APPENDIX I

R code for calculating Beale’s F-type Statistic:
c1 <- 22
c2 <- 18
k1 <- c1^(-2/4)
k2 <- c2^(-2/4)
w1 <- 433.1
w2 <- 625.3
f <- ((w2-w1)/w1)*((70-c1)*k1)/((70-c2)*k2-(70-c1)*k1)
print(f )
pf(0.95, df1=k2*(70-c2)-(70-c1)*k1, df2=k1*(70-c1))
f > pf(0.95, df1=k2*(70-c2)-(70-c1)*k1, df2=k1*(70-c1))
# if true, choose clustering with higher number of clusters

APPENDIX II- SAS OUPUT
MV EXAM2

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

Obs

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

64.2845
15.8351
21.5268
34.7171
47.6086
22.2840
29.5735
42.5145
31.7778
33.0126
53.2828
38.3076
47.7747
39.9447
43.7197
39.8540
48.6529
24.8226
40.8828
30.9771
29.8695
58.7476
35.6514
45.8040
35.8676
21.0847
29.9964
53.8088
31.8979
28.0800
55.0466
50.7304
41.8034
46.6951
53.1369
30.3803
27.2962
45.9381
41.8407
39.1544
34.8628
64.0135
74.4175
32.8701
35.9019
44.9667
38.7793
23.5229
32.9006
50.8746
52.4176

336.711
160.462
206.496
161.644
289.430
370.108
242.242
427.039
216.549
328.191
352.704
427.984
654.889
273.252
170.430
256.660
348.441
323.218
205.978
216.197
199.081
588.639
265.822
288.686
286.941
201.672
267.076
322.272
438.596
278.665
706.431
310.738
261.588
738.682
305.210
265.544
262.988
254.913
272.924
361.180
326.838
380.188
308.736
356.000
340.691
293.738
317.780
349.159
257.387
383.376
272.442

32.4186
16.8907
21.3919
12.1879
19.0434
19.8618
29.4285
31.8858
28.7582
31.1527
32.5355
24.1754
30.5973
19.6449
17.0236
23.5936
31.3024
21.1517
22.1123
15.8576
17.8040
31.4096
8.1310
23.2033
33.6041
12.5567
20.5999
26.2652
30.3030
16.9137
30.7999
29.3645
25.3354
18.5655
29.5787
14.2027
23.0967
19.9162
25.3347
14.3833
31.0496
35.3227
19.6418
26.1847
26.0500
14.7652
28.4265
31.2145
11.4286
33.1593
25.0224

97.2557
32.7258
42.9862
47.3974
66.9543
42.1459
59.1470
74.8212
60.8236
64.5372
85.8184
62.9135
78.3720
59.8703
62.0975
63.4475
81.7441
45.9743
63.2083
46.9062
47.9678
91.3205
44.1577
69.6100
70.6905
33.8766
50.5963
80.4227
62.2010
44.9936
86.5018
80.4236
67.1387
66.9483
83.2391
44.8035
50.3929
65.8543
67.1754
53.5377
65.9124
99.4804
94.0593
59.2776
62.0850
60.1794
68.0832
54.8382
44.4678
84.3367
78.0871

MV EXAM2

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

Obs

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

52
53
54

36.3085
46.5798
54.4604

374.485
256.498
472.666

31.4981
24.3478
39.9480

67.873
71.416
94.720

1

2

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

49.7610
41.3568
29.1472
43.1137
26.6851
45.6529
29.6878
39.9208
45.2450
77.1583
53.7047
42.6643
51.8546
55.8176
46.3710
46.2073

301.931
274.214
272.160
234.815
206.765
352.098
231.775
443.437
324.345
483.894
326.410
271.254
302.518
391.162
269.394
306.806

9.9004
17.8995
20.6758
7.3124
11.6487
27.9624
12.3670
36.1872
13.1299
32.4477
30.3740
18.9778
14.9157
23.5137
18.7692
38.0844

MV EXAM2
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Temp
April

TempMay

51.4000
56.7667
65.3667
72.0000
58.0667
72.0333
49.4000
46.1333
62.2333
49.8000
55.3000
50.5667
68.2667
55.1667
42.5333
74.9000
53.8333
53.1667
42.5917
68.2833
63.4333
58.0000
58.7333

61.6129
67.4839
69.1290
76.6452
66.6452
74.7419
58.4194
59.8387
65.9677
61.8710
63.7742
61.2581
71.8548
65.0323
53.4839
78.8387
63.8065
63.0000
54.3306
73.8871
74.3548
65.6452
68.2258

Temp
June
70.0667
74.9333
75.1667
81.9667
73.9000
80.5000
71.2000
68.5667
73.6333
70.5667
73.2667
70.4000
78.3667
74.7333
63.0333
82.9667
72.7333
71.1000
63.4167
82.1167
80.2333
74.7667
76.2000

59.726
59.338
49.967
50.602
38.453
73.901
42.301
76.682
58.730
110.257
85.179
62.070
67.171
79.331
65.361
84.558

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

Temp
July
76.0968
83.2258
79.3871
83.4516
80.2258
81.8710
76.0323
74.5806
79.0645
78.5806
79.1935
76.4194
82.0323
80.3548
71.3226
82.9355
78.6452
78.6774
73.1720
86.0484
81.3226
79.6452
80.7097

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

68.4516
79.9032
82.1290
88.5161
77.8710
85.2903
71.6452
68.0645
79.6774
70.5484
72.9677
69.3548
84.3387
73.3226
69.0323
84.3871
71.5806
75.6774
70.6452
90.2097
81.4839
74.6129
78.6452

63.7333
70.2667
73.3000
81.6667
77.2333
76.3000
67.3667
64.4667
69.3667
63.6667
67.0667
65.1667
75.0833
68.1000
57.9000
79.8000
67.0000
67.3333
58.9889
79.2667
75.6667
68.5000
77.4333

-2.59742
-5.77401
-4.00079
8.26811
2.01369
4.48913
6.72094
2.51458
0.53066
1.25153
-3.08945
-4.30625
-2.64460
-3.24023
8.53664
5.98796
-3.47475
2.21860
6.96790
3.47606
9.70463
-8.25527
4.01151

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

2.9776
3.3453
2.8535
2.1398
10.1284
13.4318
2.6733
9.0380
2.7441
6.0385
3.1260
3.4514
2.9716
5.2574
8.9151
4.8851
2.9661
10.2754
12.1597
5.2499

9.3160
6.7535
-1.9897
-5.5971
14.0376
0.1609
7.3469
13.3186
4.2031
7.6226
4.7007
9.1086
-2.1978
14.5176
5.4381
-5.2161
8.3600
12.0268
8.0521
1.2840

10.1753
13.4359
-0.0305
-11.3581
13.9645
-3.6472
7.7088
15.9207
3.6292
7.0373
5.7707
9.1632
-5.9310
7.3581
5.8312
-13.0445
8.3384
19.8456
11.4697
0.5819

-1.3167
8.1736
13.6344
9.2746
9.5357
8.2088
3.5155
1.0480
12.7265
-0.5158
0.9676
0.2957
7.2687
2.5967
2.1564
-5.0587
0.7234
16.1971
6.8247
19.9481

-5.4473
-6.5235
2.2994
11.6430
16.2752
3.4473
-3.5027
0.3954
-6.9343
0.0429
-4.9646
-4.3639
6.1511
-7.1603
-2.5394
7.7383
-3.7851
1.9847
-1.1549
9.1287

3

21
22
23

9.3137
1.0679
12.9835

7.6609
2.0634
14.8018

5.2615
2.7001
16.4152

5.6874
2.6426
9.8696

MV EXAM2
Obs
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Temp
April

TempMay

51.5000
49.0667
73.1667
65.7667
55.2667
69.5000
53.5667
47.8000
54.8000
53.6667
53.0889
61.4000
58.8167
73.4000
61.2000
56.7000
51.0667
72.2333
59.5000
65.6833
67.2667
78.0000
58.5167

62.5806
61.2258
76.7742
69.4194
64.5484
71.7742
63.5484
60.3226
63.6452
64.3387
62.6237
66.3871
63.3871
76.9032
75.5806
65.5161
61.8710
75.1290
67.8065
71.1129
71.4194
78.8387
64.8226

Temp
June

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

Temp
July

71.6333
69.5667
82.1667
76.4667
74.0000
79.7000
74.3667
69.7667
71.7667
72.6167
73.0778
75.1333
65.6667
81.5667
85.4667
73.6667
70.4000
80.7000
76.5000
78.9000
79.9000
81.0667
71.7333

0.4456
-0.4325
13.5157

78.6129
74.9032
83.3226
80.7419
79.5161
82.1935
81.0968
76.0000
81.1613
82.0000
80.8710
78.8387
71.5161
82.5161
88.4194
79.8065
80.8387
82.5484
83.4839
84.4677
83.9355
84.1613
74.3387

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

69.7419
68.0000
87.0968
80.8387
72.6129
84.2258
76.5484
69.0968
76.5484
77.8871
75.8495
78.0000
70.0968
85.7419
88.1935
75.9355
74.1935
86.0968
78.7742
84.2097
82.9032
83.8065
74.9032

64.5667
62.9667
78.1667
74.0333
67.2667
75.3667
69.5333
64.9333
65.9667
65.8167
69.5667
70.1000
68.6000
78.4333
81.9333
68.9333
64.1333
77.8667
72.2667
75.1667
75.4333
82.1000
73.4167

-4.89325
-3.30959
6.53232
3.96797
-6.14490
0.10213
4.06688
0.84099
-1.13202
4.28449
8.25349
1.39910
5.58612
6.51440
8.86449
-6.40648
3.05017
6.32986
-1.95398
2.31853
-2.24268
7.48433
7.20520

Obs

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

2.5078
3.9831
6.4918
9.1020
2.6241
3.5189
5.1239
7.3021
5.7234
10.5564
6.4617
5.3193
10.9744
8.3299
15.7920
3.4592
3.8878
3.9044
3.5216
8.3827
3.4254
7.7844
10.4089

6.7268
8.5222
-4.4637
6.4593
4.6211
-2.0668
11.9726
5.8602
0.9810
7.0183
7.5877
3.9502
9.0467
-2.7520
15.3006
3.4754
0.5766
-6.4831
3.0344
2.2919
0.2333
-8.5097
8.5813

6.3050
7.1289
-7.1414
3.3874
4.1704
-5.8030
21.1476
10.3271
5.5242
11.9288
3.5178
-0.0561
5.5017
-5.1370
5.3280
5.2706
1.2496
-12.5135
3.9898
0.9441
-1.4341
-12.2927
12.2299

-5.7237
-6.8933
7.2114
15.2416
-3.3937
10.5212
9.2866
-1.5896
3.4300
8.9702
-3.3418
7.6415
5.2416
5.5211
5.5927
7.5647
-3.6920
3.5228
5.7273
16.0051
11.6956
-8.1683
4.5215

-5.0256
-9.5720
8.3122
10.0658
-2.3107
1.5682
-2.5867
-6.2976
-3.1669
1.9942
-2.3785
-0.0521
2.4389
3.6854
-0.3099
1.0119
-2.7020
6.4176
-1.2057
5.4395
1.0011
-2.3517
7.4796

MV EXAM2
Obs
47
48
49
50

Temp
April

TempMay

62.8333
53.0889
54.8000
61.5333

67.9032
62.6237
55.6774
68.3226

Temp
June
76.8000
73.0778
59.8333
75.9000

Temp
July
82.1935
80.8710
62.1935
82.4194

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
TempAug

TempSep

O3April

79.6129
75.8495
64.0968
84.9677

72.0333
69.5667
63.8667
71.3667

5.99371
-0.85701
9.22982
5.96884

4

5

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

51.5556
53.8000
66.1333
52.1000
62.9714
58.3267
71.4333
59.2889
54.8000
69.6333
58.8167
58.8000
58.2222
74.6000
46.8333
48.7667
74.6000
50.9000
56.2000

62.2581
64.1613
80.0323
61.2581
73.6037
64.2581
76.3548
66.7957
55.6774
72.1935
63.3871
67.0323
64.5484
78.0323
60.9032
52.0968
78.0323
62.8387
65.4516

70.8222
73.1000
89.1333
69.6000
79.1238
71.2067
82.0667
71.2667
59.8333
80.0333
65.6667
75.0667
71.5667
81.4000
69.9667
58.3333
81.4000
71.0333
73.3000

80.6882
81.3871
91.4516
76.2581
85.4378
73.6258
83.0968
76.7312
62.1935
83.1290
71.5161
83.1613
74.1183
83.8065
75.1613
62.6774
83.8065
77.4516
82.5161

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

8.8557
0.3905
8.3519
11.1463
0.8112
10.1299
11.8096
4.9377
14.2865
7.9368
5.3762
12.9680
8.2189
6.0310
14.2964
4.1664
8.1715
6.5928
6.9690
5.7665
7.3299
-1.5588
10.3495

10.2495
7.4703
0.9472
2.9474
-0.8071
10.4305
8.4950
10.6607
15.4135
5.9901
-1.3773
15.0344
-0.0051
1.6275
10.1229
1.4408
5.1208
-5.1627
12.5221
-1.5010
-4.6847
9.1269
0.0144

5.6462
15.8371
1.2300
6.2657
4.5477
18.1820
8.8198
14.6198
8.7508
7.9478
-8.6641
8.3781
1.6848
-0.7434
4.6612
8.4464
7.3916
-2.3514
12.5066
-0.3845
-3.0803
8.0693
9.1460

11.4303
6.1029
-2.9679
20.3420
-1.0881
10.9228
9.5064
2.4950
8.3247
4.2798
2.1612
9.9923
-3.9427
13.2357
6.4446
5.2479
2.5567
-2.4759
-0.1769
-3.4556
-2.3865
-0.3838
16.5816

5.2406
-3.1651
0.5575
5.5170
6.4413
-1.0916
-0.6348
-2.8201
3.6302
8.0364
9.4445
1.1010
-1.0731
3.1967
4.6599
-1.9683
5.3487
1.1570
1.0708
-0.7950
1.7117
-3.3277
3.6771

Obs
70

Temp
April

TempMay

47.3889

58.7312

Temp
June

Temp
July

68.9111

73.3978

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

69.3441

65.3778

6.90519

Obs

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

70

2.5181

8.5516

7.6622

-1.8237

-7.1056

city
Akron
Arlington
Atlanta
Austin
Bakersfield

-0.40624
7.16699
7.66572
-0.36179
5.01962
6.71122
6.96342
3.62120
8.75283
5.17327
9.37348
-0.48566
7.35334
9.64822
1.04130
7.19013
9.92602
-5.91671
5.00061

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

MV EXAM2

1
2
3
4
5

64.0889
70.1667
87.6333
64.4000
80.8048
73.2867
80.5667
72.8778
63.8667
75.5000
68.6000
69.9667
73.0222
81.0333
65.1000
61.0333
81.0333
65.3333
67.2333

Obs

MV EXAM2

Obs

73.3548
77.7097
93.2258
69.1935
84.6636
74.4387
86.4194
75.5054
64.0968
86.1290
70.0968
76.7419
74.5161
84.0000
69.0968
65.0323
84.0000
69.9677
81.4839

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
1
1
1
1

64.2845
15.8351
21.5268
34.7171
47.6086

336.711
160.462
206.496
161.644
289.430

32.4186
16.8907
21.3919
12.1879
19.0434

97.2557
32.7258
42.9862
47.3974
66.9543

51.4000
56.7667
65.3667
72.0000
58.0667

61.6129
67.4839
69.1290
76.6452
66.6452

Temp
June
70.0667
74.9333
75.1667
81.9667
73.9000

6

7

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Baton Rouge
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
ColumbusGA
ColumbusOH
Colorado Springs
Corpus Christi
Dayton
Washington
Denver
Dallas/Fort Worth
El Paso
Evansville
Fresno
Temp
July
76.0968
83.2258
79.3871
83.4516
80.2258
81.8710
76.0323
74.5806
79.0645
78.5806
79.1935
76.4194
82.0323
80.3548
71.3226
82.9355
78.6452
78.6774
73.1720
86.0484
81.3226
79.6452
80.7097

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1

22.2840
29.5735
42.5145
31.7778
33.0126
53.2828
38.3076
47.7747
39.9447
43.7197
39.8540
48.6529
24.8226
40.8828
30.9771
29.8695
58.7476
35.6514

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

68.4516
79.9032
82.1290
88.5161
77.8710
85.2903
71.6452
68.0645
79.6774
70.5484
72.9677
69.3548
84.3387
73.3226
69.0323
84.3871
71.5806
75.6774
70.6452
90.2097
81.4839
74.6129
78.6452

63.7333
70.2667
73.3000
81.6667
77.2333
76.3000
67.3667
64.4667
69.3667
63.6667
67.0667
65.1667
75.0833
68.1000
57.9000
79.8000
67.0000
67.3333
58.9889
79.2667
75.6667
68.5000
77.4333

-2.59742
-5.77401
-4.00079
8.26811
2.01369
4.48913
6.72094
2.51458
0.53066
1.25153
-3.08945
-4.30625
-2.64460
-3.24023
8.53664
5.98796
-3.47475
2.21860
6.96790
3.47606
9.70463
-8.25527
4.01151

370.108
242.242
427.039
216.549
328.191
352.704
427.984
654.889
273.252
170.430
256.660
348.441
323.218
205.978
216.197
199.081
588.639
265.822

19.8618
29.4285
31.8858
28.7582
31.1527
32.5355
24.1754
30.5973
19.6449
17.0236
23.5936
31.3024
21.1517
22.1123
15.8576
17.8040
31.4096
8.1310

O3May
2.9776
3.3453
2.8535
2.1398
10.1284
13.4318
2.6733
9.0380
2.7441
6.0385
3.1260
3.4514
2.9716
5.2574
8.9151
4.8851
2.9661
10.2754
12.1597
5.2499
9.3137
1.0679
12.9835

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

city
Fort Wayne
Grand Rapids
Houston
Huntsville
Indianapolis
Jackson
Jersey City
Johnstown
Kansas CityMO
Kansas CityKS
Kingston
Knoxville
Los Angeles
Lafayette
Las Vegas
Lexington
Lincoln
Lake Charles

72.0333
49.4000
46.1333
62.2333
49.8000
55.3000
50.5667
68.2667
55.1667
42.5333
74.9000
53.8333
53.1667
42.5917
68.2833
63.4333
58.0000
58.7333

74.7419
58.4194
59.8387
65.9677
61.8710
63.7742
61.2581
71.8548
65.0323
53.4839
78.8387
63.8065
63.0000
54.3306
73.8871
74.3548
65.6452
68.2258

80.5000
71.2000
68.5667
73.6333
70.5667
73.2667
70.4000
78.3667
74.7333
63.0333
82.9667
72.7333
71.1000
63.4167
82.1167
80.2333
74.7667
76.2000

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

9.3160
6.7535
-1.9897
-5.5971
14.0376
0.1609
7.3469
13.3186
4.2031
7.6226
4.7007
9.1086
-2.1978
14.5176
5.4381
-5.2161
8.3600
12.0268
8.0521
1.2840
7.6609
2.0634
14.8018

10.1753
13.4359
-0.0305
-11.3581
13.9645
-3.6472
7.7088
15.9207
3.6292
7.0373
5.7707
9.1632
-5.9310
7.3581
5.8312
-13.0445
8.3384
19.8456
11.4697
0.5819
5.2615
2.7001
16.4152

-1.3167
8.1736
13.6344
9.2746
9.5357
8.2088
3.5155
1.0480
12.7265
-0.5158
0.9676
0.2957
7.2687
2.5967
2.1564
-5.0587
0.7234
16.1971
6.8247
19.9481
5.6874
2.6426
9.8696

-5.4473
-6.5235
2.2994
11.6430
16.2752
3.4473
-3.5027
0.3954
-6.9343
0.0429
-4.9646
-4.3639
6.1511
-7.1603
-2.5394
7.7383
-3.7851
1.9847
-1.1549
9.1287
0.4456
-0.4325
13.5157

MV EXAM2
Obs

42.1459
59.1470
74.8212
60.8236
64.5372
85.8184
62.9135
78.3720
59.8703
62.0975
63.4475
81.7441
45.9743
63.2083
46.9062
47.9678
91.3205
44.1577

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1

45.8040
35.8676
21.0847
29.9964
53.8088
31.8979
28.0800
55.0466
50.7304
41.8034
46.6951
53.1369
30.3803
27.2962
45.9381
41.8407
39.1544
34.8628

288.686
286.941
201.672
267.076
322.272
438.596
278.665
706.431
310.738
261.588
738.682
305.210
265.544
262.988
254.913
272.924
361.180
326.838

23.2033
33.6041
12.5567
20.5999
26.2652
30.3030
16.9137
30.7999
29.3645
25.3354
18.5655
29.5787
14.2027
23.0967
19.9162
25.3347
14.3833
31.0496

69.610
70.690
33.877
50.596
80.423
62.201
44.994
86.502
80.424
67.139
66.948
83.239
44.804
50.393
65.854
67.175
53.538
65.912

51.5000
49.0667
73.1667
65.7667
55.2667
69.5000
53.5667
47.8000
54.8000
53.6667
53.0889
61.4000
58.8167
73.4000
61.2000
56.7000
51.0667
72.2333

62.5806
61.2258
76.7742
69.4194
64.5484
71.7742
63.5484
60.3226
63.6452
64.3387
62.6237
66.3871
63.3871
76.9032
75.5806
65.5161
61.8710
75.1290

Temp
June
71.6333
69.5667
82.1667
76.4667
74.0000
79.7000
74.3667
69.7667
71.7667
72.6167
73.0778
75.1333
65.6667
81.5667
85.4667
73.6667
70.4000
80.7000

8

42
43
44
45
46
Obs
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Louisville
Little Rock
Memphis
Miami
Modesto
Temp
July
78.6129
74.9032
83.3226
80.7419
79.5161
82.1935
81.0968
76.0000
81.1613
82.0000
80.8710
78.8387
71.5161
82.5161
88.4194
79.8065
80.8387
82.5484
83.4839
84.4677
83.9355
84.1613
74.3387

0
0
0
1
1

64.0135
74.4175
32.8701
35.9019
44.9667

380.188
308.736
356.000
340.691
293.738

35.3227
19.6418
26.1847
26.0500
14.7652

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
Obs
47
48
49
50

76.5000
78.9000
79.9000
81.0667
71.7333

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

69.7419
68.0000
87.0968
80.8387
72.6129
84.2258
76.5484
69.0968
76.5484
77.8871
75.8495
78.0000
70.0968
85.7419
88.1935
75.9355
74.1935
86.0968
78.7742
84.2097
82.9032
83.8065
74.9032

64.5667
62.9667
78.1667
74.0333
67.2667
75.3667
69.5333
64.9333
65.9667
65.8167
69.5667
70.1000
68.6000
78.4333
81.9333
68.9333
64.1333
77.8667
72.2667
75.1667
75.4333
82.1000
73.4167

-4.89325
-3.30959
6.53232
3.96797
-6.14490
0.10213
4.06688
0.84099
-1.13202
4.28449
8.25349
1.39910
5.58612
6.51440
8.86449
-6.40648
3.05017
6.32986
-1.95398
2.31853
-2.24268
7.48433
7.20520

2.5078
3.9831
6.4918
9.1020
2.6241
3.5189
5.1239
7.3021
5.7234
10.5564
6.4617
5.3193
10.9744
8.3299
15.7920
3.4592
3.8878
3.9044
3.5216
8.3827
3.4254
7.7844
10.4089

6.7268
8.5222
-4.4637
6.4593
4.6211
-2.0668
11.9726
5.8602
0.9810
7.0183
7.5877
3.9502
9.0467
-2.7520
15.3006
3.4754
0.5766
-6.4831
3.0344
2.2919
0.2333
-8.5097
8.5813

6.3050
7.1289
-7.1414
3.3874
4.1704
-5.8030
21.1476
10.3271
5.5242
11.9288
3.5178
-0.0561
5.5017
-5.1370
5.3280
5.2706
1.2496
-12.5135
3.9898
0.9441
-1.4341
-12.2927
12.2299

-5.7237
-6.8933
7.2114
15.2416
-3.3937
10.5212
9.2866
-1.5896
3.4300
8.9702
-3.3418
7.6415
5.2416
5.5211
5.5927
7.5647
-3.6920
3.5228
5.7273
16.0051
11.6956
-8.1683
4.5215

-5.0256
-9.5720
8.3122
10.0658
-2.3107
1.5682
-2.5867
-6.2976
-3.1669
1.9942
-2.3785
-0.0521
2.4389
3.6854
-0.3099
1.0119
-2.7020
6.4176
-1.2057
5.4395
1.0011
-2.3517
7.4796

Nashville
New York
Oakland
Oklahoma City
Omaha
Philadelphia
Phoenix
Pittsburgh
Riverside
Sacramento
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Jose
Shreveport
Santa Ana/Anaheim
St. Louis
Stockton
St. Petersburg
Syracuse
Tacoma
Tampa
Toledo
Wichita

82.1935
80.8710
62.1935
82.4194

67.8065
71.1129
71.4194
78.8387
64.8226

TempSep

city

Temp
July

59.5000
65.6833
67.2667
78.0000
58.5167

TempAug

MV EXAM2
Obs

99.480
94.059
59.278
62.085
60.179

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

38.7793
23.5229
32.9006
50.8746
52.4176
36.3085
46.5798
54.4604
49.7610
41.3568
29.1472
43.1137
26.6851
45.6529
29.6878
39.9208
45.2450
77.1583
53.7047
42.6643
51.8546
55.8176
46.3710

317.780
349.159
257.387
383.376
272.442
374.485
256.498
472.666
301.931
274.214
272.160
234.815
206.765
352.098
231.775
443.437
324.345
483.894
326.410
271.254
302.518
391.162
269.394

28.4265
31.2145
11.4286
33.1593
25.0224
31.4981
24.3478
39.9480
9.9004
17.8995
20.6758
7.3124
11.6487
27.9624
12.3670
36.1872
13.1299
32.4477
30.3740
18.9778
14.9157
23.5137
18.7692

68.083
54.838
44.468
84.337
78.087
67.873
71.416
94.720
59.726
59.338
49.967
50.602
38.453
73.901
42.301
76.682
58.730
110.257
85.179
62.070
67.171
79.331
65.361

62.8333
53.0889
54.8000
61.5333
51.5556
53.8000
66.1333
52.1000
62.9714
58.3267
71.4333
59.2889
54.8000
69.6333
58.8167
58.8000
58.2222
74.6000
46.8333
48.7667
74.6000
50.9000
56.2000

67.9032
62.6237
55.6774
68.3226
62.2581
64.1613
80.0323
61.2581
73.6037
64.2581
76.3548
66.7957
55.6774
72.1935
63.3871
67.0323
64.5484
78.0323
60.9032
52.0968
78.0323
62.8387
65.4516

Temp
June
76.8000
73.0778
59.8333
75.9000
70.8222
73.1000
89.1333
69.6000
79.1238
71.2067
82.0667
71.2667
59.8333
80.0333
65.6667
75.0667
71.5667
81.4000
69.9667
58.3333
81.4000
71.0333
73.3000

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

79.6129
75.8495
64.0968
84.9677

72.0333
69.5667
63.8667
71.3667

5.99371
-0.85701
9.22982
5.96884

8.8557
0.3905
8.3519
11.1463

10.2495
7.4703
0.9472
2.9474

5.6462
15.8371
1.2300
6.2657

11.4303
6.1029
-2.9679
20.3420

5.2406
-3.1651
0.5575
5.5170

9

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

80.6882
81.3871
91.4516
76.2581
85.4378
73.6258
83.0968
76.7312
62.1935
83.1290
71.5161
83.1613
74.1183
83.8065
75.1613
62.6774
83.8065
77.4516
82.5161

73.3548
77.7097
93.2258
69.1935
84.6636
74.4387
86.4194
75.5054
64.0968
86.1290
70.0968
76.7419
74.5161
84.0000
69.0968
65.0323
84.0000
69.9677
81.4839

64.0889
70.1667
87.6333
64.4000
80.8048
73.2867
80.5667
72.8778
63.8667
75.5000
68.6000
69.9667
73.0222
81.0333
65.1000
61.0333
81.0333
65.3333
67.2333

-0.40624
7.16699
7.66572
-0.36179
5.01962
6.71122
6.96342
3.62120
8.75283
5.17327
9.37348
-0.48566
7.35334
9.64822
1.04130
7.19013
9.92602
-5.91671
5.00061

0.8112
10.1299
11.8096
4.9377
14.2865
7.9368
5.3762
12.9680
8.2189
6.0310
14.2964
4.1664
8.1715
6.5928
6.9690
5.7665
7.3299
-1.5588
10.3495

-0.8071
10.4305
8.4950
10.6607
15.4135
5.9901
-1.3773
15.0344
-0.0051
1.6275
10.1229
1.4408
5.1208
-5.1627
12.5221
-1.5010
-4.6847
9.1269
0.0144

MV EXAM2
Obs

city

70

Worcester

Obs

Temp
July

70

73.3978

4.5477
18.1820
8.8198
14.6198
8.7508
7.9478
-8.6641
8.3781
1.6848
-0.7434
4.6612
8.4464
7.3916
-2.3514
12.5066
-0.3845
-3.0803
8.0693
9.1460

-1.0881
10.9228
9.5064
2.4950
8.3247
4.2798
2.1612
9.9923
-3.9427
13.2357
6.4446
5.2479
2.5567
-2.4759
-0.1769
-3.4556
-2.3865
-0.3838
16.5816

6.4413
-1.0916
-0.6348
-2.8201
3.6302
8.0364
9.4445
1.1010
-1.0731
3.1967
4.6599
-1.9683
5.3487
1.1570
1.0708
-0.7950
1.7117
-3.3277
3.6771

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

1

46.2073

306.806

38.0844

84.558

47.3889

58.7312

Temp
June
68.9111

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

69.3441

65.3778

6.90519

2.5181

8.5516

7.6622

-1.8237

-7.1056

MV EXAM2

10

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

11

The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
4
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name
_0
_1

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

Within Covariance Matrix Information

coast

Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

0
1
Pooled

4
4
4

15.57201
15.47987
15.80345

MV EXAM2

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

The DISCRIM Procedure
Test of Homogeneity of Within Covariance Matrices
Notation: K
P

= Number of Groups
= Number of Variables

12

N

= Total Number of Observations - Number of Groups

N(i) = Number of Observations in the i'th Group - 1
__
N(i)/2
|| |Within SS Matrix(i)|
= ----------------------------------N/2
|Pooled SS Matrix|

V

RHO
DF

_
|
1
= 1.0 - | SUM ----|_
N(i)
= .5(K-1)P(P+1)

Under the null hypothesis:

-

_
2
1
| 2P + 3P - 1
--- | ------------N _| 6(P+1)(K-1)

_
_
|
PN/2
|
|
N
V
|
-2 RHO ln | ------------------ |
|
__
PN(i)/2 |
|_ || N(i)
_|

is distributed approximately as Chi-Square(DF).
Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

17.923615

10

0.0563

Since the Chi-Square value is significant at the 0.1 level, the within
covariance matrices will be used in the discriminant function.
Reference: Morrison, D.F. (1976) Multivariate Statistical
Methods p252.
MV EXAM2

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

13

The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X ) + ln |COV |
i
j
j
i
j
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

15.57201
17.37277

16.84623
15.47987

MV EXAM2

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009

The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.GENERAL
Resubstitution Summary using Quadratic Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X ) + ln |COV |
j
j
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))

14

j

k

k

Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

22
68.75

10
31.25

32
100.00

1

6
15.79

32
84.21

38
100.00

Total

28
40.00

42
60.00

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.3125
0.5000

0.1579
0.5000

0.2352

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality

15

The GLM Procedure
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality

16

The GLM Procedure
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
E = Error SSCP Matrix

newcopd
newcvd
newpneu
newresp

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

8462.4470383
33646.228809
1190.5009748
9726.0940452

33646.228809
849528.93547
24206.838565
58676.169704

1190.5009748
24206.838565
3543.0990866
4755.8275604

9726.0940452
58676.169704
4755.8275604
14587.381199

Partial Correlation Coefficients from the Error SSCP Matrix / Prob > |r|
DF = 68

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

newcopd

1.000000

0.396825
0.0007

0.217415
0.0727

0.875390
<.0001

newcvd

0.396825
0.0007

1.000000

0.441222
0.0001

0.527089
<.0001

newpneu

0.217415
0.0727

0.441222
0.0001

1.000000

0.661524
<.0001

newresp

0.875390
<.0001

0.527089
<.0001

0.661524
<.0001

1.000000

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality

17

The GLM Procedure
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
H = Type III SSCP Matrix for coast

newcopd
newcvd
newpneu
newresp

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

1768.2279153
6593.3637208
1119.0089599
2917.2991868

6593.3637208
24585.317752
4172.5577432
10878.017735

1119.0089599
4172.5577432
708.15591226
1846.1895668

2917.2991868
10878.017735
1846.1895668
4813.0868605

Characteristic Roots and Vectors of: E Inverse * H, where
H = Type III SSCP Matrix for coast
E = Error SSCP Matrix
Characteristic
Root

Percent

0.37951828
0.00000000
0.00000000
0.00000000

100.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Characteristic Vector V'EV=1
newcopd
newcvd
-0.06036113
-0.32885220
-0.00338330
-0.00596076

-0.00040115
-0.00017496
0.00117676
-0.00038217

newpneu

newresp

-0.05571805
-0.32745291
0.00133345
0.01580911

0.06774461
0.32532213
-0.00112040
-0.00158734

MANOVA Test Criteria and Exact F Statistics for the Hypothesis of No Overall coast Effect
H = Type III SSCP Matrix for coast
E = Error SSCP Matrix
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=31.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.72489072
0.27510928
0.37951828
0.37951828

6.17
6.17
6.17
6.17

4
4
4
4

65
65
65
65

0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003

H = Type III SSCP Matrix for Intercept

newcopd
newcvd
newpneu
newresp

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

70464.399683
513957.07904
40484.286518
111591.03139

513957.07904
3748728.1561
295286.49559
813928.74701

40484.286518
295286.49559
23259.652566
64112.989086

111591.03139
813928.74701
64112.989086
176721.27122

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality
The GLM Procedure
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Characteristic Roots and Vectors of: E Inverse * H, where
H = Type III SSCP Matrix for Intercept
E = Error SSCP Matrix
Characteristic
Root

Percent

12.3556739
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000

100.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Characteristic Vector V'EV=1
newcopd
newcvd
0.02139226
-0.01084949
-0.01208734
-0.33333582

0.00011282
0.00112044
-0.00062723
-0.00024662

newpneu

newresp

0.02318113
-0.00308131
0.00919855
-0.33158730

-0.01407612
0.00280836
0.00718428
0.33191860

MANOVA Test Criteria and Exact F Statistics for the Hypothesis of No Overall Intercept Effect

18

H = Type III SSCP Matrix for Intercept
E = Error SSCP Matrix
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=31.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.07487454
0.92512546
12.35567394
12.35567394

200.78
200.78
200.78
200.78

4
4
4
4

65
65
65
65

<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality

19

The MEANS Procedure
N
coast
Obs
Variable
N
Mean
Std Dev
Minimum
Maximum
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
0
32
newcopd
32
46.9256059
10.4654806
24.8226145
74.4175238
newcvd
32
342.2685421
104.0352160
170.4295948
706.4312769
newpneu
32
26.9604181
6.1229006
14.3832579
39.9480052
newresp
32
74.3137923
13.2431913
45.9742789
99.4803952
1

38

newcopd
38
36.8365308
11.7025433
15.8350620
77.1583167
newcvd
38
304.6484248
117.8645380
160.4619615
738.6820742
newpneu
38
20.5756272
8.0217809
7.3123619
38.0844329
newresp
38
57.6683982
15.7261493
32.7257948
110.2571727
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

city
Akron
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
ColumbusOH
Colorado Springs
Dayton
Washington
Denver
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Grand Rapids
Indianapolis
Johnstown
Kansas CityMO
Kansas CityKS
Knoxville
Las Vegas
Lexington
Lincoln
Louisville
Little Rock
Memphis
Nashville
Oklahoma City
Omaha
Philadelphia
Phoenix
Pittsburgh
St. Louis
Toledo
Wichita
Arlington

coast
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

res1

res2

res3

17.3589
-13.9130
6.3572
-8.6180
-6.9809
-3.2059
1.7273
-22.1030
-6.0428
11.8220
-1.1216
-11.0580
6.8832
8.1210
3.8048
-5.1222
6.2113
-0.9875
-5.0849
-7.7712
17.0879
27.4919
-14.0555
-8.1463
3.9490
5.4920
-10.6171
-0.3458
7.5348
-7.0048
8.8919
-0.5546
-21.0015

-5.558
-14.077
10.436
85.715
-69.017
-171.839
6.172
-19.050
-136.290
246.370
-53.583
-55.328
-19.997
364.163
-31.531
-80.681
-37.059
-87.356
-69.344
18.911
37.920
-33.533
13.731
-24.488
41.108
-69.827
32.217
-85.771
130.398
101.169
48.894
-72.875
-144.186

5.4581
4.1923
5.5751
-2.7850
-7.3155
-9.9368
4.3420
-5.8088
-4.8482
4.4492
-3.7571
6.6437
-0.6952
3.8395
2.4041
-1.6250
2.6183
-7.0442
-1.6257
-12.5772
8.3623
-7.3186
-0.7758
1.4661
6.1989
-1.9380
4.5377
-2.6126
12.9876
9.2268
-3.4467
-8.1912
-3.6849

res4
22.9419
-9.7766
11.5046
-11.4003
-14.4435
-12.2163
7.4303
-28.3395
-11.1055
17.0067
-4.7038
-3.6233
6.1089
12.1880
6.1098
-7.1750
8.9253
-8.4595
-7.1384
-20.7761
25.1666
19.7455
-15.0362
-6.2306
10.0229
3.7733
-6.4412
-2.8980
20.4067
2.3687
5.0175
-8.9527
-24.9426

20

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Atlanta
Austin
Bakersfield
Baton Rouge
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
ColumbusGA
Corpus Christi
Dallas/Fort Worth
El Paso
Fresno
Houston
Huntsville
Jackson
Jersey City
Kingston

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-15.3097
-2.1194
10.7721
-14.5525
-7.2630
5.6779
-5.0587
10.9382
3.0174
-5.8594
-6.9670
-1.1851
-15.7519
-6.8401
-4.9386
-8.7566
9.8585

-98.153
-143.005
-15.218
65.460
-62.407
122.390
-88.099
350.241
-47.989
-88.451
-105.567
-38.826
-102.977
-37.572
133.948
-25.983
434.034

0.8162
-8.3877
-1.5322
-0.7138
8.8529
11.3102
8.1826
10.0217
3.0179
-4.7180
-2.7716
-12.4446
-8.0189
0.0243
9.7274
-3.6620
-2.0101

-14.6822
-10.2709
9.2859
-15.5225
1.4786
17.1528
3.1552
20.7036
5.7791
-10.7622
-9.7006
-13.5107
-23.7918
-7.0721
4.5326
-12.6748
9.2799

MV EXAM2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Effect of Coast on Mortality
Obs
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

city

coast

Los Angeles
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Miami
Modesto
New York
Oakland
Riverside
Sacramento
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Jose
Shreveport
Santa Ana/Anaheim
Stockton
St. Petersburg
Syracuse
Tacoma
Tampa
Worcester

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

res1

res2

res3

-6.4563
-9.5404
-1.9738
-0.9346
8.1302
-13.3137
-3.9359
12.9245
4.5203
-7.6894
6.2772
-10.1514
8.8163
-7.1488
8.4085
40.3218
16.8682
5.8278
15.0180
9.3708

-39.105
-41.660
22.190
36.043
-10.910
44.511
-47.262
-2.718
-30.435
-32.488
-69.834
-97.883
47.449
-72.873
19.696
179.246
21.762
-33.395
-2.130
2.158

-6.3730
2.5211
10.4740
5.4743
-5.8104
10.6389
-9.1470
-10.6752
-2.6761
0.1002
-13.2633
-8.9269
7.3867
-8.2086
-7.4457
11.8721
9.7984
-1.5979
-5.6599
17.5088

21

res4
-12.8649
-7.2755
8.2440
4.4166
2.5110
-2.8302
-13.2006
2.0577
1.6696
-7.7018
-7.0669
-19.2157
16.2322
-15.3677
1.0614
52.5888
27.5109
4.4017
9.5023
26.8897

MULTNORM macro: Univariate and Multivariate Normality Tests
22
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
The MODEL Procedure
Equation
res1
res2
res3
res4
System

Normality Test
Test Statistic

Value

Prob

Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Mardia Skewness
Mardia Kurtosis
Henze-Zirkler T

0.96
0.83
0.97
0.96
139.4
7.95
6.83

0.0947
<.0001
0.1579
0.1232
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001

MULTNORM macro: Chi-square Q-Q plot
23
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Plot of mahdist*chisq.

