor- :-chnolo,i-s. N-w ¡roduc:
d-v-lo¡n-n: o[ hi,hly in:-,ra:-d :o:al solu:ions con:inually u:iliz- -x¡-r:is-
in di,i:al and analo, nix-d nod- d-si,n and in:-,ra:ion o[ k-y con¡on-n:s,
such as nicrocon:roll-rs, DSI, IISC, ILL, IFIC, and -nb-dd-d n-nori-s. Vi:h a
¡ar:icular [ocus in :h- connunica:ions and consun-r nark-:s, I-al:-k d-v-lo¡s
hi,hs¡--d broadband and wir-l-ss connunica:ion solu:ions, and hi,hs¡--d,
hi,hr-solu:ion nul:in-dia ¡roduc:s.
CME
NXI is a :o¡ +o s-niconduc:or con¡any [ound-d by Ihili¡s nor- :han ·o y-ars
a,o. H-adquar:-r-d in Furo¡-, :h- con¡any has ¸,ooo -n¡loy--s workin,
in nor- :han .o coun:ri-s. NXI's N-x¡-riabas-d sys:-n solu:ions and audio/
vid-o con¡on-n:s -nabl- nor- di,i:al con:-n: via a b-::-r vi-win, and lis:-nin,
-x¡-ri-nc-. Innova:in, -nb-dd-d nul:in-dia [-a:ur-s and n-x:,-n-ra:ion,
conn-c:-d nul:in-dia a¡¡lianc-s nak- [or a conn-c:-d -x¡-ri-nc- nakin, i:
-asi-r :o shar- nul:in-dia con:-n:.
PLUS. MOSART Scri.crJv.icr Ccr).
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Elite Semiconductor Memory Technology Inc. M52D128168A-7.5BG
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Realtek Semiconductor Corp. ALC101
NXP LPC2106BBD48.151
MOSART Semiconductor Corp. MA6221-S7K/Q17K
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN111111111111111111PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLAAAAAAAAAAAAADDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDlllllllllllSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOXXXXXXXXXXFFFFFFFFFFOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOORRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDLLLVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASSSSSSSSSSYYYYYYYYYSSSSS
FFFFFFFFFFFRRRLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSCCCCAAALLLLLLLLLLLLL
AA111MLLLL
AAAALLLLLL111LRA
LLl1L
RLAL1LK
N1P
LLADlS
OXFORD
DLVASYS
FRLLSCALL
A1MLL
AL1LRA
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3 0
1LCH1RLNDS
0LED DispIay Drivers
OLFD :-chnolo,y o[[-rs nany b-n-h:s ov-r LCDs. No
backli,h:in, is r-quir-d, and :h-r-[or- :h- scr--n us-s nuch
l-ss ¡ow-r. Th-y ar- also :hinn-r and -asi-r :o nanu[ac:ur-.
Th-s- b-n-h:s hav- -nabl-d OLFD dis¡lays :o b-con- :h-
s:andard [or snall ¡or:abl- d-vic-s such as nobil- ¡hon-s,
IDAs and incr-asin,ly :h- n-w ran,-s o[ ¡or:abl- n-dical
-qui¡n-n:. As :h- :-chnolo,y in¡rov-s and nanu[ac:urin,
b-con-s ch-a¡-r, -x¡-c: :o s-- lar,-r scr--ns s:ar: :o r-¡lac-
LCDs [or nany nor- a¡¡lica:ions. To ,-: :h- b-s: ou: o[ :his
n-w :-chnolo,y, d-dica:-d driv-rs ar- -ss-n:ial.
