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Christine Sankey

3
rd
Hour Chemistry
2
nd
Semester Extra Credit


General Concepts


1. Write the electron configurations for Sulfur, Potassium, Magnesium, and Krypton.
Sulfur: [Ne]3s
2
3p
4
, Krypton: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
, Magnesium: [Ne]3s
2
,
Potassium: [Ar]4s
1

2. Obtain a periodic table and outline the s, p, d, and f blocks. In the same periodic
table, highlight the metals, metalloids, and non-metals. It must be very neat.
See table
3. Define the octet rule. What are the exceptions to the octet rule?
The octet rule states that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire
the stable electron configuration of a noble gas. The first period elements are an
exception to the octet rule, as they are complete with only two valence electrons.
4. Barium is a metal that gives a green color to fireworks. Write the electron
configuration for Barium. Classify it according to group, period, and block in the
periodic table.
Barium: [Xe] 6s
2
, Group 2, Period 6, Block S
Chapter 7
5. Define a cation and anion. How do they relate to one another? Anions are ions
with negative charges. Cations are atoms with positive charges. One of each
must be present in an ionic bond. They are both ions with a charge.
6. List the formula and name of 20 of the 26 polyatomic ions in the table on page
221
Ion: Name: Ion: Name:
NH
4
+
Ammonium IO
4
-
Periodate
NO
2
-
Nitrite C
2
H
3
O
2
-
Acetate
NO
3
-
Nitrate CO
3
2-
Carbonate
OH
-
Hydroxide SO
3
2-
Sulfite
CN
-
Cyanide SO
4
2-
Sulfate
MnO
4
-
Permanganate S
2
O
3
2-
Thiosulfate
ClO
-
Hypochlorite O
2
2-
Peroxide
ClO
2
-
Chlorite CrO
4
2-
Chromate
ClO
3
-
Chlorate Cr
2
O
7
2-
Dichromate
ClO
4
-
Perchlorate PO
4
3-
Phosphate

7. Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for three of the 26 polyatomic ions in the table on
page 221.




8. What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding? Compounds and
molecules? Which type of bonding does the word compound typically relate to?
Molecules? Ionic bonds form between a metal and nonmetal. In ionic bonds, one
atom loses a(n) electron(s) and the other atom gains the electron(s). Covalent
bonds are formed between two nonmetals, involve the sharing of valence
electrons, and are stronger than ionic bonds. A molecule is two or more atoms
joined chemically while a compound is a molecule with atoms from at least two
different elements. A compound is typically ionically bonded. A molecule is
typically covalently bonded.
9. What is a monatomic ion? A monatomic ion is an ion formed from one atom.
10. What is an oxidation number? Which groups/families by name have more than
one oxidation number? An oxidation number is the charge of the atom. Transition
metals and metalloids have more than one oxidation number
(Halogen/Chalcogen/Boron/Carbon/Nitrogen families)
11. Describe the properties of melting point, boiling point, and hardness and how
they are affected by ionic bonding? Melting point, boiling point and hardness
are all physical properties of matter that depend on how strongly the particles
that make up the matter are attracted to each other.
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points, and they are hard
and very brittle. Ionic compounds have higher melting (and boiling) points than
covalent compounds. The electrical conductivity is generally low and minerals
with ionic bonds tend to dissolve better in water.
12. Use electron configurations, orbital notation, and electron dot structures to
represent the formation of an ionic compound from the metal calcium and non-metal
selenium.
Calcium: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
Selenide:1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
4




13. Name the following ionic compounds, NaBr, KOH, and Ag
2
CrO
4
. Also give the
formulas for the following ionic compounds, Silver (I) Bromide, and Potassium
Periodate. Sodium Bromide, Potassium Hydroxide, Silver Chromate, AgBr, KIO
4


14. Which group/family of elements on the periodic table are the most reactive?
Why? Which group/family of elements of the periodic table is the most stable? Why?
Use at least one electron configuration for each argument. The Halogen family is the
most reactive family of elements on the periodic table because they only need
one more valence electron to have a stable octet. They also have the highest
electronegativity. The most stable group/family of elements on the periodic table
is the noble gases. They are the most stable because they have a full octet.

16. Define the term Alloy Describe the properties of alloys, as well as what
substitutional and interstitial alloys are. Diagrams will be helpful but are not necessary.
An alloy is a mixture of elements that has metallic properties. A substitutional
alloy occurs when some of the atoms in the original metallic solid are replaced by
other metals of similar size. An interstitial alloy is formed when the small holes
(interstices) in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller atoms.
17What is a crystal lattice? Lattice energy? A crystal lattice is a three dimensional
geometric arrangement of particles in which each positive ion is surrounded by
negative ions and vice versa. Lattice energy is the energy required to remove one
mol of ions from an ionic compound, which is directly related to the size of the
ions bonded and affected by the charges of the ions.