30 ˆ

Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

A

25

S
q 20
u
a
r
e
d
D 15
i
s
t
a
n
c
e 10

5

0





ˆ






ˆ






ˆ

A
A


A

A A A


ˆ

A

A

A

A


AA
ˆ
AA A

BAA

ABAAA

BABBAB

BBB

BBCBBBB

A ABABBBB
ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Chi-square quantile
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Temperature

24

The PRINCOMP Procedure
Observations
Variables

70
6

Simple Statistics

Mean
StD

TempApril

TempMay

TempJune

TempJuly

TempAug

TempSep

58.94818708
8.63420426

66.59422317
6.63610816

74.11575284
6.05594370

79.25106210
5.36009810

77.18855826
6.95429017

70.98567120
6.41753881

Covariance Matrix

TempApril
TempMay

TempApril

TempMay

TempJune

TempJuly

TempAug

TempSep

74.54948326
52.73167090

52.73167090
44.03793148

41.46605954
37.99894263

26.32568310
28.17872912

50.19128481
42.23109172

48.74207506
39.88678788

TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

41.46605954
26.32568310
50.19128481
48.74207506

37.99894263
28.17872912
42.23109172
39.88678788

36.67445406
29.53024667
38.84360144
34.19826478

Total Variance

29.53024667
28.73065163
31.35367184
23.69063811

38.84360144
31.35367184
48.36215179
39.40518827

34.19826478
23.69063811
39.40518827
41.18480436

273.53947658

Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

240.547597
22.153182
5.093025
4.137857
0.937814
0.670003

218.394415
17.060157
0.955167
3.200044
0.267811

0.8794
0.0810
0.0186
0.0151
0.0034
0.0024

0.8794
0.9604
0.9790
0.9941
0.9976
1.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Temperature

25

The PRINCOMP Procedure
Eigenvectors

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

Prin1

Prin2

Prin3

Prin4

Prin5

Prin6

0.516475
0.422504
0.371905
0.279665
0.429021
0.392631

-.647457
-.025767
0.328773
0.639452
0.217752
-.125417

-.431514
0.065324
0.075812
-.232952
-.224042
0.836253

0.123839
0.381422
0.328594
0.218592
-.812513
-.152471

0.197359
-.192403
-.623603
0.638239
-.196741
0.298485

0.271225
-.796277
0.500992
0.059077
-.139449
0.135834

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Temperature

26

The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components
Prior Communality Estimates: ONE

Eigenvalues of the Correlation Matrix: Total = 6

1
2
3
4
5
6

Average = 1

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

5.25001474
0.51092293
0.10762164
0.09013229
0.02639787
0.01491054

4.73909181
0.40330129
0.01748935
0.06373441
0.01148734

0.8750
0.0852
0.0179
0.0150
0.0044
0.0025

0.8750
0.9602
0.9781
0.9931
0.9975
1.0000

1 factor will be retained by the MINEIGEN criterion.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Temperature
The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components

27

Scree Plot of Eigenvalues
6 ˆ





1

5 ˆ






4 ˆ

E

i

g

e

n

v 3 ˆ
a

l

u

e

s


2 ˆ






1 ˆ



2



3
4
0 ˆ
5
6
Šƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Number
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Temperature
The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components
Factor Pattern
Factor1
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

0.89270
0.98337
0.97189
0.85385
0.96272
0.94107

Variance Explained by Each Factor

28

Factor1
5.2500147
Final Communality Estimates: Total = 5.250015
TempApril

TempMay

TempJune

TempJuly

TempAug

TempSep

0.79691806

0.96700837

0.94457202

0.72906184

0.92683842

0.88561603

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Ozone

29

The PRINCOMP Procedure
Observations
Variables

70
6

Simple Statistics

Mean
StD

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

2.867204331
4.870968343

6.606144213
3.802739068

4.862347903
5.979171119

4.839117060
7.597983938

4.860274651
6.535203562

1.093176544
5.260907195

Covariance Matrix

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

23.72633260
11.39312798
-3.85632986
-7.72979788
1.36407039
9.64344898

11.39312798
14.46082442
7.99450540
5.73552664
7.70482402
7.02882174

-3.85632986
7.99450540
35.75048727
37.59784422
4.71539086
-6.10625848

-7.72979788
5.73552664
37.59784422
57.72935992
7.81740222
-11.01889795

1.36407039
7.70482402
4.71539086
7.81740222
42.70888559
14.98348097

9.64344898
7.02882174
-6.10625848
-11.01889795
14.98348097
27.67714451

Total Variance

202.05303431

Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

91.4204695
57.3022716
29.5715640
12.4121490
7.7661461
3.5804341

34.1181979
27.7307075
17.1594150
4.6460029
4.1857120

0.4525
0.2836
0.1464
0.0614
0.0384
0.0177

0.4525
0.7361
0.8824
0.9438
0.9823
1.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Ozone
The PRINCOMP Procedure
Eigenvectors

O3April

Prin1

Prin2

Prin3

Prin4

Prin5

Prin6

-.124969

0.289350

0.699708

-.375257

0.271089

0.443577

30

O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

0.098041
0.574772
0.773086
0.141406
-.163555

0.297491
0.020593
-.025798
0.731448
0.540065

0.422217
0.195581
0.033534
-.530701
0.105453

-.159242
0.208177
0.044283
-.382715
0.801283

-.318382
-.646820
0.612052
-.062154
0.168218

-.772589
0.411396
-.154855
0.114064
0.010352

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Ozone

31

The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components
Prior Communality Estimates: ONE

Eigenvalues of the Correlation Matrix: Total = 6

1
2
3
4
5
6

Average = 1

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

2.09525561
2.06608852
1.03709635
0.41189472
0.25329514
0.13636967

0.02916709
1.02899216
0.62520164
0.15859958
0.11692547

0.3492
0.3443
0.1728
0.0686
0.0422
0.0227

0.3492
0.6936
0.8664
0.9351
0.9773
1.0000

3 factors will be retained by the MINEIGEN criterion.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Ozone
The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components
Scree Plot of Eigenvalues




2.5 ˆ






2.0 ˆ




E

i

g 1.5 ˆ
e

n

v

a

l

u

e 1.0 ˆ
s




1

2

3

32


0.5 ˆ

4


5


6

0.0 ˆ



Šƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Number
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
PCA for Monthly Average Ozone

33

The FACTOR Procedure
Initial Factor Method: Principal Components
Factor Pattern

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

Factor1

Factor2

Factor3

0.73088
0.83665
0.10673
-0.00900
0.56551
0.72788

-0.25121
0.28204
0.93991
0.94529
0.17983
-0.33779

-0.54093
-0.30873
-0.08205
0.01804
0.72067
0.35036

Variance Explained by Each Factor
Factor1

Factor2

Factor3

2.0952556

2.0660885

1.0370964

Final Communality Estimates: Total = 5.198440
O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

0.88989918

0.87484780

0.90155177

0.89397063

0.87151343

0.76665766

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Data with PC scores from Temp and Ozone
Obs city
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

coast newcopd

Akron
Arlington
Atlanta
Austin
Bakersfield
Baton Rouge
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
Chicago

Obs TempSep

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

O3April

1 63.7333 -2.59742

64.2845
15.8351
21.5268
34.7171
47.6086
22.2840
29.5735
42.5145
31.7778
33.0126

Temp
April

TempMay

51.4000
56.7667
65.3667
72.0000
58.0667
72.0333
49.4000
46.1333
62.2333
49.8000

61.6129
67.4839
69.1290
76.6452
66.6452
74.7419
58.4194
59.8387
65.9677
61.8710

newcvd newpneu newresp
336.711
160.462
206.496
161.644
289.430
370.108
242.242
427.039
216.549
328.191

32.4186
16.8907
21.3919
12.1879
19.0434
19.8618
29.4285
31.8858
28.7582
31.1527

97.2557
32.7258
42.9862
47.3974
66.9543
42.1459
59.1470
74.8212
60.8236
64.5372

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

2.9776

9.3160

10.1753

-1.3167

O3Sep

Temp
June

Temp
July

70.0667
74.9333
75.1667
81.9667
73.9000
80.5000
71.2000
68.5667
73.6333
70.5667

PCT1

-5.4473 -14.9869

76.0968
83.2258
79.3871
83.4516
80.2258
81.8710
76.0323
74.5806
79.0645
78.5806

PCT2

TempAug
68.4516
79.9032
82.1290
88.5161
77.8710
85.2903
71.6452
68.0645
79.6774
70.5484
PCT3

0.67431 -0.74777

34

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

70.2667 -5.77401 3.3453
73.3000 -4.00079 2.8535
81.6667 8.26811 2.1398
77.2333 2.01369 10.1284
76.3000 4.48913 13.4318
67.3667 6.72094 2.6733
64.4667 2.51458 9.0380
69.3667 0.53066 2.7441
63.6667 1.25153 6.0385

6.7535 13.4359
-1.9897 -0.0305
-5.5971 -11.3581
14.0376 13.9645
0.1609 -3.6472
7.3469
7.7088
13.3186 15.9207
4.2031
3.6292
7.6226
7.0373

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

PCO1

3.34990
-0.88940
-2.23032
-1.88439
-1.45462
0.00562
-0.90634
1.39937
-1.80680
2.26395

-0.46525
0.67658
-0.07069
-0.61332
2.30347
-1.30199
-0.53725
-0.90051
-0.02224
0.01041

-0.06240
-1.13189
-0.11761
-0.41074
0.42333
0.00649
2.55027
-0.76557
0.57017
-0.60606

7.2086
10.2075
-6.1692
-20.7477
10.9585
-8.7079
3.3409
13.2850
1.0243
2.8437

8.1736
13.6344
9.2746
9.5357
8.2088
3.5155
1.0480
12.7265
-0.5158
PCO2

-10.7570
-5.3432
3.9501
9.3629
12.3735
6.3426
-3.5435
-2.6556
-0.3890
-5.1358

-6.5235
1.5472 4.88127 -1.07394
2.2994
7.8431 -3.00296 -1.72760
11.6430 24.1355 -2.31523 1.03536
16.2752
2.5044 0.48683 5.21203
3.4473 18.8700 -3.81007 -2.61150
-3.5027 -14.1691 2.62259 2.33049
0.3954 -19.3166 2.49105 2.34841
-6.9343
1.6325 -1.64374 -3.36313
0.0429 -13.9503 3.92124 -1.10673
PCO3

PCO4

-1.7173
-9.3266
-12.4227
-1.9257
2.1102
1.2839
1.8472
4.7551
-8.4562
1.9857

0.9151
-2.8348
-0.8587
2.5538
12.4493
-2.4453
-3.3435
2.8961
-8.1418
2.5846

PCO5

PCO6

-0.65715
1.24694
0.44206
1.23829
0.56094
-3.69869
1.75667
0.56255
-1.55721
-0.53973

0.61300
-1.56791
-1.19877
4.66429
-0.04786
-4.76767
5.12471
-0.71447
2.67765
-0.10706

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newcopd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

13
56
69

3047.71424
7182.96071
10231

234.43956
128.26716

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

11.32551
41.44868
27.32417

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

1.83

0.0610

0.2979
0.1349

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

20.28952
-0.19539
-0.48570
-0.16807
1.12896
-1.52321
1.61922
0.15609
-0.03675
-0.31666
-0.16258
-0.15963
0.29670
-12.50162

30.21802
0.96740
1.67049
1.57222
1.19635
1.66760
1.07314
0.51604
0.81499
0.69463
0.51643
0.66349
0.38927
4.65428

0.67
-0.20
-0.29
-0.11
0.94
-0.91
1.51
0.30
-0.05
-0.46
-0.31
-0.24
0.76
-2.69

0.5047
0.8407
0.7723
0.9153
0.3494
0.3649
0.1370
0.7634
0.9642
0.6502
0.7541
0.8107
0.4491
0.0095

35

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

36

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newcvd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

13
56
69

236190
637924
874114

18168
11391

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

106.73096
321.84619
33.16210

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

1.59

0.1143

0.2702
0.1008

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-193.94372
10.72090
-39.54714
26.74436
22.51034
-24.88893
8.86207
-5.95457
14.62094
-9.52123
-0.69330
-1.42830
-0.95663
39.53147

284.77292
9.11669
15.74261
14.81647
11.27431
15.71541
10.11322
4.86311
7.68038
6.54615
4.86684
6.25265
3.66843
43.86164

-0.68
1.18
-2.51
1.81
2.00
-1.58
0.88
-1.22
1.90
-1.45
-0.14
-0.23
-0.26
0.90

0.4986
0.2446
0.0149
0.0764
0.0507
0.1189
0.3846
0.2259
0.0621
0.1514
0.8872
0.8201
0.7952
0.3713

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newpneu
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

13
56
69

2030.33507
2220.91993
4251.25500

156.17962
39.65928

Root MSE

6.29756

R-Square

F Value

Pr > F

3.94

0.0002

0.4776

37

Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

23.49439
26.80454

Adj R-Sq

0.3563

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

18.99406
0.32595
-0.98947
2.39558
0.19842
-1.37459
-0.47947
0.15236
-0.13786
-0.54554
0.17302
0.29330
-0.30819
-1.39572

16.80276
0.53792
0.92888
0.87423
0.66523
0.92727
0.59672
0.28694
0.45317
0.38625
0.28716
0.36893
0.21645
2.58802

1.13
0.61
-1.07
2.74
0.30
-1.48
-0.80
0.53
-0.30
-1.41
0.60
0.80
-1.42
-0.54

0.2631
0.5470
0.2913
0.0082
0.7666
0.1438
0.4251
0.5975
0.7621
0.1634
0.5493
0.4300
0.1600
0.5918

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newresp
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

13
56
69

7402.54091
11998
19400

569.42622
214.24870

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

14.63724
65.27772
22.42302

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

2.66

0.0058

0.3816
0.2380

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

40.02573
0.12833
-1.50822
2.27612
1.33574
-2.91614
1.12797
0.32036
-0.17657
-0.85262
0.00097820
0.11777
-0.00352
-13.97280

39.05417
1.25028
2.15896
2.03195
1.54617
2.15523
1.38694
0.66693
1.05330
0.89775
0.66745
0.85750
0.50309
6.01525

1.02
0.10
-0.70
1.12
0.86
-1.35
0.81
0.48
-0.17
-0.95
0.00
0.14
-0.01
-2.32

0.3098
0.9186
0.4877
0.2674
0.3913
0.1815
0.4195
0.6329
0.8675
0.3463
0.9988
0.8913
0.9944
0.0238

38

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

39

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 1
Error Matrix (E)
7182.9607091
26200.250916
1232.2889422
8466.6544963

26200.250916
637923.87939
14196.002201
40972.094964

1232.2889422
14196.002201
2220.9199306
3462.4529769

8466.6544963
40972.094964
3462.4529769
11997.927153

Hypothesis Matrix (H)
3047.7142445
14039.341614
1077.2209926
4176.7387357

14039.341614
236190.37383
14183.394107
28582.092475

1077.2209926
14183.394107
2030.3350682
3139.5641502

4176.7387357
28582.092475
3139.5641502
7402.5409062

Multivariate Statistics and F Approximations
S=4
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=4

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.24917223
1.11977412
1.78180977
0.95974748

1.72
1.67
1.77
4.13

52
52
52
13

207.38
224
145.56
56

0.0041
0.0057
0.0042
<.0001

NOTE: F Statistic for Roy's Greatest Root is an upper bound.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

40

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 2
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.96444398
0.03555602
0.03686686
0.03686686

0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.7441
0.7441
0.7441
0.7441

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 3
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.88980204

1.64

4

53

0.1777

41

Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

0.11019796
0.12384548
0.12384548

1.64
1.64
1.64

4
4
4

53
53
53

0.1777
0.1777
0.1777

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

42

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 4
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.84234630
0.15765370
0.18716019
0.18716019

2.48
2.48
2.48
2.48

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.0549
0.0549
0.0549
0.0549

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

43

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 5
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.92653793
0.07346207
0.07928662
0.07928662

1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.3901
0.3901
0.3901
0.3901

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

44

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 6
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.94200591
0.05799409
0.06156447
0.06156447

0.82
0.82
0.82
0.82

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.5209
0.5209
0.5209
0.5209

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 7
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1

M=1

N=25.5

45

Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.91390002
0.08609998
0.09421160
0.09421160

1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.3019
0.3019
0.3019
0.3019

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

46

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 8
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.93289162
0.06710838
0.07193588
0.07193588

0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.4409
0.4409
0.4409
0.4409

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

47

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 9
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.91007588
0.08992412
0.09880948
0.09880948

1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.2785
0.2785
0.2785
0.2785

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

48

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 10
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.93923011
0.06076989
0.06470181
0.06470181

0.86
0.86
0.86
0.86

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.4956
0.4956
0.4956
0.4956

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 11
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics

49

S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.98410336
0.01589664
0.01615343
0.01615343

0.21
0.21
0.21
0.21

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.9295
0.9295
0.9295
0.9295

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

50

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 12
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.97481245
0.02518755
0.02583835
0.02583835

0.34
0.34
0.34
0.34

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.8481
0.8481
0.8481
0.8481

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

51

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 13
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.93532901
0.06467099
0.06914251
0.06914251

0.92
0.92
0.92
0.92

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.4615
0.4615
0.4615
0.4615

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

52

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 14
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=25.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.82519020
0.17480980
0.21184182
0.21184182

2.81
2.81
2.81
2.81

4
4
4
4

53
53
53
53

0.0346
0.0346
0.0346
0.0346

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2

53

Dependent Variable: newcopd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

7
62
69

2691.18077
7539.49419
10231

384.45440
121.60474

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

11.02745
41.44868
26.60508

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

3.16

0.0064

0.2631
0.1798

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

48.11297
0.13659
-0.02778
-0.01593
-0.26565
0.41358
0.69546
-12.27632

2.35922
0.14265
0.45660
0.23089
0.22445
0.26720
0.37992
3.60446

20.39
0.96
-0.06
-0.07
-1.18
1.55
1.83
-3.41

<.0001
0.3420
0.9517
0.9452
0.2411
0.1268
0.0720
0.0012

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Dependent Variable: newcvd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

7
62
69

106907
767207
874114

15272
12374

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

111.23989
321.84619
34.56306

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

1.23

0.2981

0.1223
0.0232

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
PCT1
PCT2

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1

328.24533
0.88349
2.34210

23.79872
1.43895
4.60600

13.79
0.61
0.51

<.0001
0.5415
0.6129

54

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
coast

1
1
1
1
1

0.03544
-4.82485
-0.93247
2.95725
-11.78788

2.32912
2.26414
2.69542
3.83243
36.36016

0.02
-2.13
-0.35
0.77
-0.32

0.9879
0.0371
0.7306
0.4433
0.7469

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

55

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Dependent Variable: newpneu
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

7
62
69

1539.98653
2711.26847
4251.25500

219.99808
43.73014

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

6.61288
23.49439
28.14662

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

5.03

0.0001

0.3622
0.2902

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

24.82633
0.02900
0.27819
-0.04426
-0.38240
-0.36996
-0.24137
-2.45358

1.41476
0.08554
0.27381
0.13846
0.13460
0.16023
0.22783
2.16150

17.55
0.34
1.02
-0.32
-2.84
-2.31
-1.06
-1.14

<.0001
0.7358
0.3136
0.7503
0.0061
0.0243
0.2935
0.2607

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Dependent Variable: newresp
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

7
62
69

6433.51824
12967
19400

919.07403
209.14435

Root MSE
Dependent Mean

14.46182
65.27772

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

4.39

0.0005

0.3316
0.2562

56

Coeff Var

22.15430
Parameter Estimates

Variable
Intercept
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

73.31611
0.16035
0.26899
-0.06609
-0.65850
0.05854
0.46664
-14.80757

3.09397
0.18707
0.59881
0.30280
0.29435
0.35042
0.49824
4.72703

23.70
0.86
0.45
-0.22
-2.24
0.17
0.94
-3.13

<.0001
0.3947
0.6548
0.8280
0.0289
0.8679
0.3526
0.0026

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

57

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 15
Error Matrix (E)
7539.4941866
29085.936933
1285.9646192
8876.7069283

29085.936933
767207.46523
17876.798444
47584.083796

1285.9646192
17876.798444
2711.268467
4013.9030106

8876.7069283
47584.083796
4013.9030106
12966.949821

Hypothesis Matrix (H)
2691.1807669
11153.655597
1023.5453156
3766.6863037

11153.655597
106906.78799
10502.597864
21970.103643

1023.5453156
10502.597864
1539.9865318
2588.1141165

3766.6863037
21970.103643
2588.1141165
6433.5182383

Multivariate Statistics and F Approximations
S=4
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.40016927
0.77299870
1.10449325
0.61881147

2.21
2.12
2.28
5.48

28
28
28
7

214.15
248
138.03
62

0.0008
0.0013
0.0009
<.0001

NOTE: F Statistic for Roy's Greatest Root is an upper bound.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 16
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.95476897
0.04523103
0.04737379

0.70
0.70
0.70

4
4
4

59
59
59

0.5959
0.5959
0.5959

58

Roy's Greatest Root

0.04737379

0.70

4

59

0.5959

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

59

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 17
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.95974123
0.04025877
0.04194752
0.04194752

0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.6509
0.6509
0.6509
0.6509

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

60

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 18
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.98808517
0.01191483
0.01205851
0.01205851

0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.9490
0.9490
0.9490
0.9490

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

61

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 19
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.86059448
0.13940552
0.16198747
0.16198747

2.39
2.39
2.39
2.39

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.0610
0.0610
0.0610
0.0610

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 20
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic

M=1
Value

N=28.5
F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

62

Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

0.82493451
0.17506549
0.21221745
0.21221745

3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.0211
0.0211
0.0211
0.0211

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

63

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 21
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.90040515
0.09959485
0.11061116
0.11061116

1.63
1.63
1.63
1.63

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.1783
0.1783
0.1783
0.1783

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

64

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL2
Multivariate Test 22
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=28.5

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.82627376
0.17372624
0.21025263
0.21025263

3.10
3.10
3.10
3.10

4
4
4
4

59
59
59
59

0.0220
0.0220
0.0220
0.0220

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newcopd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

2
67
69

1982.23971
8248.43524
10231

991.11986
123.11097

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

11.09554
41.44868
26.76934

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

Parameter Estimates

F Value

Pr > F

8.05

0.0007

0.1938
0.1697

65

Variable
Intercept
PCO3
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1

47.53327
0.33993
-11.20846

2.01485
0.25782
2.79424

23.59
1.32
-4.01

<.0001
0.1918
0.0002

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

66

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newcvd
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

2
67
69

27557
846557
874114

13779
12635

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

112.40632
321.84619
34.92548

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

1.09

0.3419

0.0315
0.0026

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
PCO3
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1

340.00412
-1.26673
-33.44881

20.41201
2.61194
28.30781

16.66
-0.48
-1.18

<.0001
0.6293
0.2415

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newpneu
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

2
67
69

973.00012
3278.25487
4251.25500

486.50006
48.92918

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

6.99494
23.49439
29.77281

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

Parameter Estimates

F Value

Pr > F

9.94

0.0002

0.2289
0.2059

67

Variable
Intercept
PCO3
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1

26.28443
-0.37815
-5.13954

1.27022
0.16254
1.76157

20.69
-2.33
-2.92

<.0001
0.0230
0.0048

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

68

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Dependent Variable: newresp
Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Analysis of Variance
Source

DF

Sum of
Squares

Mean
Square

Model
Error
Corrected Total

2
67
69

4813.98986
14586
19400

2406.99493
217.70863

Root MSE
Dependent Mean
Coeff Var

14.75495
65.27772
22.60335

R-Square
Adj R-Sq

F Value

Pr > F

11.06

<.0001

0.2481
0.2257

Parameter Estimates
Variable
Intercept
PCO3
coast

DF

Parameter
Estimate

Standard
Error

t Value

Pr > |t|

1
1
1

74.27432
-0.02208
-16.57268

2.67937
0.34285
3.71581

27.72
-0.06
-4.46

<.0001
0.9488
<.0001

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores
The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 1
Error Matrix (E)
8248.4352399
34443.727254
1428.5761439
9739.9955879

34443.727254
846557.11908
23319.669827
58624.366679

1428.5761439
23319.669827
3278.2548744
4740.3629358

9739.9955879
58624.366679
4740.3629358
14586.478198

Hypothesis Matrix (H)
1982.2397136
5795.8652761
880.93379085
2903.3976441

5795.8652761
27557.134138
5059.7264811
10929.82076

880.93379085
5059.7264811
973.00012443
1861.6541914

Multivariate Statistics and F Approximations
S=2

M=0.5

N=31

2903.3976441
10929.82076
1861.6541914
4813.9898616

69

Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.60171700
0.44493264
0.58438328
0.38078287

4.63
4.65
4.63
6.19

8
8
8
4

128
130
89.135
65

<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
0.0003

NOTE: F Statistic for Roy's Greatest Root is an upper bound.
NOTE: F Statistic for Wilks' Lambda is exact.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

70

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 2
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=31

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.83007961
0.16992039
0.20470373
0.20470373

3.28
3.28
3.28
3.28

4
4
4
4

64
64
64
64

0.0166
0.0166
0.0166
0.0166

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Regression Model Using PC Scores

71

The REG Procedure
Model: MODEL1
Multivariate Test 3
Multivariate Statistics and Exact F Statistics
S=1
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=1

N=31

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.73775886
0.26224114
0.35545645
0.35545645

5.69
5.69
5.69
5.69

4
4
4
4

64
64
64
64

0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006

MULTNORM macro: Univariate and Multivariate Normality Tests
72
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
The MODEL Procedure
Equation
res1
res2
res3
res4
System

Normality Test
Test Statistic

Value

Prob

Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Shapiro-Wilk W
Mardia Skewness
Mardia Kurtosis
Henze-Zirkler T

0.96
0.83
0.97
0.96
137.5
7.52
6.79

0.0580
<.0001
0.2716
0.1260
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001

MULTNORM macro: Chi-square Q-Q plot
73
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Plot of mahdist*chisq.

Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

S
q
u
a
r
e
d
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

30 ˆ




A


25 ˆ






20 ˆ






15 ˆ
A


A
A


A

A

10 ˆ
A

A A

A A




AA
5 ˆ
A A

AAAA

AABAAAA

AABBAA

BBBA

BBCBBBB

A ABABBBB
0 ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Chi-square quantile
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Plots of first two PC's to determine Number of Clusters
Plot of PCT1*PCT2.
PCT1 ‚

40 ˆ




30 ˆ




20 ˆ


Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

A
A

C

A

A
A

AA

A

A A
A

A

A

A

A
A

74


A
10 ˆ

AA
A

A

A
A

A A
A
A
0 ˆ
A
A

A
A A

A B
A
AA

AA
A B A

A A
-10 ˆ
B
A A

A A

AA A A
A

A

AA
A
-20 ˆ
A



B
A

A
-30 ˆ

A



-40 ˆ

Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
PCT2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Plots of first two PC's to determine Number of Clusters
Plot of PCO1*PCO2.
PCO1 ‚

20 ˆ



15 ˆ



10 ˆ



5 ˆ



0 ˆ



-5 ˆ



-10 ˆ



-15 ˆ

Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

A

A
A

A

A
A

A
A
A

A A
A A

A

A

A
A

A

A

A
A

A

A

A

A A
A

A
AA
A

A

B

A
A B

A
A A

A

A

A

A

A

A
A
A

A

A
A

A

A

A
A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

75


A
A


-20 ˆ

A
A

A
A

-25 ˆ

Šˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒ
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
PCO2
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

240.547597
22.153182
5.093025
4.137857
0.937814
0.670003

218.394415
17.060157
0.955167
3.200044
0.267811

0.8794
0.0810
0.0186
0.0151
0.0034
0.0024

0.8794
0.9604
0.9790
0.9941
0.9976
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 6.75203
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 23.38972

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

Kingston

New York

68

Oakland

San Jose

67

Los Angeles

Santa Ana/Anaheim

66

St. Petersburg

Tampa

65

Sacramento

Stockton

64

Modesto

CL65

63

Lincoln

Omaha

62

Cincinnati

Indianapolis

61

Akron

Pittsburgh

60

Johnstown

Syracuse

59

Fort Wayne

Toledo

58

Houston

Lafayette

57

Jersey City

CL69

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0000
1.00
.
.
.
0
0.0000
1.00
.
.
.
0
0.0000
1.00
.
.
.
0
0.0000
1.00
.
.
.
0
0.0000
1.00
.
5429
.
0.0315
0.0000
1.00
.
2192
2.0
0.0419
0.0000
1.00
.
1452
.
0.0487
0.0000
1.00
.
1140
.
0.0507
0.0000
1.00
.
913
.
0.0582
0.0001
1.00
.
776
.
0.0611
0.0001
1.00
.
650
.
0.0712
0.0001
1.00
.
567
.
0.0739
0.0001
1.00
.
476
.
0.0775

T
i
e
T
T
T

76

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures

77

The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

56

ColumbusGA

Jackson

55

CL61

Cleveland

54

Baton Rouge

Lake Charles

53

CL62

ColumbusOH

52

Evansville

Lexington

51

Kansas CityMO

Kansas CityKS

50

Corpus Christi

CL66

49

Little Rock

Memphis

48

CL57

Philadelphia

47

Atlanta

Huntsville

46

Austin

San Antonio

45

Chicago

CL59

44

Charlotte

Knoxville

43

Buffalo

CL60

42

CL56

Shreveport

41

Colorado Springs

Denver

40

CL53

Dayton

39

CL43

Worcester

38

Bakersfield

Fresno

37

CL55

CL45

36

CL54

CL58

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
4
4
2
6
4

0.0001
440
0.0001
400
0.0001
379
0.0001
347
0.0001
329
0.0001
316
0.0002
291
0.0001
282
0.0002
266
0.0002
260
0.0002
256
0.0002
249
0.0002
246
0.0002
240
0.0002
236
0.0002
233
0.0003
226
0.0003
221
0.0002
220
0.0006
202
0.0005
193

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

.
0.0791
.999
.
2.4
0.083
.999
.
.
0.0833
.999
.
3.9
0.0906
.999
.
.
0.0944
.999
.
.
0.0957
.999
.
.
0.1014
.998
.
.
0.1017
.998
.
3.6
0.1041
.998
.
.
0.1045
.998
.
.
0.106
.998
.
2.7
0.1079
.998
.
.
0.1092
.997
.
4.0
0.1096
.997
.
2.4
0.1138
.997
.
.
0.1215
.997
.
3.1
0.124
.996
.
2.1
0.1274
.996
.
.
0.129
.995
.
5.5
0.1379
.995
.
5.3
0.1402
.

.999

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

35

Louisville

St. Louis

.

SPRSQ
PSF

2

0.0003
192

RSQ
PST2
.

.995

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist
.
0.1522

T
i
e

78

34

CL39

Grand Rapids

33

CL64

San Bernardino

32

Arlington

CL35

31

CL42

CL49

30

CL50

Miami

29

Washington

CL51

28

CL29

CL48

27

CL40

CL52

26

CL46

CL36

25

CL47

Nashville

24

CL27

CL28

23

CL37

CL34

22

CL23

Boston

21

CL26

CL30

20

CL25

Oklahoma City

19

CL32

Wichita

18

CL31

El Paso

17

CL19

CL44

16

CL24

CL63

15

CL68

Tacoma

5

.

4

.

3

.

5

.

4

.

3

.

7

.

6

.

6

.
.
.
.
.
.

3
13
11
12
10
4

.

4

.

6

.
.
.

6
15

.

3

0.0005
.994
.
187
2.4
0.1557
0.0006
.994
.
181
26.0
0.1628
0.0004
.993
.
180
1.2
0.1651
0.0008
.992
.
171
5.1
0.1697
0.0006
.992
.
168
5.8
0.1703
0.0006
.991
.
167
4.3
0.1786
0.0013
.990
.
154
6.3
0.1923
0.0012
.989
.
146
8.0
0.1932
0.0011
.988
.
141
5.6
0.1952
0.0007
.987
.
141
4.7
0.2029
0.0032
.984
.
120
8.6
0.2374
0.0034
.980
.
106
15.1
0.2378
0.0011
.979
.
107
2.0
0.2436
0.0034
.976
.
98.2
10.0
0.2596
0.0013
.974
.
100
2.9
0.2649
0.0014
.973
.
102
3.8
0.273
0.0018
.971
.
103
5.8
0.2896
0.0024
.969
.
103
4.1
0.2906
0.0036
.965
.
99.5
6.3
0.3031
0.0021
.963
.
102
.
0.3328

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

14

CL18

Riverside

13

CL17

CL20

12

CL13

CL38

11

CL21

Dallas/Fort Worth

10

CL67

CL33

9

CL11

CL14

8

CL22

CL16

7

Las Vegas

Phoenix

7
2.19
10
1.67
12
1.50
11
1.66
6
1.45
18
-.16
27
-2.5
2
-1.7

SPRSQ
PSF

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0026
.960
.949
104
4.3
0.3515
0.0056
.955
.945
100
6.4
0.3564
0.0046
.950
.941
100
3.6
0.378
0.0033
.947
.936
105
4.9
0.3846
0.0063
.940
.930
105
41.7
0.4115
0.0186
.922
.923
89.9
19.6
0.4564
0.0336
.888
.915
70.4
47.6
0.4669
0.0033
.885
.904
80.8
.
0.4773

T
i
e

79

6

CL8

CL10

5

CL6

CL12

4

CL9

CL7

3

CL41

CL15

2

CL5

CL3

1

CL2

CL4

33
-2.5
45
-5.5
20
-4.6
5
-1.9
50
-1.6
70
0.00

0.0273
.858
.890
77.1
14.6
0.5451
0.0844
.773
.870
55.4
35.3
0.6857
0.0205
.753
.842
67.0
9.9
0.7172
0.0170
.736
.794
93.3
21.7
0.7192
0.1286
.607
.667
105
29.9
1.1237
0.6072
.000
.000
.
105
1.3406

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

3

C
u
b
i
c

2

1

C
l 0
u
s
t
e -1
r
i
n
g -2
C
r
i -3
t
e
r
i -4
o
n
-5

-6

80

Symbol is value of _NCL_.



ˆ



1
ˆ

1 1

1 1

ˆ



ˆ
1

9


ˆ


2

7
ˆ
3


6 8

ˆ



ˆ


4

ˆ


5

ˆ

Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Number of Clusters

NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
11 Clusters, NH method

81

Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
61.53333333
68.32258065
75.90000000
82.41935484
84.96774194
71.36666667
2
58.51666667
64.82258065
71.73333333
74.33870968
74.90322581
73.41666667
3
61.20000000
75.58064516
85.46666667
88.41935484
88.19354839
81.93333333
4
69.63333333
72.19354839
80.03333333
83.12903226
86.12903226
75.50000000
5
66.13333333
80.03225806
89.13333333
91.45161290
93.22580645
87.63333333
6
78.00000000
78.83870968
81.06666667
84.16129032
83.80645161
82.10000000
7
58.81666667
63.38709677
65.66666667
71.51612903
70.09677419
68.60000000
8
49.06666667
61.22580645
69.56666667
74.90322581
68.00000000
62.96666667
9
54.80000000
55.67741935
59.83333333
62.19354839
64.09677419
63.86666667
10
42.53333333
53.48387097
63.03333333
71.32258065
69.03225806
57.90000000
11
53.08888889
62.62365591
73.07777778
80.87096774
75.84946237
69.56666667
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

1.5757

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
10
2.0489
6.0740
2
9.0021
2
5
1.6267
6.2134
1
9.0021
3
2
2.4135
4.1804
4
9.6229
4
9
1.9133
7.2480
6
8.5285
5
1
.
0
3
14.0939
6
8
1.3488
4.5910
4
8.5285
7
2
0
0
2
10.9251
8
12
1.3755
4.3986
11
10.1381
9
3
1.8350
5.1901
10
16.3540
10
2
0.8203
1.4208
8
14.0807
11
16
1.6956
6.6970
2
9.1851
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
TempApril
8.63420
2.21434
0.943760
16.780915
TempMay
6.63611
1.27664
0.968354
30.599945
TempJune
6.05594
1.18205
0.967423
29.696715
TempJuly
5.36010
1.49190
0.933757
14.096017
TempAug
6.95429
1.99991
0.929284
13.141115
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1

Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
TempSep
6.41754
1.69823
0.940123
15.700985
OVER-ALL
6.75203
1.68522
0.946735
17.773921
Pseudo F Statistic =

104.87

82

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.68370

40.670

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
61.29333333
67.76774194
75.58000000
81.32258065
79.92903226
72.01333333
2
58.48422222
65.41397850
71.93466667
75.80795699
75.44688172
73.96733333
3
62.08571429
74.59216590
82.29523810
86.92857143
86.42857143
81.36904762
4
68.48148148
72.94086022
80.05000000
83.06093190
84.98745520
76.18333333
5
66.13333333
80.03225806
89.13333333
91.45161290
93.22580645
87.63333333
6
74.01250000
77.55241936
81.82500000
83.38709677
85.49596774
80.35000000
7
58.81666667
63.38709677
65.66666667
71.51612903
70.09677419
68.60000000
8
49.40740741
60.90501792
70.10648148
76.12455197
69.37544803
64.75648148
9
52.78888889
54.48387096
59.33333333
62.35483871
64.40860215
62.92222222
10
42.56250000
53.90725807
63.22500000
72.24731183
69.83870968
58.44444445
11
54.26666667
63.86525538
72.92465278
80.45430107
75.38340054
67.51701389

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

83

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.913646055
1.099806057
0.968924567
1.806259591
2.311342787
2.438133265
2
0.478633858
1.210382109
1.119676539
2.745233058
1.419320950
1.838046734
3
1.252589154
1.397920776
4.485077303
2.108286117
2.496054354
0.798020511
4
2.826897647
1.568522471
1.074192203
1.507671542
2.452604555
1.438797725
5
.
.
.
.
.
.
6
2.041392110
1.003848326
0.597813477
0.535356156
1.738513236
1.440238076
7
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.000000000
8
1.987346806
1.372243351
0.912962620
1.547813096
1.029836464
1.109235370
9
3.483346622
2.067286447
0.866025404
0.279363029
0.540101864
1.635825767
10
0.041247900
0.598759772
0.271057604
1.307767376
1.140494811
0.769960718
11
1.818220537
1.186113737
1.326198455
1.124188277
2.460072118
1.860887736
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
11 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS

84

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1042.78
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
7 Clusters, NH method
The FASTCLUS Procedure

85

Replace=FULL

Radius=0

Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1

Initial Seeds
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
54.80000000
55.67741935
59.83333333
62.19354839
64.09677419
63.86666667
2
56.20000000
65.45161290
73.30000000
82.51612903
81.48387097
67.23333333
3
62.97142857
73.60368664
79.12380952
85.43778802
84.66359447
80.80476190
4
78.00000000
78.83870968
81.06666667
84.16129032
83.80645161
82.10000000
5
58.81666667
63.38709677
65.66666667
71.51612903
70.09677419
68.60000000
6
42.53333333
53.48387097
63.03333333
71.32258065
69.03225806
57.90000000
7
66.13333333
80.03225806
89.13333333
91.45161290
93.22580645
87.63333333
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

2.2976

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
3
1.8350
5.1901
6
16.9724
2
24
2.3985
9.8498
5
10.1841
3
11
2.1764
8.3718
4
11.4727
4
11
1.7302
8.3212
3
11.4727
5
12
2.3120
8.2913
6
8.8515
6
7
2.5393
7.8255
5
8.8515
7
2
3.2224
11.1628
4
14.6483
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
TempApril
8.63420
2.78129
0.905259
9.555044
TempMay
6.63611
1.92274
0.923351
12.046466
TempJune
6.05594
1.82038
0.917501
11.121329
TempJuly
5.36010
2.29335
0.832857
4.982899
TempAug
6.95429
1.99256
0.925044
12.341137
TempSep
6.41754
2.62731
0.846970
5.534684
OVER-ALL
6.75203
2.26858
0.896930
8.702160
Pseudo F Statistic =

91.37

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.58008

39.048

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
52.78888889
54.48387096
59.33333333
62.35483871
64.40860215
62.92222222
2
56.73606482
65.16173835
73.49912037
79.77585125
76.49923835
70.17861111

86

3
4
5
6
7

65.65952381
73.15000000
52.47962963
46.04960317
63.66666667

71.00795978
76.74340176
62.04569892
58.40514593
77.80645161

78.23549784
81.62878788
69.98240741
67.60396826
87.30000000

82.47821533
83.41495601
76.88799283
74.07680492
89.93548387

83.22748220
85.96041056
70.68548387
69.03993855
90.70967742

74.88679654
79.65757576
65.55462963
62.81904762
84.78333333

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
3.483346622
2.067286447
0.866025404
0.279363029
0.540101864
1.635825767
2
2.668725412
1.621903295
1.547236310
2.729201535
2.271558855
3.124588994
3
2.778721179
2.091273831
1.828891790
1.718547848
1.995731202
2.458299229
4
2.467668717
1.645010344
0.720034372
1.099193038
2.034859621
1.816289924
5
3.163535874
1.423777322
2.167531337
2.999754590
1.712476269
1.845876640
6
2.546336244
3.184729020
3.032364374
1.564019412
0.885878696
3.104395624
7
3.488393451
3.147765669
2.592724860
2.144130237
3.558343799
4.030508653
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperatures
7 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS

87

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
2217.25
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Plot of first 2 PCs: Clustered by Temp
Plot of PCT1*PCT2.
PCT1 ‚

40 ˆ




30 ˆ




20 ˆ




10 ˆ




0 ˆ




-10 ˆ


Symbol is value of CLUSTER.

1
4

4

4

4
4

44

4

7 7
7
88
8 8

5 5
3

5

4

7

7

7

7
8

8
8
8
1

1

8
1

8
8

8

1
11
1
1 1

6 6
66 6 6
6

11
1 1
1 1
6

88


66
6
-20 ˆ
6



2
9

9
-30 ˆ

2



-40 ˆ

Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
PCT2
NOTE: 6 obs hidden.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

city
Cincinnati
ColumbusOH
Dayton
Evansville
Indianapolis
Jersey City
Kansas CityKS
Kansas CityMO
Kingston
Lexington
Lincoln
New York
Omaha
Philadelphia
Washington
Oakland
San Jose
Tacoma
Los Angeles
Santa Ana/Anaheim
Austin
Baton Rouge
Corpus Christi
Dallas/Fort Worth
Houston
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Miami
San Antonio
St. Petersburg
Tampa
Modesto
Sacramento
San Bernardino
Stockton
Akron
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cleveland
Fort Wayne
Grand Rapids
Johnstown

Temp
April

TempMay

55.3000
55.1667
53.8333
58.0000
55.2667
53.5667
53.6667
54.8000
53.0889
56.7000
51.0667
53.0889
51.5556
53.8000
53.1667
54.8000
54.8000
48.7667
58.8167
58.8167
72.0000
72.0333
74.9000
68.2833
73.1667
73.4000
72.2333
78.0000
71.4333
74.6000
74.6000
58.5167
58.3267
59.2889
58.2222
51.4000
49.4000
46.1333
49.8000
50.5667
51.5000
49.0667
47.8000

63.7742
65.0323
63.8065
65.6452
64.5484
63.5484
64.3387
63.6452
62.6237
65.5161
61.8710
62.6237
62.2581
64.1613
63.0000
55.6774
55.6774
52.0968
63.3871
63.3871
76.6452
74.7419
78.8387
73.8871
76.7742
76.9032
75.1290
78.8387
76.3548
78.0323
78.0323
64.8226
64.2581
66.7957
64.5484
61.6129
58.4194
59.8387
61.8710
61.2581
62.5806
61.2258
60.3226

Temp
June
73.2667
74.7333
72.7333
74.7667
74.0000
74.3667
72.6167
71.7667
73.0778
73.6667
70.4000
73.0778
70.8222
73.1000
71.1000
59.8333
59.8333
58.3333
65.6667
65.6667
81.9667
80.5000
82.9667
82.1167
82.1667
81.5667
80.7000
81.0667
82.0667
81.4000
81.4000
71.7333
71.2067
71.2667
71.5667
70.0667
71.2000
68.5667
70.5667
70.4000
71.6333
69.5667
69.7667

Temp
July
79.1935
80.3548
78.6452
79.6452
79.5161
81.0968
82.0000
81.1613
80.8710
79.8065
80.8387
80.8710
80.6882
81.3871
78.6774
62.1935
62.1935
62.6774
71.5161
71.5161
83.4516
81.8710
82.9355
86.0484
83.3226
82.5161
82.5484
84.1613
83.0968
83.8065
83.8065
74.3387
73.6258
76.7312
74.1183
76.0968
76.0323
74.5806
78.5806
76.4194
78.6129
74.9032
76.0000

89

TempAug

TempSep

CLUSTER

CLUSNAME

72.9677
73.3226
71.5806
74.6129
72.6129
76.5484
77.8871
76.5484
75.8495
75.9355
74.1935
75.8495
73.3548
77.7097
75.6774
64.0968
64.0968
65.0323
70.0968
70.0968
88.5161
85.2903
84.3871
90.2097
87.0968
85.7419
86.0968
83.8065
86.4194
84.0000
84.0000
74.9032
74.4387
75.5054
74.5161
68.4516
71.6452
68.0645
70.5484
69.3548
69.7419
68.0000
69.0968

67.0667
68.1000
67.0000
68.5000
67.2667
69.5333
65.8167
65.9667
69.5667
68.9333
64.1333
69.5667
64.0889
70.1667
67.3333
63.8667
63.8667
61.0333
68.6000
68.6000
81.6667
76.3000
79.8000
79.2667
78.1667
78.4333
77.8667
82.1000
80.5667
81.0333
81.0333
73.4167
73.2867
72.8778
73.0222
63.7333
67.3667
64.4667
63.6667
65.1667
64.5667
62.9667
64.9333

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL15
CL15
CL15
CL67
CL67
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL33
CL33
CL33
CL33
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22

44
45
46
47
48
49

Pittsburgh
Syracuse
Toledo
Worcester
ColumbusGA
El Paso

52.1000
46.8333
50.9000
47.3889
68.2667
63.4333

61.2581
60.9032
62.8387
58.7312
71.8548
74.3548

69.6000
69.9667
71.0333
68.9111
78.3667
80.2333

76.2581
75.1613
77.4516
73.3978
82.0323
81.3226

69.1935
69.0968
69.9677
69.3441
84.3387
81.4839

64.4000
65.1000
65.3333
65.3778
75.0833
75.6667

6
6
6
6
7
7

CL22
CL22
CL22
CL22
CL14
CL14

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

city
Jackson
Little Rock
Memphis
Riverside
Shreveport
Arlington
Atlanta
Bakersfield
Charlotte
Fresno
Huntsville
Knoxville
Louisville
Nashville
Oklahoma City
St. Louis
Wichita
Colorado Springs
Denver
Las Vegas
Phoenix

Temp
April

TempMay

69.5000
65.6833
67.2667
62.9714
69.6333
56.7667
65.3667
58.0667
62.2333
58.7333
65.7667
61.4000
59.5000
62.8333
61.5333
58.8000
56.2000
42.5333
42.5917
61.2000
66.1333

71.7742
71.1129
71.4194
73.6037
72.1935
67.4839
69.1290
66.6452
65.9677
68.2258
69.4194
66.3871
67.8065
67.9032
68.3226
67.0323
65.4516
53.4839
54.3306
75.5806
80.0323

Temp
June
79.7000
78.9000
79.9000
79.1238
80.0333
74.9333
75.1667
73.9000
73.6333
76.2000
76.4667
75.1333
76.5000
76.8000
75.9000
75.0667
73.3000
63.0333
63.4167
85.4667
89.1333

Temp
July
82.1935
84.4677
83.9355
85.4378
83.1290
83.2258
79.3871
80.2258
79.0645
80.7097
80.7419
78.8387
83.4839
82.1935
82.4194
83.1613
82.5161
71.3226
73.1720
88.4194
91.4516

TempAug

TempSep

84.2258
84.2097
82.9032
84.6636
86.1290
79.9032
82.1290
77.8710
79.6774
78.6452
80.8387
78.0000
78.7742
79.6129
84.9677
76.7419
81.4839
69.0323
70.6452
88.1935
93.2258

75.3667
75.1667
75.4333
80.8048
75.5000
70.2667
73.3000
77.2333
69.3667
77.4333
74.0333
70.1000
72.2667
72.0333
71.3667
69.9667
67.2333
57.9000
58.9889
81.9333
87.6333

CLUSTER
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
10
11

CLUSNAME
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL41
CL41
Las Vegas
Phoenix

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

91.4204695
57.3022716
29.5715640
12.4121490
7.7661461
3.5804341

34.1181979
27.7307075
17.1594150
4.6460029
4.1857120

0.4525
0.2836
0.1464
0.0614
0.0384
0.0177

0.4525
0.7361
0.8824
0.9438
0.9823
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 5.80306
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 20.10239

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

St. Petersburg

Tampa

68

Cleveland

Dayton

67

Oakland

San Jose

.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2

0.0001
242
0.0001
190
0.0002
136

RSQ
PST2
1.00

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

.
0.0648
1.00
.
.
0.0815
1.00
.
.
0.1109
.