AZVY^h
L-adis T-chnolo,y is a [abl-ss s-niconduc:or con¡any
bas-d in Sunnyval-, Cali[ornia, wi:h o¡-ra:ions in China,
Hon, Lon,, la¡an, Sou:h Lor-a and Taiwan. L-adis
d-si,ns, d-v-lo¡s and nark-:s analo, and nix-dsi,nal
s-niconduc:ors :ha: -nabl- and -nhanc- :h- [-a:ur-s and
ca¡abili:i-s o[ -l-c:ronics d-vic-s. Th-s- d-vic-s includ-
LCD/OLFD dis¡lay driv-rs, LFD driv-rs and a ¡ow-r
nana,-n-n: chi¡s (vol:a,- r-,ula:ors and
ba::-ry con:roll-rs).
U5B
USl is a s-rial bus s:andard :o in:-r[ac- d-vic-s. USl was
d-si,n-d :o allow nany IC ¡-ri¡h-rals :o b- conn-c:-d
usin, a sin,l- s:andardiz-d in:-r[ac- sock-: and :o in¡rov-
¡lu,and¡lay ca¡abili:i-, by allowin, d-vic-s :o b-
conn-c:-d and disconn-c:-d wi:hou: a r-boo:.
Dm[dgYHZb^XdcYjXidg
Fs:ablish-d in +oo., Ox[ord S-niconduc:or ¡rovid-s
r-liabl-, hi,h¡-r[ornanc- silicon and so[:war- solu:ions
:o in:-rconn-c: di,i:al sys:-ns, includin, s-rial, ¡arall-l,
USl, Fir-Vir-, F:h-rn-:, SATA or -SATA. Th- con¡any's
hi,h ¡-r[ornanc- sys:-nonachi¡ solu:ions ar- an
-ss-n:ial in,r-di-n: in an incr-dibly div-rs- ran,- o[ hi,hly
di[[-r-n:ia:-d -nd ¡roduc:s, [ron -x:-rnal da:a s:ora,- and
nobil- ¡hon-s :o ¡rin:-rs and ¡oin:o[sal- -qui¡n-n:.
9ZKVHnh
D-VaSys was ori,inally [orn-d in +o88 in San los-,
Cali[ornia, und-r :h- nan- °T-chnical Solu:ions¯.
Th- con¡any was nov-d :o I-nh-ld, N-w York in
+oo8, r-nan-d °D-VaSys¯, and is r-,is:-r-d as a sol-
¡ro¡ri-:orshi¡. D-VASys' USl I.C/IO in:-r[ac- board
¡rovid-s a sin¡l-, °dro¡in¯, solu:ion [or cus:on-rs :ha:
n--d :o conn-c: hardwar- :o a I.C.
PLUS. Si|i.cr Lv|s, Hc|ic|, Mvxir, NXP, C.)rcss, `IA,
PLX Tc.|rc|cq.
CAN/LIN
CAN and LIN w-r- ori,inally d-v-lo¡-d [or :h- au:ono:iv-
indus:ry, bu: :h-ir [unc:ionali:y and [aul: :ol-ranc- l-n:
:h-ns-lv-s w-ll :o o:h-r indus:ri-s wh-r- inhos¡i:abl-
-nvironn-n:s ar- ¡r-val-n:. Vi:h CAN and i:s varia:ions
now b-conin, :h- d- [ac:o s:andard in indus:rial sys:-ns, i:
is only r-asonabl- :ha: ins:run-n:a:ion -qui¡n-n: us- :h-
san- n-:works :o s-nd and r-c-iv- da:a.
;gZZhXVaZ
Fr--scal- S-niconduc:or is a l-ad-r in :h- d-si,n and
nanu[ac:ur- o[ -nb-dd-d s-niconduc:ors [or :h-
au:ono:iv-, consun-r, indus:rial, n-:workin, and
wir-l-ss nark-:s. Th- ¡riva:-ly h-ld con¡any is bas-d in
Aus:in, T-xas, and has d-si,n, r-s-arch and d-v-lo¡n-n:,
nanu[ac:urin, or sal-s o¡-ra:ions in nor- :han
¸o coun:ri-s.