18 Why can transition metals have different charges? This is possible because of
how their electrons are arranged in their orbitals.
Chapter 8
19. What is a covalent bond and how is it formed?
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence
electrons between two nonmetals.
20. What is a diatomic molecule and why do they exist? Name five of them. A
diatomic molecule is a molecule that has two atoms of the same element bonded
covalently. Some examples are: H
2
, N
2
, O
2
, Cl
2
, and F
2

21. Covalent molecules are named using prefixes. Create a table that has a
minimum of 10 prefixes for naming covalent molecules. Explain the limited use of the
prefix mono- when naming covalent compounds. The prefix mono is unnecessary
because it is a given.
# Prefix # Prefix
1 Mono 6 Hexa
2 Di 7 Hepta
3 Tri 8 Octa
4 Tetra 9 Nona
5 Penta 10 Deca


22. Define acids and bases. Why are acids and bases always aqueous? An acid is
a chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or
accepts electrons, having a pH less than 7. A base is a chemical species that
donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons, having a pH greater
than 7. An acid gives its properties to an aqueous solution by making free its
(acidical) H
+
ions (protons) and donating this to the solvent molecules: water, so
H
3
O
+
is formed. Without water, none of this can happen.
23. Define binary and oxyacids. Describe in detail how to name each one. You may
use a chart or diagram. Be careful to include all necessary prefixes and suffixes.
First, look at the formula of the molecules. Does the compound form an
acidic aqueous solution? If yes, name it as an acid. If no, name the first element
in the molecule. Use a prefix if the number of atoms is greater than one. To name
the second element, indicate the number present by using a prefix plus the root
of the second element (dont forget the ide ending.) Is there oxygen present? If
yes, use the root of the oxyanion present, ending with ic. If the anion ends in
ate or ous do this. If the anion ends in ite then tack on acid to the end of
the name. If no, hydro plus the root of the second elements (with an ic
ending) followed by acid is how you write it.
24. Name each molecule or write its formula:
a. NF
3

b. NO
c. SO
3

d. SiF
4

e. SeO
2

f. SeO
3

g. N
2
F
4

h. S
4
N
4

i. Sulfur Difluoride
j. Silicon Tetrachloride
k. Carbon Tetrafluoride
l. Sulfurous Acid
m. Silicon Dioxide
n. Bromous Acid
o. Hydrobromic Acid
a. Nitrogen trifluoride, b.Nitric oxide,c. Sulfur trioxide,d. Silicon tetrafluoride, e.
Selenium dioxide,f. Selenite, g. Tetrafluorohydrazine, h.Tetrasulfur tetranitride, i.
SCI
2
, j. SiCl
4
, k. CF4, l . H
2
SO
3
. m.SiO
2
. n. HBrO
2
. o. HBr

25. Draw the Lewis dot structure and predict the shape for the following
molecules/compounds/ions:
a. H
2
O Bent
b. SCl
2
Bent
c. BF
3
Trigonal planar
d. NH
4
+
Tetrahedral
e. OH
-
Linear




26. Why is PCl
5
an exception to the octet rule, but PCl
3
is not? It is an exception
because there is a much stronger force in PCl
5
because of the extra protons it has
compared to the number of protons in PCl
3
.
27 Describe the properties of covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed between
two atoms who share each others valence electrons. Compounds covalently
bonded are generally molecules, (neutral), do not conduct electricity, low melting
and boiling points and are less soluble in water and more soluble in non-aqueous
solvents
28 Define and describe how and why hybrid orbitals form. A diagram would be useful in
your explanation.
Hybridization happens when atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals. The
new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties
and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original
unhybridized orbital. When an orbital is hybridized, it occupies a lower energy
than if it were not. The goal of an orbital is to have the lowest energy possible.

29Ammonia is formed with one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms. What is the electron
configuration of nitrogen? How many lone pairs does it have? 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
, It has one
lone pair.
30 What is electronegativity? What is it used for in chemistry?
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding
pair of electrons; the higher the electronegativity of an atom, the greater its
attraction for bonding with electrons. The difference in electro negativities of two
elements can be used to predict the nature of the chemical bond.

