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Acknowledgements

Freddy: In first place, I would like to thank my parents, who despite some
difficulties were capable of helping me in this new stage in my life. Secondly, to
our instructor, whose willingness and disposition helped us to succeed in our
thesis. Also, I would like to thank the people who I have met through these four
years. Finally, thanks to Leslie, uissel, and !avier for dealing with some of my
ideas and always being a support to me. "hank you all.
uissel: I would like to say thanks to my family for their constant support and
encouragement during this semester, for believing, and trusting in me. I also would
like to show gratitude to our instructor, who believed in us, gave us support, and
led us wisely thought this difficult, but enriching process. #y thanks to my thesis
partners, who knew how to back me up and work together to finish this process.
"hanks for the $oyful moments, thanks for accepting ideas and criticism, and for
being the way you are. Finally, my thanks to everyone who participated in these %
years full of happiness, hard moments, challenges, and lessons.
Leslie: I have to say thanks to my family for giving me the opportunity to study this
mayor, I feel so lucky for having their support in each one of my decisions. Also to
my dear classmates who have helped me in this important process, especially to
Freddy, uissel, and !avier for being there in difficult and stressful moments as
well as in rela&ing times. In addition, to the wonderful teachers I have had and
have helped me to achieve my goals, particularly, to #iss Flora for her time,
disposition, and commitment with us. I am grateful that I could have finished this
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stage of my life with such a great team.
!avier: I want to thank to my family for the unconditional support in every aspect of
my life which has allowed me to grow up as a person and as an artist. "o our
instructor for her intelligence and dedication, and to the people who left a mark in
my life, and generally to all the people at the 'niversity with which I have shared
special moments of my life. Also thanks to my thesis partners which I would
choose again if I had the chance. "hanks for the memories and the good times
during this period of my life
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Table of contents
Acknowledgements..................................................................................................i
Table of contents....................................................................................................iii
Abstract....................................................................................................................vi
Resumen..................................................................................................................vi
Introduction............................................................................................................vii
Chapter I....................................................................................................................1
(.( )roblem Statement...........................................................................................(
(.* +esearch ,uestion............................................................................................(
(.- .b$ective of the study.......................................................................................*
(.-.( Specific ob$ectives......................................................................................*
(.% Limitations.........................................................................................................-
(./ 0elimitations.....................................................................................................-
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework..........................................................................
*.( From the 1ilingual method to 2L" approach...................................................%
*.(.( 'niversal rammar...................................................................................%
*.(.* 1ilingual method.........................................................................................%
iii
*.(.- 2ommunicative language teaching............................................................/
*.* Second language ac,uisition theory................................................................3
*.*.( 4rashen5s hypotheses...............................................................................3
*.*.* "he importance of the role of input in second Language Ac,uisition .......6
*.- 7nglish as a foreign Language ......................................................................(8
*.-.( "he role of the second language in Second language ac,uisition .........(8
*.% 'se of L( in 7FL classroom ..........................................................................((
*.%.( 9ivian 2ook .............................................................................................((
*.%.* 0avid Atkinson ........................................................................................(-
*.%.- !ohn :arbord...........................................................................................(3
*.%.% Important considerations about L( use ...................................................(6
*.%./ !im 2ummins ..........................................................................................(;
*./ 2ode< switching..............................................................................................*(
*.3 )revious studies.............................................................................................*=
Chapter ! "ethodological Framework.................................................................!#
-.( +esearch approach........................................................................................-/
-.* Instrument.......................................................................................................-6
-.- 2onte&t and participants.................................................................................%8
-.-.( 7thnography.............................................................................................%8
iv
-.% )ilot study.......................................................................................................%(
-./ 9alidity............................................................................................................%-
-.3 )rocedure.......................................................................................................%%
Chapter Results of the investigation................................................................$
%.( Analysis section (...........................................................................................%3
%.* Analysis section *...........................................................................................%;
%.- Analysis of open ended ,uestions..................................................................//
%.% 0iscussion .....................................................................................................36
Conclusion..............................................................................................................%&
'ibliograph(...........................................................................................................%!
Appendi) A.............................................................................................................%*
Appendi) '.............................................................................................................+!
Appendi) C.............................................................................................................+
Appendi) ,.............................................................................................................+*
v
Abstract
"his study attempts to share the different perspectives regarding the use of
L( in the different AL"7 levels according to e&perienced professors at 'niversidad
>acional Andres 1ello in 9i?a del #ar, in light of the leading theories about the use
of L(. "hrough ,ualitative and ,uantitative data analysis, this study will show when
and in which situations professors believe that L( can be used.
Resumen
@ste estudio intenta compartir las distintas perspectivas en cuanto al uso de
la L( en los diferentes niveles AL"7 segAn e&perimentados profesores del la
'niversidad >acional AndrBs 1ello en 9i?a del #ar, a la luC de las principales
teorDas sobre el uso del L(. A travBs de un anElisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de
datos, Bste estudio demostrarE cuEndo y en ,uB situaciones los profesores creen
,ue se puede utiliCar la L(.
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Introduction
"he use of L( is a relevant issue to discuss due to the many different
perspectives and beliefs regarding the appropriateness of its use in different 7FL
classroom settings. "herefore, for future 7nglish "eachers, and also for
e&perienced teachers, this is a sensitive matter that gives cause for concern and
arouse interest. "herefore it seems sound to ask for e&perienced teachers5
opinions and perspectives to take them into account for future performances in
7FL classrooms. "he matter of debate relies on how advisable it is to recourse to
L( in different 7FL conte&ts.
"here are several theories about teaching a secondFforeign language, and
how the learner should respond to it. .ne of the most important theoreticians,
Stephen 4rashen, (;6(, suggests some reasons why the e&posure to L( has not
always been successful in terms of facilitating the ac,uisition of second or foreign
language. In his work GSecond Language Ac,uisition and Second Language
LearningH 4rashen e&plained the fact that when learners have access to their L(
either in class, or out of it, they tend not to make an effort to use the target
language. >evertheless, current theories have retaken the role of L( in L* classes.
.ne of the groundbreaking theories, that support the use of L( in 7FL classroom,
is the 2ommon 'nderlying )roficiency "heory also known as Language
Interdependency, or 1ilingualism developed by !im 2ummins in . 2ummins
referred to the use of the primary language IL(J as a cognitive basis for proficiency
in the second language IL*J. 7ven though the actual importance and implications
of learning 7nglish as a communicative and commercial tool, 7nglish in 2hile is
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completely different from countries that have taken 7nglish as a second language.
"he 2hilean reality is focused on the learning of 7nglish as a foreign language
because of important factors such as time constraints related to the hours of
7nglish in classrooms, and the isolation of the country.
"his e&plorative<descriptive research aims at showing the teachers5
perception of 'niversidad >acional Andres 1ello, 9i?a del #ar campus about the
use of L( in L* classrooms. In order to frame this analysis in light of the leading
theories, authors such as Stephen 4rashen, !im 2ummins, 9ivian 2ook, 0avid
Atkinson, among others will be introduced and discussed. Khile some of them
believe that the use of L( can harm the learning process of students, others
believe that it can be a useful tool to promote language and ac,uisition that can
also be used in specific situations in a classroom conte&t.
"he focus of this research is set on the different si& AL"7 levels in which
professor5s recourse to L(, as well as on their opinion about whether L( is
considered to be a positive or negative tool to use, and under which circumstances
the mother tongue can be recoursed to by teachers and learners.
viii
ix
Chapter 1
1.1-roblem statement
"he use of the mother tongue has been the matter of debate among,
teachers, theoreticians, and practitioners, especially in the last two decades since
the rammar "ranslation method proved not to be efficient in developing
communicative competences. 7ven thought the debate has been abundant, and
the lack of research, the lack of agreements concerning the use of the mother
tongue in the classroom make it an interesting topic to be a sub$ect of study.
"here is an important discussion on how a teacher has to handle the
influence of L( in an 7FL class. As it was mentioned, different points of view and
beliefs have been set, starting with the theories that recommended the complete
eradication of L( in the class, until some new methodological approaches that
allow the use of instant translation, among other tools that can be used in the
classroom. "herefore, there is a need to distinguish, determine, and analyCe from
different perspectives, how advisable it is to recourse to L(, as well as to identify
situations in which L( can affect positively or negatively in the ac,uisition of a new
language. Furthermore, to be more precise in terms of determining in which
conte&ts this study will focus the analysis of the use of L(, si& different AL"7 levels
will be considered as part of the target of this study.
1.2 Research .uestion
2onsidering that the use of L( in 7FL settings is a matter of debate, two
different ,uestions have been formulated, namely:
1
Is it appropriate to use L( in the classroom when teaching 7FL at a
university level according to professors of 7nglish at 'niversidad >acional
AndrBs 1ello, 9i?a del #arL
Khen and to which e&tent is it advisable to use L( in the 7FL classroom
considering the si& different AL"7 levelsL
1.! /b0ective of the stud(
2onsidering that this study is focused on the 7nglish 0epartment professors
perspectives regarding the use of L( in an 7FL classroomM the general ob$ective of
this study is:
"o find out what 7nglish 0epartment professors think about the use of L(
according to the different AL"7 levels.
1.!.1 1pecific ob0ectives
:aving stated the main ob$ective of this study, the specific ob$ectives have
been set as follows:
"he design and application of a ,uestionnaire in order to identify in which
situations and with which levels it is advisable to recourse to L( according to
the professorsN perspective
"o identify the leading tendencies regarding the use of L( to base the
,uestion on an updated theoretical background.
2
1. 2imitations3
"ime constraints and predisposition of teachers to answer.
1.# ,elimitations3
"he ,uestionnaire will be applied only to professors of the 7nglish
0epartment of 'niversidad >acional AndrBs 1ello due to their vast e&perience in
the educational field, regardless if they are native or non<native speakers, either
male or female.
"he following chapter has been developed focused on 7FL
settingsFconte&ts, although most of the theoretical studies and references, in
general, are focused on 7nglish as a second language I7SLJ.
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Chapter 23 Theoretical Framework
"he aim of this theoretical framework is to present and e&plain the ideas
behind the approaches to 7SL and how these approaches have changed and have
been adapted to teaching 7nglish as a Foreign Language.
2.1 From the bilingual method to C2T approach
In order to conte&tualiCe the debate around the use of L( in 7FL learning, it
is necessary to trace back the theories that have set the basis for 7SLF7FL
teaching and learning methods and practice in the last decades.
2.1.1 4niversal grammar
According to >oam 2homsky I(;=/J, 'niversal rammar is defined as Gthe
system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all
human languagesO the essence of human languageH I2homsky, (;=/, p. *;J. In
this way, 'niversal rammar "heory is based on the premise that linguistic
competence is shared by all the human beings since they are born and the use of
language, in general terms, is ac,uired in an unconscious way. "his process
allows children to communicate orally without having studied the grammar
structures previously.
2.1.2 'ilingual "ethod
"he 1ilingual #ethod is based on audio<visual method Iformulated in the
385sJ which was developed by 2. !. 0odson. In this method, students listen to
7nglish while looking at the transcriptions, and they have to repeat a number of
lines after the teacher as a way to recogniCe patterns of sounds according to their
written form. "he mother tongue is used orally to transfer meaning of complicated
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words or structures, so students learn through imitation. "herefore, the mother
tongue is shown to be effective to get the meaning fast by contrasting and
comparing and it also helps to avoid some errors that may surge.
2.1.! Communicative language teaching
According to +ichards and +odgers I*88(J, 2ommunicative language
teaching I2L"J refers to a communicative approach which has purposeful
principles in relation to a communicative view of language and language learning.
"his approach can be used to encourage and improve methods and procedures of
the 7FL classroom, in order for the learner to accomplish communicative
competences. :ymes defines the theory of communicative competence as Gwhat a
speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech
community.H I+ichards and +odgers, *88(, p. (/;J
+ichards and +odgers I*88(J mention four different characteristics
regarding this approach:
< Language is seen as a way to e&press meanings.
< "he aim of language is to facilitate a better interaction and communication
between learners.
< "he structure of the language reflects its functional and communicative uses
< "he basis of language not only involves grammar patterns or structures, it also
deals with discourse that includes communicative meanings
I+ichards and +odgers, *88(, p. (3(J
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"here are some 2L" practices that can be applied inside the classroom
conte&t:
< Activities that promote communication are useful when learning.
< +ichards and +odgers I*88(J ,uote !ohnson I(;6*J, who refers to task principles
as a manner to promote meaningful and beneficial learning.
< +ichards and +odgers coined the e&pression Gmeaningfulness principleH which is
related to what a learner considers a useful learning that will later on support the
learning process. I+ichards and +odgers, *88(J.
"o summariCe this, the three 2L" practices lead the learner to a better
Gmeaningful and authentic language useH I+ichards and +odgers, *88(, p. (3(J.
2.2 1econd 2anguage Ac.uisition Theor(
2.2.1 5rashen h(potheses
Stephen 4rashen in his book G)rinciples and )ractice in Second Language
Ac,uisitionH I*88;J e&plains five hypotheses:
"he ac,uisition learning distinction
In the first hypothesis, he makes a distinction between Second Language
Ac,uisition and Second language Learning. .n the one hand, second language
ac,uisition is an unconscious and natural process, so it does not re,uire much
effort from the learner and heFshe is not aware of the grammatical rules, therefore it
is ac,uired in the same way that children ac,uire their native language, because
being immersed in a place or conte&t make them naturally fluent. .n the other
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hand, second language learning is a conscious process in which learners are
taught the rules of a language and error correction is present, so it re,uires mental
effort which can be e&hausting for learners.