6ibZa
A:n-l is a l-ad-r in :h- d-si,n and nanu[ac:ur- o[
nicrocon:roll-rs, advanc-d lo,ic, nix-dsi,nal, nonvola:il-
n-nory and radio [r-qu-ncy (IF) con¡on-n:s. L-v-ra,in,
on- o[ :h- indus:ry's broad-s: II :-chnolo,y ¡or:[olios,
A:n-l is abl- :o ¡rovid- :h- -l-c:ronics indus:ry wi:h
con¡l-:- sys:-n solu:ions.
PLUS. Ivjiisv, Si|i.cr Lv|s, Mvxir, AMIS, Ir[rccr,
NXP, Mc|cxis
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Leadis LDS8830HV2-T2
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Atmel ATA6602
Melexis TH8056
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Oxford Semiconductor OXU121HP-LQBG
Devasys USB I2C/IO
Maxim MAX3353EEUE
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Live EDGE 2 0 0 8
Our future, in your d esigns.
The ñrst Live EDCE
ly any n-asur-, Liv- FDGF .oo was
a hu,- succ-ss, involvin, :housands
o[ -l-c:ronic d-si,n -n,in--rs and
s:ud-n:s [ron ov-r +o. coun:ri-s
around :h- world. Th- in:-rna:ional
¡an-l o[ iud,-s had a di[hcul: :in-
d-cidin,, bu: -v-n:ually s-l-c:-d
lohn Nobl- [ron Malaysia as :h-
winn-r. His -n-r,ysavin, c-ilin, [an
d-si,n, M.Ivr, is ca¡abl- o[ in¡ac:in,
nillions o[ ¡-o¡l- and hon-s
,lobally. Conbinin, an -l-c:ronically
connu:a:-d no:or and con:roll-r and
an a-rodynanically -[hci-n: blad-
d-si,n, M.Ivr is -x¡-c:-d :o r-duc-
[an in¡u: ¡ow-r by u¡ :o 66` o[ :ha:
o[ a :radi:ional c-ilin, [an.
Ir-ni-r Farn-ll is now su¡¡or:in,
Mr. Nobl- in :h- s:-¡s r-quir-d :o :ak-
his d-si,n in:o ¡roduc:ion. Mr. Nobl-
is -x¡-c:-d :o launch his ¡roduc: on
A¡ril ., .ooo, a: :h- n-x: Liv- FDGF
awards c-r-nony. Vha:'s nor-,
Ir-ni-r Farn-ll:hrou,h N-wark
and i:s o:h-r ,lobal subsidiari-s and
brandshas conni::-d :o nark-:in,
his ¡roduc: :o nillions o[ cus:on-rs.
RcvJ rcrc v|cvi Mr. Nc||c vrJ |is Jcsiqr
vi lll#a^kZ"ZY\Z#Xdb
Addi:ionally, hv- Honorabl- M-n:ion
d-si,ns w-r- -ach award-d USD.·,ooo.
I]dbVhGZ^iZg · , (s:ud-n: [ron
Aus:ria)
D-si,n. Minia:ur- ba::-ry savin,
swi:ch nod- ¡ow-r su¡¡ly
B^cZh]7]V`iV · , (UL)
D-si,n. Fn-r,y ,au,- :ha: h-l¡s
nana,- :h- us- o[ sock-:s.
8VgadhBVgfjZh · (IDMind,
Ior:u,al)
D-si,n. ¸D SunTrack-r :ha:
o¡:iniz-s :h- -[[-c:iv-n-ss o[ solar
¡an-ls.