31 Contrast polar and non-polar covalent bonds. How do you distinguish
between the two? A polar bond is simply a type of covalent bond in which the
electrons are shared but not equally. This happens when two different atoms
come together, such a C and O. Each atom has a different ability to draw
electrons to itself when it shares electrons (that drawing ability is called
Electronegativity).Nonpolar bond is when two of the same atoms come together,
such as the diatomic molecule N2 and share their valence electrons equally.
These bonds only occur when two atoms are from the same element. If the
molecule is symmetrical, it is probably non-polar. An example is CO2If they are all
one element, then the bond is nonpolar, but if the elements are different, like H2O,
then the bond is polar.

32 Describe how bond length and type affect the bond strength in a covalent bond.
Bond order and bond length indicate the type and strength of covalent bonds
between atoms. Bond order and length are inversely proportional to each other.
When bond order is increased, bond length is decreased.
Chapter 9
33. Define word, skeletal, chemical, balanced chemical, ionic, and net ionic
equations. A word equation is a descriptive analysis of whats taking place in the
reaction. A skeletal equation is an unbalanced chemical equation. A balanced
chemical equation is when the equations have coefficients. The coefficients in the
balanced equation indicate the molar relationship between each pair of reactants
and products. Complete ionic equations represent soluble ionic compounds as
separated ions. The net ionic equation for a reaction lists only the chemicals
participating in the reaction.
34. Write the skeleton equations for the following reactions:
a. Chromium(II) Hydroxide Chromium(II) Oxide + Water
b. Aluminum(s) + Copper(II) Chloride (aq) Aluminum Chloride (aq) + Copper(s)
35. Complete and balance the following equations:
. CaCl
2
(aq) + K
2
CO
3
(aq) CaCO
3
+ K
2
Cl
a. 2CO
2
(g) + 2HCl (aq) 2HO
2
+ 2CCl
36. Define the Law of Conservation of Mass and explain how it is the fundamental
concept behind balancing chemical equations. The law of conservation of mass
states that in any chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
Therefore, in a balanced chemical equation you must have the same number
of atoms of each element on either side of the equation.

37. Name the 5 types of chemical reactions and give an example for each. What are
some signature characteristics of each that help you to recognize them?
The five types of chemical reactions are synthesis, combustion, decomposition,
single replacement and double replacement reactions. A synthesis reaction has
multiple reactants but only one product. A combustion reaction generally has
oxygen as a reactant, and Co
2
and H
2
O products. Decomposition reactions have
one reactance that breaks down into multiple products. You can spot a single
replacement reaction when one element replaces another element in a
compound. A double replacement reaction is evident when there is a chemical
reaction between two compounds where the positive ion of one compound is
exchanged with the positive ion of another compound. Examples of:
Synthesis reaction: 2Ca + O
2
2CaO
Combustion reaction: CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Decomposition reaction: 2CaO 2Ca + O
2

Single replacement reaction: Zn + CuCl2 ZnCl2 + Cu
Double replacement reaction: KOH + H
2
SO
4
K
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O
38. Read the section on replacement reactions. How do metals and non-metals
replace each other in replacement reactions? You may use a table to explain your
findings. In chemical reactions, metals can replace metals and hydrogen.
Nonmetals can replace nonmetals.
39. Write a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of methanol (CH
3
OH).
CH
2
(l) + 3O
2
(g) 2CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (g)
2CH
3
OH(l) + 3O
2
(g) 2CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O(g)
Chapter 10
40. Define the term molar mass. Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole
of any pure substance.
41. Calculate the number of moles in 11.5 g of H
2
O. 11.5 g *


=


= 3.84 * 10
23
mols
42. Explain why the mole is used for counting. Chemical reactions often take place
at levels where using grams wouldn't make sense, yet using absolute numbers of
atoms/molecules/ions would be confusing, too. It's a lot easier to write the word
'mole' than to write '6.02x10
23
' anytime you want to refer to a large number of
things! Basically, that's why this particular unit was invented.
43. Compare and contrast the empirical and molecular formula. A molecular
formula specifies the exact number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a
compound, but an empirical formula shows only enough of the atoms of the
element with the smallest number of atoms in the compound to specify the
proportions between or among each kind of atom in the compound. The subscript
numbers after each atomic symbol in a molecular formula will therefore be an
integral multiple of the subscript numbers in the empirical formula for the same
compound. Since 1 is an integer, the molecular formula may be the same as the
empirical formula, as it is for water, for example. A contrasting example is
benzene, for which the molecular formula is C
6
H
6
, while the empirical formula is
simply CH.
44. What is the mass in grams of each of the following?
a. 6.02 x 10
24
atoms Br, 6.02 * 10
23
atoms Br *