"he natural order hypothesis
In this hypothesis, 4rashen states that some grammatical rules of a second
language can be ac,uired by children following a certain order, and there are some
similarities in the order with the ac,uisition of the first language.
"he #onitor hypothesis:
.nce the ac,uisitionFlearning distinction has been made and as ac,uisition
is subconscious and learning is a conscious process, the learner makes use of the
input to correct knowledge. Khen the learner compares the input received with
hisFher knowledge, the learner is able to self<manage the production of a better
output.
"he input hypothesis:
"his hypothesis states that the ac,uisition of the language is present when
Gcomprehensible inputH I4rashen, *88;J is provided to the learner. Accuracy and
therefore grammatical structures will be developed through the learning process.
GA necessary Ibut not sufficientJ condition to move from stage i to stage i P ( is that
the ac,uirer understand input that contains i P (, where QunderstandQ means that
the ac,uirer is focused on the meaning and not the form of the messageH
I4rashen, *88;J. In other words, if the learner achieves a good reception of input,
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i P ( will be provided.
"he Affective Filter hypothesis:
It e&plains some internal factors that can affect the learnerNs SLA:
motivation, an&iety, and self<esteem. Khen the affective filter decreases, the
learner processes comprehensible input in a more efficient way.
SLA is focused on ac,uiring a language with communicative purposes,
which means that its primary goal is that learners can speak using the second
language fluently.
2.2.2 The importance of the role of input in 1econd 2anguage Ac.uisition
An important role that corroborates 4rashen5s Second Language
Ac,uisition theory ISLAJ is the fact that the constant and comprehensible input is
essential for the ac,uisition of a second language. As 4rashen mentioned
Glanguage is best taught when it is being used to transmit message, not when it is
e&plicitly taught for conscious learningH IS. 4rashen and ".0 "errel, (;;/, p. //J.
According to this theory, SLA is a process by which the social conte&t plays an
important role, because second language learners should receive a continuous
and unconscious input. "his theory could be easily applied in immersion programs,
since students are taken to other countries, in which the language they are learning
is spoken not only during classes, but also outside the classroom in daily life.
GImmersion is used in two very different ways in educational discourse. In the first
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sense, immersion programs are organiCed and planned forms of bilingual
education in which students are GimmersedH in a second<language instructional
environment with the goal of developing proficiency in two languagesH I2ummins,
*88;, p. (=%J. "herefore, immersion programs are designed to provide
comprehensible input and prepare learners to face SLA conte&tsFenvironments.
It is important to clarify that Geducational discourseH mentioned by 2ummins
I*88;J is, according to >uthall and 2hurch I(;=-J, a communicational situation in
which teachers and students interact orally, using L* in conversation. :all I*88(J
e&plains that interaction will provide patterns that students will adopt when
interacting, and will also determine how the learning process takes place.
>evertheless, the linguistic reality of South America is far from what an 7SL
reality is, neighboring countries are all Spanish speaking, and despite the fact that
7nglish is a universal languageM the social background and the national 2urricula
do not provide the necessary tools and methods to ac,uire a second language.
:owever, according to the 2hilean reality, the differences regarding the
socio<economic conte&t, the geographical placement, and the e&posure to the
target language I"LJ are astonishing. "herefore, the e&pectancy that this theory
I7SLJ can be applied in 2hile is difficult due to the nature of our reality, besides
that, the amount of hours of 7nglish in schools5 curriculum fluctuates from * hours
a week to (3 hours a week Iappro&imatelyJ depending on the type of school
Ipublic, subsidiCed, and privateJ, so the e&posure to the "L outside the classroom
is not sufficient compared to an 7SL reality.
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2.! 6nglish as a Foreign 2anguage
According to Rhang and 0ing I*8((J, 7nglish as a foreign language I7FLJ
refers to Ga term for the use or study of the 7nglish language by non<native
speakers in countries where 7nglish is not generally considered a local medium of
communicationH 7A preliminary study on 2hinese 7FL learner5s attitude towards
their accent, *8((, p. *-88J. In this learning process, the learner is not immersed in
a second language atmosphereM therefore, the learner must go through a
conscious process.
In this way, in 7FL as opposed to 7SL, input is not sufficient to promote
ac,uisitionM hence, teachers must find ways to compensate this lack of input.
underson I*88;J defined the differences between 7SL and 7FL. G7SL is
based on the premise that 7nglish is the language of the community and the
school and students have access to 7nglish models. 7FL is usually learned in
environments where the language of the community and the school is not 7nglish.
7FL teachers have the difficult task of finding access to and providing 7nglish
models for their studentsH Iunderson, *88;, p.*8/J.
2.!.1 The role of the first 2anguage in 1econd 2anguage Ac.uisition
4rashen in his book GSecond Language Ac,uisition and Second Language
LearningH claims that the influence of L( in SLA hinders ac,uisition, and the
GinterferenceH of the native language leads to mistakes in performance I4rashen,
(;6(J. In the #onitor model case, the learner recourses to L( as a manner of
replacing some L* utterances. "he influence of the target language may evidence
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the absence of a proper ac,uisition and a deficient result in producing language.
#oreover, Gsilent periodH helps learners positively shaping the ac,uired skills
through constant listening.
2. 4se of 21 in 6F2 classroom
In previous works of theoreticians as 9ivian 2ook, 0avid Atkinson, !ohn
:arbord, !im 2ummins, among others, share the opinion that the first language
may be used in certain situations to facilitate learning as a foreign language, but it
should not be overused considering that students need to used mostly the target
language to practice and learn it. 2learly, L( can be recourse to only in conte&ts in
which learners share the same native language or have enough knowledge of a
language apart from the one being taught.
2..1 8ivian Cook
9ivian 2ook has written several articles in which he analyses language
teaching. In one of them, he e&plains 4rashenNs SLA idea that is related to banning
L( in classrooms. In GSuestioning "raditional Assumptions of Language "eachingH
I*8(8J, 2ook e&poses three principal assumptions about the focus of teaching
7nglish as a Second Language, tackling some paradigms about the role of the
teacher in 7SL classroom and the role of L( in the class itself, considering that
behind every change, in terms of method and approaches, the 7SL theory remains
intact. "he first assumption e&plains that Gthe basis for teaching is the spoken, not
the written languageH I2ook, *8(8, p.(J, the second assumption e&plains that Gthe
aim of language teaching is to make students like native speakersH I2ook, *8(8,
11
p.-J. "he two previous assumptions mentioned by 2ook, consider aspects as the
linguistic competencies and the former preparation of the learner IscaffoldingJ,
comparing their development stage, to the biological and cognitive process of
language ac,uisition, which is more comple& as long as we grow. "he third
assumption, the most conflictive one, is that Gteachers and students should use the
target language rather than the L( in the classroomH I2ook, *8(8, p./J.
:e further e&plains that 4rashen believes that the aim of language teaching
is that students be able to communicate and speak a second language at the same
level that native speakers do, without considering grammar to improve accuracy. It
is easier to ac,uire a second language and talk as a native speaker when
someone is constantly e&posed to L* in early stages, since children have not yet
assimilated their first language. In the case of adults, they have more difficulties in
ac,uiring second language.
For 2ook, it is obvious that there are differences between native and non<
native speakers, and sometimes L* users are able to understand each other, but
not native speakers because of their accent andFor slangs. "herefore, the
pronunciation is different and also language knowledge, especially when one is a
monolingual speaker and the other an L* user. :e also claims that it is impossible
for an L* user to separate, in hisFher mind, the first and the second language.
9ivian 2ook also wrote the paper G'sing the First Language in the
2lassroom I*88(J in which he discusses some beliefs about how the old
paradigms have changed over time and how the inclusion of the mother tongue in
the 7FL classroom has become an important part of the learning process. :e also
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$ustifies its use in terms of developing a direct relationship between knowledge, in
terms of use, and grammar in learner5s mother tongue. In this way, he
demonstrates that 4rashen5s perspective about banning the L( in the classroom, to
enhance the learning process of L*, are obsolete according to the global reality
and the actual situation of 7nglish as a global language. In addition, 2ook does
some asseverations about when and how to recourse to L( using different authors5
perspectives.
:e also gives some suggestions related to using L(, namely:
< "o provide a short<cut for giving instructions and e&planations where the cost of
the L* is too great.
< "o build up interlinked L( and L* knowledge in the students5 minds.
< "o carry out learning tasks through collaborative dialogue with fellow students.
< "o develop L* activities such as code<switching for later real<life use.
I2ook, *88(, p. %(6J
:e concludes that the use of L( is possible depending on situations and
conte&ts and if teachers use it properly, L( turns into a useful tool to make the new
language useful, and to convey meaning.
2..2 ,avid Atkinson
7ven though Atkinson in his article G"he mother tongue in the classroom: a
neglected resourceLH I(;6=J, takes as it own some disadvantages of using L(
mentioned by 4rashen, he asserts that there are also good reasons to recourse to
L( under some circumstances. "he first one is that learners at lower levels prefer
and feel more comfortable using translation. Khile learning a foreign language,
they often try to find an e,uivalent or similar structure in their mother tongue, either
13
consciously or unconsciously. "he second one is that in some cases professors
allow students to make ,uestions like G:ow can I say GcuadernoHL as a way to help
students to e&press their ideas.
According to Atkinson I(;6=J, an important advantage when using L( that
may facilitate the ac,uisition and learning of a foreign language is translation,
which can be considered as part of a positive strategy in learning. Atkinson I(;6=J
,uotes 1olitho I(;6-J who sees the use of L( as a manner of e&pression in which
students can e&press what they want. "herefore, the teacher will encourage
students to say what they said in L(, but now, using L*.
Atkinson I(;6=J is clear in stating specific moments where it is advisable to
use L(. "hose are:
G7liciting language Iall levelsJH, which goes straight to say that it is an
effective tool when e&plaining some L* patterns Iconcepts, ideasJ.
G2hecking comprehension IAll levelsJH is a useful and practice techni,ue
that will allow students to distinguish between different patterns of language. iving
a task in the student5s mother tongue will demonstrate rapidly comprehension,
instead of corroborating learning using activities in L*.
Giving instructionsH, which is used at lower levels to give instructions in L(
and then make students repeat those instructions to ensure understanding.
G0iscussion of classroom methodology Iearly levelsJH is an important
strategy to make learners e&press what they think about the teaching method used
by the teacher. "his will demonstrate what students feel and prefer, and it can be
14
either using students5 L( or mi&ing L( and L*.
G)resentation and reinforcement of language Imainly early levelsJH, this type
of method involves translation of an activity that was already given in L*. "his will
enhance students a better comprehension of L* patterns, and will help students to
improve accuracy and grammar.
G0evelopment of useful learning strategiesH means that when students
attempt to utter a full idea by translating word by word until they form a sentence,
sometimes it may be grammatically wrong and may also lack coherenceM this
happens mostly in oral speech. "herefore, the teacher must encourage students to
think in 7nglish and e&press those ideas in 7nglish, instead of thinking in their
mother tongue and e&pressing them in 7nglish. So, Atkinson promotes Gthe skills of
circumlocution, paraphrase, e&planation and simplificationH IAtkinson, (;6=, p.
*%/J. "he following e&ample will provide a better e&planation of what has been
said:
Figure 1, The mother tongue in the classroom: a neglected resource? (Atkinson,
1987, p !"#$
15
"he strategy given before is an option to encourage students to e&press
what they want to say or mean but being aware of Gthe limits of their competence in
the target languageH IAtkinson, (;6=, p. *%/J.
Finally, Atkinson I(;6=J concludes his article e&plaining some risks of an
e&cessive use of L(. Firstly, he e&plains that the teacher or student can create a
certain dependency in using the mother tongue in cases where there is not a need
to use it. Secondly, students will talk using their mother tongue Gas a matter of
courseH even though they can talk to the teacher using L* IAtkinson, (;6=, p. *%3J.
Finally, students will lose the importance of the use of the foreign language. "he
ob$ective of Atkinson with this article was to demonstrate that although the use of
L( is a ,uestionable strategy to use, it can be helpful at certain situations.
2..! 9ohn :arbord
:arbord in his article "he use of the mother tongue in the classroom
I(;;*J e&plains that the advent of the G0irect methodH influenced the avoidance of
the use of L(. :e describes the use of the mother tongue as a Ghumanistic
approachH I:arbord, (;;*J in which students are allowed to e&press anything they
want using their mother tongue. :e also e&plains that using L( in classrooms can
be seen as a positive strategy when saving time and enhancing student and
teacher understanding. :arbord also uses Atkinson5s ideas I(;6=J, which were
mentioned before, regarding the dependency that the use of the mother tongue
can create not only in students, but also in teachers.
"here are three important strategies mentioned by :arbord, in which the
mother tongue plays an important role: (J facilitating teacher<student
16
communication, *J facilitating teacher<student rapport, and -J facilitating learning
I:arbord, (;;*, p. -/*J.
