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Solutions

Section 15.8

Use Lagrange Multipliers to nd the maximum and minimum values of the function subject

to the given constraint.

4. f(x, y) = 4x + 6y; x

2

+ y

2

= 13.

solution: Let g(x, y) = x

2

+ y

2

. Then, the Lagrange Multiplier Equations (f

x

= g

x

,

f

y

= g

y

and g(x, y) = 13) are

4 = 2x

6 = 2y

x

2

+ y

2

= 13.

Clearly, = 0 (as = 0 would violate the rst two equations). Thus, from the rst two

equations, we get x =

2

and y =

3

thus (2, 3) are the solutions. We have

f(2, 3) = 8 + 18 = 26

f(2, 3) = 26

f(2, 3) = 8 18 = 10

f(2, 3) = 8 + 18 = 10

Thus, subject to the constraint, the maximum value of f is 26 and the minimum value is

26.

6. f(x, y) = e

xy

; x

3

+ y

3

= 16.

Solution: Let g(x, y) = x

3

+y

3

. The Lagrange Multiplier Equations (f

x

= g

x

, f

y

= g

y

and g(x, y) = 16) are

ye

xy

= 3x

2

xe

xy

= 3y

2

x

3

+ y

3

= 16.

How do we nd all solutions x, y and ? Clearly both x and y cant simultaneously be

zero (and thus = 0) since (0, 0) does not satisfy the constraint equation if x = 0, y = 0,

so we can divide the rst equation by the second equation to get

y

x

=

x

2

y

2

,

1

2 Solutions

so y

3

= x

3

, or y = x and substituting in the constraint equation, we get 2x

3

= 16 or

x = 2. Thus, y = 2 and (2, 2) is the only solution.

We have

f(2, 2) = e

4

.

Thus, subject to the constraint, the maximum value of f is e

4

and there is no minimum

value

8. f(x, y, z) = 8x 4z; x

2

+ 10y

2

+ z

2

= 5.

Solution: Let g(x, y, z) = x

2

+ 10y

2

+ z

2

. The Lagrange Multiplier Equations (f

x

=

g

x

, f

y

= g

y

, f

z

= g

z

and g(x, y, z) = 5) are

8 = 2x

0 = 20y

4 = 2z

x

2

+ 10y

2

+ z

2

= 1.

Note that = 0 since = 0 would violate the rst three equations. Hence, we get x =

4

.

Since = 0, we have y = 0 in the second equation. Also, from the third equation, we get

z =

2

2

+ 0 +

2

= 1.

That is,

2

= 20, so = 2

2

5

and z =

1

5

. Hence, the

solutions are (

2

5

, 0,

1

5

). We have

f(

2

5

, 0,

1

5

) = 8

4(

1

5

) =

20

5

f(

2

5

, 0,

1

5

) = 8

4(

1

5

) =

12

5

f(

2

5

, 0,

1

5

) = 8

+ 4

=

20

5

f(

2

5

, 0,

1

5

) = 8

+ 4

=

12

5

.

Thus, subject to the constraint, the maximum value of f is

20

5

and

20

5

is the minimum

value.

Math 2443 Homework #6 3

10. f(x, y, z) = x

2

y

2

z

2

; x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 1.

Solution: Let g(x, y, z) = x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

. Then, the Lagrange Multiplier equations (f

x

=

g

x

, f

y

= g

y

, f

z

= g

z

and g(x, y, z) = 1) are

2xy

2

z

2

= 2x

2yx

2

z

2

= 2y

2zx

2

y

2

= 2z

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 1.

One way to solve this system of equations is to multiply the rst equation by x, the second

equation by y and the third equation by z. Once we do this the left-hand sides of the

new equation will all be equal. Hence the right-hand sides will be equal as well. That

is, 2x

2

y

2

z

2

= 2x

2

= 2y

2

= 2z

2

. In other words, (x

2

y

2

) = 0, (y

2

z

2

) = 0 and

(x

2

z

2

) = 0. Now, we either have = 0 or x

2

= y

2

= z

2

. If = 0, it means that the

right-hand side of each of the rst three equations is zero. That is,

xy

2

z

2

= 0

yx

2

z

2

= 0

zx

2

y

2

= 0.

Now, we have the following cases.

(i) One variable is zero, the other two are not zero.

(ii) Two variables are zero and the third non-zero. We know that all three variables

cant simultaneously be zero since (0, 0, 0) does not satisfy the constraint.

In both the above cases you get f(x, y, z) = 0 at these points.

If = 0 then x

2

= y

2

= z

2

. Substituting this in the constraint equation, we get

3x

2

= 1 and x =

1

3

and thus y =

1

3

= z. Since the function consists of all square

terms we dont nee to evaluate it all these points separately. We have

f(

1

3

,

1

3

,

1

3

) =

1

27

.

Thus, subject to the constraint, the minimum value of f is 0 and the maximum value is

1

27

.

12. f(x, y, z) = x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

; x

4

+ y

4

+ z

4

= 1.

4 Solutions

Solution: Let g(x, y, z) = x

4

+ y

4

+ z

4

. The Lagrange Multiplier Equations are

2x = 4x

3

2y = 4y

3

2z = 4z

3

x

4

+ y

4

+ z

4

= 1.

The rst three equations are identical to those obtained for a problem we did in the class.

You can nd it in the notes posted online. Again, there will be three dierent cases (one

variable zero the other two non-zero, two variables zero and the third non-zero and all of

them non-zero). I will just produce the answer here but you have to show all the steps.

The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is

3.

18. Find the extreme values of f on the region described by the inequality

f(x, y) = 2x

2

+ 3y

2

4x 5, x

2

+ y

2

16

Solution:. There are two main steps. First, we nd the critical points of f on the interior

of the given region, then we use Lagrange multipliers to nd the extreme values of f on

the boundary.

(a) We have f

x

(x, y) = 4x4 and f

y

(x, y) = 6y. Thus, the only critical point of f is (1, 0)

and f(1, 0) = 7.

(b) Next, we nd the extreme values of f on the boundary x

2

+y

2

= 16 by using Lagrange

multiplier. Let g(x, y) = x

2

+ y

2

. Then the Lagrange Multiplier Equations (f

x

= g

x

,

f

y

= g

y

and g(x, y) = 16) are

4x 4 = 2x

6y = 2y

x

2

+ y

2

= 16.

By the second equation, we have y(3 ) = 0, so either y = 0 or = 3. If y = 0 then

by the third equation, we get x = 4. Hence (4, 0) are solutions. If = 3 then by the

rst equation, we get x = 2. From the last equation, this gives us y = 2

3. Hence

(2, 2

f(4, 0) = 11

f(4, 0) = 43

f(2, 2

3) = 47

Comparing values from (a) and (b) we see that the maximum and minimum values of the

function f on the given region are 47 and 7 respectively.

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