= 1*10
1
mols Br
*


= 799.04 g of Br
b. 1.00 x 10
24
atoms Mg, 1.10 * 10
24
atoms Mg *


= 1.66 mols*

*


= 40.3 grams of Mg
c. 3.40 x 10
22
molecules H
2,
6.8 * 10
22
molecules H
2
*


= 1.13*10
-1

mol*


= 2.28 * 10
-1
grams of H
2

d. 1.50 x 10
15
atoms B, 1.50 x 10
15
atoms B *


= 2.69 * 10
-9
mols *


= 2.69*10
-8
grams
e. 1.50 x 10
8
atoms Ag, 1.50 x 10
8
atoms Ag *


= 2.49*10
-15
mols
*


= 2.68* 10
-14
g
45. Identify each substance as a molecular compound or ionic compound. Then
calculate its molar mass.
. Sr(NO
3
)
a. (NH
4
)
3
PO
4

b. C
12
H
22
O
11
(See calculation sheet)
46. A sample of Silver (I) Chromate has a mass of 25.8g.
. Write the formula for Silver(I) Chromate. Ag
2
CrO
4

a. How many cations are present in the sample? 9.36 x 10
22
ions Ag
+

b. How many anions are present in the sample? 4.68 x 10
22
ions CrO
4

2

c. What is the mass in grams of one formula of Silver(I) Chromate?
5.51 x 10
-22
g/ f.u.Ag
2
CrO
4

. A) 25.8 g Ag
2
CrO
4
x 1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4
x 6.02 x 10
23
f.u.Ag
2
CrO
4
x


2 ions Ag
+
= 9.36 x 10
22
ions Ag
+ (cations)
47.


48.




B) 25.8 g Ag
2
CrO
4
x 1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4
x 6.02 x 10
23
f.u.Ag
2
CrO
4
x


1 ion CrO
4

2
= 4.68 x 10
22
ions CrO
4

2 (anions)

49.



331.73 g Ag
2
CrO
4
1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4

1f.u. Ag
2
CrO
4

331.73 g Ag
2
CrO
4
1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4

1f.u. Ag
2
CrO
4

C) 331.73 g Ag
2
CrO
4
x 1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4
=5.51 x 10
-22
g/ f.u.Ag
2
CrO
4


47Propane is a hydrocarbon, a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen. It is
81.82% carbon and 18.18% hydrogen. What is the empirical formula? C
3
H
8

81.82g *


= 6.8 mols C, 18.18 *


= 2.8g H,

= 12 mols C,

= 2.7 mols H
8 mols of H, 96 mols of C= 1 atom of H: 8 atoms of C
Chapter 11
48. 48.Balance the following equation: Zn(s) + HNO
3
(aq) Zn(NO
3
)
2
(aq) +
N
2
O (g) + H
2
O (l) why is that there
7Zn(s) + 18HNO
3
(aq) 7Zn(NO
3
)
2
(aq) + 9H
2
O(l) + 2NO(g) + N
2
O(g)
49. For the previous problem write all possible mole ratios. p. 372







50. Photosynthesis reactions in green plants use carbon dioxide and water to
produce glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
) and oxygen. A plant has 88.0g of carbon dioxide and 64.0g
of water available for photosynthesis.
a. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
b. Determine the limiting and excess reactants.
1 mole Ag
2
CrO
4
6.02 x 10
23
f.u. Ag
2
CrO
4

c. Determine the excess mass and the mass of glucose produced. (See calc.
sheet)
51. Sulfuric Acid is formed when sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water.
. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
a. How many moles of sulfuric acid are produced from 12.5 mols of sulfur dioxide?
b. How many moles of oxygen are needed? (See calc. sheet)
52. In an experiment, you combine 83.77g of iron with an excess of sulfur and then
heat the mixture to form Iron(III) Sulfide.
a. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. 2Fe(s) + 3S(s) Fe
2
S3(s)
b. What is the theoretical yield, in grams, of Iron(III) Sulfide?
%Yield =


* 100, 83.77 g Fe (


) = 1.500 mols of Fe
1.500 mol Fe (


) (


) = 155.9 g of Iron Sulfide.
Chapter 12
53. What are fluidity and viscosity? How are they affected by density? Fluidity is a
gases ability to flow and diffuse. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a
liquid to flow. When density increases, fluidity and viscosity decrease.
54. Create a diagram that shows the three states of matter and the six possible
phase changes between them. Then define each phase change. (see diagram)