"he first one is associated with Atkinson5s I(;6=J belief about the use of L(
as a time saving resource. "o make it as clear as possible, :arbord classified three
different groups with different strategies that functions as facilitators in
communication, as follows:
Figure !: group strategies The use o% the mother tongue in the classroom,
(&ar'ord, 199!, p(#!$
In simple words, group A allows the use of L( either by the teacher or the
students in specific situations that may need the use of the mother tongue as a
way to facilitate learning. In group 1, the strategies are focused on translation.
"hey are not likely to be used in lessons, but they are a proper tool to use when
teaching a foreign language. Finally, in group -, the use of L( is centered in
situations that are apart from learning, particularly relevant in interaction among
17
students. "his can be a beneficial method for learners, as a way to encourage a
certain independency and teamwork I:arbord, (;;*J.
"he second strategy mentioned by :arbord I(;;*J is the use of L( in
Qfacilitating teacher<student rapportQ, in other words, to Gfacilitate teacher<student
relationshipH I:arbord, (;;*, p. -/%J. "his strategy is not likely to be allowed by
teachers due to a possible negative effect that it can have in the process of
learning a foreign language. Similar strategies that use L*, as a manner to avoid
an e&cessive use of L(, would be to identify proper situations that take place after
a lessonM such as telling $okes to students or talking in L* as well as be prepared
as a teacher to give some personal information if a student asks. "he last strategy
given by :arbord I(;;*J is Gfacilitating learningH, which in other words, is Gusing L(
to facilitate learning of L*H I:arbord, (;;*, p. -/%J. "his strategy is used mainly to
create awareness of using too much translation, and to avoid word by word
translation that is commonly used out of the learning conte&ts.
:arbord e&plains that translation and the use of the mother Gprovoke
discussion and speculation, to develop clarity and fle&ibility of thinkingH I:arbord,
(;;*, pg. -//J.
2.. Important considerations about 21 use.
As it was e&plained before, there are different perspectives according to the
use of L( in foreign language classes. #arDa .livares I*88;J in her article called
G#other tongue in the classroom: a positive or negative toolLH distinguished two
important conte&tsFenvironments, that are determinant, when learning a second
language. Firstly, according to .livares I*88;J, there is a GFormal L* classroomH,
18
and secondly, G0omestic Immersion 2lassroomH. "he first one is related to a
common classroom conte&t in which students are e&posed to L* at least two or
three hours per week. "he second one deals with practically a total e&posure to L*,
where students spend at least 6 hours every day using the second language, and
the predominant language is used not only when learning the foreign language, but
also in other conte&ts Isuch as learning maths, history, science, etcJ.
"he two conte&ts mentioned before are important and determinant when
learning a foreign language.
2..# 9im Cummins
A recurrent topic, in terms of 7SL or 7FL, is how useful it is to recourse to
the mother tongue. In his work G1ilingual 2hildren5s #other tongue: why is it
important for educationLH, 2ummins e&plains the importance of the mother tongue
and what we know about it in 7FL development. 0espite of the fact that a bilingual
class has been considered an obsolete practice, 2ummins states that Gbilingualism
has a positive effect on childrenTs linguistic and educational developmentH
I2ummins, *88(, p. (=J.
"he basis for his beliefs, are found in many other theoreticians such as
2ook I*88(J, :arbord I(;;*J, and Atkinson I(;6=J that made a direct relationship
between the linguistics and grammatical skills and how these skills developed a
deeper comprehension in more than one language. "o make this more relevant,
2ummins I*88(J cited oethe Ia erman philosopherJ who said that Gthe person
who knows only one language does not truly know that languageH I2ummins,
19
*88(, p.(=;. 1ased on this statement, 2umminsTs investigation and theories of
bilingualism turned to be crucial in the discussion of the use of L(.
'nder the new perspectives, in terms of methodology when recoursing to
L(, 2ummins refutes 4rashen5s statement that the influence of L( in SLA produces
a poor ac,uisition, and the interference of the native language leads to mistakes in
performance I4rashen, (;6(J.
2ummins proves his point of view e&plaining the interdependence theory in
which the interdependence between L( and L* I"LJ is the core of his bilingualism
theory, being two of them the central structure of 2ummins bilingualism theory:
"he interdependence theory, as the name suggests, is an interconnected
relationship between L( and L*, this theory has also been known as the iceberg
model. "his model states that Glanguages reside in the same part of the brain,
differing at the surface yet connected on the baseH ILysunets, *8((, p. *=J.
"he interdependence hypothesis supposes that a learner with a poor
foundation in terms of grammar, linguistics, and basic language units will face
difficulties to manage a second language under the same circumstances.
2ommon 'nderlying )roficiency hypothesis, also known as Gone balloon
theoryH, can be represented by a double iceberg scheme ILysunets, *8((J, in
which the 2') is the common base to develop a bilingual sub$ect. 2ummins
I*88(J states that a learner ac,uires a set of skills that, later on, can be used in
another language.
20
"he following diagram illustrates how the 2ommon 'nderlying )roficiency
hypothesis supports, at the same time, the superficial features of L( and L*.
Furthermore, this diagram can e&plain how the linguistic interdependence works.
1ased on the same principle, inter<linguistic dependence works under a
conscious process in which the teacher demands more comple& tasks based on
content.
Figure ": )ummins, *im (198"$ +ilingualism and ,pecial education: -ssues in
Assessment and .edagog/
2.# Code< switching
In the same line to the previous theories, 2ode<switching is a practice
commonly used and e&plained by authors, theoreticians, and practitioners who
intent to clarify and define this practice, as well as to give some specific moments
to use it, or $ust deny its use. Some definitions and assumptions have been set and
e&plained according to the different classroom conte&ts in which code<switching
can be applied.
21
2had >ilep I*883J defined code<switching as Gthe practice of selecting or
altering linguistic elements so as to conte&tualiCe talk in interactionH I>ilep, *883,
pag (J. :e also e&plains that this concept takes place in different classroom
environments, and can be used not only with linguistic purposes, but it can also be
used in social conte&ts, and when e&ploring new identities.
According to Lin I*886J, classroom code<switching is related to a switch between
two different language codes among students and teachers, and vice versa.
"he authors that were mentioned before, and others such as ros$ean
I(;6*J, #yers<Scotton I(;66J, 2ook I*88(J, and #eyer I*886J agreed that code<
switching is the use of two languages in a specific conte&t for different purposes
and in different situationsM in other words, the recourse to the mother tongue IL(J in
an L* conte&t.
According to #acaro I*88/J, it is simple for the speaker to talk and
communicate using both languages IL( and L*J at the same time, instead of
attempting to communicate using the foreign language. In the case of a teacher
that resorts to code<switching, #acaro I*88/J argues that due to the bilingual
management that he or she has, learning, and therefore learning a foreign
language, will be helpful for both teacher and learner.
#oreover, the study of code<switching has different perspectives, and uses.
According to 1ailey I*888J, 2S has been categoriCed in three different manners: (J
synta&, *J discourseFconversation management, -J socialFmetaphorical functions.
Syntactic approaches are related to what is permissible during a conversation
andFor linguistic patterns in the code<switching significance. In the case of
discourse management and social functions, these are related to the use of code<
22
switching in social conte&ts as well as their multiple functions regarding social and
conversation functions I1ailey, *888J.
It is important to clarify what discourse, and therefore classroom discourse
involves. "he classroom conte&t can be associated with a more formal and precise
concept: 2lassroom 0iscourse. According to :all, classroom discourse is Gthe oral
interaction that occurs between teachers and students and among students in
classrooms. "hrough their interactions with each other, teacher and students
construct a common body of knowledgeH I:all, *88(, p.=6J. Students will develop
and achieve successful communicative competences that will allow them to
interact better in a situational conte&t, roles inside the classroom will be clear, and
not only teachers but also students will be aware of what is needed to manage a
proper classroom discourse. "herefore, in the case of code<switching, #acaro
I*88/J e&plains that although there are some approaches in which the use of L( is
allowed, it is still seen as an unreliable method in teaching a foreign language. :e
also e&plains that code<switching can be seen as a Gcommunication strategyH that
will lead to certain moments of a lesson in which that communication strategy will
be more effective than other methods such as GrepetitionH.
2ode<switching is commonly associated with translation. In FL classrooms,
according to Flyman<#attson and 1urenhult I(;;;J, teachers use this method to
make students understand some language patterns that may not guarantee a full
understanding using $ust L*. 1ut #acaro I*88/J makes an important distinction
when using code switchingM he classifies teachers in monolingual and bilingual, the
first ones are native speakers, and the second ones are non<native speakers.
23
#oreover, code<switching can only be used by bilingual teachers.
Atkinson I(;6=J and #acaro I*88/J identified an important and strong
reason why there is a tendency to avoid the use of L( when teaching, and
therefore reluctance about code<switching. "hey consider that the use of the
mother tongue and conse,uently, code switching was commonly associated with
the rammar<translation approach Iwhich had its origins in ermany during the
(;
th
centuryJ, due to the fact that this method is based on the study of grammatical
patterns that were, later on, translated as a way to verify comprehension.
"o support this, #acaro I*88/J e&plains that the use of code<switching by
bilingual teachers was a matter of discussion due to the Gcut down on the amount
of e&posure that the learner has to the L*H I#acaro, *88/, p. 33J.
#acaro I*88/J also provides some rationales in which teachers can use
code<switching, those are:
< "o create a relationship that goes beyond the learning conte&t.
< "o give comple& and often confusing instructions about a tasks
< "o maintain discipline and each student behavior.
< "o translate and check comprehension of activities, that sometimes, re,uire more
time than the usual.
< "o teach grammar andFor comple& contents
"o situate the use of code<switching in a conte&t, #acaro I*88/J mentions
4ern I(;;%J who resorted to the language of thought in a reading task. #acaro
I*88/J e&plains the advantages of the use of L( to:
24
< )revent from losing the main idea of the te&t.
< +educe working memory constraints.
< 2onsolidate meaning in long term memory.
< 2larify the syntactic roles of certain le&ical items.
I#acaro, *88/, p. =%J.
Khen it comes to categoriCing types of code<switching, researchers such as
)oplack I(;68J and +omaine I(;;/J have agreed upon two types of code<
switching: inter<sentential switching, and intra<sentential switching. "he first type
draws on a switch of L( and L* between sentences or clauses. A clear e&ample is
from )oplack I(;68J: Sometimes I5ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en
7spa?ol. "he second type of code<switching relies on switching between L( and
L* within a sentence. In other words, this is related to Gto the underlying syntactic
rules of two languages which bridge constituents and link them together
grammaticallyH I)oplack, (;68, p./6;J. An e&ample to this type is the given by
)oplack I(;68J: GKhy make 2arol S7>"A+S7 A"+AS )AN S'7 Isit in the back
soJ everybody has to move )AN S'7 S7 SALA Ifor her to get outJLH I)oplack,
(;68, p./6;J
A third type of code<switching that )oplack I(;68J distinguished was tag<switching.
It is related to a little switch between L( and L*, often between nouns and single
words. A brief e&ample of this type is: GSalian en sus carros y en sus I"hey would
go out in their cars and in theirJ S>.K#.1IL7SH I)oplack, (;68, p./6;J.
"o make it as clear as possible, the following figure e&plains simply the three types
of code<switching mentioned before and their interference when using the two
languages.
25
Figure # 0epresentation o% 'ilingual code1s2itching grammars (.oplack, 1983, p
41#$
As it was e&plained before, situation A represents code<switching but not
within a sentence, therefore L( and L* take place but in different sentences. In
situation 1, there is a minimum switch of languages, and finally in situation 2, the
use of code<switching is bigger, and determinant.
26
2.$ -revious studies
"he aim of this chapter is to present information and results of previous
researches about the use of L( in L* classrooms. "he main studies found are from
2hina, "urkey, and "aiwan, as there is very little research from Spanish speaking
countries.
In the research paper G:ow #uch the First Language is "here in "eachers5
"alk in 7FL 2lassroomLH by Liu !ing&ia in *886 the ob$ective of the study was Gto
investigate the situation of the amount of teachers5 use of 2hinese Ithe L(J in
different lesson contents of 2hinese universities and attempts to provide empirical
evidence on how much 2hinese there is in 7FL classroom of 2hinese universitiesH
I!ing&ia, *886, 38J. "he sub$ects chosen were teachers and students from three
different universities, and the analysis is both ,ualitative and ,uantitative.
"he instruments for the investigation were Gtwo ,uestionnaires, classroom
recording and teachers5 interviewsH I!ing&ia, *886, p. 3(J. 1oth ,uestionnaires
consisted on four sections, the first one to fulfill personal information, the second
one clarifies the concept of code<switching in order to make sub$ects answer more
accurately, the third one contains Ggeneral situations of the L( use in 7FL
classroomH I!ing&ia, *886, p. 3(J, in this section the respondents give their
perception of the amount of L( used according to three different lesson contents
which were: Gtheme<based activities, te&t analysis and discussion of tests and other
assignmentsH. In the fourth section the respondents offer their point of view about
the ,uantity of L( that should be used for each lesson contents to facilitate
learning.
27
"he ,uestionnaires were applied to /8 teachers and (*= students. Liu
recorded four teachers, and afterwards the recordings were transcribed and
analysed. "he teachers chosen for class recording also answered the interview, so
they had the opportunity to e&plain the reasons behind the use of 2hinese at
certain moments of 7nglish classes.