90

T
i
e

91

66

Akron

CL68

65

Sacramento

Stockton

64

Riverside

San Bernardino

63

Denver

Phoenix

62

Atlanta

Memphis

61

Kansas CityMO

St. Louis

60

CL67

Tacoma

59

Buffalo

Syracuse

58

Fort Wayne

Indianapolis

57

CL61

Louisville

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3

0.0004
.999
.
78.8
4.6
0.1572
0.0004
.999
.
65.0
.
0.1703
0.0005
.998
.
56.8
.
0.1804
0.0005
.998
.
50.7
.
0.1945
0.0006
.997
.
46.9
.
0.1976
0.0006
.997
.
44.3
.
0.201
0.0008
.996
.
40.3
4.6
0.2134
0.0007
.995
.
38.2
.
0.2263
0.0008
.994
.
36.3
.
0.2405
0.0009
.993
.
34.4
1.6
0.2412

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

56

El Paso

Los Angeles

55

Bakersfield

Fresno

54

CL63

Kansas CityKS

53

Little Rock

Shreveport

52

CL66

Toledo

51

Houston

Lafayette

50

Oklahoma City

Wichita

49

ColumbusGA

Jackson

48

CL52

Cincinnati

47

Modesto

CL65

46

CL59

Pittsburgh

45

CL56

Santa Ana/Anaheim

44

Boston

Worcester

43

Evansville

Lexington

42

Colorado Springs

Kingston

41

CL60

CL69

40

Jersey City

Philadelphia

39

CL51

San Antonio

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
3
2
4
2
2
2
5
3
3
3
2
2
2
5
2
3

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0009
.992
.
33.1
.
0.253
0.0009
.991
.
32.1
.
0.2559
0.0012
.990
.
30.6
2.2
0.267
0.0011
.989
.
29.8
.
0.271
0.0017
.987
.
27.9
6.1
0.2878
0.0012
.986
.
27.3
.
0.2926
0.0013
.985
.
26.7
.
0.2985
0.0014
.984
.
26.2
.
0.3125
0.0019
.982
.
25.1
2.5
0.3153
0.0018
.980
.
24.4
4.2
0.3158
0.0017
.978
.
23.9
2.3
0.3196
0.0017
.976
.
23.6
1.8
0.3211
0.0015
.975
.
23.5
.
0.3262
0.0016
.973
.
23.5
.
0.3302
0.0017
.972
.
23.5
.
0.3386
0.0036
.968
.
22.0
10.2
0.3407
0.0018
.966
.
22.0
.
0.3544
0.0022
.964
.
21.9
1.7
0.3652

T
i
e

92

38

Arlington

New York

37

Chicago

Johnstown

36

CL48

CL58

2

.

2

.

7

.

0.0020
.962
.
22.0
.
0.3681
0.0020
.960
.
22.1
.
0.3757
0.0041
.956
.
21.1
4.2
0.3763

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone

93

The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

35

Las Vegas

CL64

34

Huntsville

Nashville

33

Dallas/Fort Worth

CL53

32

CL62

CL49

31

CL57

Knoxville

30

Austin

Lake Charles

29

CL54

CL45

28

CL44

CL42

27

Lincoln

CL41

26

CL36

CL37

25

CL40

Washington

24

CL43

CL31

23

CL30

CL39

22

CL29

CL47

21

CL26

Grand Rapids

20

CL33

CL50

19

CL21

ColumbusOH

18

CL20

CL34

17

CL22

CL35

16

Charlotte

CL24

15

Corpus Christi

Miami

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

3
2
3
4
4
2
6
4
6
9
3
6
5
9
10
5
11
7
12
7
2

0.0027
21.0
0.0022
21.2
0.0027
21.3
0.0036
21.0
0.0033
20.9
0.0025
21.3
0.0053
20.7
0.0036
20.7
0.0039
20.8
0.0057
20.4
0.0034
20.8
0.0054
20.7
0.0047
20.9
0.0079
20.4
0.0043
20.9
0.0071
20.8
0.0053
21.3
0.0070
21.5
0.0127
20.8
0.0065
21.5
0.0048
22.5

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

.
0.382
.951
.
.
0.3899
.948
.
2.5
0.3965
.945
.
3.7
0.3988
.942
.
4.3
0.4097
.939
.
.
0.4143
.934
.
4.9
0.4144
.930
.
2.2
0.4223
.926
.
3.4
0.4422
.921
.
3.6
0.4548
.917
.
1.9
0.4551
.912
.
3.4
0.4553
.907
.
2.4
0.4655
.899
.
4.7
0.4665
.895
.
2.0
0.4781
.888
.
4.2
0.519
.883
.
2.2
0.5219
.876
.
2.4
0.5384
.863
.
5.6
0.5543
.856
.
2.8
0.573
.852
.
.
0.5748
5.6

.953

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Cluster History

94

NCL

-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

14

CL38

CL46

13

CL19

CL14

12

CL32

CL16

11

CL23

Baton Rouge

10

CL28

CL27

9

CL12

Omaha

8

CL18

CL17

7

CL11

CL15

6

CL13

CL9

5

CL55

CL25

4

CL6

CL10

3

CL5

CL8

2

CL4

CL3

1

CL2

CL7

5
0.70
16
-.27
11
-.93
6
-.53
10
-1.2
12
-.56
19
-2.4
8
-2.2
28
-4.8
5
-4.2
38
-5.3
24
-3.4
62
-4.1
70
0.00

SPRSQ
PSF

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

0.0109
.841
.833
22.7
7.4
0.6126
0.0222
.818
.822
21.4
7.5
0.6411
0.0209
.798
.809
20.8
7.9
0.6494
0.0088
.789
.796
22.0
3.3
0.66
0.0253
.763
.781
21.5
13.2
0.6872
0.0099
.754
.763
23.3
2.2
0.7162
0.0558
.698
.743
20.4
16.7
0.802
0.0228
.675
.719
21.8
5.7
0.8471
0.0950
.580
.689
17.7
20.8
0.8789
0.0246
.555
.651
20.3
12.0
0.8849
0.0854
.470
.600
19.5
12.1
0.8964
0.0475
.422
.522
24.5
7.3
0.9117
0.2127
.210
.354
18.0
24.0
1.0401
0.2097
.000
.000
.
18.0
1.2794

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

C
u
b
i
c
C
l
u
s
t
e
r
i
n
g
C
r
i
t


1 ˆ





0 ˆ





-1 ˆ





-2 ˆ





-3 ˆ



1

1
9 1

1

7
8

3

1

1

Symbol is value of _NCL_.

95

e

r -4 ˆ
i

2 5
o

n



6
-5 ˆ


4



-6 ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Number of Clusters
NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=3 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-3.30958634
3.98311820
8.52224439
7.12891093
-6.89333214
-9.57197828
2
8.26810673
2.13984674
-5.59714122 -11.35809613
9.27459675
11.64296533
3
4.01150951
12.98353884
14.80178876
16.41516523
9.86961223
13.51574845
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

4.1148

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
30
3.9221
13.4133
3
14.6635
2
18
4.7236
18.9730
1
17.7182
3
22
4.1250
14.1240
1
14.6635
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3April
4.87097
4.10453
0.310519
0.450366
O3May
3.80274
2.50816
0.577582
1.367326
O3June
5.97917
3.74635
0.618793
1.623244
O3July
7.59798
4.60614
0.643135
1.802182
O3Aug
6.53520
5.64898
0.274483
0.378328
O3Sep
5.26091
3.95173
0.452128
0.825245
OVER-ALL
5.80306
4.20153
0.490991
0.964602
Pseudo F Statistic =

32.31

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =

0.36687

96

Cubic Clustering Criterion =

6.061

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

97

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=3 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-0.20307758
4.07192245
5.82244924
6.77264454
1.17191651
-2.95667761
2
4.52865729
5.80365272
-2.57800579
-5.11282431
5.92576272
4.39970909
3
5.69458179
10.71848511
9.64068091
10.34498617
9.01809097
3.91036012
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.994072144
2.452057404
3.807017439
3.966595612
4.553170323
3.222263526
2
4.204102492
2.707159103
3.032091341
4.789332229
7.868298195
3.850926801
3
2.236205285
2.415563775
4.161942614
5.233977516
4.802547642
4.845580928
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS

98

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
7111.38
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
5 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=5 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-3.30958634
3.98311820
8.52224439
7.12891093
-6.89333214
-9.57197828
2
-2.24268385
3.42536915
0.23333572
-1.43411370
11.69564504
1.00111745
3
8.86449487
15.79199284
15.30057713
5.32796804
5.59274612
-0.30986960
4
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
5
2.01369361
10.12843346
14.03764848
13.96454628
9.53565765
16.27516873
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.6648

Cluster Summary

Cluster

Frequency

RMS Std
Deviation

Maximum Distance
from Seed
to Observation

Radius
Exceeded

Nearest
Cluster

Distance Between
Cluster Centroids

99

ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
21
3.3848
12.2849
3
13.6787
2
18
4.4022
17.2345
4
15.7258
3
16
3.3962
13.9199
5
11.3517
4
11
3.7464
11.7913
2
15.7258
5
4
3.8702
12.1822
3
11.3517
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3April
4.87097
3.50504
0.512225
1.050124
O3May
3.80274
2.66327
0.537938
1.164213
O3June
5.97917
3.26968
0.718296
2.549819
O3July
7.59798
4.75557
0.630961
1.709739
O3Aug
6.53520
4.22203
0.606822
1.543377
O3Sep
5.26091
3.75839
0.519221
1.079956
OVER-ALL
5.80306
3.75579
0.605405
1.534242
Pseudo F Statistic =

24.93

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =

0.51809

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 100
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
5 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=5 Maxiter=1

Cubic Clustering Criterion =

5.195

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-1.37261200
3.66326749
7.32669792
8.37155670
0.52532044
-3.91449985
2
1.64288672
5.60831177
0.69776353
0.08985295
11.20782635
3.92822043
3
6.46443827
10.64547646
9.91652553
9.51041115
6.76657723
1.56084536
4
7.37065246
6.40253442
-3.10617794
-4.84578661
-1.90386415
2.16274421
5
3.86225122
10.94909096
12.36187552
15.61380618
10.03097306
9.81379379
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.436830395
2.204788517
3.346896460
3.486642350
3.757750292
2.591409946
2
4.047557712
3.525714219
3.169695819
5.301443896
5.382104031
4.510351631
3
2.149778708
2.792820385
3.462461526
4.995105759
3.198001249
3.100799417
4
1.992242725
1.730462649
3.115685245
5.848870468
4.021864110
4.142337911
5
2.402521820
1.361128457
2.778883533
3.302557782
4.783516207
6.382205181
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 101
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
5 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS

ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
5640.93
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 102
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.06688135
5.12388166
11.97256249
21.14757640
9.28659646
-2.58668876
2
-3.30958634
3.98311820
8.52224439
7.12891093
-6.89333214
-9.57197828
3
5.96883894
11.14634118
2.94742139
6.26571927
20.34200926
5.51697099
4
8.86449487
15.79199284
15.30057713
5.32796804
5.59274612
-0.30986960
5
2.01369361
10.12843346
14.03764848
13.96454628
9.53565765
16.27516873
6
-0.40624116
0.81119803
-0.80711924
4.54770896
-1.08807176
6.44134763
7
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.4034

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
8
3.6501
12.0363
4
12.3583
2
14
2.9824
11.5876
6
12.6695
3
8
3.5398
13.3005
6
13.1548
4
13
2.7978
9.8745
1
12.3583
5
3
3.0132
7.9883
4
12.9437
6
16
3.9889
11.7918
2
12.6695
7
8
3.8285
15.7380
6
14.1402
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3April
4.87097
3.90818
0.412226
0.701335
O3May
3.80274
2.77176
0.514925
1.061538
O3June
5.97917
2.63120
0.823186
4.655660
O3July
7.59798
3.29188
0.828611
4.834682
O3Aug
6.53520
4.31568
0.601827
1.511472
O3Sep
5.26091
3.47637
0.601322
1.508292
OVER-ALL
5.80306
3.45028
0.677236
2.098240
Pseudo F Statistic =

22.03

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 103
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

5.259

0.59957

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
1.25194369
6.27621403
10.64438574
16.43691346
6.75613013
-1.59201189
2
-0.92859996
3.59488084
7.99777370
7.33803545
-1.20594602
-4.65707045
3
2.80439454
6.98237597
2.10474696
2.89753242
15.96437469
4.04872784
4
6.89865845
11.23352997
9.45713320
7.45510164
6.69291103
2.17356838
5
4.41013437
11.17363991
12.47357236
14.20321659
7.97560399
12.42350471
6
1.07504956
5.12323397
0.47084355
0.76563573
3.77020191
0.77926428
7
7.64253012
5.56306129
-5.18681072
-8.80575147
0.51006816
5.50906065
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
3.815392153
3.490876049
2.378852816
3.052768390
5.530930456
2.761349245
2
4.932208160
2.193674268
2.428324794
1.968586953
2.925368817
2.428952433
3
3.250716101
3.252401724
2.567536739
3.426180248
2.910498198
5.218806262
4
1.937112654
2.568467482
3.663109917
2.374145409
2.843290457
3.078799117
5
2.618608595
1.573681236
3.392408206
2.102796675
2.995962130
4.498362815
6
5.135403795
3.194126421
2.025326436
4.326755314
5.269868944
2.881014290
7
1.502757850
1.887672663
2.006388596
4.269784959
6.061095442
4.809473248
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 104
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
4864.81
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 105
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
9 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=9 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
8.75283294
8.21885676
-0.00513983
1.68478128
-3.94270346
-1.07305408
2
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
3
5.96883894
11.14634118
2.94742139
6.26571927
20.34200926
5.51697099
4
8.26810673
2.13984674
-5.59714122 -11.35809613
9.27459675
11.64296533
5
4.01150951
12.98353884
14.80178876
16.41516523
9.86961223
13.51574845
6
4.48912974
13.43180690
0.16090450
-3.64721296
8.20881388
3.44726784
7
4.06688135
5.12388166
11.97256249
21.14757640
9.28659646
-2.58668876
8
-5.91670883
-1.55883656
9.12688041
8.06928022
-0.38384097
-3.32774353
9
8.86449487
15.79199284
15.30057713
5.32796804
5.59274612
-0.30986960
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =
Cluster Summary

2.9420

Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
12
3.5213
11.4839
8
13.0045
2
2
3.3359
5.7779
4
14.2735
3
5
2.5549
7.2640
6
12.4498
4
4
2.2664
5.6117
6
12.6695
5
3
3.0132
7.9883
9
12.5150
6
8
2.9851
8.6343
3
12.4498
7
7
3.4787
9.9324
9
11.9530
8
18
3.2438
12.9188
1
13.0045
9
11
2.6511
10.2040
7
11.9530
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3April
4.87097
2.70501
0.727362
2.667867
O3May
3.80274
2.60711
0.584468
1.406551
O3June
5.97917
3.37796
0.717832
2.543992
O3July
7.59798
2.95157
0.866590
6.495668
O3Aug
6.53520
3.84097
0.694617
2.274577
O3Sep
5.26091
3.02915
0.706910
2.411918
OVER-ALL
5.80306
3.11355
0.745505
2.929354
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 106
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
9 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=9 Maxiter=1

Pseudo F Statistic =

22.34

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.65542

6.644

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
7.09671412
5.80823047
1.95068875
2.91728846
-1.41213621
-0.40667652
2
6.73614450
6.33473816
-6.86289131 -12.66860511
-6.61350101
2.69328726
3
4.14640229
8.84607284
2.59942184
4.06500615
17.62368070
6.76560179
4
7.02342693
4.47806879
-4.48030574
-9.91927649
5.54248032
8.95430358
5
4.41013437
11.17363991
12.47357236
14.20321659
7.97560399
12.42350471
6
1.09874471
5.73519245
-0.37928667
-2.84780007
9.71589421
2.66212463
7
2.25565093
6.69491908
11.20023032
16.86562694
6.55363531
-0.88751870
8
-3.24204291
3.48350440
6.13523080
7.04665691
1.68218503
-3.96840747
9
6.70841642
11.72265832
10.21670856
7.60850509
7.48134490
2.31337570
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.986954364
2.700008859
4.743887698
3.799293203
2.646506989
3.773629563
2
1.058090131
2.050120045
2.328964990
0.531554321
2.198752326
7.134734461
3
1.402965098
2.278399434
2.425237216
3.639739580
2.354371490
2.707947965
4
0.870833345
1.884868362
2.227655916
2.455765274
3.277525013
2.184521450
5
2.618608595
1.573681236
3.392408206
2.102796675
2.995962130
4.498362815

6
7
8
9

3.958574969
2.753317399
2.725690209
2.043062526

3.633564959
3.546968885
1.942719792
2.485592110

2.324302830
1.928325959
3.445345603
3.460027213

2.571176241
3.026087409
2.727510740
2.544380846

2.987359060
5.941970905
4.964051672
2.290962059

1.911492449
2.064862845
2.824853239
2.850258697

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 107
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
9 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
3635.23
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 108
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-3.30958634
3.98311820
8.52224439
7.12891093
-6.89333214
-9.57197828
2
-8.25527047
1.06793709
2.06343332
2.70012585
2.64255828
-0.43247144
3
5.96883894
11.14634118
2.94742139
6.26571927
20.34200926
5.51697099
4
8.26810673
2.13984674
-5.59714122 -11.35809613
9.27459675
11.64296533
5
2.01369361
10.12843346
14.03764848
13.96454628
9.53565765
16.27516873
6
4.48912974
13.43180690
0.16090450
-3.64721296
8.20881388
3.44726784
7
8.75283294
8.21885676
-0.00513983
1.68478128
-3.94270346
-1.07305408
8
4.06688135
5.12388166
11.97256249
21.14757640
9.28659646
-2.58668876
9
0.53066296
2.74408439
4.20306990
3.62915275
12.72652324
-6.93428130
10
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
11
8.86449487
15.79199284
15.30057713
5.32796804
5.59274612
-0.30986960
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

2.7245

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
11
2.8285
10.0096
2
9.2142
2
8
2.6940
9.9624
1
9.2142
3
5
2.5549
7.2640
9
12.8845
4
4
2.2664
5.6117
6
10.4025
5
4
3.3857
8.5462
11
10.8253
6
5
2.9641
7.5750
9
9.0370
7
8
2.6678
8.0140
2
14.0015
8
8
3.6501
12.0124
11
12.3746
9
4
2.7489
9.7050
6
9.0370
10
2
3.3359
5.7779
4
14.2735
11
11
2.6389
9.7479
5
10.8253
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug

4.87097
3.80274
5.97917
7.59798
6.53520

3.05149
2.47022
2.96705
2.50061
3.30080

0.664420
0.639189
0.789443
0.907381
0.781866

1.979917
1.771535
3.749309
9.796941
3.584334

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 109
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1
Statistics for Variables

Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3Sep
5.26091
2.88092
0.743585
2.899921
OVER-ALL
5.80306
2.87706
0.789822
3.757866
Pseudo F Statistic =

22.17

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.69873

8.009

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-1.09268516
3.46514677
8.64175868
8.11577446
-1.01048508
-5.04955317
2
-3.48425008
3.06246315
2.43870700
5.05249131
2.63728193
-0.82443600
3
4.14640229
8.84607284
2.59942184
4.06500615
17.62368070
6.76560179
4
7.02342693
4.47806879
-4.48030574
-9.91927649
5.54248032
8.95430358
5
4.98540518
10.36442721
10.85269907
12.63935970
7.05165975
11.32672332
6
2.72686671
6.85666709
-1.04563577
-4.25233241
8.95112472
3.60972339
7
8.07341687
6.94058169
0.39950800
0.96214565
-2.51325451
-0.75772415
8
1.25194369
6.27621403
10.64438574
16.43691346
6.75613013
-1.59201189
9
-1.07842822
3.58557214
1.59923885
0.52710356
11.42451333
-0.92147529
10
6.73614450
6.33473816
-6.86289131 -12.66860511
-6.61350101
2.69328726
11
6.76679150
11.74399646
10.13768412
7.55794238
7.32469658
2.06903749

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 110
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.469460589
2.302012577
2.228338570
1.290021061
3.110606160
2.533996015
2
3.044371546
1.599552755
1.893820845
1.690314861
3.670540899
3.435289684
3
1.402965098
2.278399434
2.425237216
3.639739580
2.354371490
2.707947965
4
0.870833345
1.884868362
2.227655916
2.455765274
3.277525013
2.184521450
5
2.427993678
2.066466188
4.263942985
3.567972726
3.065705668
4.278071573
6
3.846352978
4.252022685
1.863006008
2.161245966
2.998710843
1.645390578
7
2.202958792
1.635527457
4.439329167
2.928916538
1.965294863
1.739311787
8
3.815392153
3.490876049
2.378852816
3.052768390
5.530930456
2.761349245

9
10
11

2.491516828
1.058090131
2.052303188

1.193803886
2.050120045
2.450602601

3.002951501
2.328964990
3.574254784

2.169497532
0.531554321
2.542489940

2.643428349
2.198752326
2.573278076

4.122293824
7.134734461
2.388372016

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 111
Clustering based on Monthly Average Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
3117.59
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 112
Plot of first 2 PCs: Clustered by Ozone
Plot of PCO1*PCO2.

Symbol is value of CLUSTER.

PCO1 ‚

20 ˆ


9
9

15 ˆ
9

2
5


2 2
5
10 ˆ
2 2
3 3

2

2
3
3

2
3 3
5 ˆ
2
2
22

8
8
6

2
2
3
3
6

2
4 8 4
3 3
3
6
0 ˆ
2
6

8 4
4

4

4
6
-5 ˆ
1
6

1
1
1
4 4
6


1
7
-10 ˆ

4

4
7

11
-15 ˆ

7
7


-20 ˆ

7
7

1
1

-25 ˆ

Šˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒ
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
PCO2
NOTE: 2 obs hidden.

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 113
Cities in their Clusters
Obs city
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Lincoln
Oakland
San Jose
St. Petersburg
Tacoma
Tampa
Akron
Arlington
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
ColumbusOH
Dayton
Fort Wayne
Grand Rapids
Indianapolis
Johnstown
New York
Pittsburgh
Syracuse
Toledo
Denver
El Paso
Kansas CityKS
Las Vegas
Los Angeles
Modesto
Phoenix
Riverside
Sacramento
San Bernardino
Santa Ana/Anaheim
Stockton
Atlanta
Charlotte
ColumbusGA
Evansville
Jackson
Kansas CityMO
Knoxville
Lexington
Louisville
Memphis
St. Louis
Bakersfield
Fresno
Dallas/Fort Worth
Huntsville
Little Rock

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

3.05017
9.22982
8.75283
9.64822
7.19013
9.92602
-2.59742
-5.77401
2.51458
1.25153
-3.08945
-4.30625
-3.24023
-3.47475
-4.89325
-3.30959
-6.14490
0.84099
-0.85701
-0.36179
1.04130
-5.91671
6.96790
9.70463
4.28449
8.86449
5.58612
7.20520
7.66572
5.01962
6.71122
3.62120
9.37348
7.35334
-4.00079
0.53066
-2.64460
-8.25527
0.10213
-1.13202
1.39910
-6.40648
-1.95398
-2.24268
-0.48566
2.01369
4.01151
3.47606
3.96797
2.31853

3.8878
8.3519
8.2189
6.5928
5.7665
7.3299
2.9776
3.3453
9.0380
6.0385
3.1260
3.4514
5.2574
2.9661
2.5078
3.9831
2.6241
7.3021
0.3905
4.9377
6.9690
-1.5588
12.1597
9.3137
10.5564
15.7920
10.9744
10.4089
11.8096
14.2865
7.9368
12.9680
14.2964
8.1715
2.8535
2.7441
2.9716
1.0679
3.5189
5.7234
5.3193
3.4592
3.5216
3.4254
4.1664
10.1284
12.9835
5.2499
9.1020
8.3827

0.5766
0.9472
-0.0051
-5.1627
-1.5010
-4.6847
9.3160
6.7535
13.3186
7.6226
4.7007
9.1086
14.5176
8.3600
6.7268
8.5222
4.6211
5.8602
7.4703
10.6607
12.5221
9.1269
8.0521
7.6609
7.0183
15.3006
9.0467
8.5813
8.4950
15.4135
5.9901
15.0344
10.1229
5.1208
-1.9897
4.2031
-2.1978
2.0634
-2.0668
0.9810
3.9502
3.4754
3.0344
0.2333
1.4408
14.0376
14.8018
1.2840
6.4593
2.2919

1.2496
1.2300
1.6848
-2.3514
-0.3845
-3.0803
10.1753
13.4359
15.9207
7.0373
5.7707
9.1632
7.3581
8.3384
6.3050
7.1289
4.1704
10.3271
15.8371
14.6198
12.5066
8.0693
11.4697
5.2615
11.9288
5.3280
5.5017
12.2299
8.8198
8.7508
7.9478
8.3781
4.6612
7.3916
-0.0305
3.6292
-5.9310
2.7001
-5.8030
5.5242
-0.0561
5.2706
3.9898
-1.4341
8.4464
13.9645
16.4152
0.5819
3.3874
0.9441

-3.6920
-2.9679
-3.9427
-2.4759
-3.4556
-2.3865
-1.3167
8.1736
1.0480
-0.5158
0.9676
0.2957
2.5967
0.7234
-5.7237
-6.8933
-3.3937
-1.5896
6.1029
2.4950
-0.1769
-0.3838
6.8247
5.6874
8.9702
5.5927
5.2416
4.5215
9.5064
8.3247
4.2798
9.9923
6.4446
2.5567
13.6344
12.7265
7.2687
2.6426
10.5212
3.4300
7.6415
7.5647
5.7273
11.6956
5.2479
9.5357
9.8696
19.9481
15.2416
16.0051

O3Sep CLUSTER CLUSNAME
-2.7020
0.5575
-1.0731
1.1570
-0.7950
1.7117
-5.4473
-6.5235
0.3954
0.0429
-4.9646
-4.3639
-7.1603
-3.7851
-5.0256
-9.5720
-2.3107
-6.2976
-3.1651
-2.8201
1.0708
-3.3277
-1.1549
0.4456
1.9942
-0.3099
2.4389
7.4796
-0.6348
3.6302
8.0364
1.1010
4.6599
5.3487
2.2994
-6.9343
6.1511
-0.4325
1.5682
-3.1669
-0.0521
1.0119
-1.2057
1.0011
-1.9683
16.2752
13.5157
9.1287
10.0658
5.4395

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6

CL27
CL27
CL27
CL27
CL27
CL27
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL17
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL55
CL55
CL18
CL18
CL18

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 114
Cities in their Clusters
Obs city
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Nashville
Oklahoma City
Shreveport
Wichita
Austin
Baton Rouge
Houston

O3April

O3May

5.99371 8.8557
5.96884 11.1463
5.17327 6.0310
5.00061 10.3495
8.26811 2.1398
4.48913 13.4318
6.53232 6.4918

O3June

O3July

10.2495
5.6462
2.9474
6.2657
1.6275 -0.7434
0.0144
9.1460
-5.5971 -11.3581
0.1609 -3.6472
-4.4637 -7.1414

O3Aug

O3Sep

11.4303
20.3420
13.2357
16.5816
9.2746
8.2088
7.2114

5.2406
5.5170
3.1967
3.6771
11.6430
3.4473
8.3122

CLUSTER CLUSNAME
6
6
6
6
7
7
7

CL18
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL11
CL11
CL11

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Lafayette
6.51440 8.3299
Lake Charles
6.32986 3.9044
San Antonio
6.96342 5.3762
Boston
6.72094 2.6733
Colorado Springs 8.53664 8.9151
Kingston
8.25349 6.4617
Worcester
6.90519 2.5181
Jersey City
4.06688 5.1239
Philadelphia
7.16699 10.1299
Washington
2.21860 10.2754
Corpus Christi
5.98796 4.8851
Miami
7.48433 7.7844
Omaha
-0.40624 0.8112

-2.7520 -5.1370
-6.4831 -12.5135
-1.3773 -8.6641
7.3469
7.7088
5.4381
5.8312
7.5877
3.5178
8.5516
7.6622
11.9726 21.1476
10.4305 18.1820
12.0268 19.8456
-5.2161 -13.0445
-8.5097 -12.2927
-0.8071
4.5477

5.5211
3.5228
2.1612
3.5155
2.1564
-3.3418
-1.8237
9.2866
10.9228
16.1971
-5.0587
-8.1683
-1.0881

3.6854
6.4176
9.4445
-3.5027
-2.5394
-2.3785
-7.1056
-2.5867
-1.0916
1.9847
7.7383
-2.3517
6.4413

7
7
7
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
11

CL11
CL11
CL11
CL28
CL28
CL28
CL28
CL25
CL25
CL25
CL15
CL15
Omaha

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 115
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

285.283713
81.887956
42.393101
28.534044
13.694742
9.508008
6.523854
4.155948
1.889079
0.824907
0.469796
0.427363

203.395757
39.494856
13.859056
14.839302
4.186735
2.984154
2.367906
2.266869
1.064172
0.355112
0.042433

0.5998
0.1722
0.0891
0.0600
0.0288
0.0200
0.0137
0.0087
0.0040
0.0017
0.0010
0.0009

0.5998
0.7720
0.8612
0.9212
0.9500
0.9700
0.9837
0.9924
0.9964
0.9981
0.9991
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 6.295451
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 30.84129

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

St. Petersburg

Tampa

68

Oakland

San Jose

67

Akron

Cleveland

66

Sacramento

Stockton

65

Buffalo

Syracuse

64

Cincinnati

Dayton

63

Los Angeles

Santa Ana/Anaheim

62

Bakersfield

Fresno

61

Houston

Lafayette

60

Louisville

St. Louis

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

0.0000
569
0.0001
294
0.0002
161
0.0002
131
0.0004
90.0
0.0004
75.0
0.0005
63.3
0.0005
56.4
0.0006
51.7
0.0006
48.5

RSQ
PST2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

1.00

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

.
0.0422
1.00
.
0.0723
1.00
.
0.1118
1.00
.
0.1136
.999
.
0.1656
.999
.
0.1662
.998
.
0.188
.998
.
0.1934
.997
.
0.1988
.997
.
0.2011

T
i
e

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 116
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

59

Modesto

CL66

58

Jackson

Memphis

57

CL67

Toledo

56

Evansville

Lexington

55

CL64

Indianapolis

54

Little Rock

Shreveport

53

Jersey City

Philadelphia

52

CL57

Fort Wayne

51

ColumbusGA

CL58

50

CL61

San Antonio

49

Boston

Worcester

48

Chicago

Johnstown

47

CL65

Pittsburgh

46

CL50

Lake Charles

45

CL68

Tacoma

44

Huntsville

Nashville

43

Colorado Springs

Denver

42

CL52

CL55

41

Knoxville

CL60

40

CL53

Washington

39

Oklahoma City

Wichita

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

3
2
3
2
3
2
2
4
3
3
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
7
3
3
2

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

0.0008
.996
.
44.4
4.1
0.2083
0.0006
.995
.
42.9
.
0.2089
0.0008
.994
.
40.5
4.5
0.2123
0.0007
.994
.
39.2
.
0.2268
0.0009
.993
.
37.5
2.3
0.2332
0.0008
.992
.
36.6
.
0.2367
0.0008
.991
.
36.0
.
0.2396
0.0011
.990
.
34.5
2.3
0.2516
0.0011
.989
.
33.6
1.7
0.2562
0.0011
.988
.
32.8
1.9
0.2584
0.0010
.987
.
32.4
.
0.2685
0.0011
.986
.
31.9
.
0.2798
0.0014
.984
.
30.9
3.6
0.2855
0.0014
.983
.
30.3
1.6
0.2873
0.0016
.981
.
29.5
20.9
0.2882
0.0012
.980
.
29.5
.
0.2901
0.0013
.979
.
29.5
.
0.2961
0.0031
.976
.
27.3
4.5
0.3088
0.0017
.974
.
27.0
3.0
0.3172
0.0019
.972
.
26.6
2.3
0.3364
0.0017
.970
.
26.6
.
0.338

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 117
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

38

Atlanta

CL51

.

SPRSQ
PSF

4

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0021
.968
.
26.3
2.5
0.3391

T
i
e

37

CL56

Kansas CityMO

36

Austin

CL46

35

CL49

CL48

34

Arlington

New York

33

CL37

CL41

32

Las Vegas

Riverside

31

Lincoln

Omaha

30

Dallas/Fort Worth

CL54

29

CL42

Grand Rapids

28

CL40

Kansas CityKS

27

CL35

CL47

26

Corpus Christi

Miami

25

CL63

CL59

24

CL29

ColumbusOH

23

CL26

CL69

22

Charlotte

CL33

21

CL36

Baton Rouge

20

CL25

San Bernardino

19

CL38

CL30

18

CL44

CL39

3

.

5

.

4

.

2

.

6

.

2

.

2

.

3

.

8

.

4

.

7

.

2

.

5

.

9

.

4

.

7

.

6

.

6

.

7

.

4

.

0.0020
.966
.
26.2
2.7
0.3408
0.0021
.964
.
26.0
2.1
0.3447
0.0024
.962
.
25.8
2.2
0.3467
0.0018
.960
.
26.1
.
0.3519
0.0030
.957
.
25.6
2.4
0.3564
0.0019
.955
.
26.0
.
0.3576
0.0019
.953
.
26.4
.
0.3638
0.0023
.951
.
26.6
2.9
0.3665
0.0030
.948
.
26.6
2.7
0.3866
0.0027
.945
.
26.8
1.9
0.3924
0.0049
.940
.
26.0
3.9
0.4003
0.0023
.938
.
26.5
.
0.4022
0.0051
.933
.
26.0
10.4
0.4092
0.0035
.929
.
26.2
2.6
0.4225
0.0041
.925
.
26.4
3.5
0.429
0.0035
.921
.
26.8
2.2
0.4335
0.0042
.917
.
27.2
3.2
0.4557
0.0040
.913
.
27.7
2.4
0.4602
0.0073
.906
.
27.3
5.3
0.4632
0.0048
.901
.
27.9
3.3
0.4635

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 118
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

17

CL24

CL27

16

Kingston

CL31

15

El Paso

CL32

14

CL34

CL22

13

CL21

CL23

12

CL17

CL16

11

CL19

CL18

10

CL15

Phoenix

.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

16
3
3

9
3.33
10
2.88
19
2.64
11
1.87
4
2.32

0.0135
26.2
0.0038
27.4
0.0041
28.8
0.0076
29.4
0.0126
29.1
0.0120
29.3
0.0191
28.5
0.0072
30.7

RSQ
PST2

.
0.4734
.884
.
2.0
0.4795
.880
.
2.2
0.4926
.872
.840
4.0
0.5064
.860
.829
6.4
0.5399
.848
.818
4.7
0.5581
.829
.806
7.9
0.6282
.821
.793
2.4
0.6337
7.7

.888

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

9

CL28

CL20

8

CL12

CL14

7

CL62

CL9

6

CL43

CL45

5

CL8

CL7

4

CL11

CL10

3

CL4

CL13

2

CL5

CL6

1

CL2

CL3

10
1.76
28
-.09
12
0.25
5
0.66
40
-1.4
15
-1.1
25
-1.5
45
-.13
70
0.00

0.0207
.801
.777
30.6
10.3
0.6362
0.0420
.759
.760
27.8
14.3
0.6471
0.0153
.743
.740
30.4
4.1
0.6729
0.0165
.727
.715
34.1
16.9
0.7181
0.0708
.656
.684
31.0
15.7
0.7668
0.0377
.618
.642
35.6
9.1
0.828
0.0808
.538
.579
38.9
15.4
0.8797
0.0824
.455
.460
56.8
13.6
0.9913
0.4551
.000
.000
.
56.8
1.2321

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 119
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

C
u
b
i
c
C
l
u
s
t
e
r
i
n
g
C
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n

Symbol is value of _NCL_.