9VaZHiZeeh · (In:-l:-ch
Cor¡ora:ion, US)
D-si,n. Solids:a:- luninar-
6a^hiV^gBVX[VgaVcZ · (Sco:land)
D-si,n. LFD in:-lli,-n: li,h:
Walking the talk
No on- would ar,u- :ha: -l-c:ronics
¡lay an -v-r incr-asin, ¡ar: in all
o[ our liv-s. Harri-: Gr--n, CFO
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
3 2
LlVL LDCL
o[ Ir-ni-r Farn-ll, b-li-v-s :ha:
-l-c:ronics can also s-rv- :o h-l¡ solv-
son- o[ our hu,- -nvironn-n:al
chall-n,-s. Sh- conn-n:s, °Th-
Far:h is [acin, -nvironn-n:al :hr-a:s
on an un¡r-c-d-n:-d scal-, and by
unl-ashin, :h- cr-a:ivi:y :ha: -xis:s
wi:hin :h- -l-c:ronics indus:ry and
our univ-rsi:i-s, w- can nak- a
¡osi:iv- di[[-r-nc- :o :h-s- ,lobal
chall-n,-s.¯
Ir-ni-r Farn-ll :ak-s i:s own rol-
as a ,lobal l-ad-r in -l-c:ronics
dis:ribu:ion s-riously. l-yond
s¡onsorin, Liv- FDGF, i: has
h-l¡-d :o -duca:- d-si,n -n,in--rs
abou: IoHS con¡lianc- and o:h-r
-nvironn-n:al l-,isla:ion. I: has
also :ak-n ri,orous s:-¡s :o r-duc-
i:s own carbon [oo:¡rin:, and is
conni::-d :o sus:ainabl- busin-ss
¡rac:ic-s. As o[ lun- +, Farn-ll s:o¡¡-d
¡urchasin, incand-sc-n: lan¡s [or
sal-, ins:-ad o[[-rin, a con¡l-:- ran,-
o[ huor-sc-n: lan¡s, which ¡rovid- an
av-ra,- o[ 8,ooo hours li[- -x¡-c:ancy
and -n-r,y savin,s o[ u¡ :o 8o`.
Mcrc v|cvi Prcricr Ivrrc||`s .cr)crvic
sc.iv| rcs)crsi|i|ii. .crriircri .vr |c
rcvJ cr )vqc .j cr vi
lll#egZb^Zg[VgcZaa#Xdb
Live EDCE 200S
Th- ¡aran-:-rs o[ :h- con¡-:i:ion
ar- a,ain in:-n:ionally broad so as :o
b- as inclusiv- as ¡ossibl-. Subni::-d
d-si,ns should h-l¡ :o in¡ac: :h-
-nvironn-n: in a ¡osi:iv- way
(¡-rha¡s by r-ducin, carbon -nissions
or incr-asin, -n-r,y -[hci-ncy), and
us- -l-c:ronic con¡on-n:s. Tha: said,
d-si,ns should also b- innova:iv-, cos:
-[[-c:iv- and ca¡abl- o[ b-in, :ak-n :o
[ull ¡roduc:ion. Uniqu-ly, VaaZcigVcih
l^aagZiV^c^ciZaaZXijVaegdeZgin
VcYdlcZgh]^e.
Th- con¡l-:- cri:-ria and an -xan¡l-
o[ a d-si,n -n:ry can b- vi-w-d a:
lll#a^kZ"ZY\Z#Xdb. All subnissions
should b- nad- via :his w-bsi:-
b-:w--n Oc:ob-r +, .oo8 and lanuary
¸+, .ooo in Fn,lish or Chin-s-. Th-
w-bsi:- is also :h- ¡lac- :o r-,is:-r
[or con¡-:i:ion u¡da:-s, vi-w blo,s
[ron las: y-ar's winn-rs, ¡lay a
chall-n,in, °sav- :h- board¯ ,an-, and
connunica:- wi:h o:h-r d-si,n-rs
[ron around :h- world, usin, bull-:in
boards and o:h-r social n-dia :ools.
las-d on [--dback [ron las: y-ar's
con¡-:i:ion, Liv- FDGF .oo8 will
hav- :wo con:-s: ca:-,ori-son-
o¡-n :o [ull:in- s:ud-n:s and on-
o¡-n :o anyon- -ls- ov-r +8. Vi:h
s:ud-n:s con¡-:in, a,ains: o:h-r
s:ud-n:s, nor- ar- -x¡-c:-d :o b-
-ncoura,-d :o ¡ar:ici¡a:-. Th- :wo
con¡-:i:ions will run concurr-n:ly.