"he results of the ,uestionnaire show agreement between students and
teachers in the fact that code<switching is present in 7nglish teaching at
universities. 1oth students and teachers also stated that there are variables in the
,uantity of 2hinese used among the different lesson contents mentioned before.
According to the results, the discussion of tests and other assignments re,uire
more L( use than the other ones. Furthermore, the results of the fourth section of
the ,uestionnaire show their e&pectations, and both parts believe that 2hinese
should be used less than a *8U during 7nglish classes. In conclusion, the amount
of 2hinese use that participants believe should be appropriate is lower than the
percentage they perceive that is being used in their 7nglish classes.
"he classroom recordings show that G"he four teachers have different
percentages of 2hinese use in different lesson contentsH I!ing&ia, *886, p. 3%J.
:owever, there is a tendency to use more 2hinese for discussion of te&ts and
other assignments and less for theme<based activities coinciding with the
,uestionnaires results.
For the last part of this study, the recorded teachers were also interviewed
to e&plain the reasons of the results. "hey e&plain that for theme based activities it
is not necessary that students understand every single word and they can use
other sources and strategies to facilitate input. .ne of them believes that as
28
students participate in the activities they feel more motivated to practice L*,
therefore there is no need to use L(. "hey also e&plain that for te&t analysis and
discussion of tests and other assignments the vocabulary is more comple& and
using nonverbal methods may lead students5 confusion getting lower results. It is
essential to ensure all students5 understandingM this is the reason why these
teachers believe that 2hinese use becomes more helpful and time<saving in these
lesson contents.
"o sum up, the results of the study show that there are differences in the
amount of L( use according to the lesson contents. In general terms, the teachers
had to adapt according to students need and the comple&ity of what is being
e&plained at some moments of the class.
In the same line, the research paper G2ode<switching as a strategy used in
an 7FL classroom in "aiwanH by )ei<shi Keng I*8(*J aimed to study the use of the
code<switching tool in an 7FL conte&t.
In this study, -3 non<7nglish college secondary students and an 7nglish
lecturer who had *8 years of e&perience teaching in a school participated. 0ue to
the initial e&am in "aiwan, the students were divided in different classes IA, 1, 2
levelJ. "he class that is part of this study corresponds to level 1.
"here were three different instruments used. Firstly, there was a classroom
observation and video recording that lasted -8 minutes. "he teacher5s speech was
recorded, and the researcher wrote down instances where code<switching between
2hinese and 7nglish occurred.
Secondly, a ,uestionnaire consisting on seven ,uestions about the use of
code<switching in the classroom was applied to students. "hey had to give their
29
opinion to realise the importance of L( during the teaching process. "he version of
the ,uestionnaire was in 2hinese in order to avoid some language
misunderstandings and to be as clear as possible. "he purpose of the
,uestionnaire was to Ginvestigate students5 feedback and attitude to the code<
switching use IL( useJ in the 7nglish classroomH IKeng, *8(*, p.-J.
"hirdly, there was a post<interview in which the lecturer had to answer some
,uestions related to his teaching believes, philosophy, and conse,uently, his
opinion related to the use of code<switching. It is important to mention that the
,uestions the researchers used were taken and adapted from :ou5s I*883J study.
Khen applying the ,uestionnaire, the three parts of the study were timed.
2lassroom observations took -8 minutes, student5s ,uestionnaire took (/ minutes,
and the post<interview took (8 minutes.
"he results and the discussion of the instruments were divided in - different
parts. "he first part refers to Gthe different functions of the teacher5s code<switching
used during teachingH IKeng *8(*, p.%J. "he researcher based the analysis
following :ymes5s I(;3*J framework that included specific functions such as
e&pressive function, directive function, metalinguistic function, poetic function, and
referential functions when using code<switching in a classroom conte&t.
2onsidering the previous e&planation, the researcher found out that Gmost of
the time, the teacher uses code<switching to give students5 instructions, to e&plain
comple& concepts, and to e&plain difficult wordsH IKeng *8(*, p.3J. In the case of
the lecturer5s perspective, the teacher recourses to code<switching in order to
make students understand what the teacher was e&plaining. G"he teacher uses
code<switching of direct functions to control his students to ensure they can
30
understand the instructions and then follow the class scheduleH IKeng *8(*, p.3J.
"he second part of the results and the discussion involved the ,uestionnaire
that students answered. As a general analysis, students stated that the use of
code<switching was necessary. 3(U of students preferred the use of 2hinese in
the 7nglish class, **U of students said that the teacher should use code<switching
to give e&planations, and -3U said that it is a useful too to e&plain vocabulary.
GStudents perceived that the use of code<switching has helped them understand
difficult concepts faced in their learningH IKeng, *8(*, p.=J.
"he third part of his results and analysis correspond to the lecturer5s
interview. In this part, the lecturer e&plained that he would use L( to e&plain
comple& concepts, but that his ma$or idea is that students should use $ust L*.
As a general conclusion, the researcher e&plained that Gthe strategy of code<
switching in 7FL classroom is not always a deficiency in language learning, but
may be considered as a kind of useful strategy in learning a languageH IKeng,
*8(*, p.;J
A third study, conducted by #. >aci 4ayaoglu, is called G"he 'se of #other
"ongue in Foreign Language "eaching from "eacher5s )ractice and )erspectiveH
and aimed at the e&ploration and discussion of the practical and theoretical
perspectives about the use of the mother tongue in the L* classroom. In his
attempt to gather the necessary information, 0r 4ayaoglu developed a
,uestionnaire containing thirty five items referring to particular classroom situations
in which the professors may recourse to L(
7ven though, some theorists had mentioned that the mother tongue should
31
be avoided based on the premise that GL( was or has been associated with
inade,uacy and lack of e&perience in language teachingH I4ayaoglu, .Cturk and
0agAkbas, *8(8J, the inclusion of L( in the classroom has been tolerated for the
supporters of the ma&imiCation of the target language given to the learners. "his
obvious G4rashianH point of view, in which the learner has to be immersed in a
simulated second language reality, has been an on<going debate.
In 4ayaoglu5s investigation, %% teachers of 7nglish at 4aradeniC "echnical
'niversity showed an agreement in the use of L(. In general lines, 4ayaoglu5s
investigation demonstrated that a slight influence and use of L( turns into a useful
tool in terms of motivation and to make a connection between the L( and L*
grammarM In addition, the use of the mother tongue has been fre,uently used to
accomplish a friendly classroom environment that is essential to improve the
language learning process.
'nder these circumstances, among others, the inclusion and use of mother
tongue in the 7FL classroom has recently been opened to debate between
teachers and many investigatorsM they have agreed that GL( for teaching grammar,
vocabulary, reading, and writing is indispensable while its employment for speaking
and listening courses is not tolerableH Iiannikas, *8((, ulCar *8(8J.
"o summariCe, the purpose of 4ayaogluTs work, was to e&pose the new
trends of 7FL classes. 7specially, the perception of one of the main players in the
learning process: the teachers. 4ayaoglu5s findings have shown that, in the "urkish
reality, the avoidance of the L( was associated with good teaching during the days
of 0irect and Audio<lingual methods I4ayaoglu, *8(*J. In those days, the $udgment
about teaching practices was based on how much 7nglish was used in the
32
classroom, and teacher5s abilities to perform an entire class using the target
language.
.pposed to this old fashioned perspective of banning the mother tongue
from the 7FL classroom, 4ayaoglu e&poses how this concept has changed,
allowing the teachers to be reflective about the circumstances and how to use the
L( in favour of the class, having also considered that teachers must not abuse of
the use of L(.
:owever, 4ayaoglu5s work leaves the option open of choosing between the
use of L( for 7FL teaching purposes or leave it aside. "his allows us to reflect
about the irony of teaching a foreign language without references to the mother
tongue and make us cautious and aware of the abuse of using this pedagogical
resource.
Finally, there is another research paper called V5"eacherTs and LearnerTs
use of code switching in the 7nglish as a foreign language classroom: a ,ualitative
studyH by Saionara reggio and loria il. "he ob$ective of this article is V5to show
the results of a ,ualitative study which investigated the use of 7nglish and
)ortuguese in interactive e&changes between the teacher and the learners in both
a beginner and a pre< intermediate 7FL classroom55 Ireggio and il, *88=, p.-=(J.
"he sub$ects chosen were teachers and learners in two 7FL classrooms.
"he instruments for the investigation were: Gclassroom observation, informal
talks with participants, field notes, and audio recordingsH Ireggio and il, *88=,
p.-=%J. G"he following four ,uestions were addressed in the data analysis: (J
whether the teacher and the learners use code switching in the 7FL classroom or
33
notM *J the types of code switching they useM -J the moments when there is
fre,uent use of code switchingM and %J the functions of code switching. "he data
analysis was done with a ,ualitative perspective, that is, the selected data were
analyCed, described and interpreted under this perspectiveH Ireggio and il,
*88=, p.-=%J. G"he data recorded were transcribed and used for analysisH Ireggio
and il, *88=, p.-=%J. GA total of twelve classes were observed, audio<recorded
and analyCed in each groupH Ireggio and il, *88=, p.-=%J.
G"he results of this study suggested that code switching in teacher<learner
interaction may have an important role in facilitating interaction among classroom
participants as well as in facilitating foreign language learningH Ireggio and il,
*88=, p.-=%J.
34
Chapter ! "ethodological Framework
"he following chapter describes the development, procedure, instruments,
and methodology used to obtain and analyCe the re,uired data.
!.1 Research approach
"he perception of the use of L( in the 7FL classroom has been debated
since 7nglish turned into a language used around the world. For this reason, the
purpose of this study is to find out if it is advisable to recourse to L( in specific
situations, and also to become aware of some perspectives and beliefs of a proper
use of it, according to the professors at 'niversidad >acional Andres 1ello. "he
best way to analyCe and categoriCe the results is through a ,ualitative and
,uantitative research in order to gather and analyCe the re,uired information and to
fulfill the ob$ectives of this study.
"his study is framed into the ,ualitative tradition and the data analysis is
both ,ualitative and ,uantitative.
< Sualitative data collection because in the instrument, there are two open ended
,uestions focused on identifying the reasons, perspectives, andFor beliefs about
the use of L(. "herefore, the respondents write down their answers.
< Suantitative because the instrument itself contains some items in which the
respondents have to choose alternatives according to the ,uestion given. 0ata is
analyCed empirically, following a specific criterion of analysis.
35
In this study, we have considered as a referential tool an important language
framework called AL"7 levels.
AL"7 is referred to the Association of Language "esters in 7urope, which
was founded in (;6; by the 'niversity of 2ambridge. "his association is in charge
of Gproduce language e&aminations in their native languageH I:alvorsen, *88;,
p.-J. "he main ob$ectives are, namely:
< G"o promote the transnational recognition of language certification in 7uropeMH
< G"o establish and maintain common levels of language proficiency in 7uropeMH
< G"o establish and maintain common standards for all stages of the language
testing process.H IAL"7 partner presentation, *88;, p. 6J.
"he AL"7 framework is made up of si& different levels related to language
proficiency I1reakthrough</J, and they go along with the 2ouncil of 2ommon
7uropean Framework IFrom A( to 2*J. 7ach level measures different minimum
conditions that a language user can accomplish, they are e&plained in general
terms and are followed by 2an<do statements. "he following chart was taken from
the official web page of AL"7 I*88=J, and is e&plained as follows:
Council of
6urope 2evels
,escription
2* IAL"7 /J "he capacity to deal with material which is academic or
cognitively demanding and to use language to good effect at a
level of performance which may in certain respects be more
36
advanced than that of an average native speaker.
7&ample: 2A> scan te&ts for relevant information, and grasp
main topic of te&t, reading almost as ,uickly as a native
speaker.
2( IAL"7 %J "he ability to communicate with the emphasis on how well it is
done, in terms of appropriacy, sensitivity and the capacity to
deal with unfamiliar topics.
7&ample: 2A> deal with hostile ,uestioning confidently.
1* IAL"7 -J "he capacity to achieve most goals and e&press oneself on a
range of topics.
7&ample: 2A> show visitors around and give a detailed
description of a place
1( IAL"7 *J "he ability to e&press oneself in a limited way in familiar
situations and to deal in a general way with non<routine
information.
7&ample: 2A> ask to open an account at a bank, provided that
the procedure is straightforward
A* IAL"7 (J An ability to deal with simple, straightforward information and
begin to e&press oneself in familiar conte&ts.
7&ample: 2A> take part in a routine conversation on simple
predictable topics
A( IAL"7 A basic ability to communicate and e&change information in a
37
breakthroughJ simple way.
7&ample: 2A> ask simple ,uestions about a menu and
understand simple answers
!.2 Instrument
"he information and data have been collected using a ,uestionnaire
designed as a research tool that combines a ,uantitative and a ,ualitative data
collection, in which open and close ended ,uestions are used. "he semi<structured
type of ,uestionnaire and the use of Likert scale came off as an understandable
and easier way to ,uantify and ,ualify the data.