4 ˆ





1

3 ˆ

1


1


1

2 ˆ

1

9




1 ˆ


6



7

0 ˆ
1

2
8





-1 ˆ

4

5


3


-2 ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Number of Clusters
NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 120
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
48.76666667
52.09677419
58.33333333
62.67741935
65.03225806
61.03333333
2
53.16666667
63.00000000
71.10000000
78.67741935
75.67741935
67.33333333
3
66.13333333
80.03225806
89.13333333
91.45161290
93.22580645
87.63333333
4
78.00000000
78.83870968
81.06666667
84.16129032
83.80645161
82.10000000
Initial Seeds
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
7.19013409
5.76648873
-1.50100552
-0.38450774
-3.45561888
-0.79503158
2
2.21860178
10.27544411
12.02678501
19.84557496
16.19708024
1.98466104
3
7.66572201
11.80961340
8.49498390
8.81982164
9.50636708
-0.63483665
4
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.9178

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
11
4.2099
18.4836
2
18.0678
2
35
4.0895
21.8517
1
18.0678
3
12
4.0930
19.2151
4
20.2164
4
12
3.1739
16.4983
3
20.2164
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
TempApril
8.63420
3.58228
0.835348
5.073400
TempMay
6.63611
2.80236
0.829425
4.862521
TempJune
6.05594
3.18264
0.735816
2.785238
TempJuly
5.36010
3.76332
0.528490
1.120844
TempAug
6.95429
3.31603
0.782517
3.598058
TempSep
6.41754
3.42381
0.727745
2.673026
O3April
4.87097
4.59173
0.150002
0.176474
O3May
3.80274
3.74238
0.073604
0.079452
O3June
5.97917
4.33973
0.496106
0.984544
O3July
7.59798
4.63757
0.643649
1.806219
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 121
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1

Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
O3Aug
6.53520
5.02865
0.433657
0.765715
O3Sep
5.26091
4.56564
0.279596
0.388110
OVER-ALL
6.29545
3.97134
0.619360
1.627153
Pseudo F Statistic =

35.80

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.29082

27.953

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
49.24671717
57.96456500
65.89040404
71.94623656
68.33919843
62.85151515
2
55.15488889
64.08878648
72.29146032
78.61342550
74.54233487
68.80215873
3
65.00873016
72.24654378
79.93670635
84.07949309
84.88056836
76.84484127
4
72.84444444
76.15994624
81.15555556
82.97849462
85.32661290
78.95138889
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
3.69758351
6.05352022
4.77133841
5.69810499
-2.03855381
-3.74136546
2
1.10057721
6.19532135
7.60732865
9.26417159
5.03996545
0.39237546
3
4.32578140
8.85402774
5.83110597
3.56477483
12.55367256
3.75165367
4
5.80010879
6.06306603
-4.02917863
-7.58035535
2.96670468
4.91036609
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.121536484
3.805748527
5.031814888
6.678800959
3.011353105
2.467708853
2
3.934195829
2.271364692
2.520751302
3.232875244
3.567428831
3.434815562
3
2.655702245
3.498801109
4.075126855
3.398531735
4.024752704
4.723897873
4
2.580671486
2.400911700
1.229217813
0.754682457
1.482278327
2.452966235
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 122
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5.327931072
3.171683126
3.995092087
4.170524160
3.785561664
3.160767453
2
4.771176291
3.995518374
4.387663429
5.241756013
4.999302363
5.316745190
3
4.097936885
4.029076812
5.748855442
3.623129765
4.869887843
3.485385040
4
3.680081275
3.051228802
2.436336539
3.895790304
6.142412947
4.057940470
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 123
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
12893.41
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 124
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
48.76666667
52.09677419
58.33333333
62.67741935
65.03225806
61.03333333
2
78.00000000
78.83870968
81.06666667
84.16129032
83.80645161
82.10000000
3
68.28333333
73.88709677
82.11666667
86.04838710
90.20967742
79.26666667
4
49.06666667
61.22580645
69.56666667
74.90322581
68.00000000
62.96666667
5
58.06666667
66.64516129
73.90000000
80.22580645
77.87096774
77.23333333
6
53.56666667
63.54838710
74.36666667
81.09677419
76.54838710
69.53333333
7
61.20000000
75.58064516
85.46666667
88.41935484
88.19354839
81.93333333
8
58.81666667
63.38709677
65.66666667
71.51612903
70.09677419
68.60000000
9
62.23333333
65.96774194
73.63333333
79.06451613
79.67741935
69.36666667
10
51.55555556
62.25806452
70.82222222
80.68817204
73.35483871
64.08888889
Initial Seeds
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
7.19013409
5.76648873
-1.50100552
-0.38450774
-3.45561888
-0.79503158
2
7.48432721
7.78439194
-8.50971825 -12.29273944
-8.16825369
-2.35173186
3
3.47606096
5.24987066
1.28404527
0.58188360
19.94808850
9.12871030
4
-3.30958634
3.98311820
8.52224439
7.12891093
-6.89333214
-9.57197828
5
2.01369361
10.12843346
14.03764848
13.96454628
9.53565765
16.27516873
6
4.06688135
5.12388166
11.97256249
21.14757640
9.28659646
-2.58668876
7
8.86449487
15.79199284
15.30057713
5.32796804
5.59274612
-0.30986960
8
9.37348405
14.29642133
10.12286454
4.66115447
6.44455839
4.65990880
9
0.53066296
2.74408439
4.20306990
3.62915275
12.72652324
-6.93428130
10
-0.40624116
0.81119803
-0.80711924
4.54770896
-1.08807176
6.44134763
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

2.7042

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4
2.9366
13.8596
4
22.9418
2
9
2.8101
14.6155
3
18.2404
3
8
2.7773
12.6844
9
16.0047
4
15
2.8638
20.1393
10
12.4500
5
2
1.2173
2.9818
8
19.0119
6
5
2.5129
10.0314
9
16.4453
7
4
3.4654
13.3569
3
20.4409
8
6
2.4102
11.5659
6
16.8092
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 125
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method

Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1
Cluster Summary

Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
9
10
3.2979
16.4383
10
15.6403
10
7
2.6906
11.5433
4
12.4500
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
TempApril
8.63420
2.71109
0.914267
10.664167
TempMay
6.63611
1.78292
0.937232
14.931587
TempJune
6.05594
2.09750
0.895686
8.586458
TempJuly
5.36010
2.08021
0.869030
6.635326
TempAug
6.95429
2.26374
0.907859
9.852982
TempSep
6.41754
2.20784
0.897080
8.716245
O3April
4.87097
3.65227
0.511125
1.045512
O3May
3.80274
3.00564
0.456770
0.840840
O3June
5.97917
2.86279
0.800658
4.016514
O3July
7.59798
3.23390
0.842472
5.348062
O3Aug
6.53520
4.01055
0.672515
2.053573
O3Sep
5.26091
3.43973
0.628268
1.690109
OVER-ALL
6.29545
2.86062
0.820457
4.569700
Pseudo F Statistic =

30.46

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.51400

39.188

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 126
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
50.22500000
54.23387097
60.25833333
64.59677420
65.56451613
61.66666667
2
73.81481481
77.28315412
81.70000000
83.29390681
85.56272401
80.07407407
3
68.30416667
72.05040323
79.49791667
83.05241936
84.76814516
75.76875000
4
49.63203704
60.93530466
70.14407407
76.37777778
69.87025090
64.74444445
5
58.40000000
67.43548387
75.05000000
80.46774194
78.25806452
77.33333333
6
53.45777778
63.53440860
72.85222222
80.80645161
76.73440860
68.48333333
7
63.43452381
75.89285714
83.48928571
86.65783410
86.89170507
81.50952381
8
58.66462963
64.53315412
69.51777778
73.64103943
73.25949821
71.63388889
9
60.13333333
67.10000000
75.01000000
81.40967742
79.72258065
70.48333333
10
54.15396826
63.48079877
72.58571429
80.27342550
74.30568357
66.65555556
Cluster Means
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

8.42735652
7.51718232
1.82997686
-0.12383629
3.01260156
3.37599070
7.81361623
6.64176001
0.02720004
-1.10345949

7.81310810
5.87049292
6.51416098
4.74806912
11.55598615
7.29521793
12.80045074
10.79268081
5.57609041
3.38600682

1.21979265
-4.91627841
0.97405435
9.30752800
14.41971862
9.78368250
11.71749727
8.98267494
3.40790411
2.81762913

2.09034770
-8.39811544
-1.58067614
9.58602505
15.18985576
17.38821006
7.04002120
7.68504968
5.57430505
3.92581152

-2.05246827
1.06685456
12.76561087
-0.06163228
9.70263494
10.29590287
7.27781689
5.50608850
10.90698730
-0.63935013

-0.96249425
5.30643024
4.99978721
-3.87025491
14.89545859
-0.57291501
0.78278207
4.84406018
0.10620526
-1.35912789

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5.863722432
1.760430487
1.980530232
4.489669031
2.353512662
2.844227424
2
1.999521548
1.238661140
0.673300330
0.573532702
1.638515285
1.581207149
3
2.120960211
1.645442223
1.655161179
1.701981420
2.710924355
1.544946641
4
3.183667616
2.526638315
2.423236340
2.041659618
1.465037018
2.121486617
5
0.471404516
1.117684911
1.626345597
0.342148444
0.547437509
0.141421356
6
0.313620829
0.734019641
1.175965588
1.263223501
1.026498830
1.840063405
7
2.040516936
2.877378353
4.669900686
4.321909775
5.034043531
4.909729336
8
0.391858766
1.257432139
2.989304390
1.964393465
2.478754371
2.357696486
9
3.044566096
1.243826240
1.196708449
1.894369163
2.657163088
1.794109017
10
2.421376240
1.339068978
1.634047644
0.792808299
1.476461387
2.075369967
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 127
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
0.874175643
1.397390871
2.987298702
2.647224803
2.833962451
1.269819397
2
1.455130452
1.992115061
2.044770243
4.177042595
5.910572564
4.539734083
3
3.055716615
3.604273431
2.748118412
3.326926442
4.235830128
3.330760554
4
4.381407402
3.266728038
2.454737455
2.902769426
3.400267179
3.054225587
5
1.412669166
2.018864375
0.540328774
1.732849278
0.236141549
1.951204792
6
2.955176005
4.470528901
2.410417628
3.640483355
3.727408867
2.458412706
7
2.041939453
2.845878277
4.216627152
2.015643637
1.952036170
1.951496565
8
1.925052872
2.538308612
3.520163215
2.653394805
2.539635250
2.728416378
9
4.633593049
3.261455863
3.396100492
4.120355220
4.948672508
4.391789114
10
5.564782327
2.153533841
2.934143540
1.593519207
3.008924889
3.690570351
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 128
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
6142.87
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 129
Cities in their Clusters
Obs

city

Temp
April

TempMay

Temp
June

Temp
July

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

St. Petersburg
Tampa
Houston
Lafayette
San Antonio
Lake Charles
Austin
Corpus Christi
Miami
Baton Rouge
Oakland
San Jose
Tacoma
Akron
Cleveland
Buffalo
Syracuse
Cincinnati
Dayton
Toledo
Indianapolis
Fort Wayne

74.6000
74.6000
73.1667
73.4000
71.4333
72.2333
72.0000
74.9000
78.0000
72.0333
54.8000
54.8000
48.7667
51.4000
50.5667
46.1333
46.8333
55.3000
53.8333
50.9000
55.2667
51.5000

78.0323
78.0323
76.7742
76.9032
76.3548
75.1290
76.6452
78.8387
78.8387
74.7419
55.6774
55.6774
52.0968
61.6129
61.2581
59.8387
60.9032
63.7742
63.8065
62.8387
64.5484
62.5806

81.4000
81.4000
82.1667
81.5667
82.0667
80.7000
81.9667
82.9667
81.0667
80.5000
59.8333
59.8333
58.3333
70.0667
70.4000
68.5667
69.9667
73.2667
72.7333
71.0333
74.0000
71.6333

83.8065
83.8065
83.3226
82.5161
83.0968
82.5484
83.4516
82.9355
84.1613
81.8710
62.1935
62.1935
62.6774
76.0968
76.4194
74.5806
75.1613
79.1935
78.6452
77.4516
79.5161
78.6129

84.0000
84.0000
87.0968
85.7419
86.4194
86.0968
88.5161
84.3871
83.8065
85.2903
64.0968
64.0968
65.0323
68.4516
69.3548
68.0645
69.0968
72.9677
71.5806
69.9677
72.6129
69.7419
CLUSTER

CLUSNAME

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL13
CL45
CL45
CL45
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12

Obs

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

6.5928
7.3299
6.4918
8.3299
5.3762
3.9044
2.1398
4.8851
7.7844
13.4318
8.3519
8.2189
5.7665
2.9776
3.4514
9.0380
6.9690
3.1260
2.9661
-1.5588
2.6241
2.5078

-5.1627
-4.6847
-4.4637
-2.7520
-1.3773
-6.4831
-5.5971
-5.2161
-8.5097
0.1609
0.9472
-0.0051
-1.5010
9.3160
9.1086
13.3186
12.5221
4.7007
8.3600
9.1269
4.6211
6.7268

-2.3514
-3.0803
-7.1414
-5.1370
-8.6641
-12.5135
-11.3581
-13.0445
-12.2927
-3.6472
1.2300
1.6848
-0.3845
10.1753
9.1632
15.9207
12.5066
5.7707
8.3384
8.0693
4.1704
6.3050

-2.4759
-2.3865
7.2114
5.5211
2.1612
3.5228
9.2746
-5.0587
-8.1683
8.2088
-2.9679
-3.9427
-3.4556
-1.3167
0.2957
1.0480
-0.1769
0.9676
0.7234
-0.3838
-3.3937
-5.7237

1.1570
1.7117
8.3122
3.6854
9.4445
6.4176
11.6430
7.7383
-2.3517
3.4473
0.5575
-1.0731
-0.7950
-5.4473
-4.3639
0.3954
1.0708
-4.9646
-3.7851
-3.3277
-2.3107
-5.0256

81.0333
81.0333
78.1667
78.4333
80.5667
77.8667
81.6667
79.8000
82.1000
76.3000
63.8667
63.8667
61.0333
63.7333
65.1667
64.4667
65.1000
67.0667
67.0000
65.3333
67.2667
64.5667

9.64822
9.92602
6.53232
6.51440
6.96342
6.32986
8.26811
5.98796
7.48433
4.48913
9.22982
8.75283
7.19013
-2.59742
-4.30625
2.51458
1.04130
-3.08945
-3.47475
-5.91671
-6.14490
-4.89325

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 130
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

city
Boston
Worcester
Chicago
Johnstown
Pittsburgh
Lincoln
Omaha
Grand Rapids
ColumbusOH
Kingston
Sacramento
Stockton
Los Angeles

Temp
April

TempMay

49.4000
47.3889
49.8000
47.8000
52.1000
51.0667
51.5556
49.0667
55.1667
53.0889
58.3267
58.2222
58.8167

58.4194
58.7312
61.8710
60.3226
61.2581
61.8710
62.2581
61.2258
65.0323
62.6237
64.2581
64.5484
63.3871

Temp
June
71.2000
68.9111
70.5667
69.7667
69.6000
70.4000
70.8222
69.5667
74.7333
73.0778
71.2067
71.5667
65.6667

Temp
July
76.0323
73.3978
78.5806
76.0000
76.2581
80.8387
80.6882
74.9032
80.3548
80.8710
73.6258
74.1183
71.5161

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

71.6452
69.3441
70.5484
69.0968
69.1935
74.1935
73.3548
68.0000
73.3226
75.8495
74.4387
74.5161
70.0968

67.3667
65.3778
63.6667
64.9333
64.4000
64.1333
64.0889
62.9667
68.1000
69.5667
73.2867
73.0222
68.6000

6.72094
6.90519
1.25153
0.84099
-0.36179
3.05017
-0.40624
-3.30959
-3.24023
8.25349
6.71122
7.35334
5.58612

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
Obs
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Santa Ana/Anaheim
Modesto
San Bernardino
Bakersfield
Fresno
Louisville
St. Louis
Evansville
Lexington
O3May
2.6733
2.5181
6.0385
7.3021
4.9377
3.8878
0.8112
3.9831
5.2574
6.4617
7.9368
8.1715
10.9744
14.2964
10.4089
12.9680
10.1284
12.9835
3.5216
4.1664
1.0679
3.4592

58.8167
58.5167
59.2889
58.0667
58.7333
59.5000
58.8000
58.0000
56.7000

63.3871
64.8226
66.7957
66.6452
68.2258
67.8065
67.0323
65.6452
65.5161

65.6667
71.7333
71.2667
73.9000
76.2000
76.5000
75.0667
74.7667
73.6667

71.5161
74.3387
76.7312
80.2258
80.7097
83.4839
83.1613
79.6452
79.8065

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

7.3469
8.5516
7.6226
5.8602
10.6607
0.5766
-0.8071
8.5222
14.5176
7.5877
5.9901
5.1208
9.0467
10.1229
8.5813
15.0344
14.0376
14.8018
3.0344
1.4408
2.0634
3.4754

7.7088
7.6622
7.0373
10.3271
14.6198
1.2496
4.5477
7.1289
7.3581
3.5178
7.9478
7.3916
5.5017
4.6612
12.2299
8.3781
13.9645
16.4152
3.9898
8.4464
2.7001
5.2706

3.5155
-1.8237
-0.5158
-1.5896
2.4950
-3.6920
-1.0881
-6.8933
2.5967
-3.3418
4.2798
2.5567
5.2416
6.4446
4.5215
9.9923
9.5357
9.8696
5.7273
5.2479
2.6426
7.5647

-3.5027
-7.1056
0.0429
-6.2976
-2.8201
-2.7020
6.4413
-9.5720
-7.1603
-2.3785
8.0364
5.3487
2.4389
4.6599
7.4796
1.1010
16.2752
13.5157
-1.2057
-1.9683
-0.4325
1.0119

70.0968
74.9032
75.5054
77.8710
78.6452
78.7742
76.7419
74.6129
75.9355
CLUSTER
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
6

68.6000
73.4167
72.8778
77.2333
77.4333
72.2667
69.9667
68.5000
68.9333

9.37348
7.20520
3.62120
2.01369
4.01151
-1.95398
-0.48566
-8.25527
-6.40648

CLUSNAME
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL12
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL62
CL62
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 131
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
Obs
45

city
Knoxville
Kansas CityMO
Arlington
New York
Charlotte
Jackson
Memphis
Little Rock
Shreveport
ColumbusGA
Huntsville
Nashville
Oklahoma City
Wichita
Atlanta
Dallas/Fort Worth
Jersey City
Philadelphia
Washington
Kansas CityKS
Colorado Springs
Denver

Temp
April

TempMay

61.4000
54.8000
56.7667
53.0889
62.2333
69.5000
67.2667
65.6833
69.6333
68.2667
65.7667
62.8333
61.5333
56.2000
65.3667
68.2833
53.5667
53.8000
53.1667
53.6667
42.5333
42.5917

66.3871
63.6452
67.4839
62.6237
65.9677
71.7742
71.4194
71.1129
72.1935
71.8548
69.4194
67.9032
68.3226
65.4516
69.1290
73.8871
63.5484
64.1613
63.0000
64.3387
53.4839
54.3306

Temp
June
75.1333
71.7667
74.9333
73.0778
73.6333
79.7000
79.9000
78.9000
80.0333
78.3667
76.4667
76.8000
75.9000
73.3000
75.1667
82.1167
74.3667
73.1000
71.1000
72.6167
63.0333
63.4167

Temp
July
78.8387
81.1613
83.2258
80.8710
79.0645
82.1935
83.9355
84.4677
83.1290
82.0323
80.7419
82.1935
82.4194
82.5161
79.3871
86.0484
81.0968
81.3871
78.6774
82.0000
71.3226
73.1720

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

5.3193

3.9502

-0.0561

7.6415

-0.0521

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

78.0000
76.5484
79.9032
75.8495
79.6774
84.2258
82.9032
84.2097
86.1290
84.3387
80.8387
79.6129
84.9677
81.4839
82.1290
90.2097
76.5484
77.7097
75.6774
77.8871
69.0323
70.6452

70.1000
65.9667
70.2667
69.5667
69.3667
75.3667
75.4333
75.1667
75.5000
75.0833
74.0333
72.0333
71.3667
67.2333
73.3000
79.2667
69.5333
70.1667
67.3333
65.8167
57.9000
58.9889

1.39910
-1.13202
-5.77401
-0.85701
0.53066
0.10213
-2.24268
2.31853
5.17327
-2.64460
3.96797
5.99371
5.96884
5.00061
-4.00079
3.47606
4.06688
7.16699
2.21860
4.28449
8.53664
6.96790

CLUSTER
6

CLUSNAME
CL14

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

5.7234
3.3453
0.3905
2.7441
3.5189
3.4254
8.3827
6.0310
2.9716
9.1020
8.8557
11.1463
10.3495
2.8535
5.2499
5.1239
10.1299
10.2754
10.5564
8.9151
12.1597

0.9810
6.7535
7.4703
4.2031
-2.0668
0.2333
2.2919
1.6275
-2.1978
6.4593
10.2495
2.9474
0.0144
-1.9897
1.2840
11.9726
10.4305
12.0268
7.0183
5.4381
8.0521

5.5242
13.4359
15.8371
3.6292
-5.8030
-1.4341
0.9441
-0.7434
-5.9310
3.3874
5.6462
6.2657
9.1460
-0.0305
0.5819
21.1476
18.1820
19.8456
11.9288
5.8312
11.4697

3.4300
8.1736
6.1029
12.7265
10.5212
11.6956
16.0051
13.2357
7.2687
15.2416
11.4303
20.3420
16.5816
13.6344
19.9481
9.2866
10.9228
16.1971
8.9702
2.1564
6.8247

-3.1669
-6.5235
-3.1651
-6.9343
1.5682
1.0011
5.4395
3.1967
6.1511
10.0658
5.2406
5.5170
3.6771
2.2994
9.1287
-2.5867
-1.0916
1.9847
1.9942
-2.5394
-1.1549

6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
9
9

CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL11
CL28
CL28
CL28
CL28
CL43
CL43

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 132
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
67
68
69
70
Obs
67
68
69
70

city
Las Vegas
Riverside
El Paso
Phoenix
O3May
15.7920
14.2865
9.3137
11.8096

Temp
April

TempMay

61.2000
62.9714
63.4333
66.1333

75.5806
73.6037
74.3548
80.0323

Temp
June
85.4667
79.1238
80.2333
89.1333

Temp
July
88.4194
85.4378
81.3226
91.4516

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

15.3006
15.4135
7.6609
8.4950

5.3280
8.7508
5.2615
8.8198

5.5927
8.3247
5.6874
9.5064

-0.3099
3.6302
0.4456
-0.6348

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

88.1935
84.6636
81.4839
93.2258

81.9333
80.8048
75.6667
87.6333

8.86449
5.01962
9.70463
7.66572

CLUSTER

CLUSNAME

10
10
10
10

CL10
CL10
CL10
CL10

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 133
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

240.547597
22.153182

218.394415

0.9157
0.0843

0.9157
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 11.46082
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 22.92164

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

Kingston

New York

68

Oakland

San Jose

.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2

0.0000
.
0.0000
.

RSQ

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

1.00

.
0
.
0

PST2
.
.

1.00

T
i
e
T
T

67

Los Angeles

Santa Ana/Anaheim

66

St. Petersburg

Tampa

65

Johnstown

Syracuse

64

Charlotte

Knoxville

63

Lincoln

Omaha

62

Corpus Christi

CL66

61

Sacramento

Stockton

60

Cincinnati

Indianapolis

59

Fort Wayne

Toledo

58

Houston

San Antonio

57

Jersey City

Philadelphia

56

Akron

Pittsburgh

55

Kansas CityMO

CL69

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

0.0000
.
0.0000
.
0.0000
21E3
0.0000
9903
0.0000
6999
0.0000
5052
0.0000
4154
0.0000
3436
0.0000
3019
0.0000
2720
0.0000
2476
0.0000
2300
0.0000
2067

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

1.00

.
0
1.00
.
0
1.00
.
0.0161
1.00
.
0.0201
1.00
.
0.0212
1.00
.
0.0225
1.00
.
0.0265
1.00
.
0.0302
1.00
.
0.0305
1.00
.
0.0317
1.00
.
0.0336
1.00
.
0.0342
1.00
.
0.035

T

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 134
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

54

Evansville

Lexington

53

Modesto

CL61

52

Dayton

Washington

51

Grand Rapids

Worcester

50

Boston

Cleveland

49

Fresno

Nashville

48

Atlanta

Huntsville

47

ColumbusGA

Jackson

46

El Paso

Little Rock

45

Kansas CityKS

CL55

44

Baton Rouge

Lake Charles

43

CL58

Lafayette

42

CL46

Memphis

41

CL56

CL50

40

CL60

CL52

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
3
3
4
4

0.0000
1931
0.0000
1756
0.0000
1654
0.0000
1554
0.0000
1471
0.0000
1407
0.0000
1352
0.0000
1284
0.0001
1196
0.0001
1061
0.0001
1008
0.0001
937
0.0001
876
0.0002
777
0.0002
698

RSQ
PST2

.
0.0389
1.00
.
2.9
0.0415
1.00
.
.
0.0433
1.00
.
.
0.0464
1.00
.
.
0.0476
1.00
.
.
0.048
1.00
.
.
0.0495
1.00
.
.
0.0544
1.00
.
.
0.0625
.999
.
7.6
0.0662
.999
.
.
0.0667
.999
.
5.9
0.0686
.999
.
1.6
0.0762
.999
.
6.1
0.0783
.999
.
8.4
0.0807
.

1.00

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

39

CL57

CL45

38

Buffalo

CL51

37

Chicago

CL59

36

ColumbusOH

CL39

35

Arlington

St. Louis

34

Austin

CL43

6

.

3

.

3

.

7

.

2

.

4

.

0.0002
.999
.
614
7.0
0.0844
0.0001
.999
.
592
4.2
0.0854
0.0001
.998
.
573
10.3
0.0864
0.0001
.998
.
558
2.0
0.0875
0.0001
.998
.
555
.
0.0889
0.0002
.998
.
543
3.0
0.0905

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 135
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

33

CL38

CL65

32

Bakersfield

CL64

31

CL47

Shreveport

30

CL49

Oklahoma City

29

CL34

CL62

28

Colorado Springs

Denver

27

CL41

CL37

26

CL35

Wichita

25

CL53

San Bernardino

24

CL30

Louisville

23

CL40

CL36

22

CL31

CL42

21

CL29

CL44

20

CL23

CL54

19

CL27

CL33

18

CL22

Riverside

17

CL32

CL24

16

CL21

Miami

15

CL26

CL17

14

CL19

CL63

13

Dallas/Fort Worth

Las Vegas

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

5
3
3
3
7
2
7
3
4
4
11
6
9
13
12
7
7
10
10

14
1.29
2
1.82

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

0.0002
.998
.
514
4.3
0.0938
0.0002
.998
.
507
29.0
0.0943
0.0002
.997
.
498
4.4
0.1027
0.0002
.997
.
490
6.2
0.1061
0.0005
.997
.
446
8.8
0.108
0.0002
.997
.
448
.
0.1141
0.0005
.996
.
416
6.9
0.1159
0.0002
.996
.
420
1.9
0.1159
0.0003
.996
.
418
14.5
0.1172
0.0003
.995
.
419
2.4
0.1265
0.0015
.994
.
341
18.9
0.1558
0.0009
.993
.
316
9.8
0.1614
0.0012
.992
.
291
10.4
0.1756
0.0014
.990
.
268
6.8
0.1873
0.0025
.988
.
228
20.2
0.1921
0.0008
.987
.
232
2.9
0.1967
0.0019
.985
.
218
13.7
0.2131
0.0013
.984
.
219
5.1
0.2356
0.0028
.981
.
203
7.5
0.25
0.0028
.978
.975
194
8.8
0.2593
0.0011
.977
.972
203
.
0.2811

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 136

Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

NCL

FREQ
CCC

12

CL48

CL18

11

CL68

Tacoma

10

CL20

CL25

9

CL15

CL10

8

CL16

CL13

7

CL12

CL8

6

CL14

CL67

5

CL6

CL9

4

CL28

CL11

3

CL7

Phoenix

2

CL5

CL4

1

CL2

CL3

1.49

SPRSQ
PSF

9

3
1.97
17
0.46
27
-2.1
12
-2.1
21
-3.5
16
-3.1
43
-6.5
5
-5.0
22
-1.9
48
-1.3
70
0.00

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

0.0039
.973
.968
192
12.7
0.3105
0.0019
.971
.964
200
.
0.3156
0.0102
.961
.959
165
39.3
0.3573
0.0212
.940
.953
119
26.7
0.4058
0.0092
.931
.945
119
21.0
0.4696
0.0265
.904
.935
99.1
25.8
0.4897
0.0140
.890
.921
104
29.7
0.5402
0.0842
.806
.902
67.5
56.0
0.6213
0.0170
.789
.874
82.3
24.1
0.7161
0.0155
.774
.825
114
6.7
0.7964
0.1240
.650
.695
126
34.6
1.0972
0.6496
.000
.000
.
126
1.3378

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 137
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

2

C
u
b
i
c

0

C
l
u
s
t -2
e
r
i
n
g
C -4
r
i
t
e



ˆ






ˆ






ˆ






ˆ



1

1
1 1

1
1

2
3

89

6
7

4

Symbol is value of _NCL_.

r

i

o -6 ˆ
n


5




-8 ˆ

Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Number of Clusters
NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 138
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
6 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-28.99302565
2.11735872
2
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
3
7.10205831
2.54042760
4
31.80245481
9.14494722
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

4.9597

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
10
6.6024
15.7266
2
14.1879
2
24
4.0985
9.6044
3
13.2925
3
20
4.4703
9.4856
2
13.2925
4
16
4.4878
12.6290
3
17.6139
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
4.79223
0.908679
9.950427
PCT2
4.70672
4.61424
0.080696
0.087779
OVER-ALL
11.46082
4.70408
0.838857
5.205656
Pseudo F Statistic =

114.52

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.87366

-2.390

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 139
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
6 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-22.63592343
-2.28701890
2
-8.86349998
1.12121166
3
4.42595184
0.83555914
4
21.91026232
-1.29687960
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5.403296513
7.614931949
2
3.964806246
4.227986793
3
5.780142003
2.560834497
4
4.136150227
4.813808736
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 140
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
6 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
3443.82
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 141
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-1.48244429
-3.37764387
2
4.05087904
3.28666006
3
31.80245481
9.14494722
4
26.17447188
-7.17847001
5
16.77777720
-1.25650104
6
20.76507818
8.92838212
7
-28.99302565
2.11735872
8
-17.13076388
2.98732592
9
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
10
-25.24870940
-14.59398355
11
-5.76840458
4.47692301
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =
Cluster Summary

2.0521

Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
7
2.2972
3.6943
2
7.6959
2
9
2.6961
5.2824
1
7.6959
3
1
.
0
6
11.0395
4
9
1.5927
3.6463
5
8.5441
5
9
2.6755
5.8194
4
8.5441
6
1
.
0
5
10.3820
7
2
1.3076
1.3076
8
12.4384
8
12
1.7656
3.8435
11
9.6042
9
2
0
0
1
10.7848
10
3
2.9535
4.8230
7
16.0024
11
15
2.1747
5.2756
1
7.7135
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
2.52006
0.977425
43.297218
PCT2
4.70672
1.83825
0.869571
6.667016
OVER-ALL
11.46082
2.20566
0.968330
30.575663
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 142
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1

Pseudo F Statistic =

180.40

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.96404

1.109

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-1.78476234
-2.74352281
2
4.83676492
1.17853666
3
31.80245481
9.14494722
4
23.30670087
-4.13857205
5
15.74570435
-0.15957217
6
20.76507818
8.92838212
7
-27.90943209
2.84922500
8
-15.49449227
2.08637051
9
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
10
-27.16955932
-13.13602015
11
-6.02667046
3.69889107
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.444285502
2.140040512
2
2.795242812
2.593223408
3
.
.
4
1.642922651
1.540860056
5
2.969514394
2.344903825

6
7
8
9
10
11

.
1.532432705
2.248937663
0.000000000
3.327009663
2.726564437

.
1.035015216
1.084852191
0.000000000
2.525266688
1.422741638

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 143
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
11 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
589.5693873
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 144
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
13 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=13 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2
-0.92288883
5.03435131
3
7.84308181
-3.00296132
4
15.69438709
3.21336035
5
-25.24870940
-14.59398355
6
18.87002003
-3.81007102
7
26.17447188
-7.17847001
8
-18.43210136
1.22793573
9
20.76507818
8.92838212
10
31.80245481
9.14494722
11
-7.86891703
2.60659500
12
-3.25721263
-4.40197237
13
-28.99302565
2.11735872
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

1.8781

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2
0
0
12
10.5786
2
7
2.2024
4.1056
11
6.2334
3
6
2.2135
4.4945
2
7.5822
4
6
1.7307
3.8344
6
5.5907
5
3
2.9535
4.8230
13
16.0024
6
4
2.5369
5.9056
7
5.0628
7
8
1.4719
3.1787
6
5.0628
8
12
1.7656
3.8338
11
8.7290
9
1
.
0
6
10.5156
10
1
.
0
9
11.0395
11
12
1.8439
3.9518
2
6.2334
12
6
2.1772
3.7456
2
6.3401
13
2
1.3076
1.3076
8
12.4384

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 145
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
13 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=13 Maxiter=1
Statistics for Variables

Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
2.10732
0.984749
64.571141
PCT2
4.70672
1.78724
0.880889
7.395497
OVER-ALL
11.46082
1.95385
0.975991
40.650961
Pseudo F Statistic =

193.09

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.97173

1.413

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2
-0.72337074
2.92934854
3
6.41921208
0.38507971
4
14.07443988
0.18143341
5
-27.16955932
-13.13602015
6
19.40662567
-1.49905884
7
23.67481312
-4.22195788
8
-15.49449227
2.08637051
9
20.76507818
8.92838212
10
31.80245481
9.14494722
11
-6.91168465
3.67746207
12
-1.64566175
-3.34332109
13
-27.90943209
2.84922500
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 146
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
13 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=13 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
0.000000000
0.000000000
2
2.421674916
1.958795366
3
1.801270875
2.560110617
4
1.302910943
2.071905260
5
3.327009663
2.525266688
6
2.081383950
2.922259210
7
1.300389031
1.625395227
8
2.248937663
1.084852191
9
.
.
10
.
.

11
12
13

2.199983009
2.647056206
1.532432705

1.400064525
1.572819464
1.035015216

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 147
Clustering based on First two Temperature PCs
13 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
493.7919436
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 148
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

city
Kingston
New York
Cincinnati
Indianapolis
Jersey City
Philadelphia
Kansas CityMO
Evansville
Lexington
Dayton
Washington
Kansas CityKS
ColumbusOH
Oakland
San Jose
Los Angeles
Santa Ana/Anaheim
St. Petersburg
Tampa
Corpus Christi
Houston
San Antonio
Baton Rouge
Lake Charles
Lafayette
Austin
Miami
Johnstown
Syracuse
Lincoln
Omaha
Fort Wayne
Toledo
Akron
Pittsburgh
Grand Rapids
Worcester
Boston
Cleveland
Buffalo
Chicago
Charlotte
Knoxville
Fresno
Nashville
Arlington

PCT1

PCT2

-5.7684
-5.7684
-6.7571
-6.1580
-4.3017
-3.5652
-5.9731
-2.6194
-2.9717
-8.4739
-7.8689
-5.1993
-4.8662
-25.2487
-25.2487
-10.7076
-10.7076
23.7667
23.7667
24.2833
22.8477
22.3267
18.8700
20.3618
22.0975
24.1355
26.1745
-16.7821
-17.1308
-10.9795
-10.8258
-12.3593
-12.7102
-14.9869
-14.3237
-17.3701
-18.4321
-14.1691
-14.4028
-19.3166
-13.9503
1.6325
1.4423
4.9179
5.8323
1.5472

4.4769
4.4769
1.6912
2.0379
4.8683
4.6440
3.7010
0.8553
1.6754
1.8203
2.6066
5.5430
2.9176
-14.5940
-14.5940
-8.8012
-8.8012
-4.8977
-4.8977
-4.9156
-2.9608
-2.4535
-3.8101
-3.4715
-4.1566
-2.3152
-7.1785
2.8679
2.9873
5.2255
4.7645
2.8851
2.2801
0.6743
0.2579
1.2652
1.2279
2.6226
1.5558
2.4911
3.9212
-1.6437
-1.2235
1.2236
0.6114
4.8813

CLUSTER

CLUSNAME

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6

CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL20
CL68
CL68
CL67
CL67
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL16
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL14
CL15
CL15
CL15
CL15
CL15

47
48
49
50

St. Louis
Bakersfield
Oklahoma City
Wichita

0.9640
2.5044
7.1021
-0.9229

2.9282
0.4868
2.5404
5.0344

6
6
6
6

CL15
CL15
CL15
CL15

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 149
Cities in their Clusters
Obs
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

city

PCT1

Louisville
Sacramento
Stockton
Modesto
San Bernardino
Atlanta
Huntsville
ColumbusGA
Jackson
El Paso
Little Rock
Memphis
Shreveport
Riverside
Colorado Springs
Denver
Dallas/Fort Worth
Las Vegas
Tacoma
Phoenix

4.0509
-4.2394
-3.9697
-3.2572
-1.4824
7.8431
8.7691
14.0706
15.2773
12.1305
13.2797
13.9942
16.7778
15.6944
-28.9930
-26.8258
21.6169
20.7651
-31.0113
31.8025

PCT2

CLUSTER

3.2867
-4.9783
-4.4348
-4.4020
-3.3776
-3.0030
-2.3486
-1.9498
-2.2649
0.5803
1.4361
0.0735
-1.2565
3.2134
2.1174
3.5811
2.5418
8.9284
-10.2201
9.1449

6
7
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
13

CLUSNAME
CL15
CL25
CL25
CL25
CL25
CL48
CL48
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL18
CL28
CL28
CL13
CL13
Tacoma
Phoenix

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 150
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

91.4204695
57.3022716
29.5715640
12.4121490

34.1181979
27.7307075
17.1594150

0.4794
0.3005
0.1551
0.0651

0.4794
0.7799
0.9349
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 6.904825
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 19.5298

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

St. Petersburg

Tampa

68

Cleveland

Dayton

67

Oakland

San Jose

66

Akron

CL68

65

Kansas CityKS

San Bernardino

64

Kansas CityMO

St. Louis

.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
3
2
2

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0000
1.00
.
388
.
0.0511
0.0001
1.00
.
252
.
0.0745
0.0002
1.00
.
165
.
0.104
0.0004
.999
.
88.0
5.3
0.1527
0.0003
.999
.
74.6
.
0.1549
0.0003
.999
.
68.2
.
0.1551

T
i
e

63

Atlanta

Memphis

62

Denver

Phoenix

61

CL64

Louisville

60

Sacramento

Stockton

59

Johnstown

Worcester

58

El Paso

Los Angeles

57

CL67

Tacoma

56

CL66

ColumbusOH

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2
2
3
2
2
2
3
4

0.0004
.998
.
63.7
.
0.1606
0.0004
.998
.
60.6
.
0.1639
0.0004
.997
.
58.3
1.2
0.1648
0.0004
.997
.
56.2
.
0.1742
0.0005
.997
.
54.2
.
0.1822
0.0006
.996
.
51.7
.
0.1979
0.0008
.995
.
47.2
5.4
0.2153
0.0009
.994
.
43.6
3.6
0.2179

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 151
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

55

Buffalo

Syracuse

54

Oklahoma City

Wichita

53

Arlington

New York

52

Little Rock

Shreveport

51

Modesto

Riverside

50

Fort Wayne

Indianapolis

49

Baton Rouge

Lafayette

48

Bakersfield

Fresno

47

CL62

CL65

46

Boston

Colorado Springs

45

Houston

San Antonio

44

CL58

Santa Ana/Anaheim

43

Cincinnati

CL61

42

CL56

Toledo

41

CL44

CL60

40

ColumbusGA

Jackson

39

CL55

Pittsburgh

38

Jersey City

Philadelphia

37

CL57

CL69

36

Evansville

Lexington

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
4
5
5
2
3
2
5
2

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0007
.993
.
42.4
.
0.2197
0.0007
.993
.
41.4
.
0.2264
0.0008
.992
.
40.2
.
0.2371
0.0008
.991
.
39.4
.
0.2385
0.0008
.990
.
38.7
.
0.2407
0.0009
.989
.
38.2
.
0.2433
0.0009
.988
.
37.6
.
0.2516
0.0009
.988
.
37.2
.
0.2537
0.0016
.986
.
35.1
4.4
0.2624
0.0011
.985
.
34.6
.
0.2765
0.0012
.984
.
34.1
.
0.2909
0.0015
.982
.
33.2
2.6
0.294
0.0017
.980
.
32.2
4.6
0.2969
0.0019
.979
.
31.1
4.0
0.3056
0.0023
.976
.
29.7
2.8
0.3133
0.0014
.975
.
29.7
.
0.3155
0.0017
.973
.
29.4
2.4
0.3174
0.0016
.971
.
29.4
.
0.3344
0.0036
.968
.
27.6
10.3
0.3382
0.0017
.966
.
27.8
.
0.3391

T
i
e

35

CL47

Las Vegas

5

.

0.0026
.964
.
27.2
3.3
0.3656

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 152
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

34

CL35

CL51

33

CL46

Kingston

32

CL45

Lake Charles

31

Dallas/Fort Worth

CL52

30

Huntsville

Nashville

29

Austin

CL32

28

CL43

Knoxville

27

Chicago

CL59

26

CL63

CL40

25

CL50

Grand Rapids

24

CL33

CL27

23

CL34

CL41

22

CL38

Washington

21

CL42

CL25

20

CL30

CL54

19

CL28

CL36

18

Lincoln

CL37

17

CL31

CL20

16

CL29

CL49

15

Charlotte

CL19

14

Corpus Christi

Miami

3

.

3

.

3

.

2

.

4

.

5

.

3

.

4

.

3

.
.
.

PSF
7

.

6
12

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1.10

SPRSQ

3
8
4
7
6
7
6
8
2

0.0037
26.1
0.0023
26.1
0.0023
26.2
0.0025
26.2
0.0022
26.5
0.0024
26.8
0.0030
26.8
0.0028
27.0
0.0037
26.9
0.0029
27.3
0.0039
27.4
0.0090
25.6
0.0031
26.2
0.0069
25.7
0.0042
26.2
0.0053
26.5
0.0040
27.4
0.0072
27.4
0.0086
27.4
0.0060
28.2
0.0046
29.6

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

.
0.3709
.958
.
2.1
0.374
.955
.
1.9
0.3741
.953
.
3.1
0.3817
.951
.
.
0.387
.948
.
1.4
0.3877
.945
.
3.7
0.3898
.942
.
5.8
0.3906
.939
.
4.1
0.3981
.936
.
3.4
0.4045
.932
.
2.3
0.4087
.923
.
6.3
0.4322
.920
.
1.9
0.4336
.913
.
5.9
0.438
.909
.
2.9
0.4401
.903
.
3.7
0.4424
.899
.
3.5
0.4438
.892
.
3.4
0.4935
.884
.
5.0
0.5371
.878
.
2.9
0.5468
.873
.863
.
0.563
3.1

.960

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 153
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

SPRSQ
PSF

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

13

CL21

CL53

12

CL24

CL39

11

CL15

Omaha

10

CL13

CL12

9

CL26

CL11

8

CL23

CL22

7

CL14

CL18

6

CL16

CL7

5

CL17

CL8

4

CL10

CL9

3

CL48

CL5

2

CL4

CL3

1

CL2

CL6

10
0.80
9
0.27
9
0.73
19
-.46
13
-.94
15
-1.5
8
-1.3
14
-1.8
22
-3.0
32
-4.6
24
-2.1
56
-2.6
70
0.00

0.0126
.860
.852
29.3
6.9
0.5884
0.0166
.844
.841
28.5
8.9
0.6127
0.0076
.836
.828
30.1
2.9
0.6133
0.0287
.807
.813
28.0
8.6
0.6459
0.0258
.782
.796
27.3
9.0
0.6852
0.0303
.751
.777
26.8
14.0
0.7463
0.0215
.730
.753
28.4
9.8
0.7887
0.0418
.688
.723
28.2
10.0
0.8114
0.0673
.621
.684
26.6
17.7
0.8411
0.0980
.523
.632
24.1
20.5
0.8639
0.0323
.490
.551
32.2
4.9
0.9213
0.2073
.283
.374
26.9
26.8
1.0175
0.2831
.000
.000
.
26.9
1.218

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 154
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

C
u
b
i
c
C
l
u
s
t
e
r
i
n
g
C
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n


2 ˆ





1 ˆ





0 ˆ





-1 ˆ





-2 ˆ





-3 ˆ



1
1

1

1
1
1
9
7
8
6
3
2
5

Symbol is value of _NCL_.


-4 ˆ




4

-5 ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Number of Clusters
NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 155
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=3 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.47086690
-16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
2
-20.74774458
9.36293579
-1.92570126
2.55375831
3
13.82101526
12.50743969
4.47700609
9.17367551
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

4.7510

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
29
4.5063
13.4106
3
14.7904
2
19
5.5477
18.8948
1
17.5661
3
22
4.6497
14.1085
1
14.7904
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO1
9.56141
5.69407
0.655628
1.903833
PCO2
7.56983
4.75413
0.617002
1.610982
PCO3
5.43797
5.13406
0.134486
0.155383
PCO4
3.52309
3.56941
0.003281
0.003292
OVER-ALL
6.90483
4.85087
0.520754
1.086610
Pseudo F Statistic =

36.40

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.55068

-1.102

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 156

Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=3 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.52934352
-6.80822598
-1.36379318
0.06427548
2
-12.17424022
2.79509062
-1.30450328
-0.31672371
3
7.17998192
6.56053780
2.92434384
0.18880735
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5.201439311
3.904577754
5.318259590
3.262226081
2
6.498660672
6.044588685
6.127024911
2.606909878
3
5.583049748
4.523855294
3.769243568
4.542504510
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 157
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
3 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
6320.20
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 158
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.47086690
-16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
2
17.62711647
0.88212599
-0.58601647
-2.65441445
3
-11.44422976
2.81056112
-7.90445907
-2.17044852
4
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
5
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
-22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
7
0.69294273
2.31650915
5.60732222
2.52557376
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.8438

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
15
3.4459
11.3124
7
13.6328
2
10
4.2811
10.5994
7
11.5030
3
14
4.7529
14.1964
4
12.8179

4
5
6
7

5
2
7
17

2.6444
1.7516
4.1232
3.7709

5.5282
2.4771
10.3505
11.4221

3
2
3
2

12.8179
16.6073
14.5622
11.5030

Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO1
9.56141
4.62682
0.786197
3.677199
PCO2
7.56983
4.34278
0.699493
2.327707
PCO3
5.43797
3.59701
0.600515
1.503225
PCO4
3.52309
3.05951
0.311429
0.452282
OVER-ALL
6.90483
3.95494
0.700452
2.338361
Pseudo F Statistic =

24.55

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =

0.75268

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 159
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1

Cubic Clustering Criterion =

-2.756

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.84397806
-9.53534110
-2.41821342
0.48466906
2
12.48137463
0.64423392
-0.03406928
-0.39434054
3
-7.73331730
2.61289128
-5.02796250
-0.32401842
4
-0.96230978
13.40910737
-4.80312556
-1.68161474
5
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
-17.05517812
-2.69532263
4.80065288
0.29501831
7
2.36537223
1.58518229
5.34289353
-0.82767147
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.075603834
3.359063089
3.591456936
2.589242636
2
3.141533633
5.779486817
4.736585299
2.757880052
3
6.362183875
4.079347641
4.398117806
3.728212400
4
2.962695791
2.191393654
2.201513909
3.089334743
5
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
5.384034254
4.534083909
2.648019271
3.382987673
7
4.242361014
4.813229684
2.703036672
2.899401819
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 160
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS

ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
4136.98
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 161
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.47086690
-16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
2
-2.47944102
-7.31440494
-9.72389792
4.00458550
3
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
4
-20.74774458
9.36293579
-1.92570126
2.55375831
5
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
-8.70793720
6.34263287
1.28387081
-2.44534488
7
-0.73428048
-6.26858594
8.18331923
-1.13214014
8
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
9
1.02427673
-0.38896807
-8.45618803
-8.14182229
10
-22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
11
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

2.9235

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
11
3.0571
9.3685
2
9.5064
2
6
3.0179
8.3019
9
8.3569
3
5
2.6444
5.5282
6
12.2280
4
4
2.5455
4.8528
10
12.2204
5
2
1.7516
2.4771
11
15.1732
6
8
3.4461
9.5181
3
12.2280
7
9
3.3251
8.3565
2
10.9030
8
3
2.7842
5.2081
11
12.4154
9
4
3.5552
9.3990
2
8.3569
10
4
3.7335
7.7465
4
12.2204
11
14
2.9945
10.8409
8
12.4154
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO1
9.56141
3.69088
0.872585
6.848387
PCO2
7.56983
2.99439
0.866202
6.473980
PCO3
5.43797
2.91456
0.754373
3.071219
PCO4
3.52309
2.78476
0.465765
0.871836
OVER-ALL
6.90483
3.11603
0.825859
4.742478
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 162
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=11 Maxiter=1

Pseudo F Statistic =

27.98

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.82791

-0.176

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
7.07383203
-9.34134391
-1.80262162
1.11823967
2
-1.43330571
-6.65303140
-4.91109013
2.17179398
3
-0.96230978
13.40910737
-4.80312556
-1.68161474
4
-18.69669877
5.50237011
0.15441716
2.21866066
5
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
-8.38977621
3.71852383
-5.29950407
-1.23041433
7
-2.06872113
-5.57519460
5.21821190
-1.66330223
8
16.59424712
5.21250871
-0.30784348
-2.98640689
9
3.39292549
-2.67161604
-7.93845830
-2.46814563
10
-18.02539876
-4.66355725
6.35012675
-0.45634479
11
5.72074176
4.49062570
4.91536308
-0.13933857
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.893172583
3.958920669
2.941973115
2.164347285
2
2.299494070
3.266873517
2.629878590
3.681802171
3
2.962695791
2.191393654
2.201513909
3.089334743
4
2.946096069
3.183263103
2.052113596
1.701158164
5
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
3.476586897
2.334811494
5.029578315
2.160489928
7
5.095903372
2.521901730
2.742625447
2.091537363
8
1.780470941
4.278930920
2.764352418
1.373483514
9
4.554554997
2.125639791
2.369217393
4.436574354
10
5.363176134
3.261352302
1.041538456
3.908011016
11
3.732698281
2.748202273
2.363208564
2.966268669
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 163
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
11 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
2393.05
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 164
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
15 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=15 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-22.66652374
-3.02164952
4.85089941
5.33374256
2
10.20747823
-5.34320472
-9.32655058
-2.83482547

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

-22.67064748
-20.74774458
10.95847761
-8.70793720
2.46756897
9.88540526
1.02427673
-6.70417273
4.47086690
1.52543058
17.61728069
-12.53842840
-2.47944102

-9.53709355
9.36293579
12.37348243
6.34263287
7.36839188
-4.15693670
-0.38896807
-5.44491369
-16.90830816
15.88510614
9.43806143
1.94963998
-7.31440494

7.08928951
-1.92570126
2.11023068
1.28387081
8.35769514
3.30173918
-8.45618803
8.18469507
0.47613678
-3.98916959
-2.92259233
-7.87801441
-9.72389792

Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

-3.23676902
2.55375831
12.44931239
-2.44534488
-0.32727043
4.47144343
-8.14182229
-1.98514609
-0.44864696
-4.60274869
-1.80934960
3.83149139
4.00458550

2.4715

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
1
.
0
4
10.9626
2
6
2.4733
6.8679
11
7.9834
3
1
.
0
1
10.9961
4
4
2.5455
4.8528
1
10.9626
5
2
1.7516
2.4771
7
15.3329
6
4
2.9132
6.1180
14
8.8956
7
13
2.6604
6.1079
8
10.2385
8
5
3.0465
6.8723
2
8.2961
9
2
2.9239
4.1351
15
8.5762
10
8
3.0844
8.7202
6
12.1344
11
5
2.7361
5.9629
2
7.9834
12
5
2.6444
5.5282
6
11.6846
13
3
2.7842
5.2081
7
12.8646
14
4
2.4565
5.5913
6
8.8956
15
7
3.0656
8.3019
9
8.5762
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 165
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
15 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=15 Maxiter=1
Statistics for Variables

Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO1
9.56141
3.37235
0.900840
9.084720
PCO2
7.56983
2.56716
0.908326
9.908173
PCO3
5.43797
2.43799
0.839785
5.241595
PCO4
3.52309
2.62773
0.556567
1.255132
OVER-ALL
6.90483
2.77542
0.871215
6.764865
Pseudo F Statistic =

26.58

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

.