Th- winn-r o[ -ach ca:-,ory will
r-c-iv- a USD ..·,ooo cash ¡riz-, ¡lus
a ¡acka,- o[ su¡¡or: s-rvic-s valu-d
a: an addi:ional USD ..·,ooo. Fx¡-r:s
in :h- h-lds o[ D-si,n Consul:ancy,
Mark-:in, and L-,al will h-l¡ :o driv-
:h- :wo winnin, d-si,ns :owards
¡roduc:ion. Th-s- s-rvic-s includ-
d-v-lo¡in, ¡ro:o:y¡-s, assis:anc- wi:h
II r-,is:ra:ion, h-l¡ wi:h nark-:in,
and ¡ublici:y and su¡¡or: [or s-curin,
inv-s:n-n: [undin,. In addi:ion, :hr--
runn-ru¡s in -ach ca:-,ory will
r-c-iv- USD .·,ooo -ach.
Vinn-rs will b- announc-d on A¡ril .,
.ooo a: an awards c-r-nony :ha: will
:ak- ¡lac- vir:ually. As wi:h las: y-ar's
awards c-r-nony, i: will b- d-si,n-d
:o hav- a nininal in¡ac: on :h-
-nvironn-n:.
Th- in:-rna:ional iud,in, ¡an-l :his
y-ar is a ¡r-s:i,ious nix o[ l-ad-rs
[ron acad-nia and indus:ry. Sir I-:-r
G-rshon, Chairnan o[ Ir-ni-r Farn-ll,
will a,ain l-ad :h- ¡an-l. As o[ :h-
:in- o[ wri:in,, :h- [ollowin, iud,-s
hav- conni::-d :o s-rv- on :h- ¡an-l.
The Judging Panel
Ior Live EDCE 200S
H^gEZiZg<Zgh]dc
87:;G:c\
Sir I-:-r has b--n
:h- non-x-cu:iv-
chairnan o[ Ir-ni-r
Farn-ll ¡lc sinc- .oo·,
and also s-rv-s as
Chairnan o[ Synbian
So[:war- L:d,
Chairnan o[ G-n-ral
H-al:hcar- Grou¡ and
Chairnan o[ V-r:-x
Da:a Sci-nc-s.
HiZkZc?#9Z@gZn
Iro[-ssor S:-v-n l.
D-Lr-y is :h- S-nior
Associa:- D-an and
Dir-c:or o[ Mas:-rs
Iro,rans a: :h- Hon,
Lon, Univ-rsi:y
o[ Sci-nc- and
T-chnolo,y.
EVja<ddYbVc
Mr. Goodnan is :h-
S-nior Ma:-rials
Consul:an:,
I-liabili:y and Failur-
Analysis Grou¡, [or
FIA T-chnolo,y L:d.
?d]cCdWaZ
Mr. Nobl-, winn-r o[
Liv- FDGF .oo, is an
-l-c:ronics -n,in--r
who has work-d [or
ov-r a d-cad- on
conn-rcializa:ion
o[ -l-c:ronically
connu:a:-d (FC)
no:ors 8 -l-c:ronic
con:rols.
HiZkZHVc\]^
Mr. San,hi was
nan-d :h- Ir-sid-n:
o[ Microchi¡
T-chnolo,y in
Au,us: +ooo, Chi-[
Fx-cu:iv- O[hc-r in
Oc:ob-r +oo+, and
:h- Chairnan o[ :h-
loard o[ Dir-c:ors in
Oc:ob-r, +oo¸.