"he instrument was based on a combination of two types of ,uestionnaires
taken from: G'sing L( in the L* classroomH by 2. Killiams Schweers, and G'se of
the mother tongue in foreign language teaching from teacher5s practice and
perspectiveH by 0r. #. >aci 4ayaoglu. "he last author mentioned gave us
permission via email to use the entire ,uestionnaire or to use part of it Isee
appendi& 1J. "herefore, the ,uestionnaire included some of the situations
suggested by the previous researchers and it has been adapted to our observable
reality.
"he ,uestionnaire has been divided in four sections. "he first section is
about the personal information of the respondent in which he or she has to write in
detail some aspects related to academic degree, years of e&perience as a
38
professor, places where he or she has worked, and 7nglish courses they are
teaching at '>A1.
"he second section of the instrument consists on (* common classroom
situations in which the respondents have to answer according to their perception
using a Likert scale Ialways, often, seldom, rarely, and neverJ. Some of the
,uestions are: G0o you allow students to make comments using L(LH, G0o you
allow students to recourse to L( when discussing topicsLH, or G:ave you noticed
that using L( increases students5 confidenceLH,
In the third section, there are *8 probable situations in which the
respondents may recourse to L(. "he respondents have to consider that each
situation is measured according to the si& different AL"7 levels.
"he fourth section consists on two open ended ,uestions in which the
respondents write down their answers on the ,uestionnaire itself. "he respondents
are asked to write accurately what is being askedM namely, to focus on determining
if there is a positive or negative effect on the learning process when using L(, as
well as determining in which AL"7 levels they consider proper or advisable to
recourse to L(.
"hese ,uestionnaires are going to be analyCed ,ualitatively and
,uantitatively.
!.! Conte)t and -articipants
'niversidad >acional Andres 1ello 7nglish department was created in *88-,
39
and depends on the Faculty of 7ducation. "his department does not only work with
the 7nglish )edagogy career, it also provides other careers that include 7nglish in
their curriculum with 7nglish instruction courses. A remarkable aspect of the
7nglish department is the continuous integration of native speaker teachers as part
of their staff.
7nglish department is formed by thirty four professors, dedicated to impart
7nglish classes in areas such as linguistics, methodology, language courses,
culture, among other sub$ects.
!.!.1 6thnograph(
"his study was conducted in 'niversidad >acional Andres 1ello. >ineteen
7nglish professors were part of this study. "heir e&perience range in teaching
varies from - and a half years to more than %8 years, and the average is *( years
of teaching e&perience. Fifteen of them are non<native speakers, and % are native
speakers. "here are (8 males, and ; females.
"hese professors teach in the following careers: 7nglish )edagogy,
2ommercial 7ngineering, 7cotourism, Law, 1usiness Administration, >ursing,
)sychology, 4inesiology, eology, Industrial 7ngineering, Social Kork, 2ivil
7ngineering, Sciences 1achelor, Accounting, "ourism, and #ining. >ine of them
have worked in primary schools, (- have worked in high schools, (3 of them have
worked in institutes, all of them have worked in 'niversities either undergraduate
or postgraduate, and / of them have worked in other places such as: 2odelco,
Shipping 2ompanies, S7>S7 2ourses, Army, and 2rash 2ourses.
40
"he following chart, e&plains the amount of maleFfemale professors that
participated in this ,uestionnaire, as well as their years of e&perience.
"edium 6)perienced 6)perienced
=ears of
e)perience
1 < 1& 11 > !& !1 > &?
"ale 8 ; (
Female % - *
!. -ilot stud(
For the pilot study, we chose three 7nglish professors from the 7nglish
department, at 'niversidad >acional AndrBs 1ello in 9i?a del #ar, who were
available to answer the first unofficial draft of the ,uestionnaire Isee appendi& AJ
and give us some suggestions related to the structure, use of 7nglish, ,uestions
proposal, and the se,uence of the items. "he aim of the pilot study was to validate
the ,uestionnaire, improve the instrument, polish the proposals and make it as
clear, easy to answer, and precise as possible for the teachers.
Firstly, when handing the ,uestionnaire to those three professors, there was
a previous oral e&planation to each of them in order to make them understand and
realiCe the conte&t of the study and the reasons why we were doing this
,uestionnaire. Ke also e&plained what we e&pected them to do Iin terms of giving
feedbackJ, and what the instrument consisted on. Secondly, we agreed on a
specific date to get back the ,uestionnaire with all the suggestions made. 7ach of
them gave us an oral feedback e&plaining briefly the reasons of those suggestions
which are e&plained in detail as follows.
41
"he first professor gave us three suggestions: the first one was related to
the amount of lines given to respond in the first item Ipersonal informationJ. "he
second suggestion was to modify two ,uestion proposals, in the second item,
which could not be answered using fre,uency adverbs and did not fit with the
format of the instrument. Suestions such as G0o you thinkH or G0o you believeH are
commonly answer with GyesH or GnoH, so due to that, we adapted those ,uestions
maintaining their main idea. "he last suggestion was given in the third item, and it
meant to clarify the instructions and be more precise in what and how to respond.
"he second professor gave us a specific suggestion related to changing two
fre,uency adverbs that were similar in the second item. "hose adverbs changed
were GseldomH and GrarelyH, and they were replaced by GsometimesH and GseldomH.
In terms of the structure of the instrument, and types of ,uestions, he did not have
any ob$ection andFor suggestion.
"he third professor did not have any suggestions either with the structure of
the ,uestionnaire or the ,uestion proposals. :e advised us to omit the ,uestion
related to the age of the respondents, which is in the first page of the
,uestionnaire, e&plaining that it was not that relevant to the study.
:aving considered all the suggestions, the unofficial version of the
,uestionnaire was revised, and corrected. "he instructions were set clearly and
each item was introduced to clarify the conte&ts of the ,uestions.
!.# 8alidit(
As it was mentioned before, our instrument was based on two types of
,uestionnaires found during the theoretical research. After having done the pilot
42
and made some changes to improve the instrument suggested by the three
professors, we met three times with a research methodology professor with a vast
e&perience on methodology. :e guided us in the steps to follow in order to validate
the instrument. "here were three meetings with the professor. In those meetings,
the instrument was showed and e&plained, some suggestions were given in order
to improve and conte&tualiCe the ,uestionnaire. It was proper to include a brief
introduction to the ,uestionnaire in order to conte&tualiCe it and create awareness
when responding to it, as well as to include a brief introduction to each item of the
,uestionnaire as a way to define what we e&pected from the respondents to do,
and to internaliCe the purpose of the instrument.
Finally, he revised the instrument, and authoriCed us to start applying the
,uestionnaire. "he pilot study and an oral presentation to the Academic Secretary
of the career, which included all the advances in our investigation even the
e&planation of the instrument, were more than enough to validate the
,uestionnaire, and start doing the investigation.
"he ,uantitative instrument used is one of the Likert scale. "his is a scale
used to measure the level of agreement or disagreement in a set of statements a
respondent is. "his is not a comparative tool, and the respondents have to mark
their option according to the statement. "his scale was created in (;-* by 0r.
+ensis Likert who wanted to measure somehow psychological behaviors in a very
precise way.
In general terms, this scale is composed by / different ranges that can vary
43
from GStrongly disagreeH until GStrongly AgreeH, GAlwaysH until G>everH, etc. An
e&ample e&plains how the items are structured:
Figure 4 ,ample o% scale used in a 5ikert scale 6uestion.
!.$ -rocedure
"hree sections are going to be analyCed and ,uantified, those are: general
perspectives, specific situations, and two open ,uestions that are related to the
effectiveness of the recourse to L(, and AL"7 levels in which L( can be used. It is
important to mention that the analysis of the instrument was only released with (;
,uestionnaires. "he data collected will be analyCed using #icrosoft 7&cel *8(-.
#icrosoft 7&cel software is a technological tool that has helped researchers
all over the world to analyCe and tabulate ,uantitative data. "he analysis process
will start with the section two of the ,uestionnaire that will be written on individual
cells followed by the variables to evaluate. "he second section, which is related to
AL"7 levels in which L( is allowed, will be graphed considering the highest
percentage of items for each AL"7 level. raphs will be used in order to organiCe
data and make it attractive when reading. "he last section, the open ended
44
,uestions, will be transcribed. "he first one will be categoriCed into positive,
negative, and neutral according to their point of view about the use of L(. For the
second ,uestion, the main reasons will be considered when using L( in the
different AL"7 levels. "his method of analysis will allow us to analyCe and
comprehend in a better way the results and tendencies mentioned by the
professors.
Chapter 3 Results of the investigation
In this chapter the results and findings of the three sections of the
,uestionnaire are presented, namely, general perspectives, situations, and
,uestions.
45
.1 Anal(sis 1ection 1
Items Always .ften Sometimes Seldom >ever
(. 0o you allow students to make
comments using L(L
/,-U (/,6U %*U -(,3U /,-U
*. 0o you allow students to ask
,uestions using L(L
/,-U (/,6U -(,3U -3,6U (8,/U
-. 0o you allow students to use L(
during group worksL
/,-U (8,/U -3,6U *3,-U *(,(U
%. 0o you allow students to use L(
for presentationsL
8U /,-U 8U 8U ;%,=U
/. 0o you allow students to use
translation for a better
understanding Iwritten and orallyJL
8U 8U %*,(U -(,3U *3,-U
3. 0o you allow students to
recourse to L( when discussing
topicsL
8U 8U /*,3U *3,-U *(,(U
=. 0o you allow students to
recourse to L( when e&pressing
agreementFdisagreementL
/,-U /,-U (/,6U %*U -(,3U
6. 0o you allow students use L(
when talking about likes and
dislikesL
/,-U 8U /,-U *3,*U 3-,*U
;. :ave you noticed that students
get more engaged in a given task
when they are allowed to recourse
to L(L
/,-U 8U 36,%U *(U /,-U
(8. 0o you use code<switching
during your classesL
/,-U 8U %*,(U *3,-U *3,-U
((. :ave you noticed that using L(
increases students5 confidenceL
8U (8,/U /=,;U *3,-U /,-U
(*. According to you, can the use
of L( be time saving for certain
circumstancesL
/,-U -(,/U 8U /,-U /=,;U
In the first item, the highest percentage I%*UJ shows that most teachers
GsometimesH allow students to make comments using L(. .nly /,-U states that
they GneverH permit students to comment using their mother tongue during classes.
46
In the second item that corresponds to allow students to make
,uestions using L(, -3,6U of the teachers say they GseldomH allow them to do so,
and only a /,-U say they GalwaysH permit it.
In the third one, which asks if they allow students to use L( for group
works, teachers mostly -3, 6U answered GsometimesH. .nly /,-U answered that
they GalwaysH let students to use it in this case.
In the fourth item about allowing students to use L( for presentations,
the option GneverH obtained the highest percentage of the entire section of the
,uestionnaire with ;%,=U. >one of them answered GalwaysH, GsometimesH, or
GseldomH.
For the fifth item, which asks teachers about allowing students to use
translation for a better understanding, the ma$ority I%*,(UJ answered GsometimesH,
and none of them replied to GalwaysH or GoftenH. "here is a similarity seen in the
si&th item that corresponds to allow students to recourse to L( when discussing
topics, the highest percentage responded GsometimesH I/*,3UJ, *3,-U marked
GseldomH, and *(,(U said GneverH.
"he seventh item is related to the opportunity for students to use their
mother tongue to e&press agreement or disagreement. "he acceptance of L( for
this purpose is ,uite low, being demonstrated with a %*U of preferences for
GseldomH. 'nder the same suggested situation, there was a percentage of teachers
that GoftenH and GalwaysH allow students to recourse to the mother tongue, with a
/,-U of preferences each.
In the eighth item, the ma$or preference among teachers about allowing
students to use the mother tongue to e&press likes or dislikes was GneverH with a
47
3-,*U. 1esides, a /,-U chose either GalwaysH or GsometimesH to the same
,uestion.
In the ninth item, 36,%U of teachers answered GsometimesH when
noticing that learners feel more engaged using their L( in a given tasks. .n the
contrary, /,-U chose GalwaysH or GneverH.
In the tenth item, a %*,(U of teachers agreed that GsometimesH they
use code<switching during their classes. In the same item, *3,-U of teachers
chose GseldomH and GneverH.
In item (( that was related to noticing if the use of the mother tongue
increase students5 confidence, /=,;U of teachers said GsometimesH, *3,-U marked
GseldomH, and (8,/U marked GoftenH.
In the last ,uestion of this section that was related to use L( as time saving
for certain circumstances, /=,;U marked GneverH meaning that the use of L(
cannot be time saving. .n the contrary, -(,/U of them marked GoftenH, and /,-U
marked either GalwaysH or GseldomH.
"o sum up the analysis for this section, the highest percentages are seen in
the option GsometimesH followed by the option GseldomH. A ;%,=U re$ect the use of
L( for presentation, a 3-,*U when talking about likes and dislikes, and /=,;U as
time saving. Khile a 36,%U are prone to allow students to use L( when noticing
that they get more engaged in a given task using the mother tongue, a /=,;U
when they notice that using L( increases students5 confidence, and a /*,3U when
discussing topics.
It is also possible to read the fre,uency factor to conclude that the option
GsometimesH is present in almost all the answers and it is as well as the one with
48
the highest average. "his would imply that professors5 opinions are not radical
when considering the use of L(, but they leave the possibility opened to its use
according to the circumstances. "hese results are aligned with the current
tendencies to balance and rationaliCe the use of the mother tongue.