.

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.

Cluster Means
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-22.66652374
-3.02164952
4.85089941
5.33374256
2
7.88395965
-7.85814683
-5.11345459
0.47142780
3
-22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
4
-18.69669877
5.50237011
0.15441716
2.21866066
5
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
-7.69108129
4.61154248
-1.12988423
-2.28461912
7
5.13887854
5.04033517
4.92769142
-0.37283395
8
8.15892570
-4.17977099
2.24611064
1.49916044
9
1.29085711
-1.80914335
-6.45454177
-4.82455265
10
-6.92011057
-4.77893729
6.49914228
-1.76880067
11
4.63683566
-12.14931763
0.69619350
-0.54082484
12
-0.96230978
13.40910737
-4.80312556
-1.68161474
13
16.59424712
5.21250871
-0.30784348
-2.98640689
14
-9.08847114
2.82550518
-9.46912391
-0.17620954
15
-1.11676068
-5.94902302
-5.56924855
2.23458745
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 166
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
15 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=15 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
.
.
.
.
2
2.454817121
2.496458732
2.495119724
2.446337632
3
.
.
.
.
4
2.946096069
3.183263103
2.052113596
1.701158164
5
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
3.932585551
3.146044705
2.842928239
0.708825285
7
3.155823720
1.897084473
2.459236831
2.950439104
8
4.782371815
1.134536469
2.004800748
2.991227265
9
0.377001589
2.008431143
2.830755287
4.691327724
10
5.178836874
2.395441127
2.056201886
1.125663140
11
1.841047912
3.412301888
2.676378506
2.783803747
12
2.962695791
2.191393654
2.201513909
3.089334743
13
1.780470941
4.278930920
2.764352418
1.373483514
14
3.381592872
0.834018918
2.140408564
2.724942527
15
2.260044128
3.516121931
2.965764442
3.365113741
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 167
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
15 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1710.36
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 168
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
17 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=17 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
2
10.20747823
-5.34320472
-9.32655058
-2.83482547
3
1.48386155
4.77635995
4.61654050
4.50366152
4
-20.74774458
9.36293579
-1.92570126
2.55375831
5
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
-13.54687767
-2.70109629
7.02300182
-1.83322352
7
4.47086690
-16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
8
9.88540526
-4.15693670
3.30173918
4.47144343
9
1.02427673
-0.38896807
-8.45618803
-8.14182229
10
6.86169418
4.44840029
9.59601036
-2.92321872
11
-5.67936378
7.83580785
-3.67216244
-3.21430018
12
-22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
13
-2.47944102
-7.31440494
-9.72389792
4.00458550
14
-12.53842840
1.94963998
-7.87801441
3.83149139
15
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
16
-22.66652374
-3.02164952
4.85089941
5.33374256
17
-0.73428048
-6.26858594
8.18331923
-1.13214014
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

2.3527

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5
2.6444
5.9448
11
10.2709
2
6
2.4733
6.8679
7
7.5824
3
6
2.2612
5.4501
10
5.8473
4
4
2.5455
4.8528
16
10.9626
5
2
1.7516
2.4771
3
14.9129
6
4
2.6120
6.8263
17
10.9797
7
4
2.5056
5.0458
2
7.5824
8
4
2.7305
6.5793
2
8.6733
9
2
2.9239
4.1351
13
8.5762
10
7
2.3005
5.4527
3
5.8473
11
3
2.6964
6.4348
14
8.6819
12
1
.
0
16
10.9961
13
7
3.0656
8.3019
9
8.5762
14
4
2.4565
5.1532
11
8.6819
15
3
2.7842
5.2081
10
10.8866
16
1
.
0
4
10.9626
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 169
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
17 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=17 Maxiter=1
Cluster Summary

Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
17
7
3.1951
7.0061
6
10.9797
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO1
9.56141
2.96775
0.925999
12.513340

PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
OVER-ALL

7.56983
5.43797
3.52309
6.90483

2.78198
2.52205
2.31250
2.65779

Pseudo F Statistic =

0.896256
0.834781
0.669066
0.886195

8.639137
5.052577
2.021750
7.786965

25.79

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

.

.

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-0.96230978
13.40910737
-4.80312556
-1.68161474
2
7.88395965
-7.85814683
-5.11345459
0.47142780
3
2.97906143
5.30091883
5.12443761
1.89472710
4
-18.69669877
5.50237011
0.15441716
2.21866066
5
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
-12.16402506
-2.16026933
5.07591979
-1.78577945
7
4.84771526
-12.84627157
-0.27931047
0.31966457
8
9.36342443
-4.33884319
2.34584716
2.70981952
9
1.29085711
-1.80914335
-6.45454177
-4.82455265
10
6.99015035
4.81697774
4.75905184
-2.31645771
11
-6.01936028
4.96470924
-1.96606689
-2.43086751
12
-22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
13
-1.11676068
-5.94902302
-5.56924855
2.23458745
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 170
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
17 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=17 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
14
-9.08847114
2.82550518
-9.46912391
-0.17620954
15
16.59424712
5.21250871
-0.30784348
-2.98640689
16
-22.66652374
-3.02164952
4.85089941
5.33374256
17
-1.75382580
-5.56333755
5.64478525
-2.31134569
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
2.962695791
2.191393654
2.201513909
3.089334743
2
2.454817121
2.496458732
2.495119724
2.446337632
3
2.071430940
2.436551781
2.398261035
2.114925824
4
2.946096069
3.183263103
2.052113596
1.701158164
5
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
2.015622800
4.080395693
2.547245510
0.298168035
7
2.054947326
3.505249432
1.790702634
2.323030553
8
4.563185175
1.244000632
2.300576500
1.469223593
9
0.377001589
2.008431143
2.830755287
4.691327724
10
2.771198256
1.457542922
2.689006632
2.033134798
11
2.535731993
3.754735058
2.815697576
0.790770751
12
.
.
.
.
13
2.260044128
3.516121931
2.965764442
3.365113741

14
15
16
17

3.381592872
1.780470941
.
4.695246851

0.834018918
4.278930920
.
2.898645454

2.140408564
2.764352418
.
2.839964692

2.724942527
1.373483514
.
1.523632114

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 171
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
17 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1549.80
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 172
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix

1
2
3
4
5
6

Eigenvalue

Difference

Proportion

Cumulative

285.029670
80.992508
40.772546
25.558273
12.489474
8.564761

204.037162
40.219962
15.214273
13.068800
3.924713

0.6286
0.1786
0.0899
0.0564
0.0275
0.0189

0.6286
0.8073
0.8972
0.9536
0.9811
1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 8.692978
Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations
= 30.11336

NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

69

St. Petersburg

Tampa

68

Oakland

San Jose

67

Akron

Cleveland

66

Sacramento

Stockton

65

Johnstown

Worcester

64

Louisville

St. Louis

63

Cincinnati

Dayton

62

Buffalo

Syracuse

61

ColumbusOH

New York

60

Bakersfield

Fresno

59

Los Angeles

Santa Ana/Anaheim

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

0.0000
922
0.0001
364
0.0001
228
0.0002
158
0.0003
115
0.0003
96.8
0.0004
83.4
0.0004
75.9
0.0004
69.1
0.0005
63.5
0.0005
59.4

RSQ
PST2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

1.00

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

.
0.0332
1.00
.
0.0675
1.00
.
0.0899
1.00
.
0.1147
.999
.
0.1412
.999
.
0.1448
.999
.
0.1595
.998
.
0.1607
.998
.
0.1746
.997
.
0.1846
.997
.
0.1899

T
i
e

58

Houston

San Antonio

57

CL67

Toledo

.
.

2
3

0.0005
.996
.
56.6
.
0.1902
0.0007
.996
.
52.9
5.7
0.1907

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 173
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

56

Baton Rouge

Lafayette

55

Jackson

Memphis

54

Boston

Chicago

53

Modesto

CL66

52

Little Rock

Shreveport

51

Jersey City

Philadelphia

50

Evansville

Lexington

49

CL63

Indianapolis

48

CL57

Fort Wayne

47

ColumbusGA

CL55

46

Knoxville

CL64

45

CL58

Lake Charles

44

CL62

Pittsburgh

43

CL49

Kansas CityMO

42

Austin

CL45

41

CL54

CL65

40

CL68

Tacoma

39

Huntsville

Nashville

38

Colorado Springs

Denver

37

CL48

Grand Rapids

36

Arlington

CL61

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SPRSQ
PSF

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
3
2
2
5
3

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

T
i
e

0.0006
.995
.
51.4
.
0.1956
0.0006
.994
.
49.9
.
0.2053
0.0006
.994
.
48.6
.
0.2092
0.0008
.993
.
46.6
4.1
0.21
0.0007
.992
.
46.0
.
0.2131
0.0007
.992
.
45.4
.
0.2184
0.0007
.991
.
44.8
.
0.2219
0.0009
.990
.
43.7
2.4
0.2281
0.0010
.989
.
42.3
2.7
0.2381
0.0010
.988
.
41.3
1.7
0.2528
0.0011
.987
.
40.1
3.7
0.2532
0.0011
.986
.
39.5
2.1
0.2552
0.0012
.985
.
38.7
3.1
0.2595
0.0012
.983
.
38.1
2.0
0.2659
0.0011
.982
.
37.8
1.4
0.2663
0.0016
.981
.
36.8
3.5
0.2674
0.0015
.979
.
36.2
22.3
0.2779
0.0012
.978
.
36.3
.
0.2866
0.0012
.977
.
36.4
.
0.2897
0.0017
.975
.
35.8
2.9
0.3011
0.0018
.973
.
35.4
4.0
0.3134

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 174
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ

SPRSQ

RSQ

ERSQ
Norm

T

CCC
35

Oklahoma City

Wichita

34

CL51

Washington

33

Charlotte

CL46

32

Atlanta

CL47

31

CL53

San Bernardino

30

Kingston

Lincoln

29

Las Vegas

Riverside

28

CL43

CL50

27

Dallas/Fort Worth

CL52

26

CL34

Kansas CityKS

25

CL37

CL41

24

CL42

CL56

23

CL59

CL31

22

Corpus Christi

Miami

21

CL39

CL35

20

CL22

CL69

19

El Paso

CL29

18

CL25

CL44

17

CL28

Omaha

16

CL32

CL27

15

CL33

CL17

2

.

3

.

4

.

4

.

4

.

2

.

2

.

6

.

3

.

4

.

9

.

6

.

6

.

2

.

4

.

4

.
.
.

3
12
7

.
.
.

PSF

7
11

0.0014
35.5
0.0017
35.4
0.0020
35.2
0.0019
35.1
0.0021
34.9
0.0016
35.4
0.0017
35.9
0.0033
35.0
0.0021
35.4
0.0022
35.8
0.0055
33.9
0.0038
33.6
0.0038
33.5
0.0021
34.5
0.0030
35.2
0.0035
35.7
0.0027
36.9
0.0073
35.9
0.0035
37.0
0.0074
36.6
0.0104
35.4

RMS
Dist

PST2

i
e

.
0.3153
.970
.
2.5
0.3184
.968
.
2.7
0.3261
.966
.
2.3
0.3272
.964
.
4.4
0.3305
.963
.
.
0.334
.961
.
.
0.3417
.957
.
4.2
0.3459
.955
.
3.2
0.3481
.953
.
1.8
0.361
.948
.
6.3
0.363
.944
.
4.6
0.3636
.940
.
4.2
0.3677
.938
.
.
0.3781
.935
.
2.3
0.3862
.931
.
3.4
0.3963
.929
.
1.6
0.4105
.921
.
5.5
0.4166
.918
.
2.7
0.4231
.911
.
5.8
0.4593
.900
.
7.0
0.469
.

.972

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 175
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
The CLUSTER Procedure
Average Linkage Cluster Analysis
NCL

Cluster History
-----------Clusters Joined------------

FREQ
CCC

14

CL36

CL15

13

CL24

CL20

12

CL18

CL30

11

CL26

CL23

10

CL19

Phoenix

9

CL12

CL14

14
3.52
10
3.04
14
2.91
10
1.91
4
2.35
28

SPRSQ
PSF

RSQ
PST2

ERSQ
Norm
RMS
Dist

0.0089
.891
.861
35.3
4.1
0.4798
0.0116
.880
.851
34.7
7.3
0.5061
0.0098
.870
.841
35.2
5.4
0.5334
0.0197
.850
.829
33.5
13.0
0.6049
0.0069
.843
.817
35.9
3.2
0.6069
0.0426
.801
.802

T
i
e

8

CL16

CL21

7

CL60

CL11

6

CL38

CL40

5

CL9

CL7

4

CL8

CL10

3

CL4

CL13

2

CL5

CL6

1

CL2

CL3

-.12
11
-.33
12
0.01
5
0.44
40
-1.6
15
-1.2
25
-1.6
45
-.14
70
0.00

30.6
16.6
0.6119
0.0197
.781
.785
31.6
9.2
0.6195
0.0151
.766
.766
34.3
4.7
0.6565
0.0168
.749
.741
38.2
18.3
0.722
0.0713
.678
.710
34.2
17.3
0.7509
0.0343
.643
.668
39.7
8.9
0.7896
0.0831
.560
.604
42.7
17.5
0.8699
0.0840
.476
.481
61.8
14.6
0.9919
0.4762
.000
.000
.
61.8
1.2417

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 176
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Plot of _CCC_*_NCL_.

C
u
b
i
c
C
l
u
s
t
e
r
i
n
g
C
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n

Symbol is value of _NCL_.


4 ˆ



1



3 ˆ
1

1




1

2 ˆ

1





1 ˆ




6


0 ˆ
1
7

2
9

8




-1 ˆ

4



3

5

-2 ˆ
Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

Number of Clusters
NOTE: 125 obs had missing values.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 177
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-31.01125917 -10.22009334
-9.18543209
-6.09763360
5.46469736
-1.37489115
2
-7.86891703
2.60659500
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
3
31.80245481
9.14494722
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
4
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

5.2174

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
12
5.5526
17.8311
2
17.5462
2
34
5.4820
21.1966
1
17.5462
3
12
5.4127
18.6490
4
20.0149
4
12
4.1447
15.7688
3
20.0149
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
6.17489
0.848381
5.595493
PCT2
4.70672
4.35516
0.181031
0.221048
PCO1
9.56141
5.81890
0.645731
1.822716
PCO2
7.56983
6.07908
0.383122
0.621066
PCO3
5.43797
5.25498
0.106772
0.119535
PCO4
3.52309
3.45512
0.080027
0.086989
OVER-ALL
8.69298
5.28306
0.646712
1.830554
Pseudo F Statistic =

40.27

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.60808

1.928

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 178
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=4 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-20.18231599
-1.30353686
0.48354999
-7.39947177
3.38307143
-1.10284303
2
-5.62934905
1.13094555
5.39201920
-0.81459922
-0.97827613
0.81488076
3
14.63395787
1.87184768
0.26283141
8.20665894
-1.68614211
-1.57424310
4
21.49818042
-3.77265655 -16.02376915
1.50084397
1.07485306
0.36825730
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
6.906015493
7.324488412
6.005657969
5.456048386
3.441848621
2.441823824
2
6.105267778
3.783909904
6.144693930
6.875219454
5.164466580
4.125980011
3
7.447101298
3.854530255
5.538411862
4.707878484
6.879426710
2.303293295
4
3.714916660
1.531389973
4.810791518
5.290850375
5.147891433
3.047697559
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 179
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
4 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
11432.91
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 180
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
6 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=6 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
13.99418618
0.07354821
-6.20202551
2.59170848
-9.67136849
-1.50718189
2
-10.82576302
4.76445441
-5.35884936
-4.24289791
-2.13502111
7.51994881
3
31.80245481
9.14494722
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
4
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
5
-7.86891703
2.60659500
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
6
-31.01125917 -10.22009334
-9.18543209
-6.09763360
5.46469736
-1.37489115
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

4.4689

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
15
4.6937
16.8693
5
21.0409
2
23
3.9954
13.1130
5
15.9183
3
3
4.1332
10.0686
1
21.1088
4
9
3.6262
13.8299
1
21.4104
5
15
5.3097
17.2741
2
15.9183
6
5
5.0465
19.9474
2
22.8851
Statistics for Variables

Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
5.42809
0.886388
7.801906
PCT2
4.70672
3.62458
0.449940
0.817984
PCO1
9.56141
5.10318
0.735778
2.784701
PCO2
7.56983
4.82438
0.623259
1.654346
PCO3
5.43797
4.25091
0.433213
0.764332
PCO4
3.52309
3.38669
0.142892
0.166714
OVER-ALL
8.69298
4.49923
0.751532
3.024659
Pseudo F Statistic =

38.72

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =

0.69027

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 181
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
6 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=6 Maxiter=1

Cubic Clustering Criterion =

3.517

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
10.84594210
-0.42865226
-3.70775989
6.01489111
-4.74546218
-1.53365754
2
-10.29628927
2.57026011
3.28644661
-7.74162600
-1.68380542
0.88689011
3
22.75397336
7.09556323
7.50822759
5.58344771
6.23973017
-2.24559934
4
23.30670087
-4.13857205 -17.73273716
0.76747707
3.04409326
0.57815439
5
-4.43794427
-0.20107529
8.74714012
5.20207681
2.05489707
1.11996897
6
-27.46550843
-6.74192209
-2.82180474
-2.77095152
6.59399425
-2.53194711
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
6.182223082
2.195744564
4.892030266
5.817820981
4.819220654
2.853212577
2
5.480553004
1.377956687
4.759108706
3.752306013
4.336468470
2.882568442
3
8.236154412
3.363829595
1.900388753
1.253164057
3.017640261
3.010497360
4
1.642922651
1.540860056
4.207946977
5.891985392
3.460164643
3.070447413
5
6.020309011
5.137052571
5.924057452
5.154839308
4.575388353
4.891375412
6
2.507151304
8.950682588
6.949559006
3.643019108
1.625025385
1.481654855
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 182
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
6 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
8387.71
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 183
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method

Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2.46756897
7.36839188
8.35769514
-0.32727043
2
20.76507818
8.92838212
6.86169418
4.44840029
9.59601036
-2.92321872
3
-12.71018409
2.28009744
5.22705667 -11.18952550
-6.33433535
4.09184056
4
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
5
2.50439360
0.48683436
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
21.61690260
2.54182208
-4.73772104
15.18448813
-8.14898308
-0.28153788
7
-31.01125917 -10.22009334
-9.18543209
-6.09763360
5.46469736
-1.37489115
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

4.1893

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
6
3.4340
14.3459
5
13.9276
2
4
4.4309
12.7349
6
19.9419
3
27
4.5168
17.1683
1
15.7092
4
9
3.6262
13.1614
6
18.4882
5
10
4.7478
15.0220
1
13.9276
6
9
3.7924
12.3759
4
18.4882
7
5
5.0465
19.9474
3
23.7482
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
5.59069
0.881363
7.429049
PCT2
4.70672
3.10454
0.602762
1.517381
PCO1
9.56141
4.95196
0.755092
3.083166
PCO2
7.56983
4.27468
0.708843
2.434576
PCO3
5.43797
3.97273
0.512702
1.052134
PCO4
3.52309
3.50303
0.097325
0.107819
OVER-ALL
8.69298
4.31553
0.774980
3.444042
Pseudo F Statistic =

36.16

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 184
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=7 Maxiter=1

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.71779

3.982

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-5.23987876
-5.44015847
1.73378868
3.96861450
4.34465880
1.55014480

2
3
4
5
6
7

20.09811228
-9.21854462
23.30670087
-0.29838069
14.49984104
-27.46550843

5.46673711
2.52337903
-4.13857205
2.41808660
-1.17570428
-6.74192209

6.02340699
3.67394061
-17.73273716
9.89674353
-6.55072596
-2.82180474

4.95906063
-7.01410809
0.76747707
8.75285733
7.23909773
-2.77095152

6.17520453
-2.13035206
3.04409326
0.29966444
-6.29030226
6.59399425

-2.49196720
0.44541718
0.57815439
0.16362200
-0.61545978
-2.53194711

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4.711450904
2.921492576
3.337512459
2.384933998
4.099134951
2.528419894
2
8.569551835
4.260969897
3.350585095
1.614429824
2.467270300
2.506960588
3
6.791434443
1.585165858
5.056653082
3.943071421
4.685132295
3.271878387
4
1.642922651
1.540860056
4.207946977
5.891985392
3.460164643
3.070447413
5
5.134192293
2.781488416
6.104534677
4.496610059
2.948674246
5.913635689
6
4.396409998
2.110941436
3.880516206
4.973735433
4.133929182
2.371422316
7
2.507151304
8.950682588
6.949559006
3.643019108
1.625025385
1.481654855
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 185
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
7371.11
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 186
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-28.99302565
2.11735872
0.82753041
-1.62598581
6.13963538
-4.20728037
2
21.61690260
2.54182208
-4.73772104
15.18448813
-8.14898308
-0.28153788
3
-25.24870940 -14.59398355
-6.70417273
-5.44491369
8.18469507
-1.98514609
4
-4.30168153
4.86827149
17.62711647
0.88212599
-0.58601647
-2.65441445
5
2.50439360
0.48683436
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
20.76507818
8.92838212
6.86169418
4.44840029
9.59601036
-2.92321872
7
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
8
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2.46756897
7.36839188
8.35769514
-0.32727043
9
1.63252491
-1.64373523
1.02427673
-0.38896807
-8.45618803
-8.14182229
10
-10.97946361
5.22546624
-6.11627726
-9.05656062
2.16020546
-0.45484752
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.4515

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5
3.9382
10.0294
10
14.1206
2
9
4.0529
15.9716
9
17.3408
3
3
2.0010
5.5370
1
22.2312

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

7
3
4
9
5
9
16

3.6847
3.5561
4.4309
3.6262
2.4573
3.9815
3.5005

10.3631
9.5323
12.7349
13.1614
6.5855
13.7406
11.7523

9
4
2
2
4
4
1

15.4070
16.6547
18.8141
19.2516
15.8331
15.4070
14.1206

Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
3.98083
0.942714
16.456278
PCT2
4.70672
2.26787
0.798116
3.953348
PCO1
9.56141
4.31734
0.822707
4.640388
PCO2
7.56983
4.72337
0.661442
1.953701
PCO3
5.43797
3.06625
0.723533
2.617070
PCO4
3.52309
3.06043
0.343826
0.523985
OVER-ALL
8.69298
3.66760
0.845215
5.460559
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 187
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=10 Maxiter=1

Pseudo F Statistic =

36.40

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.77671

5.862

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-22.13967359
2.48095299
7.08561916
-2.96878269
4.71507087
-0.96823772
2
14.41750510
-0.55977218
-5.69576691
8.56520829
-5.35324848
-1.03146529
3
-27.16955932 -13.13602015
-7.52447780
-5.06162668
7.34988669
-1.47792820
4
-4.72174041
3.09696825
12.41008922
1.98124480
-0.72723325
-1.82531655
5
4.41819412
0.77393161
9.52678317
11.19681170
2.58533352
7.35250808
6
20.09811228
5.46673711
6.02340699
4.95906063
6.17520453
-2.49196720
7
23.30670087
-4.13857205 -17.73273716
0.76747707
3.04409326
0.57815439
8
-6.57631370
-6.28349794
2.81470239
4.61920000
5.91557237
2.18676526
9
1.21844578
1.42122864
0.24689498
-0.53131208
-7.42812844
-1.47577622
10
-11.62438124
2.62795653
2.63510659
-8.72343483
-0.93334433
1.02440571
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
5.378972289
0.890094499
4.913692284
4.452080685
1.005789866
4.283901995
2
4.541215420
2.310438449
4.729791174
5.545417694
3.473143630
2.721922864
3
3.327009663
2.525266688
1.438464580
1.271733954
1.636176032
0.464353724
4
1.968764046
3.044439589
4.170314685
6.297626412
3.065877283
1.366221719
5
1.719298805
0.394336093
5.161221397
2.155104953
1.704525973
6.210974087
6
8.569551835
4.260969897
3.350585095
1.614429824
2.467270300
2.506960588
7
1.642922651
1.540860056
4.207946977
5.891985392
3.460164643
3.070447413
8
3.788373577
2.309705105
2.271767694
1.983790948
1.579671930
2.225194804
9
3.338685289
2.896641670
4.606600927
5.587896248
3.167754125
3.619117657
10
3.918442181
1.463277271
4.584847355
3.757197057
3.574910062
2.847756369

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 188
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
10 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
5003.40
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 189
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
12 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=12 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
2
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2.46756897
7.36839188
8.35769514
-0.32727043
3
-25.24870940 -14.59398355
-6.70417273
-5.44491369
8.18469507
-1.98514609
4
15.69438709
3.21336035
9.64752659
6.92825558
5.37257111
1.04595794
5
2.50439360
0.48683436
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
7.10205831
2.54042760
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
7
31.80245481
9.14494722
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
8
-3.56521911
4.64405000
14.53834421
5.31733870
2.58507837
-4.49545662
9
-17.37009706
1.26523049
4.47086690 -16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
10
15.27726935
-2.26486488 -11.44422976
2.81056112
-7.90445907
-2.17044852
11
-2.61936587
0.85526687
-2.47944102
-7.31440494
-9.72389792
4.00458550
12
-28.99302565
2.11735872
0.82753041
-1.62598581
6.13963538
-4.20728037
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

3.2143

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
4
3.1188
7.7695
10
17.1734
2
5
2.4573
6.5855
8
15.9065
3
3
2.0010
5.5370
12
22.3710
4
3
3.3808
7.4931
6
16.5952
5
2
1.6050
2.7799
8
18.1556
6
5
3.3009
9.1883
4
16.5952
7
1
.
0
4
16.9798
8
6
3.4267
10.1461
2
15.9065
9
14
3.3776
12.7382
11
13.7872
10
12
4.2603
14.8563
1
17.1734
11
12
3.7447
13.3224
9
13.7872
12
3
3.8989
9.8108
9
15.3279
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
4.03964
0.942975
16.536219
PCT2
4.70672
2.16630
0.821934
4.615896

PCO1

9.56141

4.55043

0.809611

4.252417

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 190
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
12 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=12 Maxiter=1
Statistics for Variables

Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCO2
7.56983
3.53734
0.816447
4.448015
PCO3
5.43797
3.40829
0.669799
2.028457
PCO4
3.52309
2.96819
0.403357
0.676045
OVER-ALL
8.69298
3.52745
0.861591
6.224978
Pseudo F Statistic =

32.82

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

0.80497

5.257

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
24.49777868
-5.47238895 -18.02539876
-4.66355725
6.35012675
-0.45634479
2
-6.57631370
-6.28349794
2.81470239
4.61920000
5.91557237
2.18676526
3
-27.16955932 -13.13602015
-7.52447780
-5.06162668
7.34988669
-1.47792820
4
16.19666477
4.24066707
6.02605532
4.82085176
6.98340302
-1.70277719
5
3.71115371
0.85519515
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
6.81204174
1.45473342
0.74540576
12.11411234
-2.93957618
-1.53839990
7
31.80245481
9.14494722
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
8
-4.69766055
3.12686922
12.95214051
3.66940870
-0.42525706
-1.94305107
9
-13.70279042
2.43343231
4.36087337
-8.81609733
0.49605322
0.54009370
10
18.35158318
-2.08553457 -11.91432883
5.51887269
-3.86811983
0.03189563
11
-2.54452498
2.15597866
0.87157245
-4.83639202
-5.60578112
0.03385954
12
-25.04516757
2.72983444
7.24979109
-0.44182497
5.22513527
-1.77661652
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 191
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
12 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=12 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
1.144013073
1.137418707
5.363176134
3.261352302
1.041538456
3.908011016
2
3.788373577
2.309705105
2.271767694
1.983790948
1.579671930
2.225194804
3
3.327009663
2.525266688
1.438464580
1.271733954
1.636176032
0.464353724
4
4.339132619
4.267822663
4.103606783
1.948067075
2.282986047
2.385445831
5
1.706616504
0.520940813
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
5.160759188
2.700433173
2.690856181
2.727543521
2.573483652
3.185564482
7
.
.
.
.
.
.
8
2.155543456
3.333890328
4.289725504
4.863432958
3.242457619
1.457202198
9
3.512110502
1.434072335
4.301082535
3.815844432
3.749107703
2.634856657
10
4.844350652
1.853547378
5.858750860
3.871147016
5.125885237
2.532650710
11
4.498573662
2.068916401
4.624717864
3.658788132
2.858468388
4.083222535

12

5.078012278

0.760519933

6.237731004

2.987388106

0.792083603

4.047791085

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 192
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
12 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
4339.33
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 193
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-7.86891703
2.60659500
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
2
1.54718311
4.88127310
10.20747823
-5.34320472
-9.32655058
-2.83482547
3
7.84308181
-3.00296132
-6.16920087
3.95011115 -12.42265368
-0.85869913
4
24.13549460
-2.31522955 -20.74774458
9.36293579
-1.92570126
2.55375831
5
2.50439360
0.48683436
10.95847761
12.37348243
2.11023068
12.44931239
6
18.87002003
-3.81007102
-8.70793720
6.34263287
1.28387081
-2.44534488
7
-3.96970822
-4.43483810
0.69294273
2.31650915
5.60732222
2.52557376
8
-19.31663853
2.49105331
13.28496355
-2.65559737
4.75509464
2.89610135
9
1.63252491
-1.64373523
1.02427673
-0.38896807
-8.45618803
-8.14182229
10
-13.95026216
3.92123596
2.84372256
-5.13575493
1.98571299
2.58459092
11
31.80245481
9.14494722
6.01546199
5.37368726
3.75060905
-4.85953725
12
-31.01125917 -10.22009334
-9.18543209
-6.09763360
5.46469736
-1.37489115
13
-28.99302565
2.11735872
0.82753041
-1.62598581
6.13963538
-4.20728037
14
14.07056791
-1.94979421 -12.53842840
1.94963998
-7.87801441
3.83149139
15
-14.32370049
0.25789423
11.43960634
-5.40708377
-0.65915818
0.88714238
16
24.28326217
-4.91563523 -22.66652374
-3.02164952
4.85089941
5.33374256
17
21.61690260
2.54182208
-4.73772104
15.18448813
-8.14898308
-0.28153788
18
-8.47392895
1.82027023
5.36416814
-8.59663006
-3.49199781
1.51693244
19
-26.82583853
3.58109128
7.63687931
2.95610827
4.78067579
-4.01867055
20
12.13052904
0.58025875
1.56894518
3.08589940
5.98162759
-3.23107078
21
-2.61936587
0.85526687
-2.47944102
-7.31440494
-9.72389792
4.00458550
22
-12.35931012
2.88510974
2.27700435 -14.51029140
-1.77494551
3.16558403
23
15.69438709
3.21336035
9.64752659
6.92825558
5.37257111
1.04595794
24
-17.37009706
1.26523049
4.47086690 -16.90830816
0.47613678
-0.44864696
25
22.32666260
-2.45349958 -16.40553692
3.57519633
2.98679251
4.48657294
26
8.76906458
-2.34860854
-0.09681579
13.57050486
-2.47553032
2.67415329
27
-6.15795637
2.03785071
-0.53023004 -11.65566108
-4.03533635
4.36754609
28
23.76669035
-4.89772528 -13.21754614
-3.39438963
6.43731625
-2.08912917
29
-4.30168153
4.86827149
17.62711647
0.88212599
-0.58601647
-2.65441445
30
-18.43210136
1.22793573
3.79331726
-9.36150186
4.59820937
-3.98278246
31
-5.19929675
5.54301971
7.36407668
4.93954603
1.23284668
-1.24908142
32
-5.97310220
3.70101563
-0.79353059
-4.86430426
-3.59730755
-2.00247898
33
-5.76840458
4.47692301
-0.73428048
-6.26858594
8.18331923
-1.13214014
34
1.44229595
-1.22346114
-3.67077986
0.71568701
-3.50990904
-1.63295747
35
-1.48244429
-3.37764387
9.83646851
5.98694735
2.59902230
-0.97958320
36
20.36180286
-3.47148538 -21.69368282
2.30940782
-0.24742673
0.77882556
37
20.76507818
8.92838212
6.86169418
4.44840029
9.59601036
-2.92321872
38
-0.92288883
5.03435131
1.87836862
11.48901258
-3.67852511
-4.63067019
39
-10.97946361
5.22546624
-6.11627726
-9.05656062
2.16020546
-0.45484752
40
13.27969971
1.43609222
-3.38081128
10.91642514
-5.72341968
-1.56727024
41
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2.46756897
7.36839188
8.35769514
-0.32727043
42
0.96403506
2.92824421
1.55743749
-3.22931863
-4.45289551
-1.50728300

43
44

13.99418618
26.17447188

0.07354821
-7.17847001

-6.20202551
-22.67064748

2.59170848
-9.53709355

-9.67136849
7.08928951

-1.50718189
-3.23676902

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 194
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1
Initial Seeds

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
45
-3.25721263
-4.40197237
6.58956560
5.47373504
6.46936475
4.11502522
46
5.83227494
0.61140452
3.80085666
8.70951297
1.16876380
0.43453632
47
-5.76840458
4.47692301
10.72955647
-4.54756726
-5.45988088
-0.47042111
48
-25.24870940 -14.59398355
-6.70417273
-5.44491369
8.18469507
-1.98514609
49
7.10205831
2.54042760
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
50
-10.82576302
4.76445441
-5.35884936
-4.24289791
-2.13502111
7.51994881
Criterion Based on Final Seeds =

0.8654

Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance
RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
1
.
0
29
9.0077
2
1
.
0
47
9.0632
3
1
.
0
43
8.5178
4
1
.
0
25
7.2216
5
2
1.6050
2.7799
46
14.2984
6
2
1.7000
2.9444
25
7.7558
7
2
0.9975
1.7276
45
6.0820
8
2
1.3973
2.4202
15
9.7616
9
1
.
0
34
9.5030
10
2
1.8184
3.1495
30
7.1000
11
1
.
0
37
12.7028
12
1
.
0
48
8.3054
13
1
.
0
19
8.7226
14
1
.
0
43
6.9568
15
3
1.7052
4.0186
18
6.3610
16
1
.
0
36
9.6732
17
1
.
0
40
9.9778
18
2
1.8168
4.1826
15
6.3610
19
1
.
0
13
8.7226
20
1
.
0
46
10.6243
21
2
1.9292
3.3415
42
8.5452
22
1
.
0
18
6.6506
23
1
.
0
37
10.2896
24
1
.
0
22
7.5117
25
2
1.6534
2.8637
36
7.1317
26
1
.
0
46
8.6316
27
1
.
0
32
7.4806
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 195
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1
Cluster Summary
Maximum Distance

RMS Std
from Seed
Radius
Nearest
Distance Between
Cluster
Frequency
Deviation
to Observation
Exceeded
Cluster
Cluster Centroids
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
28
2
0.2883
0.4994
6
10.5770
29
2
1.8985
3.2882
1
9.0077
30
2
1.2271
2.1254
10
7.1000
31
1
.
0
29
9.3320
32
2
1.5423
5.3429
27
7.4806
33
1
.
0
39
10.0594
34
1
.
0
42
7.3057
35
1
.
0
45
7.4793
36
1
.
0
25
7.1317
37
1
.
0
23
10.2896
38
1
.
0
49
9.4956
39
1
.
0
33
10.0594
40
2
1.8525
3.2086
43
9.0321
41
2
1.6511
2.8597
7
8.9801
42
2
1.2590
2.1807
34
7.3057
43
2
1.7843
3.0905
14
6.9568
44
1
.
0
16
11.3847
45
1
.
0
7
6.0820
46
1
.
0
26
8.6316
47
2
1.5174
2.6282
18
8.8599
48
2
0.5864
1.0157
12
8.3054
49
1
.
0
26
9.4824
50
1
.
0
39
10.2970
Statistics for Variables
Variable
Total STD
Within STD
R-Square
RSQ/(1-RSQ)
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
PCT1
15.50960
1.30491
0.997948
486.368872
PCT2
4.70672
0.83436
0.990891
108.786028
PCO1
9.56141
1.83083
0.989372
93.094654
PCO2
7.56983
2.10645
0.977555
43.554275
PCO3
5.43797
1.46426
0.978984
46.583321
PCO4
3.52309
1.48286
0.948651
18.474584
OVER-ALL
8.69298
1.55622
0.990711
106.649818
Pseudo F Statistic =

43.53

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 196
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1

Approximate Expected Over-All R-Squared =
Cubic Clustering Criterion =

.

.

WARNING: The two values above are invalid for correlated variables.
Cluster Means
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
-7.86891703
2.60659500
17.61728069
9.43806143
-2.92259233
-1.80934960
2
1.54718311
4.88127310
10.20747823
-5.34320472
-9.32655058
-2.83482547
3
7.84308181
-3.00296132
-6.16920087
3.95011115 -12.42265368
-0.85869913
4
24.13549460
-2.31522955 -20.74774458
9.36293579
-1.92570126
2.55375831
5
3.71115371
0.85519515
12.38974643
12.44046106
3.29361838
10.81149395
6
20.48376703
-3.98333310 -10.70709077
4.94733753
1.33126728
-2.14560942
7
-4.10456722
-4.70655697
1.08840214
3.54643455
5.11193136
3.51461764

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

-18.22370121
1.63252491
-14.05965632
31.80245481
-31.01125917
-28.99302565
14.07056791
-14.57113611
24.28326217
21.61690260
-10.59205652
-26.82583853
12.13052904
-2.79554950
-12.35931012
15.69438709
-17.37009706
22.58719078
8.76906458
-6.15795637
23.76669035
-3.93345032
-17.60709632
-5.19929675
-6.36508991
-5.76840458
1.44229595
-1.48244429
20.36180286

2.73918962
-1.64373523
3.27191235
9.14494722
-10.22009334
2.11735872
-1.94979421
0.82933095
-4.91563523
2.54182208
2.05018384
3.58109128
0.58025875
1.26534339
2.88510974
3.21336035
1.26523049
-2.70714127
-2.34860854
2.03785071
-4.89772528
4.75616074
2.04790584
5.54301971
2.69610433
4.47692301
-1.22346114
-3.37764387
-3.47148538

11.58518441
1.02427673
3.09232667
6.01546199
-9.18543209
0.82753041
-12.53842840
8.42196430
-22.66652374
-4.73772104
5.29561241
7.63687931
1.56894518
-0.84846574
2.27700435
9.64752659
4.47086690
-16.17268384
-0.09681579
-0.53023004
-13.38221190
16.08273034
4.61386868
7.36407668
0.33864010
-0.73428048
-3.67077986
9.83646851
-21.69368282

-3.40626704
-0.38896807
-4.33961857
5.37368726
-6.09763360
-1.62598581
1.94963998
-8.49609497
-3.02164952
15.18448813
-9.89307778
2.95610827
3.08589940
-4.51968883
-14.51029140
6.92825558
-16.90830816
5.16856842
13.57050486
-11.65566108
-3.04774296
3.09973234
-9.28550112
4.93954603
-6.88473706
-6.26858594
0.71568701
5.98694735
2.30940782

4.02841691
-8.45618803
1.91643878
3.75060905
5.46469736
6.13963538
-7.87801441
-1.96844140
4.85089941
-8.14898308
-4.91316658
4.78067579
5.98162759
-9.62104850
-1.77494551
5.37257111
0.47613678
1.39539831
-2.47553032
-4.03533635
6.73015904
0.99953095
3.24853484
1.23284668
-3.90397417
8.18331923
-3.50990904
2.59902230
-0.24742673

3.68377239
-8.14182229
-0.37944249
-4.85953725
-1.37489115
-4.20728037
3.83149139
1.14873831
5.33374256
-0.28153788
2.80438650
-4.01867055
-3.23107078
3.30796687
3.16558403
1.04595794
-0.44864696
2.77102939
2.67415329
4.36754609
-1.96117634
-3.57493553
-3.16809198
-1.24908142
-1.28482716
-1.13214014
-1.63295747
-0.97958320
0.77882556

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 197
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1
Cluster Means

Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
37
20.76507818
8.92838212
6.86169418
4.44840029
9.59601036
-2.92321872
38
-0.92288883
5.03435131
1.87836862
11.48901258
-3.67852511
-4.63067019
39
-10.97946361
5.22546624
-6.11627726
-9.05656062
2.16020546
-0.45484752
40
15.02873846
0.08979559
-4.53008753
9.37611650
-4.69779106
-2.39078521
41
-10.70761073
-8.80120169
2.65357102
5.26469794
6.44231718
-0.10521711
42
2.50745705
3.10745214
0.32442172
-3.08253450
-5.10861627
-0.89947259
43
14.63572776
-1.09565833
-8.82312764
2.70113480
-8.78791378
-1.83881520
44
26.17447188
-7.17847001 -22.67064748
-9.53709355
7.08928951
-3.23676902
45
-3.25721263
-4.40197237
6.58956560
5.47373504
6.46936475
4.11502522
46
5.83227494
0.61140452
3.80085666
8.70951297
1.16876380
0.43453632
47
-5.31731208
3.69724271
9.94366900
-6.34765295
-3.99948563
-0.79466529
48
-25.24870940 -14.59398355
-6.69400065
-4.54362322
8.29248136
-1.52944673
49
7.10205831
2.54042760
1.52543058
15.88510614
-3.98916959
-4.60274869
50
-10.82576302
4.76445441
-5.35884936
-4.24289791
-2.13502111
7.51994881
Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
3
.
.
.
.
.
.
4
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
1.706616504
0.520940813
2.024119787
0.094722089
1.673562940
2.316225053
6
2.282182900
0.245029575
2.827230094
1.973245591
0.067028723
0.423889953
7
0.190719426
0.384268508
0.559264064
1.739377183
0.700588469
1.398719272
8
1.545646789
0.350917727
2.403850722
1.061607227
1.027677504
1.113935066

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

.
0.154706709
.
.
.
.
0.362247568
.
.
2.995484736
.
.
0.249161278
.
.
.