>cYgdBj`Zg_ZZ
Mr. Muk-ri-- is
Chi-[ Fx-cu:iv-
O[hc-r o[ CMAC
MicroT-chnolo,y,
:h- l-adin,
hi,h r-liabili:y
nicro-l-c:ronics
s¡-cialis:.
GdWGdY^c
Iob Iodin is :h-
Chairnan and CFO
o[ IDN Grou¡,
s:ra:-,ic advisors
[ocus-d on cor¡ora:-
:ransi:ions, cus:on-r
in:-r[ac-, sal-s
and nark-:in,,
dis:ribu:ion and
su¡¡ly chain
nana,-n-n:.
<dii[g^ZY:X`Zg
Mr. Fck-r has b--n a
S-nior L-c:ur-r in
Micro-l-c:ronic and
Au:ona:ion
T-chnolo,i-s in :h-
School o[
Fn,in--rin,
a: Vi-n-r N-us:ad:,
Low-r Aus:ria
sinc- +oo6.
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Technology First Cnline
T-chnolo,y Firs: na,azin- is only
on- [ac-: o[ Ir-ni-r Farn-ll's ,lobal
in[orna:ion r-sourc- [or d-si,n
-n,in--rs. In :his issu-, w- showcas-
:h- la:-s: :-chnolo,i-s in :h- M-dical
and Ins:run-n:a:ion ar-a. For [ur:h-r
d-si,n and a¡¡lica:ion advic- and
acc-ss :o ov-r +ooo brand nan-
n-dical and ins:run-n:a:ion ¡roduc:s,
visi: T-chnolo,y Firs: onlin- a: lll#
ZaZXigdc^XhYZh^\cldgaY#Xdb. On :h-
si:-, you can also acc-ss in[orna:ion
on o:h-r k-y ar-as o[ in:-r-s:, such as
Mo:ion Con:rol and Au:ona:ion.
lll#ZaZXigdc^XhYZh^\cldgaY#Xdb
Embeddedrelated.com
I[ you work wi:h nicro¡roc-ssors,
www.-nb-dd-r-la:-d.con con:ains a
wid- ran,- o[ con:-n: :o assis: in your
work. Th- si:- con:ains links, blo,s and
discussion ,rou¡s [or :h- nos: ¡o¡ular
MCUs. I-la:-d si:-s also includ-
lll#[e\VgZaViZY#Xdb and
lll#YhegZaViZY#Xdb which
,iv- nuch :h- san- [-a:ur-s [or
¡ro,rannabl- lo,ic and DSIs.
lll#ZbWZYYZYgZaViZY#Xdb
EETimes.com
FFTin-s.con cov-rs :h- ,lobal
-l-c:ronics indus:ry, ¡rovid-s br-akin,
n-ws on n-w :-chnolo,i-s, sys:-n
and chi¡ l-v-l d-si,n innova:ions,
n-w ¡roduc:s and -n-r,in, indus:ry
s:andards. A :-an o[ -di:ors in :h-
Uni:-d S:a:-s, Furo¡- and Asia d-liv-r
a ,lobal ¡-rs¡-c:iv- on si,nihcan:
-v-n:s in :h- indus:ry. And a s-ri-s o[
local lan,ua,- -di:ions in k-y d-si,n
c-n:r-s around :h- world d-liv-r n-ws
o[ r-,ional r-l-vanc-.
lll#ZZi^bZh#Xdb
Webench
Na:ional S-niconduc:ors' VFlFNCH
-nvironn-n: ¡rovid-s -nd:o-nd
d-si,n and ¡ro:o:y¡in, :ools :o cr-a:-
¡ow-r su¡¡li-s or DCDC conv-r:-rs
:ha: n--: d-si,n r-quir-n-n:s.