.2 Anal(sis 1ection 2
"his section corresponds to specific situations in which teachers can
recourse to L( according to the AL"7 levels.
In figure =, =;U of teachers believe that it is useful for clarification, =%U
agree to use L( in situations such as to avoid waste of time, to e&plain differences
between L( and L*, to give instructions, and to e&plain grammar.
Almost half of them agree in the use of L( in order to develop studentsT
confidence, to check for comprehension, to e&press sympathyFconcerns, and to
define new vocabulary.
In figure 6, the graph presents the = most recurrent items. =%U agree in the
use of L( to e&plain difficult concepts. 36U believe that the mother tongue can be
used for clarification and to e&plain grammar. 3-U agree that it can be helpful
when e&plaining differences between L( and L*.
Almost half of them approved to use L( as a manner to avoid waste of time,
to e&press sympathyFconcerns, and to give instructions.
49
Figure 7: 7raph o% results %or le8el A1
Figure 8: 7raph o% results %or le8el A!
In these two graphs, the items related to the use of L( for clarification, to
e&plain grammar and to e&plain differences between L( and L* either in levels A(
or A* got the highest percentages. .pposed to this, the item (%, about the use of
L( to e&press sympathyFconcern, obtained /-U in levels A( and A*.
50
In figures ; and (8, there is a significant decrease in terms of the
percentages of teachers that agree in using these specific items.
In graph 1(, $ust *3U of professors believe that L( can be used to $oke
around with students, to e&plain differences between L( and L*, and for
clarification. *(U of them approve the use of the mother tongue to e&press
sympathyFconcern, and to e&plain difficult concepts. Finally, (3U of them agree in
using L( to encourage students, for discipline, to define new vocabulary, and to
e&plain grammar.
In graph 1*, (3U still believe that L( can be used to e&plain differences
between L( and L*. ((U accept to use L( to $oke around with students, to
encourage students, for discipline, and to e&press sympathyFconcern.
Figure 9: 7raph o% results %or le8el +1
51
Figure 13: 7raph o% the results %or le8el +!
Although in figure ;, level 1(, item (; got $ust a *3U, and in figure (8, level
1*, item (( got (3U, there can be concluded that there is a strong tendency to
avoid the teacher5s use of L( in classroom conte&ts.
In case of graph 2(, (3U of teachers agree in using L( to $oke around with
students, and to e&plain differences between L( and L*. ((U of them believe that
L( can be used to encourage students, and to e&press sympathyFconcern. Finally,
$ust /U approve to use L( for discipline, to define new vocabulary, to e&plain
difficult concepts, and to e&plain grammar.
In case of graph 2*, (3U use L( to $oke around with students. ((U of them
approve the use of L( to encourage students, and finally, /U of them believe that
52
L( can be still used for discipline, to e&press sympathyFconcern, to define new
vocabulary, to e&plain differences between L( and L*, and to e&plain grammar.
Although figure (8 and ((, related to levels 2( and 2*, are the advanced
levels, the use of L( has a role, and can be seen in that item (;, ((, and (3 remain
more or less the same percentages Ibetween ((U to (3UJ.
As a general analysis of section -, the highest percentages of items chosen
were seen in levels A( and A*, because they correspond to beginner and
elementary levels. In case of levels 1(, and 1*, there is an important decrease in
terms of the items chosen, and the amount of teachers that agree in using L( in
those items. As those two levels belong to intermediate and upper intermediate
53
Figure 11: 7raph o% results %or le8el )!
stages, a slight tendency to avoid as much as possible the recourse to L( is
perceived.
In levels 2( and 2*, there are still some situations in which L( is still used,
considering that the percentages are lower.
Another important aspect to consider in the analysis of the graphs is that
there were some items that were chosen in all levels, such as to e&press
sympathyFconcern, to e&plain grammar, to $oke around with students, for
clarification, among others.
.! Anal(sis of open ended .uestions
First ,uestion: According to your e&perience teaching 7nglish for different
AL"7 levels, does native language IL(J use affect the students5 learning process
positively or negativelyL KhyL
"he answers of this ,uestion are going to be divided in three different tables:
the first table shows all the teachers5 answers related to the positive effects in
students5 learning process when using L(, the second table shows the negative
effects in students5 learning process, according to the professors, and finally, the
54
third table shows the answers that were not that clear in terms of defining if the
recourse to L( had either positive or negative effects on students5 learning process.
-ositives effects in students@ learning process when using 21.
"eacher (: According to my e&perience the use of L( in certain circumstances is
always welcome by learners they seem to feel more motivated and
less stressed or intimidated.
"eacher -: In my opinion, L( affects positively in the students5 learning process,
especially in lower levels of proficiency. #ainly because ss. need to
feel confident in a difficult situation.
"eacher =: It might have a positive effect on the students since they may feel they
may recourse to L( in case they do not know some specific grammar
pattern andFor vocabulary thus diminishing the stress on the part of
the students.
"eacher 6: In my e&perience, using L( with beginner levels, in very specific
circumstances has been positive.
Students feel that they confirm what the teacher has said in L* and
thus they feel more confident.
I have never used L( to much, because I strongly believe that
students most try to be immerse in L*, the more the better.
"eacher ;: I think there5s no harm in using L( to break the ice and establish
rapport with the students. L( can be an e&cellent tool to contrast
grammar and make students more aware of the two codes of
communication. Language students need to have some knowledge of
55
L( in terms of technicalities: what5s sub$unctiveL And how do we use
itL cuando tengo tiempo F cuando tenga tiempo. I have noticed that
when the students improve their knowledge of L( their lives can
become much easier in L*.
In short, I don5t see negative effects if the teacher uses L( in (8U,
(/U of the class to clarif(A compare or contrast some issues.
"eacher (*: Khen used appropriately, it can affect the studentsN program
positively.
It is usually time<saving, especially when the teacher must give
instructions.
.n the other hand, there are situations in which the use of L( can
appeal to the emotional side of learning. Students can feel more
engaged on motivated when the teacher recourses to this mother
tongue.
"eacher (%: 'sing L( in the 7nglish classroom affects positively when teaching
Cero beginners. It avoids prestation, dropouts and promotes a
positive attitude towards further learning. :owever, the use of L(
has to be restricted to the fewest situations possible, only when it is
really needed to e)plain a word or concept too difficult to mimic,
paraphrase, etc. If used too much, students donNt make an effort to
learn by themselves or use vocabulary learning strategies.
"eacher (3: It gives more confidence.
56
"eacher (=: It affects positively in key situations Ilike e&plaining a certain
grammatical structure or e&ampleJ but making sure you provide
plenty of e&ercising afterwards, meaning e&ercising what you
e&plained.
It affects positively, because for a great number of students
understanding word order, the use of non<e&istent au&iliary in L(,
definitely supports the new language ac,uisition.
Khen they have to produce the language I never encourage the use
of L( or when we use 7nglish for 7nglish I never encourage L(.
"eacher (;:
In my opinion, the use of native language affects the students
learning process in a positive way. Khen needed it lowers an)iet(
levels, re<engage weak students that have difficulties to follow a
class taught in 7nglish. It also keeps a natural communication channel
open to e&press concern and sympathy when dealing with the
necessary teacher<student affective bond.
Begative effects in students@ learning process when using 21.
"eacher %: It affects negatively with the case of cognatesA it also affects the
s(nta). Another negative aspect is the lack of connection between
phonetics and spelling.
"eacher
((:
It depends on the situation. In general, I do not rely on L( to make the
contents more accessible. It discourages students. It is a way of
57
showing the task itNs too difficult for them.
"eacher
(-:
If it is used too often, I believe it will adversely affect the students as
they will come to depend on it as a crutch.
Beutral opinions related to the positive or negative effects in students@
learning process when using 21.
"eacher *: It will depend on the level. #aybe beginners and elementary learners
can gain kind of confidence or self< confidence. "hey would feel
more connected with the lesson. Actually, I think about the
conte&tualiCed the lesson must be.
:owever, with advanced students is totally different. "hey can feel
demotivated if you as a teacher rely on their L( more fre,uently
than e&pected.
"eacher /: First of all, I strongly believe that the L( can be used in a lesson only
in certain circumstances. "here are two different dimensions that
occur in a classroom. "he first one is the pedagogical, which
includes instructionsA classroom management, etc. In this
dimension, I believe the L( can be used. "he second dimension is
the communicative one. In this dimension i think only the "L can be
used with all the levels.
"eacher 3: In general, L( use affects the learning process negatively. :owever,
58
to say it always is so would be a mistake. "he goal of the learning
process is to enable to not only know GaboutH but use the language.
:owever, this is the goal of the processM not something that can be
guaranteed along the way. For the assimilation of language to
happen that is necessary to reach the goal, sometimes some
clarification in L( is necessary or helpful.
In general, in our classrooms we should remember that
V5comprehensible input55 is what we want to provide. So, if they really
cannot understand, some recourse to L( can help. Sometimes they
need to use L( in order to learn to use new L* language tools.
)atience and discretion are appropriate.
"eacher (8: It depends on how often and for what reason recourse to L( is used.
It affects them negatively if the recourse is consistently used. It
keeps the learner in a comfort Cone they are not willing to abandonM
particularly if they are at a 1eginner<Intermediate level. "he student
needs to reach a certain level of frustration in order to Gbreak
throughH a barrier in language learning so, to this end, they will
re,uire patience Ion their pastJ and commitment in L*.
If, however the learner is having great difficulty some L( is
necessary to encourage the student along. To clarif( vocabular(
I1eginner<7lementaryJ. "he overall learning process is hastened
when L* dominates the classroom.
"eacher (/: According to my point of view, it affects because if you insert
59
students into conte&ts where L* is used, it is not difficult to teach it or
to get it. "he matter is how well we, teachers, can do it.
"eacher (6: According to my teaching e&perience of the 7nglish language, the
use of the native language IL(J can be more harmful that beneficial
for the students5 learning process. Although sometime especially for
the beginners and elementary levels, it is really necessary to employ
the use of L(. 7ventually the students get used to having
translations and they have more difficulties in the language run to
overcome their weaknesses on le&ical, phonetic and syntactic levels.

According to the teachers5 answers collected, ten professors believe that
using L( in the 7FL classroom is positive and the main reasons are: Students
increase of confidence and motivation, diminution of stress and an&iety, and time<
saving. In general terms, it is useful to promote a positive attitude on students
towards L* learning, or by decreasing their an&iety and feelings of frustration when
they do not understand L* well.
#ost of these teachers believe that it is better to use L( $ust in certain
situations of 7FL classes. "he ones mentioned were: e&plaining grammatical
patterns, giving instructions, e&plaining difficult concepts, and for clarification when
students have difficulties to understand the "L. "herefore, they agree in using them
at certain situations but if it is used in e&cess, some of them e&plain that it could
have the opposite effect.
60
.n the contrary, three professors believe that using L( in the 7FL classroom
has negative effects because of the lack of connection between both languages in
terms of phonetics, spelling, and linguistic structures. Students can find ma$or
difficulties with 7nglish phonetics, for e&ampleM one of the reasons is that there are
more vowels in 7nglish than in our language, and the sounds and written forms are
une,ual, therefore the use of L( may lead to confusion and to have difficulties with
L*. Apart from this, some of them state that it discourages students, and they
become dependent on using the mother tongue because when there is an
e&cessive use of it, they get used to recourse to it in situations in which it is not
necessary, therefore, it affects their L* learning missing valuable opportunities to
practice and improve their language skills.
Si& professors think that it is neither positive nor negative. .n the one hand,
L( can be used in certain situations effectively. Some professors agree in using L(
for clarification in order to help students to comprehend difficult concepts and
sub$ect matters. In addition, they agree in using it to give instructions, classroom
management, to clarify vocabulary and to encourage students who have more
difficulties to learn L*. "he appropriate use of L( can be helpful only for beginners
and elementary level students. .n the other hand, the same professors think that
the use of L( can have negative effects. In the case of advanced students, if the
teacher uses too much L(, students might feel demotivated. #oreover, for
communicative purposes it should not be used as its goal is to speak in the target
language.
61
"o sum up, despite of the differences of opinions and attitude towards the
use of L( in 7FL classes, there are some agreements among '>A1 7nglish
teachers which have to do with using it appropriately and only when necessary. In
general, the positive effects that it may have are related to increasing positive
feelings like motivation and confidence. 2learly, in their opinion, the negative
effects arise when students overuse L( in the classes instead of taking advantage
of the opportunities to practice L*, and this type of situations should be avoided.
Second ,uestion: For which AL"7 levels do you consider useful to recourse
to the native language and whyL
"he following answers are the ones that best e&plain and determine in which levels
L( can be used.
"eacher (: >ot at beginner levels when learners are between the ages of / and
(* i.e. critical period. :owever to find it useful at beginners and
elementar( levels for older learners ages over (3. "hen as these
older students advance in their proficiency, the use of L( should
decrease considerably to avoid linguistic interference.
"eacher *: Actually, I think $ust for beginners or elementar( levels to clarify
instructions when they are doubt I$ust a little percentageJ to keep
discipline Iin case of working with high school studentsJ
"eacher -: A1 and A2, mainly.