.
0.918282261
.
.
.
.
0.662685889
.
.
0.325146939
.
.
0.579935785
.
.
.

.
0.351579294
.
.
.
.
2.629999883
.
.
0.096952448
.
.
2.306547353
.
.
.

.
1.125906839
.
.
.
.
2.769422546
.
.
1.833453949
.
.
3.952325421
.
.
.

.
0.097968523
.
.
.
.
1.451248301
.
.
2.009836145
.
.
0.145451047
.
.
.

.
4.191776242
.
.
.
.
0.429093875
.
.
1.820734997
.
.
0.985167513
.
.
.

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 198
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Replace=FULL

The FASTCLUS Procedure
Radius=0 Maxclusters=50 Maxiter=1

Cluster Standard Deviations
Cluster
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
25
0.368442484
0.358703518
0.329303978
2.253368426
2.250571271
2.426144949
26
.
.
.
.
.
.
27
.
.
.
.
.
.
28
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.232872554
0.490232422
0.414142235
0.180952617
29
0.520757566
0.158548536
2.184091806
3.136168989
2.242302664
1.301813407
30
1.166733304
1.159612849
1.160434949
0.107481279
1.908728022
1.152146320
31
.
.
.
.
.
.
32
0.554354344
1.421159187
1.601131149
2.857323468
0.433692093
1.014912930
33
.
.
.
.
.
.
34
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
.
.
.
.
.
.
36
.
.
.
.
.
.
37
.
.
.
.
.
.
38
.
.
.
.
.
.
39
.
.
.
.
.
.
40
2.473514313
1.903950956
1.625322057
2.178325376
1.450457903
1.164626034
41
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.263046631
2.975072499
2.708753492
0.314030821
42
2.182728316
0.253438278
1.743747619
0.207584113
0.927329198
0.859573726
43
0.907276814
1.653507748
3.706798176
0.154752186
1.249393635
0.469000338
44
.
.
.
.
.
.
45
.
.
.
.
.
.
46
.
.
.
.
.
.
47
0.637941133
1.102634454
1.111412727
2.545705600
2.065310762
0.458550510
48
0.000000000
0.000000000
0.014385486
1.274617197
0.152432838
0.644456214
49
.
.
.
.
.
.
50
.
.
.
.
.
.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 199
Clustering based on Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
7 Clusters, NH method
Beale's Intracluster Residual SS
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : DISTANCE Distance to Cluster Seed
USS
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ
314.5639380
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 200
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
VAR Variables
WITH Variables
Observations

6
6
70

Means and Standard Deviations
Variable
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

Mean

Standard
Deviation

58.948187
66.594223
74.115753
79.251062
77.188558
70.985671
2.867204
6.606144
4.862348
4.839117
4.860275
1.093177

8.634204
6.636108
6.055944
5.360098
6.954290
6.417539
4.870968
3.802739
5.979171
7.597984
6.535204
5.260907

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 201
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
Correlations Among the Original Variables
Correlations Among the VAR Variables

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

TempApril

TempMay

TempJune

TempJuly

TempAug

TempSep

1.0000
0.9203
0.7930
0.5688
0.8359
0.8797

0.9203
1.0000
0.9455
0.7922
0.9151
0.9366

0.7930
0.9455
1.0000
0.9097
0.9223
0.8799

0.5688
0.7922
0.9097
1.0000
0.8411
0.6887

0.8359
0.9151
0.9223
0.8411
1.0000
0.8829

0.8797
0.9366
0.8799
0.6887
0.8829
1.0000

Correlations Among the WITH Variables

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

1.0000
0.6151
-0.1324
-0.2089
0.0429
0.3763

0.6151
1.0000
0.3516
0.1985
0.3100
0.3513

-0.1324
0.3516
1.0000
0.8276
0.1207
-0.1941

-0.2089
0.1985
0.8276
1.0000
0.1574
-0.2757

0.0429
0.3100
0.1207
0.1574
1.0000
0.4358

0.3763
0.3513
-0.1941
-0.2757
0.4358
1.0000

Correlations Between the VAR Variables and the WITH Variables

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

0.2729
0.1972
0.0697
-0.0997
0.2372
0.3391

0.0938
0.1318
0.0308
-0.0038
0.1759
0.2501

-0.5998
-0.4098
-0.2891
-0.1424
-0.3879
-0.2911

-0.7258
-0.5634
-0.4266
-0.1925
-0.4732
-0.4673

0.2701
0.2784
0.3322
0.3991
0.5371
0.3154

0.5091
0.4440
0.3435
0.2114
0.4883
0.5475

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 202

Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis

1
2
3
4
5
6

Canonical
Correlation

Adjusted
Canonical
Correlation

Approximate
Standard
Error

Squared
Canonical
Correlation

0.969548
0.751795
0.705846
0.504496
0.311509
0.246526

0.965315
0.690103
.
0.468872
0.236436
.

0.007220
0.052344
0.060407
0.089746
0.108704
0.113069

0.940022
0.565195
0.498219
0.254516
0.097038
0.060775

Test of H0: The canonical correlations in
the current row and all
that follow are zero

Eigenvalues of Inv(E)*H
= CanRsq/(1-CanRsq)
Eigenvalue Difference Proportion Cumulative
1
2
3
4
5
6

15.6729
1.2999
0.9929
0.3414
0.1075
0.0647

14.3730
0.3070
0.6515
0.2339
0.0428

0.8481
0.0703
0.0537
0.0185
0.0058
0.0035

0.8481
0.9185
0.9722
0.9907
0.9965
1.0000

Likelihood Approximate
Ratio
F Value Num DF Den DF Pr > F
0.00827323
0.13793878
0.31724302
0.63223377
0.84808473
0.93922502

14.16
6.22
5.24
3.42
2.66
4.08

36
25
16
9
4
1

257.46
220.68
183.94
148.61
124
63

<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
0.0007
0.0357
0.0477

Multivariate Statistics and F Approximations
S=6
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=-0.5

N=28

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.00827323
2.41576504
18.47927951
15.67291262

14.16
7.08
29.12
164.57

36
36
36
6

257.46
378
156.69
63

<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001

NOTE: F Statistic for Roy's Greatest Root is an upper bound.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 203
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis
Raw Canonical Coefficients for the VAR Variables

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

Temp1

Temp2

0.1059787775
-0.069267267
-0.047745711
-0.07862957
0.2468015051
-0.11650095

-0.242586636
0.2414996903
-0.36759019
-0.092037538
0.1630793622
0.3038222457

Raw Canonical Coefficients for the WITH Variables

O3April

Oz1

Oz2

0.0226380356

0.1081019138

O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

0.0343880965
-0.074174983
-0.058405117
0.1018595881
-0.012926164

0.0718560625
0.044034583
0.0341561902
-0.021140302
0.0793110957

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 204
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis
Standardized Canonical Coefficients for the VAR Variables

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

Temp1

Temp2

0.9150
-0.4597
-0.2891
-0.4215
1.7163
-0.7476

-2.0945
1.6026
-2.2261
-0.4933
1.1341
1.9498

Standardized Canonical Coefficients for the WITH Variables

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

Oz1

Oz2

0.1103
0.1308
-0.4435
-0.4438
0.6657
-0.0680

0.5266
0.2732
0.2633
0.2595
-0.1382
0.4172

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 205
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Structure
Correlations Between the VAR Variables and Their Canonical Variables

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

Temp1

Temp2

0.8000
0.6455
0.5436
0.4006
0.7793
0.5975

-0.0025
0.0433
-0.0589
-0.1436
0.1032
0.3110

Correlations Between the WITH Variables and Their Canonical Variables

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

Oz1

Oz2

0.3450
0.1371
-0.6859
-0.6843
0.5579
0.5180

0.7567
0.8450
0.4068
0.2849
0.2236
0.5285

Correlations Between the VAR Variables and the Canonical Variables of the WITH Variables

TempApril

Oz1

Oz2

0.7756

-0.0019

TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

0.6259
0.5270
0.3884
0.7555
0.5793

0.0325
-0.0443
-0.1079
0.0776
0.2338

Correlations Between the WITH Variables and the Canonical Variables of the VAR Variables

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

Temp1

Temp2

0.3345
0.1329
-0.6650
-0.6635
0.5409
0.5022

0.5689
0.6353
0.3058
0.2142
0.1681
0.3974

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 206
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Obs

city

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

64.2845
15.8351
21.5268
34.7171
47.6086
22.2840
29.5735
42.5145
31.7778

336.711
160.462
206.496
161.644
289.430
370.108
242.242
427.039
216.549

32.4186
16.8907
21.3919
12.1879
19.0434
19.8618
29.4285
31.8858
28.7582

97.2557
32.7258
42.9862
47.3974
66.9543
42.1459
59.1470
74.8212
60.8236

51.4000
56.7667
65.3667
72.0000
58.0667
72.0333
49.4000
46.1333
62.2333

61.6129
67.4839
69.1290
76.6452
66.6452
74.7419
58.4194
59.8387
65.9677

Akron
Arlington
Atlanta
Austin
Bakersfield
Baton Rouge
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte
Temp
July
76.0968
83.2258
79.3871
83.4516
80.2258
81.8710
76.0323
74.5806
79.0645
PCT1

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

68.4516
79.9032
82.1290
88.5161
77.8710
85.2903
71.6452
68.0645
79.6774

63.7333
70.2667
73.3000
81.6667
77.2333
76.3000
67.3667
64.4667
69.3667

-2.59742
-5.77401
-4.00079
8.26811
2.01369
4.48913
6.72094
2.51458
0.53066

PCT2

O3May
2.9776
3.3453
2.8535
2.1398
10.1284
13.4318
2.6733
9.0380
2.7441

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

9.3160
6.7535
-1.9897
-5.5971
14.0376
0.1609
7.3469
13.3186
4.2031

10.1753
13.4359
-0.0305
-11.3581
13.9645
-3.6472
7.7088
15.9207
3.6292

-1.3167
8.1736
13.6344
9.2746
9.5357
8.2088
3.5155
1.0480
12.7265

-5.4473
-6.5235
2.2994
11.6430
16.2752
3.4473
-3.5027
0.3954
-6.9343

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-0.74777
-1.07394
-1.72760
1.03536
5.21203
-2.61150
2.33049
2.34841
-3.36313

3.34990
-0.88940
-2.23032
-1.88439
-1.45462
0.00562
-0.90634
1.39937
-1.80680

-0.46525
0.67658
-0.07069
-0.61332
2.30347
-1.30199
-0.53725
-0.90051
-0.02224

-0.06240
-1.13189
-0.11761
-0.41074
0.42333
0.00649
2.55027
-0.76557
0.57017

-14.9869
1.5472
7.8431
24.1355
2.5044
18.8700
-14.1691
-19.3166
1.6325

0.6743
4.8813
-3.0030
-2.3152
0.4868
-3.8101
2.6226
2.4911
-1.6437

Obs

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.9151
-2.8348
-0.8587
2.5538
12.4493
-2.4453
-3.3435

-0.65715
1.24694
0.44206
1.23829
0.56094
-3.69869
1.75667

0.61300
-1.56791
-1.19877
4.66429
-0.04786
-4.76767
5.12471

Temp1
-1.32495
0.10936
1.39347
1.53319
-0.72273
1.69196
-0.99985

70.0667
74.9333
75.1667
81.9667
73.9000
80.5000
71.2000
68.5667
73.6333

O3June

PCT3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Temp
June

Temp2
-1.22142
0.30195
0.16513
1.08099
2.22521
-0.85869
-0.29346

PCO1

PCO2

PCO3

7.2086
10.2075
-6.1692
-20.7477
10.9585
-8.7079
3.3409
13.2850
1.0243

-10.7570
-5.3432
3.9501
9.3629
12.3735
6.3426
-3.5435
-2.6556
-0.3890

-1.7173
-9.3266
-12.4227
-1.9257
2.1102
1.2839
1.8472
4.7551
-8.4562

Oz1
-1.43513
-0.51418
1.38627
2.00378
-0.83176
1.42646
-0.47747

Oz2
-0.86124
-1.46566
-1.56997
-0.00750
1.98181
0.28483
0.00535

8
9

2.8961
-8.1418

0.56255
-1.55721

-0.71447
2.67765

-1.75035
1.23212

0.47834
-0.83973

-1.57811
0.83888

0.91275
-1.40342

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 207
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

city

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

33.0126
53.2828
38.3076
43.7197
47.7747
39.9447
39.8540
30.9771
48.6529

328.191
352.704
427.984
170.430
654.889
273.252
256.660
216.197
348.441

31.1527
32.5355
24.1754
17.0236
30.5973
19.6449
23.5936
15.8576
31.3024

64.5372
85.8184
62.9135
62.0975
78.3720
59.8703
63.4475
46.9062
81.7441

49.8000
55.3000
50.5667
42.5333
68.2667
55.1667
74.9000
68.2833
53.8333

61.8710
63.7742
61.2581
53.4839
71.8548
65.0323
78.8387
73.8871
63.8065

Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Colorado Springs
ColumbusGA
ColumbusOH
Corpus Christi
Dallas/Fort Worth
Dayton
Temp
July
78.5806
79.1935
76.4194
71.3226
82.0323
80.3548
82.9355
86.0484
78.6452

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

70.5484
72.9677
69.3548
69.0323
84.3387
73.3226
84.3871
90.2097
71.5806

63.6667
67.0667
65.1667
57.9000
75.0833
68.1000
79.8000
79.2667
67.0000

1.25153
-3.08945
-4.30625
8.53664
-2.64460
-3.24023
5.98796
3.47606
-3.47475

PCT1
-13.9503
-6.7571
-14.4028
-28.9930
14.0706
-4.8662
24.2833
21.6169
-8.4739

PCT2
3.9212
1.6912
1.5558
2.1174
-1.9498
2.9176
-4.9156
2.5418
1.8203

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

6.0385
3.1260
3.4514
8.9151
2.9716
5.2574
4.8851
5.2499
2.9661

7.6226
4.7007
9.1086
5.4381
-2.1978
14.5176
-5.2161
1.2840
8.3600

7.0373
5.7707
9.1632
5.8312
-5.9310
7.3581
-13.0445
0.5819
8.3384

-0.5158
0.9676
0.2957
2.1564
7.2687
2.5967
-5.0587
19.9481
0.7234

0.0429
-4.9646
-4.3639
-2.5394
6.1511
-7.1603
7.7383
9.1287
-3.7851

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-1.10673
-0.99259
0.53504
-1.88199
-2.17827
-0.22757
-0.51262
-0.52100
-0.01526

2.26395
2.20802
2.33898
-3.78581
-1.26909
2.96128
3.16668
-3.78982
2.88076

0.01041
-0.02399
-0.31330
-1.16758
-0.23253
-0.22718
-1.16086
-0.30191
-0.08407

-0.60606
0.88352
0.24892
-0.67332
0.19199
0.73986
-0.57813
0.44379
0.34482

PCO5

PCO6

2.58459
-0.56718
1.64395
-4.20728
3.83149
-1.11891
5.33374
-0.28154
1.51693

-0.53973
-0.60910
-1.67449
0.59353
-1.66113
-7.17741
-1.29846
0.71969
-1.24442

-0.10706
-0.67099
-0.24452
0.46815
-0.54652
1.57135
0.27451
2.30924
0.37378

70.5667
73.2667
70.4000
63.0333
78.3667
74.7333
82.9667
82.1167
72.7333

O3May

PCT3

PCO4

Temp
June

Temp1
-1.20631
-0.73137
-1.37403
-0.16745
1.48881
-1.02679
0.87985
1.81658
-1.15503

Temp2
-0.86168
-1.35763
-0.67440
0.31354
-0.39767
-1.29567
-0.65335
0.56940
-0.99399

PCO1

PCO2

2.8437
1.4708
6.6177
0.8275
-12.5384
9.1578
-22.6665
-4.7377
5.3642

-5.1358
-8.9052
-9.3242
-1.6260
1.9496
-8.1477
-3.0216
15.1845
-8.5966

Oz1
-0.92325
-0.61515
-1.23280
-0.12137
1.08290
-1.17183
0.70728
1.91418
-1.09088

PCO3
1.98571
-4.21064
-3.52887
6.13964
-7.87801
-2.53909
4.85090
-8.14898
-3.49200

Oz2
0.01153
-1.26746
-1.00379
0.60709
-1.18552
-0.85268
-0.10422
-0.01627
-0.97304

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 208
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
19
20
21
22
23

city
Denver
El Paso
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Fresno

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
1
0
0
1

40.8828
29.8695
58.7476
45.8040
35.6514

205.978
199.081
588.639
288.686
265.822

22.1123
17.8040
31.4096
23.2033
8.1310

63.208
47.968
91.320
69.610
44.158

42.5917
63.4333
58.0000
51.5000
58.7333

54.3306
74.3548
65.6452
62.5806
68.2258

Temp
June
63.4167
80.2333
74.7667
71.6333
76.2000

24
25
26
27
Obs
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Grand Rapids
Houston
Huntsville
Indianapolis
Temp
July
73.1720
81.3226
79.6452
78.6129
80.7097
74.9032
83.3226
80.7419
79.5161

0
1
1
0

33.6041
12.5567
20.5999
26.2652

70.690
33.877
50.596
80.423

49.0667
73.1667
65.7667
55.2667

61.2258
76.7742
69.4194
64.5484

69.5667
82.1667
76.4667
74.0000

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

O3Sep

70.6452
81.4839
74.6129
69.7419
78.6452
68.0000
87.0968
80.8387
72.6129

58.9889
75.6667
68.5000
64.5667
77.4333
62.9667
78.1667
74.0333
67.2667

6.96790
9.70463
-8.25527
-4.89325
4.01151
-3.30959
6.53232
3.96797
-6.14490

12.1597
9.3137
1.0679
2.5078
12.9835
3.9831
6.4918
9.1020
2.6241

8.0521
7.6609
2.0634
6.7268
14.8018
8.5222
-4.4637
6.4593
4.6211

11.4697
5.2615
2.7001
6.3050
16.4152
7.1289
-7.1414
3.3874
4.1704

6.8247
5.6874
2.6426
-5.7237
9.8696
-6.8933
7.2114
15.2416
-3.3937

-1.1549
0.4456
-0.4325
-5.0256
13.5157
-9.5720
8.3122
10.0658
-2.3107

PCT1

PCT2

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

-26.8258
12.1305
-2.6194
-12.3593
4.9179
-17.3701
22.8477
8.7691
-6.1580

3.5811
0.5803
0.8553
2.8851
1.2236
1.2652
-2.9608
-2.3486
2.0379

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

286.941
201.672
267.076
322.272

TempAug

Obs

Obs

35.8676
21.0847
29.9964
53.8088

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-1.70440
1.50494
-1.19690
-0.78728
5.08306
-0.06601
-2.02331
-1.19596
-0.70043

-4.40190
1.77481
2.29236
3.62074
-0.56716
2.97193
0.03371
-0.41012
3.06848

-0.36995
-2.54866
-0.39411
-0.00792
0.91284
-1.44123
-1.38042
0.47917
-0.30145

-1.10747
-1.73902
0.86946
0.06092
0.44559
-0.74919
-0.38197
0.77058
0.72111

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

-4.01867
-3.23107
4.00459
3.16558
9.17368
-0.44865
1.05549
2.67415
4.36755

0.83830
-0.72043
-0.86949
-1.47916
0.71421
-2.86869
0.79779
-1.55364
-1.48804

-1.98533
2.11465
-1.74390
-1.00664
-1.42310
-1.01336
0.07555
0.71884
-1.89348

Temp1

Temp2

-0.11244
-0.00245
-0.44291
-1.43265
-0.74166
-1.44984
1.70595
0.84326
-0.95978

PCO1

PCO2

7.6369
1.5689
-2.4794
2.2770
13.8210
4.4709
-15.9398
-0.0968
-0.5302

2.9561
3.0859
-7.3144
-14.5103
12.5074
-16.9083
6.7619
13.5705
-11.6557

Oz1

0.78662
0.46940
-1.44996
-1.35583
1.74224
-0.76180
-0.52735
-0.45198
-1.45894

PCO3
4.78068
5.98163
-9.72390
-1.77495
4.47701
0.47614
-0.19600
-2.47553
-4.03534

Oz2

-0.11090
0.10826
-0.31588
-1.53951
-0.81847
-1.69460
1.61670
1.01853
-1.08075

0.98946
1.00251
-1.87074
-1.26278
2.29438
-1.21422
0.09095
0.81123
-1.38930

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 209
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Obs
28
29
30
31
32
33

city
Jackson
Jersey City
Johnstown
Kansas CityKS
Kansas CityMO
Kingston
Knoxville
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Temp
July
82.1935
81.0968
76.0000
82.0000
81.1613
80.8710

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1

31.8979
28.0800
55.0466
41.8034
50.7304
46.6951
53.1369
27.2962
34.8628

438.596
278.665
706.431
261.588
310.738
738.682
305.210
262.988
326.838

30.3030
16.9137
30.7999
25.3354
29.3645
18.5655
29.5787
23.0967
31.0496

62.201
44.994
86.502
67.139
80.424
66.948
83.239
50.393
65.912

69.5000
53.5667
47.8000
53.6667
54.8000
53.0889
61.4000
73.4000
72.2333

71.7742
63.5484
60.3226
64.3387
63.6452
62.6237
66.3871
76.9032
75.1290

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

84.2258
76.5484
69.0968
77.8871
76.5484
75.8495

75.3667
69.5333
64.9333
65.8167
65.9667
69.5667

0.10213
4.06688
0.84099
4.28449
-1.13202
8.25349

3.5189
5.1239
7.3021
10.5564
5.7234
6.4617

-2.0668
11.9726
5.8602
7.0183
0.9810
7.5877

-5.8030
21.1476
10.3271
11.9288
5.5242
3.5178

10.5212
9.2866
-1.5896
8.9702
3.4300
-3.3418

Temp
June
79.7000
74.3667
69.7667
72.6167
71.7667
73.0778
75.1333
81.5667
80.7000
O3Sep

1.56816
-2.58669
-6.29763
1.99419
-3.16688
-2.37853

34
35
36

78.8387
82.5161
82.5484

78.0000
85.7419
86.0968

70.1000
78.4333
77.8667

Obs

PCT1

PCT2

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

15.2773
-4.3017
-16.7821
-5.1993
-5.9731
-5.7684
1.4423
22.0975
20.3618

-2.2649
4.8683
2.8679
5.5430
3.7010
4.4769
-1.2235
-4.1566
-3.4715

Obs
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

1.39910
6.51440
6.32986

5.3193
8.3299
3.9044

3.9502
-2.7520
-6.4831

-0.0561
-5.1370
-12.5135

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-2.39000
0.64120
1.58015
-3.10141
-3.07946
0.92631
-1.82076
-1.44665
-1.68571

-0.62519
-0.60070
1.58502
-1.18550
-0.70748
-0.92266
-0.05541
0.79854
-0.50229

-0.59535
0.23792
-0.57091
0.40062
1.06065
1.12864
-0.79801
-1.15359
-0.72039

1.32246
1.09247
-0.09434
-1.02463
-0.43332
1.14216
1.08190
-0.54452
-0.00694

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

-2.17045
-2.65441
-2.35340
-1.24908
-2.00248
-1.13214
-1.63296
-1.84587
0.77883

-2.07024
5.28560
1.10024
1.96741
1.49907
-1.13959
-2.75997
-0.34592
-0.50460

0.60662
2.54378
-2.68804
-2.15609
-3.00209
2.85516
1.03117
-1.19942
1.54554

Temp1

Temp2

1.48789
-0.50525
-1.57573
0.22653
0.15334
-0.58892
0.56147
1.44836
1.64004

7.6415
5.5211
3.5228

PCO1

PCO2

-11.4442
17.6271
5.4344
7.3641
-0.7935
-0.7343
-3.6708
-12.7062
-21.6937

2.8106
0.8821
-9.2095
4.9395
-4.8643
-6.2686
0.7157
3.5520
2.3094

Oz1

-1.15363
-0.23784
-0.07074
-0.42198
-0.64750
0.04545
-1.11766
-0.39794
-0.34208

-0.05212
3.68539
6.41760
PCO3
-7.90446
-0.58602
1.89886
1.23285
-3.59731
8.18332
-3.50991
1.37866
-0.24743

Oz2

1.53724
-1.00528
-0.97792
0.00092
0.03637
-0.79860
0.57418
1.32311
1.63545

-1.27136
0.50788
-0.38746
0.75873
-0.95090
0.54482
-0.60817
0.03371
-0.46155

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 210
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Obs
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

city
Las Vegas
Lexington
Lincoln
Little Rock
Los Angeles
Louisville
Memphis
Miami
Modesto
Temp
July
88.4194
79.8065
80.8387
84.4677
71.5161
83.4839
83.9355
84.1613
74.3387

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1

45.9381
41.8407
39.1544
74.4175
30.3803
64.0135
32.8701
35.9019
44.9667

254.913
272.924
361.180
308.736
265.544
380.188
356.000
340.691
293.738

19.9162
25.3347
14.3833
19.6418
14.2027
35.3227
26.1847
26.0500
14.7652

65.854
67.175
53.538
94.059
44.804
99.480
59.278
62.085
60.179

61.2000
56.7000
51.0667
65.6833
58.8167
59.5000
67.2667
78.0000
58.5167

75.5806
65.5161
61.8710
71.1129
63.3871
67.8065
71.4194
78.8387
64.8226

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

88.1935
75.9355
74.1935
84.2097
70.0968
78.7742
82.9032
83.8065
74.9032

81.9333
68.9333
64.1333
75.1667
68.6000
72.2667
75.4333
82.1000
73.4167

8.86449
-6.40648
3.05017
2.31853
5.58612
-1.95398
-2.24268
7.48433
7.20520

15.7920
3.4592
3.8878
8.3827
10.9744
3.5216
3.4254
7.7844
10.4089

15.3006
3.4754
0.5766
2.2919
9.0467
3.0344
0.2333
-8.5097
8.5813

5.3280
5.2706
1.2496
0.9441
5.5017
3.9898
-1.4341
-12.2927
12.2299

5.5927
7.5647
-3.6920
16.0051
5.2416
5.7273
11.6956
-8.1683
4.5215

Obs

PCT1

PCT2

37
38
39
40
41
42
43

20.7651
-2.9717
-10.9795
13.2797
-10.7076
4.0509
13.9942

8.9284
1.6754
5.2255
1.4361
-8.8012
3.2867
0.0735

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

5.02954
-0.69926
-2.61839
-1.54032
0.60241
-0.24823
-1.48803

-1.17045
0.61528
-0.17325
-1.07223
0.41924
0.75575
0.47383

-1.40892
0.03219
1.22765
0.67247
1.60640
1.16079
0.29931

-0.36416
-0.04752
-0.65754
0.52250
-1.50690
0.58183
1.39587

Temp
June
85.4667
73.6667
70.4000
78.9000
65.6667
76.5000
79.9000
81.0667
71.7333
O3Sep

-0.30987
1.01188
-2.70199
5.43948
2.43886
-1.20572
1.00112
-2.35173
7.47960

PCO1

PCO2

6.8617
0.7825
-6.1163
-3.3808
2.8396
-0.9086
-6.2020

4.4484
-1.7250
-9.0566
10.9164
3.1610
-2.9358
2.5917

PCO3
9.59601
-9.51820
2.16021
-5.72342
4.52694
-5.76434
-9.67137

44
45
Obs
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

26.1745
-3.2572

-7.1785
-4.4020

-0.22644
3.57914

3.31530
-1.09963

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

-2.92322
2.61135
-0.45485
-1.56727
0.11684
-0.29166
-1.50718
-3.23677
4.11503

-8.03281
-0.53264
1.38336
-1.39724
-2.75202
-0.10300
-1.65827
-0.72945
3.17868

-0.14906
-2.01203
-0.04074
-0.75400
-0.49262
-0.30083
0.03661
-3.23226
-0.60085

2.21891
-0.21863
Temp1

-0.22341
0.45880

-22.6706
6.5896

Temp2

-0.20604
-0.25597
-0.39640
1.00791
-0.25252
-0.23005
0.79508
0.79146
-0.27025

-9.5371
5.4737

Oz1

1.72848
-0.42891
-0.57928
-0.36609
1.19375
-0.45933
-1.12682
-0.21567
1.37060

7.08929
6.46936

Oz2

-0.25841
0.03604
-0.38387
1.54585
-0.11585
0.08801
1.18213
0.85495
-0.59559

1.65796
-1.33859
-0.60707
-0.06878
0.91336
-1.05299
-1.35086
-0.58800
1.67208

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 211
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Obs
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

city

Temp
July

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

38.7793
23.5229
32.9006
50.8746
52.4176
36.3085
46.5798
54.4604
49.7610

317.780
349.159
257.387
383.376
272.442
374.485
256.498
472.666
301.931

28.4265
31.2145
11.4286
33.1593
25.0224
31.4981
24.3478
39.9480
9.9004

68.083
54.838
44.468
84.337
78.087
67.873
71.416
94.720
59.726

62.8333
53.0889
54.8000
61.5333
51.5556
53.8000
66.1333
52.1000
62.9714

67.9032
62.6237
55.6774
68.3226
62.2581
64.1613
80.0323
61.2581
73.6037

82.1935
80.8710
62.1935
82.4194
80.6882
81.3871
91.4516
76.2581
85.4378

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

79.6129
75.8495
64.0968
84.9677
73.3548
77.7097
93.2258
69.1935
84.6636

72.0333
69.5667
63.8667
71.3667
64.0889
70.1667
87.6333
64.4000
80.8048

5.99371
-0.85701
9.22982
5.96884
-0.40624
7.16699
7.66572
-0.36179
5.01962

8.8557
0.3905
8.3519
11.1463
0.8112
10.1299
11.8096
4.9377
14.2865

10.2495
7.4703
0.9472
2.9474
-0.8071
10.4305
8.4950
10.6607
15.4135

5.6462
15.8371
1.2300
6.2657
4.5477
18.1820
8.8198
14.6198
8.7508

11.4303
6.1029
-2.9679
20.3420
-1.0881
10.9228
9.5064
2.4950
8.3247

PCT1

PCT2

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

5.8323
-5.7684
-25.2487
7.1021
-10.8258
-3.5652
31.8025
-14.3237
15.6944

0.6114
4.4769
-14.5940
2.5404
4.7645
4.6440
9.1449
0.2579
3.2134

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

newcopd

Nashville
New York
Oakland
Oklahoma City
Omaha
Philadelphia
Phoenix
Pittsburgh
Riverside

Obs

Obs

coast

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-1.73999
0.92631
0.94750
-3.02967
-2.58624
0.68634
6.40235
-0.75469
4.19679

0.37610
-0.92266
-1.37670
-4.12054
0.82901
-1.73091
-1.95176
2.47868
-1.40090

0.55476
1.12864
-0.24769
-0.32964
1.04203
1.10180
-0.93171
0.18815
1.73116

1.33427
1.14216
0.26326
-0.62708
-0.51962
-0.02564
-0.48222
0.17283
-1.32440

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

0.43454
-0.47042
-1.07375
-4.60275
7.51995
-4.49546
-4.85954
0.88714

-2.56988
5.22026
1.88886
1.28898
5.71575
3.86432
-0.84859
1.38037

2.53244
2.61763
-0.47672
-1.32890
0.11469
0.07830
-0.50155
0.41721

Temp1
0.43782
-0.58892
-0.06199
1.69547
-0.58154
-0.27251
0.17286
-1.11114

Temp2
-1.17022
0.04545
0.89199
0.22718
-0.89602
0.67427
2.53231
-0.99668

5.24058
-3.16514
0.55751
5.51697
6.44135
-1.09160
-0.63484
-2.82014
3.63020

PCO2

3.8009
10.7296
-6.6838
1.5254
-5.3588
14.5383
6.0155
11.4396
9.6475

8.7095
-4.5476
-3.6423
15.8851
-4.2429
5.3173
5.3737
-5.4071
6.9283

0.31702
-0.95222
-0.08518
1.80484
-0.51086
-0.32803
0.28121
-1.32215

76.8000
73.0778
59.8333
75.9000
70.8222
73.1000
89.1333
69.6000
79.1238
O3Sep

PCO1

Oz1

Temp
June

Oz2
0.95446
-0.72274
0.64059
0.64951
-0.47995
1.11751
0.95329
-0.13991

PCO3
1.16876
-5.45988
8.40027
-3.98917
-2.13502
2.58508
3.75061
-0.65916
5.37257

54

1.04596

-6.08095

-0.82260

-0.08380

2.50876

-0.37816

1.51076

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 212
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Obs
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

city

Temp
July

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

41.3568
29.1472
43.1137
26.6851
29.6878
45.6529
39.9208
77.1583
45.2450

274.214
272.160
234.815
206.765
231.775
352.098
443.437
483.894
324.345

17.8995
20.6758
7.3124
11.6487
12.3670
27.9624
36.1872
32.4477
13.1299

59.338
49.967
50.602
38.453
42.301
73.901
76.682
110.257
58.730

58.3267
71.4333
59.2889
54.8000
58.8167
69.6333
58.8000
74.6000
58.2222

64.2581
76.3548
66.7957
55.6774
63.3871
72.1935
67.0323
78.0323
64.5484

73.6258
83.0968
76.7312
62.1935
71.5161
83.1290
83.1613
83.8065
74.1183

TempAug

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

74.4387
86.4194
75.5054
64.0968
70.0968
86.1290
76.7419
84.0000
74.5161

73.2867
80.5667
72.8778
63.8667
68.6000
75.5000
69.9667
81.0333
73.0222

6.71122
6.96342
3.62120
8.75283
9.37348
5.17327
-0.48566
9.64822
7.35334

7.9368
5.3762
12.9680
8.2189
14.2964
6.0310
4.1664
6.5928
8.1715

5.9901
-1.3773
15.0344
-0.0051
10.1229
1.6275
1.4408
-5.1627
5.1208

7.9478
-8.6641
8.3781
1.6848
4.6612
-0.7434
8.4464
-2.3514
7.3916

4.2798
2.1612
9.9923
-3.9427
6.4446
13.2357
5.2479
-2.4759
2.5567

PCT1

PCT2

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

-4.2394
22.3267
-1.4824
-25.2487
-10.7076
16.7778
0.9640
23.7667
-3.9697

-4.9783
-2.4535
-3.3776
-14.5940
-8.8012
-1.2565
2.9282
-4.8977
-4.4348

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

newcopd

Sacramento
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Jose
Santa Ana/Anaheim
Shreveport
St. Louis
St. Petersburg
Stockton

Obs

Obs

coast

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

3.74576
0.90105
2.19654
0.94750
0.60241
-2.92769
-1.49833
0.36059
3.48387

-1.27013
-0.23864
-0.28886
-1.37670
0.41924
-1.70143
1.83419
2.62399
-0.96896

-0.22150
-0.87394
1.09281
-0.24769
1.60640
-0.59517
1.57285
0.91225
-0.30232

0.59792
-0.16114
-1.15253
0.26326
-1.50690
0.99968
0.24228
-0.52926
0.50115

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

4.50366
4.48657
-0.97958
-1.98515
-0.32727
-3.21430
-1.50728
-2.08913
2.52557

2.99569
-1.15409
-6.55217
2.48259
-3.69468
-0.68288
3.74971
4.39267
2.97186

0.66529
2.06987
-0.35848
-1.17576
-0.64604
1.97803
-1.55604
-0.82873
0.27293

Temp1
-0.26958
1.12704
-0.27952
-0.06199
-0.25252
1.83769
-0.39042
0.67101
-0.30675

Temp2
1.42433
0.46810
1.54560
0.89199
1.19375
-0.94244
-0.95013
0.03199
1.27440

8.03638
9.44449
1.10096
-1.07305
4.65991
3.19671
-1.96826
1.15697
5.34866

PCO2

1.4839
-16.4055
9.8365
-6.7042
2.4676
-5.6794
1.5574
-13.2175
0.6929

4.7764
3.5752
5.9869
-5.4449
7.3684
7.8358
-3.2293
-3.3944
2.3165

-0.28131
0.91903
-0.20272
-0.13469
0.14721
1.42435
-0.03763
0.56854
-0.30251

71.2067
82.0667
71.2667
59.8333
65.6667
80.0333
75.0667
81.4000
71.5667
O3Sep

PCO1

Oz1

Temp
June

PCO3
4.61654
2.98679
2.59902
8.18470
8.35770
-3.67216
-4.45290
6.43732
5.60732

Oz2
1.22994
0.33787
0.99957
0.44434
1.73089
-0.13538
-0.81622
0.20518
1.08221

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 213
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Obs
64
65
66
67
68
69

city
Syracuse
Tacoma
Tampa
Toledo
Washington
Wichita

coast

newcopd

newcvd

newpneu

newresp

Temp
April

TempMay

1
1
1
0
0
0

53.7047
42.6643
51.8546
55.8176
24.8226
46.3710

326.410
271.254
302.518
391.162
323.218
269.394

30.3740
18.9778
14.9157
23.5137
21.1517
18.7692

85.179
62.070
67.171
79.331
45.974
65.361

46.8333
48.7667
74.6000
50.9000
53.1667
56.2000

60.9032
52.0968
78.0323
62.8387
63.0000
65.4516

Temp
June
69.9667
58.3333
81.4000
71.0333
71.1000
73.3000

70

Worcester
Temp
July

Obs
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

75.1613
62.6774
83.8065
77.4516
78.6774
82.5161
73.3978

1

38.0844

84.558

47.3889

58.7312

TempSep

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

69.0968
65.0323
84.0000
69.9677
75.6774
81.4839
69.3441

65.1000
61.0333
81.0333
65.3333
67.3333
67.2333
65.3778

1.04130
7.19013
9.92602
-5.91671
2.21860
5.00061
6.90519

6.9690
5.7665
7.3299
-1.5588
10.2754
10.3495
2.5181

12.5221
-1.5010
-4.6847
9.1269
12.0268
0.0144
8.5516

12.5066
-0.3845
-3.0803
8.0693
19.8456
9.1460
7.6622

-0.1769
-3.4556
-2.3865
-0.3838
16.1971
16.5816
-1.8237

PCT1

PCT2

64
65
66
67
68
69
70

-17.1308
-31.0113
23.7667
-12.7102
-7.8689
-0.9229
-18.4321

2.9873
-10.2201
-4.8977
2.2801
2.6066
5.0344
1.2279

64
65
66
67
68
69
70

306.806

TempAug

Obs

Obs

46.2073

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

2.38512
0.51165
0.36059
0.30406
-0.55070
-3.81144
2.51117

1.54375
-4.20481
2.62399
2.89350
-1.41855
-3.24835
-0.19154

-1.48368
-0.53502
0.91225
-0.35859
0.27215
0.30498
-1.38912

-0.74559
0.23984
-0.52926
-0.60385
-0.53623
-1.16001
0.50488

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

4.47144
-1.37489
-1.83322
4.09184
-1.80935
-4.63067
-3.98278

-0.56280
2.55729
3.56576
-0.98073
2.65189
4.86440
0.77403

0.29876
-0.21078
-0.94951
3.02210
-1.19662
-3.24336
5.18281

Temp1
-1.68142
0.14116
0.67101
-1.42775
-0.12211
1.06735
-1.25436

1.07085
-0.79503
1.71172
-3.32774
1.98466
3.67709
-7.10564

PCO2

9.8854
-9.1854
-13.5469
5.2271
17.6173
1.8784
3.7933

-4.1569
-6.0976
-2.7011
-11.1895
9.4381
11.4890
-9.3615

Oz1

0.35830
1.28945
0.03199
-0.55076
0.33978
-0.04948
0.37403

O3Sep

PCO1

Temp2

68.9111

PCO3
3.30174
5.46470
7.02300
-6.33434
-2.92259
-3.67853
4.59821

Oz2

-1.55764
0.02343
0.60923
-1.46163
-0.15314
1.44561
-1.06255

0.53260
-0.02560
0.32644
-1.47791
0.85263
0.39038
-0.10731

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 214
Canonical Correlation using Monthly Means
Plot of Temp1*Oz1.
Temp1 ‚

2.0 ˆ




1.5 ˆ




1.0 ˆ




0.5 ˆ




0.0 ˆ




-0.5 ˆ

Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A
A

BB
A A
A
BA AA
A A
AA
A

A
A
A

A

AA
A
A

A

A

A

A

A

AA
A

A

A

A

A
A

A

A
A


B
A


-1.0 ˆ
A A
A

A

A
A

A
A

A A A
A
-1.5 ˆ

A

A

A

-2.0 ˆ

Šˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Oz1
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 215
Canonical Correlation using PCs
The CANCORR Procedure
VAR Variables
WITH Variables
Observations

2
4
70

Means and Standard Deviations
Variable

Mean

Standard
Deviation

0
0
0
0
0
0

15.509597
4.706717
9.561405
7.569826
5.437974
3.523088

PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 216
Canonical Correlation using PCs
The CANCORR Procedure
Correlations Among the Original Variables
Correlations Among the VAR Variables

PCT1
PCT2

PCT1

PCT2

1.0000
0.0000

0.0000
1.0000

Correlations Among the WITH Variables

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

PCO1

PCO2

PCO3

PCO4

1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000

Correlations Between the VAR Variables and the WITH Variables
PCO1

PCO2

PCO3

PCO4

PCT1
PCT2

-0.5114
0.5174

0.4803
-0.0443

-0.1308
-0.3018

-0.0252
-0.0665

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 217
Canonical Correlation using PCs
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis

1
2

Canonical
Correlation

Adjusted
Canonical
Correlation

Approximate
Standard
Error

Squared
Canonical
Correlation

0.832364
0.427081

0.822933
0.404912

0.036979
0.098428

0.692830
0.182398

Test of H0: The canonical correlations in
the current row and all
that follow are zero