VFlFNCH :ools -nabl- d-si,n-rs :o
solv- swi:chin, ¡ow-r su¡¡ly d-si,n
¡robl-ns b-[or- a ¡ro:o:y¡- is buil:,
all-via:in, :h- :in- and :roubl-
associa:-d wi:h :radi:ional d-si,n
n-:hods. Th- VFlFNCH :ools-: can
also b- us-d as a d-vic- s-l-c:ion :ool.
lll#cVi^dcVa#Xdb$VcVad\
Electronicstalk.com
Fl-c:ronics:alk is a n-ws and
in[orna:ion w-bsi:- ain-d a:
-l-c:ronics d-si,n, d-v-lo¡n-n: and
nanu[ac:urin, -n,in--rs :hrou,hou:
:h- world. Th- si:- ¡ublish-s n-ws
r-l-as-s, cas- s:udi-s and :-chnical
ar:icl-s [ron any nanu[ac:ur-r who
subni:s :h-n, nakin, Fl-c:ronics:alk
on- o[ :h- nos: con¡r-h-nsiv-
n-ws r-sourc-s on :h- w-b. Th- si:-
curr-n:ly has ¡,o6+ n-ws r-l-as-s
[ron ¸,+oo su¡¡li-rs on :h- w-bsi:-.
lll#ZaZXigdc^XhiVa`#Xdb
PI Expert
Iow-r In:-,ra:ions' II Fx¡-r: is an
in:-rac:iv- ¡ro,ran :ha: :ak-s a us-r's
¡ow-r su¡¡ly s¡-cihca:ions and
au:ona:ically d-:-rnin-s :h- cri:ical
con¡on-n:s (includin, :rans[orn-r
s¡-cihca:ions) n--d-d :o ,-n-ra:- a
workin, swi:ch nod- ¡ow-r su¡¡ly.
O¡:iniza:ion choic-s [or cos: or
-[hci-ncy ar- includ-d :o d-liv-r
d-si,ns :ha: n--: s¡-cihc n--ds.
lll#edlZg^ci#Xdb „
1here is a wealth ol inlormation on the internet that is ol use to the
design engineer. 1he problem is not usually the quality ol the content,
but lnding the right inlormation quickly. 1his page will detail some ol
the sites we lnd the most uselul, whether it is to get a quick update
on the latest news, or to lnd supporting inlormation such as articles
and guides. Hotlinks leatures a variety ol sites lrom both prolessional
inlormation providers and smaller sites run by enthusiasts: the
common leature being that we think they are all ol great interest to
anyone who is part ol the design engineering community.
www.embeddedrelated.com
www.powerint.com
www.electronicsdesignworld.com
www.national.com/analog
www.eetimes.com
www.electronicstalk.com electronicstalk com
DLSlCN Wl1H 1HL BLS1 at www.larnell.com
3 4
HO1LlNKS
Part Number
V
DS
(V)
I
D
(A)
R
DS(on)
Max
V
GS
=10V
(m)
Qg
(nC)
Package
IRF2804PBF 40 270 2.3 160 TO-220
IRF2804SPBF 40 270 2.0 160 D
2
-PAK
IRF2804S-7PPBF 40 320 1.6 170 D
2
-PAK -7
IRFB3306PBF 60 160 4.2 85 TO-220
IRFP3306PBF 60 160 4.2 85 TO-247
IRFB3206PBF 60 210 3.0 120 TO-220
IRFS3206PBF 60 210 3.0 120 D
2
-PAK
IRFP3206PBF 60 200 3.0 120 TO-247
IRFS3207ZPBF 75 170 4.1 120 D
2
-PAK
IRF2907ZS-7PPBF 75 180 3.8 170 D
2
-PAK -7
IRFB3077PBF 75 210 3.3 160 TO-220
IRFP3077PBF 75 200 3.3 160 TO-247
IRFS4310ZPBF 100 127 6.0 120 D
2
-PAK
IRFP4310ZPBF 100 134 6.0 120 TO-247
IRFB4110PBF 100 180 4.5 150 TO-220
IRFP4110PBF 100 180 4.5 150 TO-247
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T C
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erform
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