"eacher %: .nly for A1 and A2, because since their vocabulary range is limited
it is very difficult and time consuming to e&plain in 7nglish.
62
#oreover, most of the time they don5t understand what is being
e&plained.
"eacher /: As I e&plained previously, only in the first dimensions levels A1A A2A
'1. Khen using the language communicatively, in none the levels.
"eacher 3: I think it is much more appropriate for beginning to beginner<
intermediate levels.
Starting 1*, the use of L( in the classroom should sharply decline.
"eacher =: "he beginning levels only because students should leave enough
language in the upper levels so it might not be necessary to have to
use L( any longer.
"eacher 6: It is useful for A1 in order to make students feel confident, but once
they had reached A*, it is no longer needed.
>onetheless, I remember a few occasions Iwhen teaching at high
schoolJ b( and b* students switching to L( because a discussion or
debate when beyond their knowledge of 7nglish.
I think that when students get so involved in a discussionFdebate
they can end up using L(, because in my point of view, we
IteachersJ also have to contribute to develop critical thinking no
matter the language.
I would not allow these with 1(<1* students at the pedagogy
programme, because they should be able to e&press their thoughts
in L*.
"eacher ;: I prefer to keep the option open for all levels, having in mind that
the more you advance in the new language, the less you should
63
recourse to L(.
"eacher (8: "he 'eginnerA 6lementar( and 2ower Intermediate levels
definitely re,uire reversion to L(. )articularly if there is an
underlying problem of confidence, fear of making a mistake or a
lack of comprehension.
2ertainly with older students the fear of mistakes is fundamental
and, therefore, necessary for the teacher to use encouragement,
$oking, setting a rela&ed and GsafeH classroom environment, etc. to
put students at ease. "his would also re,uire recourse to L(.
I believe it is more beneficial for all levels to have a L* response to
a L( problem, ,uery or lack of comprehension for e&ample, despite
a learner unable to understand something and responds in L( the
teacher should still maintain their response in l*.
"eacher: (( Ideally, for none. "he class should be planned in such a way that
L( should be unnecessary.
"eacher (*: I personally feel that the use of L( is most suitable for A1A A2 and
'1 when students are still straggling with elements of the foundation
of the L*.
7&planations, instructions and occasional translation could not only
save valuable time but also bridge the gap of motivation. I have
noticed that some students get very discouraged when they fail to
understand what is e&pected of them in a task, for e&ample.
"eacher (-: I think it can help in the beginning levels where the students do not
have a grasp of the material.
"eacher (%: Dero beginners or other higher levels under certain
64
circumstances, as e&plained above. Sometimes itNs useful to use
L( for time<saving purposes
"eacher (/: )erhaps for beginner level but I insist in the teacher5s skills to get
L*.
"he only problem is the cultural or social level of the students in
some schools, but even that your GmethodologiesH are the point. I
don5t $ustify the use of L( because of the level of the school.
Wou, teacher, must try to give all the tools to guide the ac,uisition of
L*.
"eacher (3: '2, for better understanding.
"eacher (=: For beginners and for all levels, because at all levels you need to
solve some unsolved mistakes that will eternally stay there if not
e&plained and e&ercised thoroughly Iin 7nglishJ.
Also, I think some teachers may waste some precious time of class
when trying to e&plain every time something that is not easily
understood.
:owever, when I use 7nglish, I use 7nglish throughout a whole
segment, because I may consider it necessary to ac,uire
a certain skill that can only be achieved by using L*.
"eacher (6: As I mentioned, I consider that occasionally beginner and
elementar( levels truly need to recourse to their native language,
due to the great lack of comprehension, le&ical level and poor
grammar. "herefore, it is sometimes essential to guide the students
in their learning process by providing them with some help in the
native language.
"eacher (;: I consider useful to recourse to the L(, with beginners, elementary
65
students and sometimes with intermediate because there are times
when one needs to make sure that what you have tried to teach has
been understood correctly.
#ost professors believe that it is more appropriate the use of L( $ust for
beginner or elementary levels IA( and A*J to clarify instructions when learners are
unable to understand something, to keep discipline when dealing with older
students, to $oke, to set a rela&ed and NNsafeNN environment in which students do not
feel fear of using L*, in order for students to feel confident when they have to
communicate with others in the classroom and in general terms, for a better
understanding.
"here are four professors that have strong points of views regarding the use
of L(: professor 6 believes, according to his own e&perience, that students can
switch to L( in situations such as a debate or a discussion in which the knowledge
of 7nglish is not enough to communicate what students want. :e says that, as
teachers must contribute to develop critical thinking no matter the language.
)rofessor (( believes that, ideally, the use of L( must be abolished in all the
levels. .n the contrary, professor number (= claims that, professors can recourse
to L( in order to save time and solve some unsolved mistakes that will stay there if
they are not e&plained.
)rofessor ; prefers to keep the option open for all the levels, having in mind
the more you advance in the new languageM the less you should recourse to L(.
66
In general terms, starting 1*, the use of L( should start to decrease in
order to avoid, as some professors mentioned, linguistic interference, and it should
be used in certain situations which that were already mentioned.
. ,iscussion
It has been demonstrated through the data collection and the analysis of
results that, there is a tendency to recourse to L( in different situations in the AL"7
framework. In the *8 situations given, the most recurrent were: to e&plain grammar,
for clarification, to e&plain difficult concepts, to e&plain differences between L( and
L*, to define new vocabulary, to e&press sympathyFconcern, for discipline, to
encourage students, and to $oke around. In relation to the use of L( in the AL"7
levels, the professors agreed in using L( for A( and A* corresponding to beginner
and elementary levels.
2onsidering the situations mentioned above, it has been observed that
professors tend to coincide with :arbord when mentions three strategies which
are: facilitating teacher<students communication, facilitating teacher<students
rapport and facilitating learning. Figure * Ip. (=J composes most of the situations
professors allude such as e&plaining grammatical patterns, asking and giving
administrative information, e&plaining the meaning of difficult concepts and
vocabulary, eliciting vocabulary by giving the L( e,uivalent, and helping weaker
students and those who do not understand. It is important to mention that having
read all the results and the point of views given by the (; professors, we have
realiCed that the use of L( is part of learning a second language, and do not
necessary affect negatively the learning process of students if it is used
67
appropriately, even native speakers agree in allowing students, mainly at lower
levels, to use L( when they have difficulties to e&press themselves in the "L. In
situations when it is really needed, a successful learning of L* can be achieved.
Conclusion
As it has been discussed through the development of this thesis, the use of
the mother tongue has been a sub$ect of continuous debate between the 4rashian
positions about banning the use of the mother tongue, and the modern positions
that allow the inclusion of L( to promote L* learning.
"he position of banning the mother tongue in the 7FL classroom has been
assumed as a better way to improve the language learning process as the input
68
relies solely on the teacher. In addition, the ,uality of a teacher has been
associated to how they manage to conduct a complete class in L*
.n the other hand, the modern positions give relevance to the use of L( as an
important learning strategy to foster a better learning climate, to encourage
students, and to increase learner5s motivation.
:ence, the main ob$ective of this study was, to find out what 7nglish
department professors think about the use of L( according to the different AL"7
levels. Accordingly, the first specific ob$ective was to design and apply a
,uestionnaire. As a second specific ob$ective a literature review was done in order
to identify the leading tendencies regarding the use of L( in order to frame the
,uestions in a current theoretical background.
"he original sample considered the total amount of teachersM however (; out
of -% were willing to answer the ,uestionnaire. As this represents more than a half
of the original sample e&pected, it can be considered as a representative sample.
After the analysis, it can be said that there is a high level of agreement on
the positive effects of the use of L( in beginning and elementary levels. "here is
also a consensus about the need to gradually avoid the recourse to L( as students
reach higher levels of competences in L*.
"he leading tendencies obtained from the open ended ,uestions showed to
be in favour of a rational use of the mother tongue which seems to be aligned with
modern theories.
In response to the two research ,uestions set in chapter (, the recourse to
L(, in the case of teacher and student, was permissible in the starting levels,
mainly because there is a need to build a basis in terms of vocabulary and
69
elaborate grammar structures, as well as to encourage confidence and increase
motivation. In order to avoid an overuse of L(, certain circumstances are narrowed
down, in which the common ones were related to clarify, to e&plain grammar, to
e&press sympathyFconcern, among others.
After summariCing, ,uantifying, and analysing the ,uestionnaire5s data. Ke
understood that the relatively new teaching process has been continuously
evolving to an inclusion of the mother tongue. Surprisingly, despite of the general
belief that teachers should encourage students to use only L* inside the
classroom, professors are not completely against the use of L(.
After the complete analysis of this thesis, the principal ,uestions of this work
can be answered as it follows:
Answ(: according to Icertain number of professorsJ it is actually advisable the use
of L( in a rational way in the following circumstances: clarification, e&plain difficult
concepts, to e&plain grammar, to e&plain differences between L( and L*, to $oke
around with students, and to e&press sympathyFconcern.
Anws*: the second ,uestion can be answered stating that according to the
professors, the recourse to L( it is appropriate in A( and A* AL"7 levels in a
certain e&tent while in levels 1( and 1* it has to be gradually avoided, regarding
levels 2( and 2* it should be totally avoided inside the classroom and only used in
socialiCing and building bonds with students through collo,uial interaction such as
$oking outside the classroom
70
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Appendix A
-ilot .uestionnaire
0ear 7nglish )rofessor:
Ke need to know your perception about the use of L( in 7FL classroom for our
investigation so we would appreciate if you take your time to give us some personal
information and answer the following ,uestionnaire.
1. -ersonal information
>ationality: [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ Age: [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
ender: #ale [[[[[ Female [[[[[[
77
Academic degreeIsJ:
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
Wears of e&perience as an 7nglish )rofessor: [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
7nglish courses you are currently teaching at '>A1 and for which careers:
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
2. General perspectives
Mark with a X.
Items Always .ften Seldom +arely >ever
(. 0o you allow students to make
comments using L(L
*. 0o you allow students to ask
,uestions using L(L
-. 0o you allow students to use L(
during group worksL
%. 0o you allow students to use L( for
presentationsL
/. 0o you allow students to use
translation for a better understanding
Iwritten and orallyJL
78
3. 0o you allow students to recourse to
L( when discussing topicsL
=. 0o you allow students to recourse to
L( when e&pressing
agreementFdisagreementL
6. 0o you allow students to use L(
when talking about likes and dislikesL
;. 0o you feel that students get more
engaged in a given task when they are
allowed to recourse to L(L
(8. 0o you use code<switching during
your classesL
((. 0o you think that switching
between L( and L* may confuse
studentsL
(*. 0o you think that using L(
increases students5 confidenceL
(-. 0o you think that using L( reduces
the amount of time wastedL
2omments:
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
3.
A1 = Beginner
A2 = Elementary
B1 = Intermediate
B2 = Upper
intermediate
C1 = Advanced
C2 = Upper advanced
Situations in which you can recourse to L( A( A* 1( 1* 2( 2*
"o e&plain grammar
"o give instructions
For discussion
For clarification
"o e&plain difficult concepts
79
"o develop students5 confidence
"o check for comprehension
"o introduce new material
"o summariCe material
"o give advice
"o e&plain differences between L( and L*
"o define new vocabulary
For closure
"o e&press sympathyFconcern
"o avoid waste of time
For discipline
"o give feedback
"o encourage students
"o $oke around with students
"o give assignments
!. Eeneral .uestions
Answer according to your point of view.
aJ According to your e&perience teaching 7nglish for different AL"7 levels, does
the native language IL(J use affect positively or negatively the students5 learning
processL !ustify.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
80
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
bJ For which AL"7 levels do you consider useful to recourse to the native language
and whyL
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
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[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
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[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
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[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
Appendix B
81
Naci Kayaoglus email
Appendix C
82
Final version of !e "uesionnaire#
The relevance of the use of 21
+rie% introduction to the topic and 6uestionnaire
"he use of L( is a relevant issue to discuss due to the different perspectives and
beliefs according to its application in 7FL classrooms. "herefore, it is a debatable topic
that we would like to investigate. "hrough this ,uestionnaire, we will find out if it is
advisable to recourse to L( in 7FL classrooms according to 7nglish )edagogy professorsN
perspective at '>A1 in 9i?a del #ar, as well as to determine when and to which e&tent it
is appropriate to use L(.
"he main ob$ective of this ,uestionnaire is to find out what 7nglish )rofessors of
the 7nglish 0epartment think about the use of L( in the different AL"7 levels. "herefore,
the specific ob$ectives are:
< "o determine the advisable amount of L( use in the different 7FL classes of the 7nglish
0epartment.
< "o identify the leading tendencies regarding the use of L( in AL"7 levels at Andres 1ello
'niversity.
< "o identify in which situations it is advisable to recourse to L( according to the professors5
perspective.
Finally, the purpose of this introduction is to give you the general conte&ts and
reasons behind our study, as well as to create awareness when responding to this
,uestionnaire.
83
Fuestionnaire
0ear 7nglish )rofessor:
Ke would appreciate if you take your time to respond this ,uestionnaire that aims at collecting
information about the use of L( in 7FL classroom, according to your perspective. "he results will be used as
part of our thesis. It is completely anonymous and absolutely confidential. )lease fill in the re,uired
information.