Eigenvalues of Inv(E)*H
= CanRsq/(1-CanRsq)
Eigenvalue Difference Proportion Cumulative
1
2

2.2555
0.2231

2.0324

0.9100
0.0900

Likelihood Approximate
Ratio
F Value Num DF Den DF Pr > F

0.9100 0.25114235
1.0000 0.81760164

15.93
4.83

8
3

128 <.0001
65 0.0042

Multivariate Statistics and F Approximations
S=2
Statistic
Wilks' Lambda
Pillai's Trace
Hotelling-Lawley Trace
Roy's Greatest Root

M=0.5

N=31

Value

F Value

Num DF

Den DF

Pr > F

0.25114235
0.87522879
2.47862029
2.25553076

15.93
12.64
19.65
36.65

8
8
8
4

128
130
89.135
65

<.0001
<.0001
<.0001
<.0001

NOTE: F Statistic for Roy's Greatest Root is an upper bound.
NOTE: F Statistic for Wilks' Lambda is exact.
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 218
Canonical Correlation using PCs
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis
Raw Canonical Coefficients for the VAR Variables

PCT1
PCT2

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

-0.051656174
0.1271462963

0.0385852445
0.170217691

Raw Canonical Coefficients for the WITH Variables

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

PCOz1

PCOz2

0.0903925413
-0.065277284
-0.01674661
-0.006687987

0.0265631367
0.0779403879
-0.137831427
-0.045426673

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 219
Canonical Correlation using PCs

The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Correlation Analysis
Standardized Canonical Coefficients for the VAR Variables

PCT1
PCT2

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

-0.8012
0.5984

0.5984
0.8012

Standardized Canonical Coefficients for the WITH Variables

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

PCOz1

PCOz2

0.8643
-0.4941
-0.0911
-0.0236

0.2540
0.5900
-0.7495
-0.1600

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 220
Canonical Correlation using PCs
The CANCORR Procedure
Canonical Structure
Correlations Between the VAR Variables and Their Canonical Variables

PCT1
PCT2

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

-0.8012
0.5984

0.5984
0.8012

Correlations Between the WITH Variables and Their Canonical Variables

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

PCOz1

PCOz2

0.8643
-0.4941
-0.0911
-0.0236

0.2540
0.5900
-0.7495
-0.1600

Correlations Between the VAR Variables and the Canonical Variables of the WITH Variables

PCT1
PCT2

PCOz1

PCOz2

-0.6669
0.4981

0.2556
0.3422

Correlations Between the WITH Variables and the Canonical Variables of the VAR Variables

PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

0.7194
-0.4113
-0.0758
-0.0196

0.1085
0.2520
-0.3201
-0.0684

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 221
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
1
2
3
4

Akron
Arlington
Atlanta
Austin

coast newcopd
0
1
1
1

64.2845
15.8351
21.5268
34.7171

newcvd newpneu newresp
336.711
160.462
206.496
161.644

32.4186
16.8907
21.3919
12.1879

97.2557
32.7258
42.9862
47.3974

Temp
April

TempMay

51.4000
56.7667
65.3667
72.0000

61.6129
67.4839
69.1290
76.6452

Temp
June
70.0667
74.9333
75.1667
81.9667

Temp
July
76.0968
83.2258
79.3871
83.4516

5
6
7
8
9

Bakersfield
Baton Rouge
Boston
Buffalo
Charlotte

1
1
1
1
1

Obs TempAug TempSep

O3April

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

68.4516
79.9032
82.1290
88.5161
77.8710
85.2903
71.6452
68.0645
79.6774

47.6086
22.2840
29.5735
42.5145
31.7778
O3May

PCT4

PCT5

-0.74777
-1.07394
-1.72760
1.03536
5.21203
-2.61150
2.33049
2.34841
-3.36313

3.34990
-0.88940
-2.23032
-1.88439
-1.45462
0.00562
-0.90634
1.39937
-1.80680

-0.46525
0.67658
-0.07069
-0.61332
2.30347
-1.30199
-0.53725
-0.90051
-0.02224

-1.32495
0.10936
1.39347
1.53319
-0.72273
1.69196
-0.99985
-1.75035
1.23212

Temp2

66.9543
42.1459
59.1470
74.8212
60.8236

58.0667
72.0333
49.4000
46.1333
62.2333

O3July

O3Aug

9.3160 10.1753
6.7535 13.4359
-1.9897 -0.0305
-5.5971 -11.3581
14.0376 13.9645
0.1609 -3.6472
7.3469
7.7088
13.3186 15.9207
4.2031
3.6292

-1.3167
8.1736
13.6344
9.2746
9.5357
8.2088
3.5155
1.0480
12.7265

PCT6

PCO1

PCO2

-1.43513
-0.51418
1.38627
2.00378
-0.83176
1.42646
-0.47747
-1.57811
0.83888

Oz2
-0.86124
-1.46566
-1.56997
-0.00750
1.98181
0.28483
0.00535
0.91275
-1.40342

66.6452
74.7419
58.4194
59.8387
65.9677
O3Sep

73.9000
80.5000
71.2000
68.5667
73.6333
PCT1

PCO3

PCO4

80.2258
81.8710
76.0323
74.5806
79.0645
PCT2

-5.4473 -14.9869
-6.5235
1.5472
2.2994
7.8431
11.6430 24.1355
16.2752
2.5044
3.4473 18.8700
-3.5027 -14.1691
0.3954 -19.3166
-6.9343
1.6325

-0.06240
7.2086 -10.7570 -1.7173
-1.13189 10.2075 -5.3432 -9.3266
-0.11761 -6.1692
3.9501 -12.4227
-0.41074 -20.7477
9.3629 -1.9257
0.42333 10.9585 12.3735
2.1102
0.00649 -8.7079
6.3426
1.2839
2.55027
3.3409 -3.5435
1.8472
-0.76557 13.2850 -2.6556
4.7551
0.57017
1.0243 -0.3890 -8.4562

Oz1

-1.22142
0.30195
0.16513
1.08099
2.22521
-0.85869
-0.29346
0.47834
-0.83973

19.0434
19.8618
29.4285
31.8858
28.7582

O3June

63.7333 -2.59742 2.9776
70.2667 -5.77401 3.3453
73.3000 -4.00079 2.8535
81.6667 8.26811 2.1398
77.2333 2.01369 10.1284
76.3000 4.48913 13.4318
67.3667 6.72094 2.6733
64.4667 2.51458 9.0380
69.3667 0.53066 2.7441

PCT3

Temp1

289.430
370.108
242.242
427.039
216.549

0.6743
4.8813
-3.0030
-2.3152
0.4868
-3.8101
2.6226
2.4911
-1.6437

PCO5

PCO6

0.9151 -0.65715 0.61300
-2.8348 1.24694 -1.56791
-0.8587 0.44206 -1.19877
2.5538 1.23829 4.66429
12.4493 0.56094 -0.04786
-2.4453 -3.69869 -4.76767
-3.3435 1.75667 5.12471
2.8961 0.56255 -0.71447
-8.1418 -1.55721 2.67765

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

0.85990
0.54071
-0.78696
-1.54112
-0.06747
-1.45919
1.06537
1.31455
-0.29332

-0.46349
0.89058
-0.20853
0.53718
0.17950
0.07956
-0.10031
-0.32132
-0.21680

1.37643
1.44662
-0.60172
-2.47146
0.06426
-1.20631
0.52473
1.27521
0.31404

-0.45180
1.26896
1.89524
0.32804
0.39910
0.19716
-0.29015
-0.64105
1.53228

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 222
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

coast newcopd

Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Colorado Springs
ColumbusGA
ColumbusOH
Corpus Christi
Dallas/Fort Worth
Dayton

Obs TempAug TempSep
10
11
12
13
14

70.5484
72.9677
69.3548
69.0323
84.3387

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
O3April

63.6667 1.25153
67.0667 -3.08945
65.1667 -4.30625
57.9000 8.53664
75.0833 -2.64460

33.0126
53.2828
38.3076
43.7197
47.7747
39.9447
39.8540
30.9771
48.6529

newcvd newpneu newresp
328.191
352.704
427.984
170.430
654.889
273.252
256.660
216.197
348.441

31.1527
32.5355
24.1754
17.0236
30.5973
19.6449
23.5936
15.8576
31.3024

64.5372
85.8184
62.9135
62.0975
78.3720
59.8703
63.4475
46.9062
81.7441

Temp
April

TempMay

49.8000
55.3000
50.5667
42.5333
68.2667
55.1667
74.9000
68.2833
53.8333

61.8710
63.7742
61.2581
53.4839
71.8548
65.0323
78.8387
73.8871
63.8065

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

6.0385
3.1260
3.4514
8.9151
2.9716

7.6226
4.7007
9.1086
5.4381
-2.1978

7.0373
5.7707
9.1632
5.8312
-5.9310

-0.5158
0.9676
0.2957
2.1564
7.2687

O3Sep

Temp
June
70.5667
73.2667
70.4000
63.0333
78.3667
74.7333
82.9667
82.1167
72.7333
PCT1

0.0429 -13.9503
-4.9646 -6.7571
-4.3639 -14.4028
-2.5394 -28.9930
6.1511 14.0706

Temp
July
78.5806
79.1935
76.4194
71.3226
82.0323
80.3548
82.9355
86.0484
78.6452
PCT2
3.9212
1.6912
1.5558
2.1174
-1.9498

15
16
17
18
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Obs
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

73.3226
84.3871
90.2097
71.5806
PCT3

68.1000 -3.24023
79.8000 5.98796
79.2667 3.47606
67.0000 -3.47475
PCT4

5.2574
4.8851
5.2499
2.9661

PCO2

-1.10673 2.26395 0.01041 -0.60606
2.8437
-0.99259 2.20802 -0.02399 0.88352
1.4708
0.53504 2.33898 -0.31330 0.24892
6.6177
-1.88199 -3.78581 -1.16758 -0.67332
0.8275
-2.17827 -1.26909 -0.23253 0.19199 -12.5384
-0.22757 2.96128 -0.22718 0.73986
9.1578
-0.51262 3.16668 -1.16086 -0.57813 -22.6665
-0.52100 -3.78982 -0.30191 0.44379 -4.7377
-0.01526 2.88076 -0.08407 0.34482
5.3642

-5.1358
-8.9052
-9.3242
-1.6260
1.9496
-8.1477
-3.0216
15.1845
-8.5966

-1.20631
-0.73137
-1.37403
-0.16745
1.48881
-1.02679
0.87985
1.81658
-1.15503

Temp2

PCT6

2.5967
-5.0587
19.9481
0.7234

PCO1

Temp1

PCT5

14.5176
7.3581
-5.2161 -13.0445
1.2840
0.5819
8.3600
8.3384

Oz1

-0.86168
-1.35763
-0.67440
0.31354
-0.39767
-1.29567
-0.65335
0.56940
-0.99399

Oz2

-0.92325
-0.61515
-1.23280
-0.12137
1.08290
-1.17183
0.70728
1.91418
-1.09088

0.01153
-1.26746
-1.00379
0.60709
-1.18552
-0.85268
-0.10422
-0.01627
-0.97304

-7.1603
7.7383
9.1287
-3.7851

-4.8662
24.2833
21.6169
-8.4739

2.9176
-4.9156
2.5418
1.8203

PCO3

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

1.98571
-4.21064
-3.52887
6.13964
-7.87801
-2.53909
4.85090
-8.14898
-3.49200

2.58459
-0.56718
1.64395
-4.20728
3.83149
-1.11891
5.33374
-0.28154
1.51693

-0.53973
-0.60910
-1.67449
0.59353
-1.66113
-7.17741
-1.29846
0.71969
-1.24442

-0.10706
-0.67099
-0.24452
0.46815
-0.54652
1.57135
0.27451
2.30924
0.37378

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

1.21919
0.56407
0.94180
1.76688
-0.97474
0.62233
-1.87939
-0.79346
0.66917

0.12919
0.02715
-0.29091
-0.75829
0.21103
0.30886
0.10025
1.26676
-0.01713

0.54176
0.78856
1.25495
0.10626
-1.15434
1.40966
-1.96855
-1.28111
1.09438

-0.71585
-0.04888
-0.13924
-0.75986
0.73068
0.00902
-1.74850
2.19361
-0.11514

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 223
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

coast newcopd

Denver
El Paso
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Fresno
Grand Rapids
Houston
Huntsville
Indianapolis

Obs TempAug TempSep
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Obs
19
20
21
22
23
24

70.6452
81.4839
74.6129
69.7419
78.6452
68.0000
87.0968
80.8387
72.6129
PCT3

0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

40.8828
29.8695
58.7476
45.8040
35.6514
35.8676
21.0847
29.9964
53.8088

newcvd newpneu newresp
205.978
199.081
588.639
288.686
265.822
286.941
201.672
267.076
322.272

22.1123
17.8040
31.4096
23.2033
8.1310
33.6041
12.5567
20.5999
26.2652

63.208
47.968
91.320
69.610
44.158
70.690
33.877
50.596
80.423

Temp
April

TempMay

42.5917
63.4333
58.0000
51.5000
58.7333
49.0667
73.1667
65.7667
55.2667

54.3306
74.3548
65.6452
62.5806
68.2258
61.2258
76.7742
69.4194
64.5484

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

58.9889
75.6667
68.5000
64.5667
77.4333
62.9667
78.1667
74.0333
67.2667

6.96790
9.70463
-8.25527
-4.89325
4.01151
-3.30959
6.53232
3.96797
-6.14490

12.1597
9.3137
1.0679
2.5078
12.9835
3.9831
6.4918
9.1020
2.6241

8.0521
7.6609
2.0634
6.7268
14.8018
8.5222
-4.4637
6.4593
4.6211

11.4697
5.2615
2.7001
6.3050
16.4152
7.1289
-7.1414
3.3874
4.1704

6.8247
5.6874
2.6426
-5.7237
9.8696
-6.8933
7.2114
15.2416
-3.3937

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

-1.70440 -4.40190 -0.36995 -1.10747
1.50494 1.77481 -2.54866 -1.73902
-1.19690 2.29236 -0.39411 0.86946
-0.78728 3.62074 -0.00792 0.06092
5.08306 -0.56716 0.91284 0.44559
-0.06601 2.97193 -1.44123 -0.74919

PCO1

PCO2

PCO3

O3Sep

Temp
June
63.4167
80.2333
74.7667
71.6333
76.2000
69.5667
82.1667
76.4667
74.0000

Temp
July
73.1720
81.3226
79.6452
78.6129
80.7097
74.9032
83.3226
80.7419
79.5161

PCT1

PCT2

-1.1549 -26.8258
0.4456 12.1305
-0.4325 -2.6194
-5.0256 -12.3593
13.5157
4.9179
-9.5720 -17.3701
8.3122 22.8477
10.0658
8.7691
-2.3107 -6.1580

3.5811
0.5803
0.8553
2.8851
1.2236
1.2652
-2.9608
-2.3486
2.0379

PCO4

7.6369
2.9561 4.78068 -4.01867
1.5689
3.0859 5.98163 -3.23107
-2.4794 -7.3144 -9.72390 4.00459
2.2770 -14.5103 -1.77495 3.16558
13.8210 12.5074 4.47701 9.17368
4.4709 -16.9083 0.47614 -0.44865

PCO5

PCO6

0.83830
-0.72043
-0.86949
-1.47916
0.71421
-2.86869

-1.98533
2.11465
-1.74390
-1.00664
-1.42310
-1.01336

25 -2.02331 0.03371 -1.38042 -0.38197 -15.9398
6.7619 -0.19600
26 -1.19596 -0.41012 0.47917 0.77058 -0.0968 13.5705 -2.47553
27 -0.70043 3.06848 -0.30145 0.72111 -0.5302 -11.6557 -4.03534
Obs
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Temp1
-0.11244
-0.00245
-0.44291
-1.43265
-0.74166
-1.44984
1.70595
0.84326
-0.95978

Temp2

Oz1

0.78662
0.46940
-1.44996
-1.35583
1.74224
-0.76180
-0.52735
-0.45198
-1.45894

Oz2

-0.11090
0.10826
-0.31588
-1.53951
-0.81847
-1.69460
1.61670
1.01853
-1.08075

0.98946
1.00251
-1.87074
-1.26278
2.29438
-1.21422
0.09095
0.81123
-1.38930

1.05549 0.79779 0.07555
2.67415 -1.55364 0.71884
4.36755 -1.48804 -1.89348

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

1.84104
-0.55284
0.24405
1.00527
-0.09847
1.05814
-1.55668
-0.75159
0.57720

-0.42552
0.56683
0.04451
0.01421
0.39803
-0.45486
0.37761
-0.06142
0.10927

0.44417
-0.13818
0.38940
1.16157
0.29654
1.50289
-1.88602
-0.87103
0.75129

-0.04311
-0.39549
0.52239
-0.96961
0.30816
-1.24433
0.08268
1.27485
-0.56474

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 224
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

coast newcopd

Jackson
Jersey City
Johnstown
Kansas CityKS
Kansas CityMO
Kingston
Knoxville
Lafayette
Lake Charles

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1

Obs TempAug TempSep
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Obs
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Obs

84.2258
76.5484
69.0968
77.8871
76.5484
75.8495
78.0000
85.7419
86.0968

31.8979
28.0800
55.0466
41.8034
50.7304
46.6951
53.1369
27.2962
34.8628

O3May

75.3667 0.10213
69.5333 4.06688
64.9333 0.84099
65.8167 4.28449
65.9667 -1.13202
69.5667 8.25349
70.1000 1.39910
78.4333 6.51440
77.8667 6.32986

3.5189
5.1239
7.3021
10.5564
5.7234
6.4617
5.3193
8.3299
3.9044

PCT4

PCT5

-2.39000
0.64120
1.58015
-3.10141
-3.07946
0.92631
-1.82076
-1.44665
-1.68571

-0.62519
-0.60070
1.58502
-1.18550
-0.70748
-0.92266
-0.05541
0.79854
-0.50229

-0.59535
0.23792
-0.57091
0.40062
1.06065
1.12864
-0.79801
-1.15359
-0.72039

28 1.48789
29 -0.50525
30 -1.57573
31 0.22653
32 0.15334
33 -0.58892
34 0.56147

438.596
278.665
706.431
261.588
310.738
738.682
305.210
262.988
326.838

O3April

PCT3

Temp1

newcvd newpneu newresp

Temp2
-1.15363
-0.23784
-0.07074
-0.42198
-0.64750
0.04545
-1.11766

30.3030
16.9137
30.7999
25.3354
29.3645
18.5655
29.5787
23.0967
31.0496

O3June

62.201
44.994
86.502
67.139
80.424
66.948
83.239
50.393
65.912

69.5000
53.5667
47.8000
53.6667
54.8000
53.0889
61.4000
73.4000
72.2333

71.7742
63.5484
60.3226
64.3387
63.6452
62.6237
66.3871
76.9032
75.1290

O3Aug

-2.0668 -5.8030
11.9726 21.1476
5.8602 10.3271
7.0183 11.9288
0.9810
5.5242
7.5877
3.5178
3.9502 -0.0561
-2.7520 -5.1370
-6.4831 -12.5135

10.5212
9.2866
-1.5896
8.9702
3.4300
-3.3418
7.6415
5.5211
3.5228

PCO1

PCO2

1.32246 -11.4442
1.09247 17.6271
-0.09434
5.4344
-1.02463
7.3641
-0.43332 -0.7935
1.14216 -0.7343
1.08190 -3.6708
-0.54452 -12.7062
-0.00694 -21.6937

2.8106
0.8821
-9.2095
4.9395
-4.8643
-6.2686
0.7157
3.5520
2.3094

1.53724
-1.00528
-0.97792
0.00092
0.03637
-0.79860
0.57418

TempMay

O3July

PCT6

Oz1

Temp
April

Oz2
-1.27136
0.50788
-0.38746
0.75873
-0.95090
0.54482
-0.60817

Temp
June

Temp
July

79.7000
74.3667
69.7667
72.6167
71.7667
73.0778
75.1333
81.5667
80.7000

O3Sep

82.1935
81.0968
76.0000
82.0000
81.1613
80.8710
78.8387
82.5161
82.5484

PCT1

PCT2

1.56816 15.2773
-2.58669 -4.3017
-6.29763 -16.7821
1.99419 -5.1993
-3.16688 -5.9731
-2.37853 -5.7684
-0.05212
1.4423
3.68539 22.0975
6.41760 20.3618

-2.2649
4.8683
2.8679
5.5430
3.7010
4.4769
-1.2235
-4.1566
-3.4715

PCO3

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

-7.90446
-0.58602
1.89886
1.23285
-3.59731
8.18332
-3.50991
1.37866
-0.24743

-2.17045
-2.65441
-2.35340
-1.24908
-2.00248
-1.13214
-1.63296
-1.84587
0.77883

-2.07024
5.28560
1.10024
1.96741
1.49907
-1.13959
-2.75997
-0.34592
-0.50460

0.60662
2.54378
-2.68804
-2.15609
-3.00209
2.85516
1.03117
-1.19942
1.54554

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

-1.07713
0.84119
1.23154
0.97335
0.77912
0.86720
-0.23006

0.20396
0.66268
-0.15938
0.74290
0.39950
0.53948
-0.15260

-1.07105
1.56334
1.07634
0.33093
0.31943
0.21335
-0.30883

1.10314
0.73834
-0.72825
0.46742
0.18658
-1.58457
0.51623

35
36

1.44836
1.64004

-0.39794
-0.34208

1.32311
1.63545

0.03371
-0.46155

-1.66997
-1.49320

0.14511
0.19476

-1.39116
-2.11276

-0.16684
-0.39753

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 225
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

coast newcopd

Las Vegas
Lexington
Lincoln
Little Rock
Los Angeles
Louisville
Memphis
Miami
Modesto

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1

Obs TempAug TempSep

O3April

O3May

81.9333 8.86449
68.9333 -6.40648
64.1333 3.05017
75.1667 2.31853
68.6000 5.58612
72.2667 -1.95398
75.4333 -2.24268
82.1000 7.48433
73.4167 7.20520

15.7920
3.4592
3.8878
8.3827
10.9744
3.5216
3.4254
7.7844
10.4089

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Obs
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Obs
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

88.1935
75.9355
74.1935
84.2097
70.0968
78.7742
82.9032
83.8065
74.9032
PCT3
5.02954
-0.69926
-2.61839
-1.54032
0.60241
-0.24823
-1.48803
-0.22644
3.57914
Temp1
-0.20604
-0.25597
-0.39640
1.00791
-0.25252
-0.23005
0.79508
0.79146
-0.27025

PCT4

45.9381
41.8407
39.1544
74.4175
30.3803
64.0135
32.8701
35.9019
44.9667

newcvd newpneu newresp

PCT5

254.913
272.924
361.180
308.736
265.544
380.188
356.000
340.691
293.738

19.9162
25.3347
14.3833
19.6418
14.2027
35.3227
26.1847
26.0500
14.7652

O3June

65.854
67.175
53.538
94.059
44.804
99.480
59.278
62.085
60.179

5.5927
7.5647
-3.6920
16.0051
5.2416
5.7273
11.6956
-8.1683
4.5215

-1.17045 -1.40892 -0.36416
6.8617
0.61528 0.03219 -0.04752
0.7825
-0.17325 1.22765 -0.65754 -6.1163
-1.07223 0.67247 0.52250 -3.3808
0.41924 1.60640 -1.50690
2.8396
0.75575 1.16079 0.58183 -0.9086
0.47383 0.29931 1.39587 -6.2020
3.31530 2.21891 -0.22341 -22.6706
-1.09963 -0.21863 0.45880
6.5896

4.4484
-1.7250
-9.0566
10.9164
3.1610
-2.9358
2.5917
-9.5371
5.4737

-0.25841
0.03604
-0.38387
1.54585
-0.11585
0.08801
1.18213
0.85495
-0.59559

75.5806
65.5161
61.8710
71.1129
63.3871
67.8065
71.4194
78.8387
64.8226

15.3006
5.3280
3.4754
5.2706
0.5766
1.2496
2.2919
0.9441
9.0467
5.5017
3.0344
3.9898
0.2333 -1.4341
-8.5097 -12.2927
8.5813 12.2299
PCO2

1.72848
-0.42891
-0.57928
-0.36609
1.19375
-0.45933
-1.12682
-0.21567
1.37060

61.2000
56.7000
51.0667
65.6833
58.8167
59.5000
67.2667
78.0000
58.5167
O3Aug

PCT6

Oz1

TempMay

O3July

PCO1

Temp2

Temp
April

Oz2
1.65796
-1.33859
-0.60707
-0.06878
0.91336
-1.05299
-1.35086
-0.58800
1.67208

Temp
June

Temp
July

85.4667
73.6667
70.4000
78.9000
65.6667
76.5000
79.9000
81.0667
71.7333

O3Sep

88.4194
79.8065
80.8387
84.4677
71.5161
83.4839
83.9355
84.1613
74.3387

PCT1

PCT2

-0.30987 20.7651
1.01188 -2.9717
-2.70199 -10.9795
5.43948 13.2797
2.43886 -10.7076
-1.20572
4.0509
1.00112 13.9942
-2.35173 26.1745
7.47960 -3.2572

8.9284
1.6754
5.2255
1.4361
-8.8012
3.2867
0.0735
-7.1785
-4.4020

PCO3

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

9.59601
-9.51820
2.16021
-5.72342
4.52694
-5.76434
-9.67137
7.08929
6.46936

-2.92322
2.61135
-0.45485
-1.56727
0.11684
-0.29166
-1.50718
-3.23677
4.11503

-8.03281
-0.53264
1.38336
-1.39724
-2.75202
-0.10300
-1.65827
-0.72945
3.17868

-0.14906
-2.01203
-0.04074
-0.75400
-0.49262
-0.30083
0.03661
-3.23226
-0.60085

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

0.06257
0.36653
1.23156
-0.50338
-0.56593
0.20863
-0.71353
-2.26479
-0.39144

2.32099
0.17052
0.46582
0.75685
-1.91128
0.71575
0.55249
-0.21195
-0.87497

0.18872
0.32527
0.00519
-0.91186
-0.02626
0.20799
-0.55775
-1.52378
0.10248

-0.66086
1.07962
-1.14542
1.62109
-0.30746
0.55481
1.43874
-2.17562
-0.47695

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 226
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
46
47
48
49
50

Nashville
New York
Oakland
Oklahoma City
Omaha

coast newcopd
0
1
1
0
0

38.7793
23.5229
32.9006
50.8746
52.4176

newcvd newpneu newresp
317.780
349.159
257.387
383.376
272.442

28.4265
31.2145
11.4286
33.1593
25.0224

68.083
54.838
44.468
84.337
78.087

Temp
April

TempMay

62.8333
53.0889
54.8000
61.5333
51.5556

67.9032
62.6237
55.6774
68.3226
62.2581

Temp
June
76.8000
73.0778
59.8333
75.9000
70.8222

Temp
July
82.1935
80.8710
62.1935
82.4194
80.6882

51
52
53
54

Philadelphia
Phoenix
Pittsburgh
Riverside

0
0
0
1

Obs TempAug TempSep
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Obs
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Obs
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

79.6129
75.8495
64.0968
84.9677
73.3548
77.7097
93.2258
69.1935
84.6636
PCT3
-1.73999
0.92631
0.94750
-3.02967
-2.58624
0.68634
6.40235
-0.75469
4.19679
Temp1
0.43782
-0.58892
-0.06199
1.69547
-0.58154
-0.27251
0.17286
-1.11114
-0.08380

36.3085
46.5798
54.4604
49.7610

374.485 31.4981
256.498 24.3478
472.666 39.9480
301.931 9.9004

67.873
71.416
94.720
59.726

53.8000
66.1333
52.1000
62.9714

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

O3Aug

72.0333 5.99371
69.5667 -0.85701
63.8667 9.22982
71.3667 5.96884
64.0889 -0.40624
70.1667 7.16699
87.6333 7.66572
64.4000 -0.36179
80.8048 5.01962

8.8557
0.3905
8.3519
11.1463
0.8112
10.1299
11.8096
4.9377
14.2865

10.2495
7.4703
0.9472
2.9474
-0.8071
10.4305
8.4950
10.6607
15.4135

5.6462
15.8371
1.2300
6.2657
4.5477
18.1820
8.8198
14.6198
8.7508

11.4303
6.1029
-2.9679
20.3420
-1.0881
10.9228
9.5064
2.4950
8.3247

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

0.37610 0.55476 1.33427
-0.92266 1.12864 1.14216
-1.37670 -0.24769 0.26326
-4.12054 -0.32964 -0.62708
0.82901 1.04203 -0.51962
-1.73091 1.10180 -0.02564
-1.95176 -0.93171 -0.48222
2.47868 0.18815 0.17283
-1.40090 1.73116 -1.32440
Temp2

Oz1

-1.17022
0.04545
0.89199
0.22718
-0.89602
0.67427
2.53231
-0.99668
2.50876

PCO1

PCO2

3.8009
10.7296
-6.6838
1.5254
-5.3588
14.5383
6.0155
11.4396
9.6475

8.7095
-4.5476
-3.6423
15.8851
-4.2429
5.3173
5.3737
-5.4071
6.9283

Oz2

0.31702
-0.95222
-0.08518
1.80484
-0.51086
-0.32803
0.28121
-1.32215
-0.37816

0.95446
-0.72274
0.64059
0.64951
-0.47995
1.11751
0.95329
-0.13991
1.51076

64.1613
80.0323
61.2581
73.6037

73.1000
89.1333
69.6000
79.1238

O3Sep

PCT1

81.3871
91.4516
76.2581
85.4378
PCT2

5.24058
5.8323
0.6114
-3.16514 -5.7684
4.4769
0.55751 -25.2487 -14.5940
5.51697
7.1021
2.5404
6.44135 -10.8258
4.7645
-1.09160 -3.5652
4.6440
-0.63484 31.8025
9.1449
-2.82014 -14.3237
0.2579
3.63020 15.6944
3.2134

PCO3
1.16876
-5.45988
8.40027
-3.98917
-2.13502
2.58508
3.75061
-0.65916
5.37257

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

0.43454 -2.56988 2.53244
-0.47042 5.22026 2.61763
-1.07375 1.88886 -0.47672
-4.60275 1.28898 -1.32890
7.51995 5.71575 0.11469
-4.49546 3.86432 0.07830
-4.85954 -0.84859 -0.50155
0.88714 1.38037 0.41721
1.04596 -6.08095 -0.82260

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

-0.22354
0.86720
-0.55132
-0.04386
1.16500
0.77464
-0.48005
0.77270
-0.40215

0.32911
0.53948
-3.45838
0.70646
0.39328
0.65293
2.78374
-0.50879
1.15254

-0.24744
1.36131
-0.49990
-0.80146
-0.22197
0.95383
0.16266
1.39212
0.32284

0.59895
0.70448
-1.57047
2.03753
-0.52037
0.64853
0.28242
-0.06701
0.00824

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 227
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

coast newcopd

Sacramento
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Jose
Santa Ana/Anaheim
Shreveport
St. Louis
St. Petersburg
Stockton

Obs TempAug TempSep
55
56
57
58
59
60

74.4387
86.4194
75.5054
64.0968
70.0968
86.1290

73.2867
80.5667
72.8778
63.8667
68.6000
75.5000

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

41.3568
29.1472
43.1137
26.6851
29.6878
45.6529
39.9208
77.1583
45.2450

newcvd newpneu newresp
274.214
272.160
234.815
206.765
231.775
352.098
443.437
483.894
324.345

Temp
April

17.8995 59.338 58.3267
20.6758 49.967 71.4333
7.3124 50.602 59.2889
11.6487 38.453 54.8000
12.3670 42.301 58.8167
27.9624 73.901 69.6333
36.1872 76.682 58.8000
32.4477 110.257 74.6000
13.1299 58.730 58.2222

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

6.71122
6.96342
3.62120
8.75283
9.37348
5.17327

7.9368
5.3762
12.9680
8.2189
14.2964
6.0310

5.9901
-1.3773
15.0344
-0.0051
10.1229
1.6275

7.9478
-8.6641
8.3781
1.6848
4.6612
-0.7434

O3Aug

TempMay
64.2581
76.3548
66.7957
55.6774
63.3871
72.1935
67.0323
78.0323
64.5484
O3Sep

Temp
June
71.2067
82.0667
71.2667
59.8333
65.6667
80.0333
75.0667
81.4000
71.5667
PCT1

Temp
July
73.6258
83.0968
76.7312
62.1935
71.5161
83.1290
83.1613
83.8065
74.1183
PCT2

4.2798 8.03638 -4.2394 -4.9783
2.1612 9.44449 22.3267 -2.4535
9.9923 1.10096 -1.4824 -3.3776
-3.9427 -1.07305 -25.2487 -14.5940
6.4446 4.65991 -10.7076 -8.8012
13.2357 3.19671 16.7778 -1.2565

61 76.7419 69.9667 -0.48566
62 84.0000 81.0333 9.64822
63 74.5161 73.0222 7.35334
Obs

PCT3

PCT4

PCT5

55 3.74576 -1.27013
56 0.90105 -0.23864
57 2.19654 -0.28886
58 0.94750 -1.37670
59 0.60241 0.41924
60 -2.92769 -1.70143
61 -1.49833 1.83419
62 0.36059 2.62399
63 3.48387 -0.96896
Obs
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

Temp1

8.4464
-2.3514
7.3916

PCO1

0.59792
1.4839
-0.16114 -16.4055
-1.15253
9.8365
0.26326 -6.7042
-1.50690
2.4676
0.99968 -5.6794
0.24228
1.5574
-0.52926 -13.2175
0.50115
0.6929

Oz1

1.42433
0.46810
1.54560
0.89199
1.19375
-0.94244
-0.95013
0.03199
1.27440

1.4408
-5.1627
5.1208

PCT6

-0.22150
-0.87394
1.09281
-0.24769
1.60640
-0.59517
1.57285
0.91225
-0.30232

Temp2

-0.26958
1.12704
-0.27952
-0.06199
-0.25252
1.83769
-0.39042
0.67101
-0.30675

4.1664
6.5928
8.1715

1.22994
0.33787
0.99957
0.44434
1.73089
-0.13538
-0.81622
0.20518
1.08221

PCO2

PCO3

0.9640
23.7667
-3.9697

2.9282
-4.8977
-4.4348

PCO5

PCO6

2.99569
-1.15409
-6.55217
2.48259
-3.69468
-0.68288
3.74971
4.39267
2.97186

0.66529
2.06987
-0.35848
-1.17576
-0.64604
1.97803
-1.55604
-0.82873
0.27293

PCO4

4.7764 4.61654 4.50366
3.5752 2.98679 4.48657
5.9869 2.59902 -0.97958
-5.4449 8.18470 -1.98515
7.3684 8.35770 -0.32727
7.8358 -3.67216 -3.21430
-3.2293 -4.45290 -1.50728
-3.3944 6.43732 -2.08913
2.3165 5.60732 2.52557

Oz2

-0.28131
0.91903
-0.20272
-0.13469
0.14721
1.42435
-0.03763
0.56854
-0.30251

5.2479 -1.96826
-2.4759 1.15697
2.5567 5.34866

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

-0.41398
-1.46526
-0.35288
-0.55132
-0.56593
-1.02644
0.32252
-1.85042
-0.35881

-1.01097
0.44385
-0.63214
-3.45838
-1.91128
0.43350
0.53564
0.08336
-0.90806

-0.28509
-1.79634
0.46136
-0.37437
-0.39571
-0.94188
0.43623
-1.06702
-0.19937

-0.42920
-0.77261
0.41418
-1.64039
-0.49724
1.11202
0.47190
-1.40802
-0.68864

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 228
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Obs city
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast newcopd

Syracuse
Tacoma
Tampa
Toledo
Washington
Wichita
Worcester

1
1
1
0
0
0
1

Obs TempAug TempSep
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
Obs

69.0968
65.0323
84.0000
69.9677
75.6774
81.4839
69.3441
PCT3

53.7047
42.6643
51.8546
55.8176
24.8226
46.3710
46.2073

Temp1

326.410
271.254
302.518
391.162
323.218
269.394
306.806

30.3740
18.9778
14.9157
23.5137
21.1517
18.7692
38.0844

85.179
62.070
67.171
79.331
45.974
65.361
84.558

O3April

O3May

O3June

O3July

65.1000 1.04130
61.0333 7.19013
81.0333 9.92602
65.3333 -5.91671
67.3333 2.21860
67.2333 5.00061
65.3778 6.90519

6.9690
5.7665
7.3299
-1.5588
10.2754
10.3495
2.5181

12.5221
-1.5010
-4.6847
9.1269
12.0268
0.0144
8.5516

12.5066
-0.3845
-3.0803
8.0693
19.8456
9.1460
7.6622

PCT4

PCT5

PCT6

64 2.38512 1.54375 -1.48368
65 0.51165 -4.20481 -0.53502
66 0.36059 2.62399 0.91225
67 0.30406 2.89350 -0.35859
68 -0.55070 -1.41855 0.27215
69 -3.81144 -3.24835 0.30498
70 2.51117 -0.19154 -1.38912
Obs

newcvd newpneu newresp

Temp2

PCO1

PCO2

Temp
April

TempMay

46.8333
48.7667
74.6000
50.9000
53.1667
56.2000
47.3889

60.9032
52.0968
78.0323
62.8387
63.0000
65.4516
58.7312

O3Aug

Temp
June
69.9667
58.3333
81.4000
71.0333
71.1000
73.3000
68.9111

O3Sep

PCT1

Temp
July
75.1613
62.6774
83.8065
77.4516
78.6774
82.5161
73.3978
PCT2

-0.1769 1.07085 -17.1308
2.9873
-3.4556 -0.79503 -31.0113 -10.2201
-2.3865 1.71172 23.7667 -4.8977
-0.3838 -3.32774 -12.7102
2.2801
16.1971 1.98466 -7.8689
2.6066
16.5816 3.67709 -0.9229
5.0344
-1.8237 -7.10564 -18.4321
1.2279
PCO3

PCO4

PCO5

PCO6

-0.74559
9.8854 -4.1569 3.30174 4.47144 -0.56280 0.29876
0.23984 -9.1854 -6.0976 5.46470 -1.37489 2.55729 -0.21078
-0.52926 -13.5469 -2.7011 7.02300 -1.83322 3.56576 -0.94951
-0.60385
5.2271 -11.1895 -6.33434 4.09184 -0.98073 3.02210
-0.53623 17.6173
9.4381 -2.92259 -1.80935 2.65189 -1.19662
-1.16001
1.8784 11.4890 -3.67853 -4.63067 4.86440 -3.24336
0.50488
3.7933 -9.3615 4.59821 -3.98278 0.77403 5.18281

Oz1

Oz2

PCTemp1

PCTemp2

PCOz1

PCOz2

64
65
66
67
68
69
70

-1.68142
0.14116
0.67101
-1.42775
-0.12211
1.06735
-1.25436

0.35830
1.28945
0.03199
-0.55076
0.33978
-0.04948
0.37403

-1.55764
0.02343
0.60923
-1.46163
-0.15314
1.44561
-1.06255

0.53260
-0.02560
0.32644
-1.47791
0.85263
0.39038
-0.10731

1.26474
0.30248
-1.85042
0.94647
0.73790
0.68777
1.10826

-0.15250
-2.93622
0.08336
-0.10231
0.14006
0.82133
-0.50219

1.07972
-0.51458
-1.15357
1.28162
1.03742
-0.48761
0.90361

-0.71961
-1.41000
-1.45509
-0.04608
1.68859
1.66273
-1.08173

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 229
Canonical Correlation using PCs
Plot of PCTemp1*PCOz1.

Legend: A = 1 obs, B = 2 obs, etc.