Condensation: The energy-releasing process by which a gas or vapor becomes a
liquid.
Vaporization: The energy-releasing process by which a liquid changes to a gas or
vapor.
Freezing: When the temperature at which a liquid is converted into a crystalline
solid is reached.
Melting: When the temperature at which the forces holding something together is
broken and it becomes a liquid.
Sublimation: The energy-releasing process by which a solid changes directly to a
gas without first becoming liquid.
Deposition: The energy-releasing process by which a substance changes from a
gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid.
55. Calculate the partial pressure of neon in a flask that has a total pressure of 1.87
atm. The flask contains krypton at a partial pressure of 0.770 atm and helium at a partial
pressure of 0.620 atm. P
total
= P
1
+P
2
+P
3
+P
n
, 1.87atom= .770 + .620 + x, x=.48,
P= .48atm
Chapter 13
56. Define the Kinetic Molecular Theory. The Kinetic Mole Theory describes the
behavior of gases in terms of particles in motion; makes several assumptions
about size, motion and energy of gas particles.
57. Mathematically and in several sentences describe both inverse and direct
relationships. The relationship between two variables is a direct relationship if
when one increases so does the other or as one decreases so does the other. The
radius of a circle and its area are in a direct relationship since if I increase the
radius the area increases also and if I decrease the radius the area decreases.
The relationship between two variables is an inverse relationship if when one
increases the other decreases or as one decreases the other increases. A unit
fraction is a fraction with 1 as the numerator and a positive integer as the
denominator. The denominator of a unit fraction and the value of the fraction are
in an inverse relationship. The larger the denominator the smaller fraction and the
smaller the denominator the smaller the fraction.
58. For each law listed below, write the equation, whether or not it is isothermal,
isobaric, or isochoric, and whether or not the mathematical relationship is direct or
inverse.
a. Boyles Law Isothermal, indirect
b. Charless Law Isoboric, direct
c. Gay-Lussacs Law Isochoric, direct
59. Compare and contrast the ideal gas law and the combined gas law. What is the
major difference? Both have to do with the properties of gases.
The combined gas law relates to how temp, pressure and volume are proportional
to each other, and compares those values of multiple gas samples. The ideal gas
law is for working with one gas; if you know all but one of pressure, volume, and
number of moles or temperature, you can solve for your unknown, using the ideal
gas constant.
The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas and says for
a given amount of gas held at constant temperature, the product of pressure and
volume is constant. The combined gas law relates to how temp, pressure and
volume are proportional to each other, and compares those values of multiple
gas samples. The combined gas law says for a given amount of gas, the product
of pressure and volume, divided by the kelvin temperature, is a constant.


60. What does STP stand for? What does it mean numerically? STP stands for
Standard Temperature Pressure. Numerically, it means that the pressure is one
atm and the temperature is 273 kelvin.
61. What is molar volume? What is the molar volume of any gas at STP? How is this
value useful in a gas stoichiometry problem? Molar volume is the volume that one
mole occupies at 0.00 degrees Celsius and one atm of pressure. The volume of
any gas at STP is


. It is used in a gas stoichiometry problem as a conversion
factor from volume to moles.
62. The volume of a sample of helium is 4.50 mL at 20.0
o
C. What will its new volume
be if the temperature drops to 5.00
o
C? , V
2
=

(V
1
),
V
1
= 4.50mL, T
1
= 20.0 degrees C, T
2
= 5.00 degrees C, V
2
=

(4.5) = 4.74 mL
63. The pressure of a sample of helium in a 1.00 L container is .988 atm. What is the
new pressure if the volume is increased to 25.0 L? , P
2
=

(P
1
), P
1
= .988
atm, V
1
= 1 L, V
2
= 25 L,


(.988)= .040 atm
64. How many liters of propane gas (C
3
H
8
) will undergo complete combustion with
27.0 L of oxygen gas? (Hint: Write a balanced chemical equation.)
C
3
H
8
+5O
2
3CO
2
+4H
2
O,

= 5.4 L of O
2

65. How many moles of air are in a 5.05 L tire at STP?


= .23 mols of air
66. What is the molar volume of any gas at 273K and 1.00 atm?
67. What is pressure and what factors cause changes in pressure? How does this
relate to the kinetic molecular theory?
Pressure is a measure of the force applied over a unit area. Pressure is affected
by gravity and altitude. This relates to the Kinetic Mole Theory because the theory
assumes several things The kinetic molecular theory attempts to
explain overall properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by
considering their molecular composition and motion. The theory basically states
that pressure is not caused by molecules pushing each other away, like earlier
scientists thought. Instead, pressure is caused by the molecules colliding with
each other and their container.
68. Find the density of water vapor at STP. D=

, M= 18.02g, p= 1 atm, R= .0821,


T= 273 K,

= 0.804, D= .804 g/L


69. What is the mass of H
2
gas inside a 5.00 L container at STP?
H
2
= 2.02 g/mol,

= .223 mols, .223 mols*

= 0.45 grams