1. -ersonal information
"his part aims at gathering some personal information about you as a professor to analyCe the results
of this ,uestionnaire in a more precise way.
>ationality: [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ ender: #ale [[[[[ Female [[[[[
Academic degreeIsJ:
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
Wears of e&perience as an 7nglish )rofessor: [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
#ark with an GGH places where you have worked as an 7nglish teacher:
)rimary School [[[[
:igh School [[[[
Institute [[[[
'niversity [[[[ 'ndergraduate [[[[ )ostgraduate [[[[
.therIsJ [[[[ Specify [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
7nglish courses you are currently teaching at '>A1 and for which careers:
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
84
2. Eeneral perspectives
"he use of L( has been a matter of debate among theoreticians and practitioners. "hat is why we
would like to know your perception regarding the use of L(. +ead the following items carefully, and mark with
an HGI how fre,uently you allow the use of L( during 7FL classes.
Items Always .ften Sometimes Seldom >ever
(. 0o you allow students to make
comments using L(L
*. 0o you allow students to ask
,uestions using L(L
-. 0o you allow students to use L(
during group worksL
%. 0o you allow students to use L( for
presentationsL
/. 0o you allow students to use
translation for a better understanding
Iwritten and orallyJL
3. 0o you allow students to recourse to
L( when discussing topicsL
=. 0o you allow students to recourse to
L( when e&pressing
agreementFdisagreementL
6. 0o you allow students use L( when
talking about likes and dislikesL
;. :ave you noticed that students get
more engaged in a given task when
they are allowed to recourse to L(L
(8. 0o you use code<switching during
your classesL
((. :ave you noticed that using L(
increases students5 confidenceL
(*. According to you, can the use of L(
be time saving for certain
circumstancesL
!. 1ituations
85
Some theoreticians suggest that teachers can recourse to L( under specific situations according to the
AL"7 levels. )lease, read each statement carefully and mark with an GGH on the levels and situations in which
you would, eventually, use L(. IIf it is necessary, you can mark more than oneJ.
A1 = Beginner
A2 = Elementary
B1 = Intermediate
B2 = Upper
intermediate
C1 = Advanced
C2 = Upper advanced
Situations in which you can recourse to L( A( A* 1( 1* 2( 2*
"o e&plain grammar
"o give instructions
For discussion
For clarification
"o e&plain difficult concepts
"o develop students5 confidence
"o check for comprehension
"o introduce new material
"o summariCe material
"o give advice
"o e&plain differences between L( and L*
"o define new vocabulary
For closure
"o e&press sympathyFconcern
"o avoid waste of time
For discipline
"o give feedback
"o encourage students
"o $oke around with students
"o give assignments
. Fuestions3
"he aim of this part is to find out whether the use of L( causes positive or negative effects on the learning
86
process, according to your perspective, as well as, identify in which levels you consider advisable to recourse
to the mother tongue. -lease write as clear as possible .
aJ According to your e&perience teaching 7nglish for different AL"7 levels, does native language IL(J use
affect the students5 learning process positively or negativelyL KhyL
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
bJ For which AL"7 levels do you consider useful to recourse to the native language and whyL
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
87
Appendi) ,
Fuestionnaires@ Transcriptions3 /pen<ended .uestions
Teacher 13 aJ According to my e&perience the use of L( in certain circumstances
is always welcome by learners they seem to feel more motivated and
less stressed or intimidated.
bJ >ot at beginner levels when learners are between the ages of / and
(* i.e. critical period. :owever to find it useful for beginners and
elementary levels for older learners ages over (3. "hen as this older
students advance in their proficiency, the use of L( should decrease
considerably to avoid linguistic interference.
Teacher 23 aJ It will depend on the level. #aybe beginners and elementary
learners can gain kind of confidence or self< confidence. "hey would feel
more connected with the lesson. Actually, I think about the
conte&tualiCed the lesson must be.
:owever, with advanced students is totally different. "hey can feel
demotivated if you as a teacher rely on their L( more fre,uently than
e&pected.
bJ Actually, I think $ust for beginners or elementary levels to clarify
instructions when they are doubt I$ust a little percentageJ to keep
discipline Iin case of working with high school studentsJ
Teacher !3 aJ In my opinion, L( affects positively in the students5 learning process,
especially in lower levels of proficiency. #ainly because ss. need to feel
88
confident in a difficult situation
bJ A( and A*, mainly.
Teacher 3 aJ It affects negatively with the case of cognates, it also affects the
synta&. Another negative aspect is the lack of connection between
phonetics and spelling.
bJ .nly for A( and A*, because since their vocabulary range is limited
it is very difficult and time consuming to e&plain in 7nglish. #oreover,
most of the time they don5t understand what is being e&plained.
Teacher #3 aJ First of all, I strongly believe that the L( can be used in a lesson only
in certain circumstances. "here are two different dimensions that occur
in a classroom. "he first one is the pedagogical, which includes
instructions, classroom management, etc. In this dimension, I believe
the L( can be used. "he second dimension is the communicative one. In
this dimension i think only the "L can be used with all the levels.
bJ As I e&plained previously, only in the first dimensions levels A(, A*,
1(. Khen using the language communicatively, in none the levels.
Teacher $3 aJ In general, L( use affects the learning process negatively. :owever,
to say it always is so would be a mistake. "he goal of the learning
process is to enable to not only know GaboutH but use the language.
:owever, this is the goal of the processM not something that can be
guaranteed along the way. For the assimilation of language to happen
that is necessary to reach the goal, sometimes some clarification in L( is
necessary or helpful.
89
In general, in our classrooms we should remember that
V5comprehensible input55 is what we want to provide. So, if they really
cannot understand, some recourse to L( can help. Sometimes they
need to use L( in order to learn to use new L* language tools. )atience
and discretion are appropriate.
bJ I think it is much more appropriate for beginning to beginner<
intermediate levels.
Starting 1*, the use of L( in the classroom should sharply decline
Teacher %3 aJ It might have a positive effect on the students since they may feel
they may recourse to L( in case they do not know some specific
grammar pattern andFor vocabulary thus diminishing the stress on the
part of the students.
bJ "he 1eginning levels only because students should leave enough
language in the upper levels so it might not be necessary to have to use
L( any longer.
Teacher +3 aJ In my e&perience, using L( with beginner levels, in very specific
circumstances has been positive.
Students feel that they confirm what the teacher has said in L* and
thus they feel more confident.
I have never used L( to much, because I strongly believe that students
most try to be immerse in L*, the more the better.
bJ It is useful for A( in order to make students feel confident, but once
90
they had reached A*, it is no longer needed.
>onetheless, I remember a few occasions Iwhen teaching at high
schoolJ b( and b* students switching to L( because a discussion or
debate when beyond their knowledge of 7nglish.
I think that when students get so involved in a discussionFdebate they
can end up using L(, because in my point of view, we IteachersJ also
have to contribute to develop critical thinking no matter the language.
I would not allow these with 1(<1* students at the pedagogy
programme, because they should be able to e&press their thoughts in
L*.
Teacher *3 aJ I think there5s no harm in using L( to break the ice and establish
rapport with the students. L( can be an e&cellent tool to contrast
grammar and make students more aware of the two codes of
communication. Language students need to have some knowledge of
L( in terms of technicalities: what5s sub$unctiveL And how do we use itL
cuando tengo tiempo F cuando tenga tiempo. I have noticed that when
the students improve their knowledge of L( their lives can become much
easier in L*.
In short, I don5t see negative effects if the teacher uses L( in (8U, (/U
of the class to clarify, compare or contrast some issues.
bJ I prefer to keep the option open for all levels, having in mind that the
more you advance in the new language, the less you should recourse to
L(.
91
If there5s a possibility, I would like to discuss this interesting topic with
you face to face in order to share e&periences and contrast different
points of view.
ood luck in your work.
Teacher 1&3 aJ It depends on how often and for what reason recourse to L( is
used. It affects them negatively if the recourse is consistently used. It
keeps the learner in a comfort Cone they are not willing to abandonM
particularly if they are at a 1eginner<Intermediate level. "he student
needs to reach a certain level of frustration in order to Gbreak throughH a
barrier in language learning so, to this end, they will re,uire patience Ion
their pastJ and commitment in L*.
If, however the learner is having great difficulty some L( is necessary to
encourage the student along. "o clarify vocabulary I1eginner<
7lementaryJ. "he overall learning process is hastened when L*
dominates the classroom.
bJ "he 1eginner, 7lementary and Lower Intermediate levels definitely
re,uire reversion to L(. )articularly if there is an underlying problem of
confidence, fear of making a mistake or a lack of comprehension.
2ertainly with older students the fear of mistakes is fundamental and,
therefore, necessary for the teacher to use encouragement, $oking,
setting a rela&ed and GsafeH classroom environment, etc. to put students
at ease. "his would also re,uire recourse to L(.
I believe it is more beneficial for all levels to have a L* response to a L(
92
problem, ,uery or lack of comprehension for e&ample, despite a learner
unable to understand something and responds in L( the teacher should
still maintain their response in l*.
Teacher 113 aJ It depends on the situation. In general, i do not rely on L( to make
the contents more accessible. It discourages students. It is a way of
showing the task itNs too difficult for them.
bJ Ideally, for none. "he class should be planned in such a way that L(
should be unnecessary.
Teacher 123 aJ Khen used appropriately, it can affect the studentsN program
positively.
It is usually time<saving, especially when the teacher must give
instructions.
.n the other hand, there are situations in which the use of L( can appeal
to the emotional side of learning. Students can feel more engaged on
motivated when the teacher recourses to this mother tongue.
bJ I personally feel that the use of L( is most suitable for A(, A* and 1(
when students are still straggling with elements of the foundation of the
L*.
7&planations, instructions and occasional translation could not only save
valuable time but also bridge the gap of motivation. I have noticed that
some students get very discouraged when they fail to understand what is
e&pected of them in a task, for e&ample.
93
Teacher 1!3 aJ If it is used too often, I believe it will adversely affect the students
as they will come to depend on it as a crutch.
bJ I think it can help in the beginning levels where the students do not
have a grasp of the material.
Teacher 13 aJ 'sing L( in the 7nglish classroom affects positively when teaching
Cero beginners. It avoids prestation, dropouts and promotes a positive
attitude towards further learning. :owever, the use of L( has to be
restricted to the fewest situations possible, only when it is really needed
to e&plain a word or concept too difficult to mimic, paraphrase, etc. If used
too much, students donNt make an effort to learn by themselves or use
vocabulary learning strategies.
bJ Rero beginners or other higher levels under certain circumstances, as
e&plained above. Sometimes itNs useful to use L( for time<saving
purposes.
Teacher 1#3 aJ According to my point of view, it affects because if you insert
students into conte&ts where L* is used, it is not difficult to teach it or to
get it. "he matter is how well we, teachers, can do it.
bJ )erhaps for beginner level but I insist in the teacher5s skills to get L*.
"he only problem is the cultural or social level of the students in some
schools, but even that your GmethodologiesH are the point. I don5t $ustify
the use of L( because of the level of the school.
Wou, teacher, must try to give all the tools to guide the ac,uisition of L*.
94
Teacher 1$3 aJ It gives more confidence.
2omprehension<conversion method.
bJ 1*, for better understanding.
Teacher 1%3 aJ It affects positively in key situations Ilike e&plaining a certain
grammatical structure or e&ampleJ but making sure you provide plenty of
e&ercising afterwards, meaning e&ercising what you e&plained.
It affects positively, because for a great number of students
understanding word order, the use of non<e&istent au&iliary in L(,
definitely supports the new language ac,uisition.
Khen they have to produce the language I never encourage the use of
L( or when we use 7nglish for 7nglish I never encourage L(.
bJ For beginners and for all levels, because at all levels you need to
solve some unsolved mistakes that will eternally stay there if not
e&plained and e&ercised thoroughly Iin 7nglishJ.
Also, I think some teachers may waste some precious time of class when
trying to e&plain every time something that is not easily understood.
:owever, when I use 7nglish, I use 7nglish throughout a whole
segment, because I may consider it necessary to ac,uire a
certain skill that can only be achieved by using L*.
Teacher 1+3 aJ According to my teaching e&perience of the 7nglish language, the
use of the native language IL(J can be more harmful that beneficial for
the students5 learning process. Although sometime especially for the
95
beginners and elementary levels, it is really necessary to employ the use
of L(. 7ventually the students get used to having translations and they
have more difficulties in the language run to overcome their weaknesses
on le&ical, phonetic and syntactic levels.
bJ As I mentioned, I consider that occasionally beginner and elementary
levels truly need to recourse to their native language, due to the great
lack of comprehension, le&ical level and poor grammar. "herefore, it is
sometimes essential to guide the students in their learning process by
providing them with some help in the native language.
Teacher 1*3 aJ In my opinion, the use of native language affects the students
learning process in a positive way. Khen needed it lowers an&iety levels,
re<engage weak students that have difficulties to follow a class taught in
7nglish. It also keeps a natural communication channel open to e&press
concern and sympathy when dealing with the necessary teacher<student
affective bond.
bJ I consider useful to recourse to the L(, with beginners, elementary
students and sometimes with intermediate because there are times when
one needs to make sure that what you have tried to teach has been
understood correctly.
96