PCTemp1 ‚

2 ˆ

A

A



A
A
B
A

A
A
1 ˆ
A A
A B
A

A
B A

A
A
A AA
A

B
AA

A

A
AA

A
0 ˆ
A
A A

A

A A
A A

AA
AA A

A
A B
A A

A
A

A
A
-1 ˆ
A
A

A


A
A
A

A
A

A

A
A A
-2 ˆ


A




-3 ˆ

Šƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒ
-2.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
PCOz1
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 230
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
6
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

6

10.49675

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 231
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
4.41495

4.41495
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable
Constant
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

0

1

-165.47097
1.73444
-5.54289
-2.10976
8.23011
-2.62329
4.23208

-160.27862
1.81366
-5.69109
-2.23672
7.65619
-2.47045
4.84195

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 232
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2

_

-1

_

D (X) = (X-X )' COV
j
j

(X-X )
j

Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
0 *
1
1
1
1
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.9571
0.9258
0.0930
0.0102
0.0295
0.1012
0.5480
0.8594
0.4741
0.9888
0.9293
0.9116
0.9197
0.1675
0.9499
0.0534
0.1222
0.9287
0.9404
0.2809
0.8769
0.9849
0.0482
0.9535
0.0877
0.1718
0.9480
0.1670

0.0429
0.0742
0.9070
0.9898
0.9705
0.8988
0.4520
0.1406
0.5259
0.0112
0.0707
0.0884
0.0803
0.8325
0.0501
0.9466
0.8778
0.0713
0.0596
0.7191
0.1231
0.0151
0.9518
0.0465
0.9123
0.8282
0.0520
0.8330

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 233
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0

*

*
*
*

0

1

0.8653
0.9067
0.9870
0.9749
0.8256
0.4737
0.0554
0.0570
0.3337
0.8226
0.9919

0.1347
0.0933
0.0130
0.0251
0.1744
0.5263
0.9446
0.9430
0.6663
0.1774
0.0081

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*
*

*

*

*

0.4813
0.0259
0.8396
0.4265
0.0185
0.0093
0.6720
0.8256
0.0012
0.6191
0.9930
0.7982
0.0785
0.9248
0.0821
0.0063
0.0226
0.0526
0.0012
0.0259
0.2061
0.9499
0.0335
0.0106
0.8675
0.0059
0.0335
0.9534
0.8149
0.9631

0.5187
0.9741
0.1604
0.5735
0.9815
0.9907
0.3280
0.1744
0.9988
0.3809
0.0070
0.2018
0.9215
0.0752
0.9179
0.9937
0.9774
0.9474
0.9988
0.9741
0.7939
0.0501
0.9665
0.9894
0.1325
0.9941
0.9665
0.0466
0.1851
0.0369

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 234
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.5400

0.4600

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 235
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k

Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

8
21.05

30
78.95

38
100.00

Total

35
50.00

35
50.00

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.2105
0.5000

0.1834

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 236
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1

*

*
*
*

0

1

0.9529
0.9608
0.1006
0.0102
0.0337
0.1181
0.7690
0.9218
0.5372
0.9885
0.9230
0.9039
0.8906
0.1826
0.9452
0.0630
0.1479

0.0471
0.0392
0.8994
0.9898
0.9663
0.8819
0.2310
0.0782
0.4628
0.0115
0.0770
0.0961
0.1094
0.8174
0.0548
0.9370
0.8521

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.9227
0.9201
0.4571
0.8637
0.9843
0.0548
0.9459
0.1024
0.1850
0.9430
0.2004

0.0773
0.0799
0.5429
0.1363
0.0157
0.9452
0.0541
0.8976
0.8150
0.0570
0.7996

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 237
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*

*
*
*
*
*

*

*

*

0

1

0.9104
0.8971
0.9866
0.9731
0.8927
0.4085
0.0623
0.0620
0.1160
0.8189
0.9920
0.4291
0.0285
0.8228
0.3379
0.0192
0.0091
0.6186
0.8927
0.0006
0.5007
0.9931
0.7720
0.0036
0.9186
0.1113
0.0059
0.0236
0.0584
0.0006
0.0285
0.2499
0.9441
0.0368
0.0106
0.9374
0.0046
0.0368
0.9490
0.8025
0.9562

0.0896
0.1029
0.0134
0.0269
0.1073
0.5915
0.9377
0.9380
0.8840
0.1811
0.0080
0.5709
0.9715
0.1772
0.6621
0.9808
0.9909
0.3814
0.1073
0.9994
0.4993
0.0069
0.2280
0.9964
0.0814
0.8887
0.9941
0.9764
0.9416
0.9994
0.9715
0.7501
0.0559
0.9632
0.9894
0.0626
0.9954
0.9632
0.0510
0.1975
0.0438

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 238

Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.6338

0.3662

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 239
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

9
23.68

29
76.32

38
100.00

Total

36
51.43

34
48.57

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.2368
0.5000

0.1965

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 240
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure

Observations
Variables
Classes

70
6
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 241
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

0
0 *
1
1
1
1
1
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 *
0

1.0000
0.8261
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.2289
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000

0.0000
0.1739
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 242
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*

*

*

0

1

0.4419
0.4419
0.6404
0.8261
0.8261
0.4419
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000
0.8261
0.6404
0.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.8261
0.4419
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000
0.6404
0.4419
1.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.8261

0.5581
0.5581
0.3596
0.1739
0.1739
0.5581
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000
0.1739
0.3596
1.0000
0.3596
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.1739
0.5581
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000
0.3596
0.5581
0.0000
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.1739

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 243
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

0
1

0.8261
0.4419

0.1739
0.5581

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 244
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

29
90.63

3
9.38

32
100.00

1

4
10.53

34
89.47

38
100.00

Total

33
47.14

37
52.86

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0938
0.5000

0.1053
0.5000

0.0995

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 245
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5

k

nearest neighbors of X

Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

0
0 *
1
1
1
1
1
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 *
0

1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
0.8222
0.2242
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.2242
1.0000
1.0000
0.2242
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.6477
0.0000
0.6343
1.0000

0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.1778
0.7758
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.0000
0.0000
0.7758
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.3523
1.0000
0.3657
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 246
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0

*

*
*
*

0

1

0.4353
0.6343
0.6477
0.8306
0.8306
0.6343
0.4497
0.0000
0.0000
0.2346
1.0000
0.8306
0.6477
0.0000
0.6477
0.6477

0.5647
0.3657
0.3523
0.1694
0.1694
0.3657
0.5503
1.0000
1.0000
0.7654
0.0000
0.1694
0.3523
1.0000
0.3523
0.3523

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*
*
*

*

0.0000
0.0000
0.8306
0.6343
0.0000
0.4497
1.0000
0.4497
0.2346
1.0000
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6343
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.8306

1.0000
1.0000
0.1694
0.3657
1.0000
0.5503
0.0000
0.5503
0.7654
0.0000
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3657
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.1694

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 247
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

69
70

0
1

Classified
into coast
0
1

0

1

0.8306
0.4353

0.1694
0.5647

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 248
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast

From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

7
18.42

31
81.58

38
100.00

Total

34
48.57

36
51.43

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.1842
0.5000

0.1702

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 249
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion
AIC
SC
-2 Log L

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

98.526
100.774
96.526

52.633
68.372
38.633

Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0
Test

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

57.8930
37.1030
12.0469

6
6
6

<.0001
<.0001
0.0609

Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 250
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-37.0462
-0.2165
0.2491
1.0680
0.7725
0.0543
-1.5996

14.4179
0.1623
0.4558
0.8217
0.3751
0.2272
0.6347

6.6021
1.7791
0.2988
1.6892
4.2401
0.0572
6.3518

0.0102
0.1823
0.5846
0.1937
0.0395
0.8109
0.0117

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect

Point
Estimate

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep

95% Wald
Confidence Limits

0.805
1.283
2.909
2.165
1.056
0.202

0.586
0.525
0.581
1.038
0.676
0.058

1.107
3.134
14.563
4.516
1.648
0.701

Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

95.0
5.0
0.0
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.900
0.900
0.453
0.950

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 251
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.92811
0.97668
0.00568
0.00063
0.00001
0.09777
0.09259
0.32940
0.26853
0.99647
0.95144
0.73331
0.64926

0.07189
0.02332
0.99432
0.99937
0.99999
0.90223
0.90741
0.67060
0.73147
0.00353
0.04856
0.26669
0.35074

0.92811
0.97668
0.00568
0.00063
0.00001
0.09777
0.09259
0.32940
0.26853
0.99647
0.95144
0.73331
0.64926

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1

0.08430
0.98444
0.01775
0.24086
0.91204
0.73067
0.41124
0.93112
0.99413
0.00018
0.93777
0.12479
0.01821
0.97953
0.17034
0.89916
0.67620
0.99926
0.99278
0.60319
0.36496
0.02343
0.01995
0.86314
0.76530
0.99832
0.57440
0.00000
0.86237
0.54800
0.00008
0.00000
0.70683
0.60319
0.00000

0.91570
0.01556
0.98225
0.75914
0.08796
0.26933
0.58876
0.06888
0.00587
0.99982
0.06223
0.87521
0.98179
0.02047
0.82966
0.10084
0.32380
0.00074
0.00722
0.39681
0.63504
0.97657
0.98005
0.13686
0.23470
0.00168
0.42560
1.00000
0.13763
0.45200
0.99992
1.00000
0.29317
0.39681
1.00000

0.08430
0.98444
0.01775
0.24086
0.91204
0.73067
0.41124
0.93112
0.99413
0.00018
0.93777
0.12479
0.01821
0.97953
0.17034
0.89916
0.67620
0.99926
0.99278
0.60319
0.36496
0.02343
0.01995
0.86314
0.76530
0.99832
0.57440
0.00000
0.86237
0.54800
0.00008
0.00000
0.70683
0.60319
0.00000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 252
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1

0.86255
0.99881
0.55272
0.33103
0.71466
0.00150
0.00000
0.00292
0.00003
0.00000
0.00000
0.36846
0.97295
0.00079
0.00000
0.59615
0.00000
0.00079
0.92914
0.56271
0.99752
0.03945

0.13745
0.00119
0.44728
0.66897
0.28534
0.99850
1.00000
0.99708
0.99997
1.00000
1.00000
0.63154
0.02705
0.99921
1.00000
0.40385
1.00000
0.99921
0.07086
0.43729
0.00248
0.96055

0.86255
0.99881
0.55272
0.33103
0.71466
0.00150
0.00000
0.00292
0.00003
0.00000
0.00000
0.36846
0.97295
0.00079
0.00000
0.59615
0.00000
0.00079
0.92914
0.56271
0.99752
0.03945

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 253
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature

RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The FREQ Procedure
Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
30 ‚
2 ‚
32
‚ 42.86 ‚
2.86 ‚ 45.71
‚ 93.75 ‚
6.25 ‚
‚ 85.71 ‚
5.71 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
5 ‚
33 ‚
38

7.14 ‚ 47.14 ‚ 54.29
‚ 13.16 ‚ 86.84 ‚
‚ 14.29 ‚ 94.29 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
35
35
70
50.00
50.00
100.00
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 254
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
6
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name
_0
_1

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

6

17.45328

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 255
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j

Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
2.09628

2.09628
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable

0

1

Constant
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

-2.37753
-0.35218
0.77901
-0.13278
0.07060
0.05247
-0.21014

-1.77270
-0.01620
0.50974
-0.00974
-0.01823
0.03917
-0.03019

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 256
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1

*
*
*
*
*

*

0

1

0.8569
0.9798
0.8201
0.0061
0.1367
0.6567
0.1564
0.6687
0.7646
0.5679
0.8924
0.9050
0.3235
0.4544
0.8899
0.0363

0.1431
0.0202
0.1799
0.9939
0.8633
0.3433
0.8436
0.3313
0.2354
0.4321
0.1076
0.0950
0.6765
0.5456
0.1101
0.9637

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.1367
0.8537
0.6581
0.1374
0.9279
0.9068
0.2459
0.9424
0.0733
0.1694
0.9120
0.4762

0.8633
0.1463
0.3419
0.8626
0.0721
0.0932
0.7541
0.0576
0.9267
0.8306
0.0880
0.5238

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 257
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*

*

0

1

0.5994
0.9159
0.6802
0.9091
0.1329
0.4943
0.2213
0.0430
0.3521
0.9197
0.4736
0.4773
0.3728
0.7814
0.7089
0.3200
0.1857
0.1437
0.7164
0.1674
0.4657
0.2849
0.5958
0.4946
0.7980
0.4735
0.1050
0.0226
0.6223
0.2609
0.1841
0.2003
0.8425
0.1317
0.1447
0.5737
0.2279
0.1189
0.7597
0.8260
0.7050

0.4006
0.0841
0.3198
0.0909
0.8671
0.5057
0.7787
0.9570
0.6479
0.0803
0.5264
0.5227
0.6272
0.2186
0.2911
0.6800
0.8143
0.8563
0.2836
0.8326
0.5343
0.7151
0.4042
0.5054
0.2020
0.5265
0.8950
0.9774
0.3777
0.7391
0.8159
0.7997
0.1575
0.8683
0.8553
0.4263
0.7721
0.8811
0.2403
0.1740
0.2950

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 258
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

70

1

Classified
into coast
1

0

1

0.2036

0.7964

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 259
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

23
71.88

9
28.13

32
100.00

1

9
23.68

29
76.32

38
100.00

Total

32
45.71

38
54.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.2813
0.5000

0.2368
0.5000

0.2590

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 260
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure

Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*
*
*
*

*
*

*

0

1

0.8486
0.9944
0.8895
0.0033
0.1812
0.7892
0.1830
0.7206
0.8786
0.5516
0.8882
0.9005
0.2755
0.5166
0.8702
0.0346
0.1549
0.8465
0.6197
0.1456
0.9228
0.8996
0.3298
0.9395
0.0757
0.1837
0.9049
0.5314

0.1514
0.0056
0.1105
0.9967
0.8188
0.2108
0.8170
0.2794
0.1214
0.4484
0.1118
0.0995
0.7245
0.4834
0.1298
0.9654
0.8451
0.1535
0.3803
0.8544
0.0772
0.1004
0.6702
0.0605
0.9243
0.8163
0.0951
0.4686

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 261
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

29
30
31
32
33

1
0
0
0
1

0 *
0
0
0
1

0.7238
0.9107
0.6543
0.9037
0.1445

0.2762
0.0893
0.3457
0.0963
0.8555

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*

0.4643
0.2345
0.0427
0.1692
0.9147
0.4398
0.4216
0.3915
0.7745
0.6757
0.4349
0.2048
0.0927
0.8181
0.1792
0.3600
0.1556
0.5189
0.4466
0.7871
0.5672
0.1107
0.0207
0.7227
0.2895
0.2033
0.2162
0.8307
0.1453
0.1520
0.6197
0.2457
0.1291
0.7073
0.7981
0.6088

0.5357
0.7655
0.9573
0.8308
0.0853
0.5602
0.5784
0.6085
0.2255
0.3243
0.5651
0.7952
0.9073
0.1819
0.8208
0.6400
0.8444
0.4811
0.5534
0.2129
0.4328
0.8893
0.9793
0.2773
0.7105
0.7967
0.7838
0.1693
0.8547
0.8480
0.3803
0.7543
0.8709
0.2927
0.2019
0.3912

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 262
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

70

1

Classified
into coast
1

0

1

0.2569

0.7431

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 263
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j

Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

23
71.88

9
28.13

32
100.00

1

12
31.58

26
68.42

38
100.00

Total

35
50.00

35
50.00

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.2813
0.5000

0.3158
0.5000

0.2985

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 264
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
6
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name
_0
_1

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 265
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X

Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

*
*

*

*

0

1

1.0000
0.8261
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.0000
0.4419
0.4419
0.6404
1.0000
1.0000
0.4419
0.4419
0.8261
0.0000
0.2289
1.0000
1.0000
0.6404
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000

0.0000
0.1739
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
1.0000
0.5581
0.5581
0.3596
0.0000
0.0000
0.5581
0.5581
0.1739
1.0000
0.7711
0.0000
0.0000
0.3596
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 266
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1

*
*

*
*

0

1

0.6404
0.6404
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.2289
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
0.8261
0.4419
0.6404
0.4419
1.0000
0.6404
0.0000

0.3596
0.3596
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.7711
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.1739
0.5581
0.3596
0.5581
0.0000
0.3596
1.0000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*
*

*

0.0000
0.2289
0.6404
0.0000
1.0000
0.4419
0.8261
0.6404
0.8261
0.2289
0.2289
0.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.2289
0.4419
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
0.7711
0.3596
1.0000
0.0000
0.5581
0.1739
0.3596
0.1739
0.7711
0.7711
1.0000
0.7711
1.0000
0.7711
0.5581
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 267
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

69
70

0
1

Classified
into coast
0
1

0

1

1.0000
0.2289

0.0000
0.7711

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 268
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast

From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

7
18.42

31
81.58

38
100.00

Total

34
48.57

36
51.43

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.1842
0.5000

0.1702

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 269
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

*
*
*
*
*

*
*

*

0

1

1.0000
1.0000
0.8222
0.0000
0.0000
0.6343
0.2242
0.6343
0.6343
0.6477
1.0000
1.0000
0.2346
0.6343
0.8306
0.0000
0.4353
1.0000
1.0000
0.6343

0.0000
0.0000
0.1778
1.0000
1.0000
0.3657
0.7758
0.3657
0.3657
0.3523
0.0000
0.0000
0.7654
0.3657
0.1694
1.0000
0.5647
0.0000
0.0000
0.3657

21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
0
1
0
1
1
0

0
0
1
0
1
1
0

1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4353
1.0000

0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5647
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 270
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*

*

0

1

0.8222
0.6343
1.0000
1.0000
0.8306
0.2242
0.6477
0.2242
0.0000
0.2346
0.8306
0.4497
0.4497
0.4353
1.0000
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
0.2346
0.8222
0.2242
1.0000
0.4497
0.8306
0.6477
0.8306
0.4353
0.2242
0.0000
0.4353
0.2242
0.4353
0.6343
0.8306
0.2242
0.2242
0.8222
0.2242
0.2242
1.0000
1.0000

0.1778
0.3657
0.0000
0.0000
0.1694
0.7758
0.3523
0.7758
1.0000
0.7654
0.1694
0.5503
0.5503
0.5647
0.0000
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.7654
0.1778
0.7758
0.0000
0.5503
0.1694
0.3523
0.1694
0.5647
0.7758
1.0000
0.5647
0.7758
0.5647
0.3657
0.1694
0.7758
0.7758
0.1778
0.7758
0.7758
0.0000
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 271
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor

The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

69
70

0
1

Classified
into coast
0
1

0

1

1.0000
0.2242

0.0000
0.7758

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 272
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

26
81.25

6
18.75

32
100.00

1

12
31.58

26
68.42

38
100.00

Total

38
54.29

32
45.71

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1875
0.5000

0.3158
0.5000

0.2516

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 273
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information

Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion
AIC
SC
-2 Log L

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

98.526
100.774
96.526

80.645
96.385
66.645

Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0
Test
Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

29.8806
24.4129
17.6277

6
6
6

<.0001
0.0004
0.0072

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 274
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-1.1161
-0.3345
0.3177
-0.1386
0.1069
0.00472
-0.1952

0.7210
0.1081
0.1442
0.1024
0.0758
0.0570
0.0857

2.3960
9.5860
4.8522
1.8335
1.9918
0.0068
5.1891

0.1216
0.0020
0.0276
0.1757
0.1582
0.9341
0.0227

Odds Ratio Estimates

Effect

Point
Estimate

O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

95% Wald
Confidence Limits

0.716
1.374
0.871
1.113
1.005
0.823

0.579
1.036
0.712
0.959
0.898
0.696

0.884
1.823
1.064
1.291
1.124
0.973

Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

86.2
13.8
0.0
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.724
0.724
0.364
0.862

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 275
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
Logistic Regression
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1

0.82524
0.97565
0.73438
0.00282
0.10372
0.64631
0.11823
0.66766
0.68933
0.51712
0.86406
0.87987
0.31772
0.31366
0.86081
0.02246
0.08207
0.81206
0.68644
0.12310
0.88938
0.88217
0.22764
0.93542
0.04870
0.12154
0.88221
0.34917
0.57474
0.91952
0.68131
0.89751
0.11388
0.40092
0.18093
0.02488
0.37069
0.88554
0.41636
0.39374
0.35078
0.71599
0.59784
0.29713

0.17476
0.02435
0.26562
0.99718
0.89628
0.35369
0.88177
0.33234
0.31067
0.48288
0.13594
0.12013
0.68228
0.68634
0.13919
0.97754
0.91793
0.18794
0.31356
0.87690
0.11062
0.11783
0.77236
0.06458
0.95130
0.87846
0.11779
0.65083
0.42526
0.08048
0.31869
0.10249
0.88612
0.59908
0.81907
0.97512
0.62931
0.11446
0.58364
0.60626
0.64922
0.28401
0.40216
0.70287

0.82524
0.97565
0.73438
0.00282
0.10372
0.64631
0.11823
0.66766
0.68933
0.51712
0.86406
0.87987
0.31772
0.31366
0.86081
0.02246
0.08207
0.81206
0.68644
0.12310
0.88938
0.88217
0.22764
0.93542
0.04870
0.12154
0.88221
0.34917
0.57474
0.91952
0.68131
0.89751
0.11388
0.40092
0.18093
0.02488
0.37069
0.88554
0.41636
0.39374
0.35078
0.71599
0.59784
0.29713

45
46
47
48

1
0
1
1

1
1
0
1

0.17650
0.10968
0.64541
0.15801

0.82350
0.89032
0.35459
0.84199

0.17650
0.10968
0.64541
0.15801

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 276
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
Logistic Regression
Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1

0.42767
0.19994
0.61468
0.50133
0.77225
0.46826
0.08558
0.01330
0.60732
0.25702
0.18330
0.14217
0.81492
0.11686
0.12658
0.53519
0.20042
0.10590
0.64869
0.82488
0.69748
0.16601

0.57233
0.80006
0.38532
0.49867
0.22775
0.53174
0.91442
0.98670
0.39268
0.74298
0.81670
0.85783
0.18508
0.88314
0.87342
0.46481
0.79958
0.89410
0.35131
0.17512
0.30252
0.83399

0.42767
0.19994
0.61468
0.50133
0.77225
0.46826
0.08558
0.01330
0.60732
0.25702
0.18330
0.14217
0.81492
0.11686
0.12658
0.53519
0.20042
0.10590
0.64869
0.82488
0.69748
0.16601

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 277
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Ozone
Logistic Regression
The FREQ Procedure
Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
24 ‚
8 ‚
32
‚ 34.29 ‚ 11.43 ‚ 45.71
‚ 75.00 ‚ 25.00 ‚
‚ 72.73 ‚ 21.62 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
9 ‚
29 ‚
38
‚ 12.86 ‚ 41.43 ‚ 54.29
‚ 23.68 ‚ 76.32 ‚
‚ 27.27 ‚ 78.38 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
33
37
70
47.14
52.86
100.00
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 278
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function

The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
12
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

12

23.26300

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 279
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
7.56965

7.56965
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable
Constant
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

0

1

-240.98213
6.16044
-11.92825
-2.68980
6.02534
7.09561
1.25255
-0.97394
0.81989
1.84824
2.05744
-4.93361
-0.20421

-242.86285
6.71952
-11.77997
-3.69295
4.94120
8.63237
1.30838
-0.68315
-0.12855
2.47401
2.38877
-5.41257
-0.04591

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 280
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
1
1
1
1
0 *
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.9342
0.4855
0.0789
0.0003
0.0032
0.6539
0.7789
0.9654
0.0261
0.9990
0.9947
0.9879
0.9701
0.0228
0.9777
0.0029
0.0276
0.9729
0.9946
0.0364
0.9942
0.9966
0.0363
0.9735
0.0133
0.2176
0.9948
0.2922

0.0658
0.5145
0.9211
0.9997
0.9968
0.3461
0.2211
0.0346
0.9739
0.0010
0.0053
0.0121
0.0299
0.9772
0.0223
0.9971
0.9724
0.0271
0.0054
0.9636
0.0058
0.0034
0.9637
0.0265
0.9867
0.7824
0.0052
0.7078

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 281
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
From

Classified

Obs

coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

into coast
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*

*

*

*

0

1

0.0793
0.9998
0.9940
0.9973
0.5106
0.6512
0.0193
0.0060
0.8500
0.9935
0.9960
0.9831
0.0059
0.9871
0.9475
0.0406
0.0004
0.3738
0.0812
0.0001
0.8877
0.9877
0.7094
0.2368
0.7593
0.0198
0.0005
0.0004
0.0512
0.0002
0.0376
0.0095
0.9973
0.0016
0.0017
0.9304
0.0008
0.0028
0.5892
0.8608
0.9994

0.9207
0.0002
0.0060
0.0027
0.4894
0.3488
0.9807
0.9940
0.1500
0.0065
0.0040
0.0169
0.9941
0.0129
0.0525
0.9594
0.9996
0.6262
0.9188
0.9999
0.1123
0.0123
0.2906
0.7632
0.2407
0.9802
0.9995
0.9996
0.9488
0.9998
0.9624
0.9905
0.0027
0.9984
0.9983
0.0696
0.9992
0.9972
0.4108
0.1392
0.0006

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 282
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

70

1

Classified
into coast
1

0

1

0.1097

0.8903

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 283
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB

Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

30
93.75

2
6.25

32
100.00

1

5
13.16

33
86.84

38
100.00

Total

35
50.00

35
50.00

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0625
0.5000

0.1316
0.5000

0.0970

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 284
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4

0
1
1
1

0
0 *
1
1

0.9141
0.9042
0.1446
0.0001

0.0859
0.0958
0.8554
0.9999

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

1
0 *
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.0032
0.9591
0.9902
0.9930
0.0465
0.9990
0.9942
0.9862
0.9443
0.0326
0.9653
0.0029
0.0390
0.9689
0.9933
0.0930
0.9932
0.9963
0.0704
0.9607
0.0162
0.3490
0.9940
0.4178

0.9968
0.0409
0.0098
0.0070
0.9535
0.0010
0.0058
0.0138
0.0557
0.9674
0.0347
0.9971
0.9610
0.0311
0.0067
0.9070
0.0068
0.0037
0.9296
0.0393
0.9838
0.6510
0.0060
0.5822

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 285
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1

Classified
into coast
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

*

*

*

*

0

1

0.1830
0.9999
0.9929
0.9972
0.8983
0.5480
0.0237
0.0066
0.3705
0.9924
0.9953
0.9770
0.0071
0.9847
0.9182
0.1357
0.0003
0.0762
0.1566
0.0001
0.8094
0.9789
0.5438
0.0024
0.6537
0.0373
0.0004
0.0003
0.0968
0.0001

0.8170
0.0001
0.0071
0.0028
0.1017
0.4520
0.9763
0.9934
0.6295
0.0076
0.0047
0.0230
0.9929
0.0153
0.0818
0.8643
0.9997
0.9238
0.8434
0.9999
0.1906
0.0211
0.4562
0.9976
0.3463
0.9627
0.9996
0.9997
0.9032
0.9999

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
1
1
0 *
1
1
1 *
0
0

0.0903
0.0116
0.9971
0.0014
0.0017
0.9843
0.0005
0.0027
0.2550
0.7718
0.9996

0.9097
0.9884
0.0029
0.9986
0.9983
0.0157
0.9995
0.9973
0.7450
0.2282
0.0004

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 286
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

70

1

Classified
into coast
1

0

1

0.2269

0.7731

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 287
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

28
87.50

4
12.50

32
100.00

1

6
15.79

32
84.21

38
100.00

Total

34
48.57

36
51.43

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1250
0.5000

0.1579
0.5000

0.1414

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 288
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
12
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 289
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
1
1
1
1
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

1.0000
0.2289
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
0.6404
0.6404
0.2289
0.8261
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000

0.0000
0.7711
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.3596
0.3596
0.7711
0.1739
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 *
0

0.0000
0.2289
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000

1.0000
0.7711
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 290
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

0 *
1
0
0
0
0 *
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0 *
1
1
0
0

0.6404
0.4419
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.8261
0.8261
0.0000
0.0000
0.8261
1.0000
1.0000
0.8261
0.0000
1.0000
0.8261
0.2289
0.0000
0.6404
0.4419
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.6404
0.6404
1.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
0.2289
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.8261
0.8261

0.3596
0.5581
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.1739
0.1739
1.0000
1.0000
0.1739
0.0000
0.0000
0.1739
1.0000
0.0000
0.1739
0.7711
1.0000
0.3596
0.5581
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.3596
0.3596
0.0000
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.7711
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.1739
0.1739

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 291
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

0
0 *

1.0000
0.6404

0.0000
0.3596

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 292
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

32
100.00

0
0.00

32
100.00

1

7
18.42

31
81.58

38
100.00

Total

39
55.71

31
44.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0000
0.5000

0.1842
0.5000

0.0921

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 293
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor

The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

0
1
1
1
1
1
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 *
0

1.0000
0.2242
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.4353
0.8222
0.8222
0.2242
0.6477
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.2242
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.8222
1.0000

0.0000
0.7758
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
0.5647
0.1778
0.1778
0.7758
0.3523
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.1778
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 294
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

28
29
30

1
1
0

0 *
0 *
0

0.6343
0.6343
0.8306

0.3657
0.3657
0.1694

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
0 *
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1 *
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0 *
1
1
0
0

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
0.6477
1.0000
1.0000
0.8306
0.0000
1.0000
0.8306
0.2242
0.0000
0.6477
0.4353
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.6477
0.4497
0.8306
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
0.0000
0.4353
0.2242
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.8222
0.0000
0.0000
0.8306
0.8306

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.3523
0.0000
0.0000
0.1694
1.0000
0.0000
0.1694
0.7758
1.0000
0.3523
0.5647
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.3523
0.5503
0.1694
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
1.0000
0.5647
0.7758
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.1778
1.0000
1.0000
0.1694
0.1694

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 295
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

0
0 *

1.0000
0.8222

0.0000
0.1778

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 296
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function

2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

31
96.88

1
3.13

32
100.00

1

8
21.05

30
78.95

38
100.00

Total

39
55.71

31
44.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0313
0.5000

0.2105
0.5000

0.1209

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 297
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Complete separation of data points detected.

WARNING: The maximum likelihood estimate does not exist.
WARNING: The LOGISTIC procedure continues in spite of the above warning. Results shown are
based on the last maximum likelihood iteration. Validity of the model fit is
questionable.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion
AIC
SC
-2 Log L

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

98.526
100.774
96.526

29.540
58.770
3.540

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 298
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
WARNING: The validity of the model fit is questionable.
Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0
Test
Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

92.9857
46.1398
3.4545

12
12
12

<.0001
<.0001
0.9914

Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May
O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-208.0
-4.6674
4.2296
7.7365
16.2033
-17.6889
-4.8531
0.6090
6.0793
-2.1634
-5.4650
7.4131
-3.5295

199.1
5.0114
9.6882
13.7107
16.0705
19.7679
10.9343
1.9657
5.5518
9.4552
5.7307
7.1973
6.2016

1.0920
0.8674
0.1906
0.3184
1.0166
0.8007
0.1970
0.0960
1.1991
0.0524
0.9094
1.0609
0.3239

0.2960
0.3517
0.6624
0.5726
0.3133
0.3709
0.6572
0.7567
0.2735
0.8190
0.3403
0.3030
0.5693

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect

Point
Estimate

95% Wald
Confidence Limits

TempApril
TempMay
TempJune
TempJuly
TempAug
TempSep
O3April
O3May

0.009
68.690
>999.999
>999.999
<0.001
0.008
1.839
436.721

<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.039
0.008

173.256
>999.999
>999.999
>999.999
>999.999
>999.999
86.638
>999.999

O3June
O3July
O3Aug
O3Sep

0.115
0.004
>999.999
0.029

<0.001
<0.001
0.001
<0.001

>999.999
319.593
>999.999
>999.999

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 299
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
WARNING: The validity of the model fit is questionable.
Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

86.8
0.0
13.2
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.868
1.000
0.437
0.934

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 300
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

1.00000
0.21050
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00619
0.09764
0.23667
0.00038
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.83017
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.12059
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00033
1.00000
0.00255
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.09715
0.99881
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000

0.00000
0.78950
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.99381
0.90236
0.76333
0.99962
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.16983
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.87941
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.99967
0.00000
0.99745
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.90285
0.00119
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000

1.00000
0.21050
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00619
0.09764
0.23667
0.00038
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.83017
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.12059
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00033
1.00000
0.00255
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.09715
0.99881
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000

43
44
45
46
47
48

0
1
1
0
1
1

0
1
1
0
1
1

1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000

0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000

1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 301
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

1.00000
0.99999
0.99996
0.80695
0.68272
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00373
0.00000
0.00000
0.87513
0.99999
1.00000
0.00000

0.00000
0.00001
0.00004
0.19305
0.31728
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.00000
1.00000
1.00000
0.99627
1.00000
1.00000
0.12487
0.00001
0.00000
1.00000

1.00000
0.99999
0.99996
0.80695
0.68272
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00373
0.00000
0.00000
0.87513
0.99999
1.00000
0.00000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 302
Classification Analysis on Coast using
Monthly Average Temperature and Ozone
Logistic Regression
The FREQ Procedure
Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
32 ‚
0 ‚
32
‚ 45.71 ‚
0.00 ‚ 45.71
‚ 100.00 ‚
0.00 ‚
‚ 100.00 ‚
0.00 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
0 ‚
38 ‚
38

0.00 ‚ 54.29 ‚ 54.29

0.00 ‚ 100.00 ‚

0.00 ‚ 100.00 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
32
38
70
45.71
54.29
100.00
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 303
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2

RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
2
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

2

8.10750

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 304
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
2.55616

2.55616
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable

0

1

Constant
PCT1
PCT2

-0.37664
-0.03188
0.21061

-0.26709
0.02685
-0.17735

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 305
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB

Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1

*

*
*

*

0

1

0.7374
0.8447
0.1499
0.0813
0.4831
0.0632
0.8507
0.8799
0.3009
0.9030
0.7198
0.7925
0.9179
0.1555
0.7872
0.0310
0.4030
0.7492
0.9456
0.3551
0.5929
0.8501
0.5191
0.8024
0.0691
0.1772
0.7394
0.1318

0.2626
0.1553
0.8501
0.9187
0.5169
0.9368
0.1493
0.1201
0.6991
0.0970
0.2802
0.2075
0.0821
0.8445
0.2128
0.9690
0.5970
0.2508
0.0544
0.6449
0.4071
0.1499
0.4809
0.1976
0.9309
0.8228
0.2606
0.8682

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 306
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

29
30
31
32
33
34

1
0
0
0
1
0

0 *
0
0
0
0 *
1 *

0.8841
0.8796
0.9126
0.8425
0.8772
0.3387

0.1159
0.1204
0.0874
0.1575
0.1228
0.6613

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*
*
*
*

*

*

0.0465
0.0659
0.8942
0.6715
0.9284
0.4177
0.0524
0.7166
0.2885
0.0118
0.1644
0.4465
0.8772
0.0135
0.6128
0.9149
0.8701
0.8279
0.6967
0.5536
0.1428
0.0853
0.2087
0.0135
0.0524
0.1705
0.7251
0.0321
0.1684
0.8865
0.0951
0.0321
0.8208
0.7964
0.8696

0.9535
0.9341
0.1058
0.3285
0.0716
0.5823
0.9476
0.2834
0.7115
0.9882
0.8356
0.5535
0.1228
0.9865
0.3872
0.0851
0.1299
0.1721
0.3033
0.4464
0.8572
0.9147
0.7913
0.9865
0.9476
0.8295
0.2749
0.9679
0.8316
0.1135
0.9049
0.9679
0.1792
0.2036
0.1304

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 307
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.8099

0.1901

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 308
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j

Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

28
87.50

4
12.50

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

38
54.29

32
45.71

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1250
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.1941

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 309
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0 *
1
1
1
1
0 *
0 *
1
0
0
0

0.7298
0.8679
0.1533
0.0847
0.4875
0.0651
0.8742
0.9072
0.3037
0.8998
0.7164
0.7868

0.2702
0.1321
0.8467
0.9153
0.5125
0.9349
0.1258
0.0928
0.6963
0.1002
0.2836
0.2132

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0 *
0
1
1
0
1

0.9127
0.1599
0.7840
0.0310
0.4281
0.7455
0.9433
0.3627
0.5895
0.8462
0.5258
0.7953
0.0716
0.1808
0.7362
0.1359

0.0873
0.8401
0.2160
0.9690
0.5719
0.2545
0.0567
0.6373
0.4105
0.1538
0.4742
0.2047
0.9284
0.8192
0.2638
0.8641

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 310
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1

*

*
*

*
*
*
*

*

*

0

1

0.9062
0.8753
0.9099
0.8392
0.8989
0.3267
0.0476
0.0680
0.8826
0.6686
0.9261
0.3982
0.0540
0.7114
0.2646
0.0105
0.1688
0.4374
0.8989
0.0104
0.6051
0.9122
0.8667
0.7894
0.6885
0.5776
0.1473
0.0887
0.2127
0.0104
0.0540
0.1761
0.7213
0.0322
0.1731
0.9118
0.1075
0.0322

0.0938
0.1247
0.0901
0.1608
0.1011
0.6733
0.9524
0.9320
0.1174
0.3314
0.0739
0.6018
0.9460
0.2886
0.7354
0.9895
0.8312
0.5626
0.1011
0.9896
0.3949
0.0878
0.1333
0.2106
0.3115
0.4224
0.8527
0.9113
0.7873
0.9896
0.9460
0.8239
0.2787
0.9678
0.8269
0.0882
0.8925
0.9678

67
68
69

0
0
0

0
0
0

0.8163
0.7929
0.8659

0.1837
0.2071
0.1341

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 311
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.8377

0.1623

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 312
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

28
87.50

4
12.50

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

38
54.29

32
45.71

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1250
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.1941

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 313
Classification Analysis on Coast using

PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
2
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 314
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

*
*
*

*

*
*

0

1

0.8261
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.6404
0.2289
0.2289
0.8261
1.0000
0.8261
0.4419
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.8261
0.8261
0.6404

0.1739
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
1.0000
0.3596
0.7711
0.7711
0.1739
0.0000
0.1739
0.5581
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000
0.3596
0.3596
0.1739
0.1739
0.3596

24
25
26
27

0
1
1
0

0
1
1
0

0.8261
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000

0.1739
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 315
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

*
*
*

*
*

*
*

0

1

0.0000
0.4419
0.4419
0.4419
0.6404
0.4419
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000
0.7037
0.6404
0.0000
0.6404
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.4419
0.0000
0.8261
0.6404
0.4419
0.4419
0.8261
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.8261
1.0000

1.0000
0.5581
0.5581
0.5581
0.3596
0.5581
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000
0.2963
0.3596
1.0000
0.3596
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.5581
1.0000
0.1739
0.3596
0.5581
0.5581
0.1739
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.1739
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 316
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors

Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

1 *
0 *

0.3725
0.6404

0.6275
0.3596

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 317
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

23
71.88

9
28.13

32
100.00

1

6
15.79

32
84.21

38
100.00

Total

29
41.43

41
58.57

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.2813
0.5000

0.1579
0.5000

0.2196

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 318
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2

-1

D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV

(X-Y)

Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

*
*
*

*

*
*

0

1

0.8306
0.5362
0.0000
0.0000
0.8222
0.0000
0.8222
0.4353
0.4353
0.6477
1.0000
0.6477
0.4497
0.2242
1.0000
0.0000
0.4353
1.0000
0.6477
0.6343
0.6477
0.8306
0.6343
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000

0.1694
0.4638
1.0000
1.0000
0.1778
1.0000
0.1778
0.5647
0.5647
0.3523
0.0000
0.3523
0.5503
0.7758
0.0000
1.0000
0.5647
0.0000
0.3523
0.3657
0.3523
0.1694
0.3657
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 319
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0

*
*
*
*
*

0

1

0.0000
0.6343
0.4497
0.4497
0.6477
0.6343
0.2346
0.0000
0.0000
0.6477
1.0000

1.0000
0.3657
0.5503
0.5503
0.3523
0.3657
0.7654
1.0000
1.0000
0.3523
0.0000

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*
*

*
*
*

*

0.6477
0.6477
0.0000
0.6477
0.4497
0.0000
0.0000
0.4497
0.6343
0.0000
0.8306
0.6477
0.4497
0.4497
0.8306
0.6343
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6343
0.0000
0.0000
0.8306
1.0000

0.3523
0.3523
1.0000
0.3523
0.5503
1.0000
1.0000
0.5503
0.3657
1.0000
0.1694
0.3523
0.5503
0.5503
0.1694
0.3657
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3657
1.0000
1.0000
0.1694
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 320
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

1 *
0 *

0.2346
0.8222

0.7654
0.1778

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 321
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X

Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

23
71.88

9
28.13

32
100.00

1

11
28.95

27
71.05

38
100.00

Total

34
48.57

36
51.43

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.2813
0.5000

0.2895
0.5000

0.2854

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 322
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

AIC
SC
-2 Log L

98.526
100.774
96.526

68.726
75.472
62.726

Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0
Test

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

33.7992
27.6528
18.1149

2
2
2

<.0001
<.0001
0.0001

Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 323
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
PCT1
PCT2

1
1
1

-0.4978
-0.0446
0.3978

0.3531
0.0244
0.1093

1.9872
3.3261
13.2511

0.1586
0.0682
0.0003

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect

Point
Estimate

PCT1
PCT2

95% Wald
Confidence Limits

0.956
1.489

0.912
1.202

1.003
1.844

Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

84.5
15.5
0.1
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.690
0.691
0.347
0.845

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 324
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
Logistic Regression
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

0.60796
0.79819
0.11486
0.07621
0.39753
0.05443
0.76446
0.79486
0.22716
0.84345
0.61687
0.68208
0.83717
0.13002
0.70678
0.02831

0.39204
0.20181
0.88514
0.92379
0.60247
0.94557
0.23554
0.20514
0.77284
0.15655
0.38313
0.31792
0.16283
0.86998
0.29322
0.97169

0.60796
0.79819
0.11486
0.07621
0.39753
0.05443
0.76446
0.79486
0.22716
0.84345
0.61687
0.68208
0.83717
0.13002
0.70678
0.02831

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1

0.38924
0.64661
0.89311
0.30835
0.48981
0.76871
0.44267
0.68569
0.06331
0.13907
0.64278
0.11106
0.83626
0.80081
0.87425
0.77571
0.82352
0.25946
0.04162
0.05805
0.89360
0.57474
0.88800
0.37318
0.02871
0.65227
0.25115
0.01077
0.10874
0.37411
0.82352
0.00561

0.61076
0.35339
0.10689
0.69165
0.51019
0.23129
0.55733
0.31431
0.93669
0.86093
0.35722
0.88894
0.16374
0.19919
0.12575
0.22429
0.17648
0.74054
0.95838
0.94195
0.10640
0.42526
0.11200
0.62682
0.97129
0.34773
0.74885
0.98923
0.89126
0.62589
0.17648
0.99439

0.38924
0.64661
0.89311
0.30835
0.48981
0.76871
0.44267
0.68569
0.06331
0.13907
0.64278
0.11106
0.83626
0.80081
0.87425
0.77571
0.82352
0.25946
0.04162
0.05805
0.89360
0.57474
0.88800
0.37318
0.02871
0.65227
0.25115
0.01077
0.10874
0.37411
0.82352
0.00561

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 325
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
Logistic Regression
Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.54888
0.86764
0.81885
0.84839
0.56058
0.52017
0.09203
0.07804
0.14489
0.00561
0.02871
0.14859
0.65115
0.02915
0.11057
0.81068
0.03990
0.02915
0.72631
0.70889
0.82434
0.69266

0.45112
0.13236
0.18115
0.15161
0.43942
0.47983
0.90797
0.92196
0.85511
0.99439
0.97129
0.85141
0.34885
0.97085
0.88943
0.18932
0.96010
0.97085
0.27369
0.29111
0.17566
0.30734

0.54888
0.86764
0.81885
0.84839
0.56058
0.52017
0.09203
0.07804
0.14489
0.00561
0.02871
0.14859
0.65115
0.02915
0.11057
0.81068
0.03990
0.02915
0.72631
0.70889
0.82434
0.69266

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 326
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1 and PCT2
Logistic Regression
The FREQ Procedure

Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
27 ‚
5 ‚
32
‚ 38.57 ‚
7.14 ‚ 45.71
‚ 84.38 ‚ 15.63 ‚
‚ 75.00 ‚ 14.71 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
9 ‚
29 ‚
38
‚ 12.86 ‚ 41.43 ‚ 54.29
‚ 23.68 ‚ 76.32 ‚
‚ 25.00 ‚ 85.29 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
36
34
70
51.43
48.57
100.00
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 327
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
4
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

4

14.20741

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 328
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
1.47779

1.47779
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable

0

1

Constant
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

-0.21775
0.04755
-0.05328
-0.08207
-0.04274

-0.15441
-0.04005
0.04486
0.06911
0.03599

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 329
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0

*
*

*
*
*

*

*

0

1

0.8595
0.9520
0.7219
0.0624
0.1656
0.1900
0.6367
0.6021
0.8791
0.5464
0.8349
0.8624
0.3946
0.3861
0.8819
0.0519
0.3286
0.8401
0.4773
0.2935
0.8309

0.1405
0.0480
0.2781
0.9376
0.8344
0.8100
0.3633
0.3979
0.1209
0.4536
0.1651
0.1376
0.6054
0.6139
0.1181
0.9481
0.6714
0.1599
0.5227
0.7065
0.1691

22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
1
0
1
1
0
0 *

0.8291
0.1856
0.8756
0.1019
0.2244
0.7859
0.5060

0.1709
0.8144
0.1244
0.8981
0.7756
0.2141
0.4940

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 330
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

*

*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*

*

0

1

0.8445
0.7711
0.5022
0.7400
0.3406
0.5508
0.1697
0.0985
0.2461
0.8034
0.4997
0.3912
0.3061
0.7388
0.6725
0.1267
0.2099
0.3109
0.8989
0.1859
0.3721
0.4048
0.6574
0.4383
0.8175
0.3116
0.1893
0.0656
0.4738
0.2320
0.1409
0.3725
0.7653
0.1549
0.2181
0.5889
0.2714
0.1298
0.8936
0.7573
0.4736

0.1555
0.2289
0.4978
0.2600
0.6594
0.4492
0.8303
0.9015
0.7539
0.1966
0.5003
0.6088
0.6939
0.2612
0.3275
0.8733
0.7901
0.6891
0.1011
0.8141
0.6279
0.5952
0.3426
0.5617
0.1825
0.6884
0.8107
0.9344
0.5262
0.7680
0.8591
0.6275
0.2347
0.8451
0.7819
0.4111
0.7286
0.8702
0.1064
0.2427
0.5264

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 331
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function

The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.6913

0.3087

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 332
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

22
68.75

10
31.25

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

32
45.71

38
54.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.3125
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.2878

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 333
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function

2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*

*
*
*

*

*

*

0

1

0.8537
0.9779
0.7933
0.0620
0.2119
0.1965
0.6569
0.6450
0.9395
0.5321
0.8293
0.8570
0.3546
0.4278
0.8782
0.0497
0.3737
0.8343
0.4406
0.3064
0.8144
0.8151
0.2244
0.8666
0.1049
0.2399
0.7667
0.5497

0.1463
0.0221
0.2067
0.9380
0.7881
0.8035
0.3431
0.3550
0.0605
0.4679
0.1707
0.1430
0.6454
0.5722
0.1218
0.9503
0.6263
0.1657
0.5594
0.6936
0.1856
0.1849
0.7756
0.1334
0.8951
0.7601
0.2333
0.4503

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 334
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

0 *
0
1 *
0
1
0
1
1
1 *
0

0.8877
0.7604
0.4862
0.7338
0.3619
0.5412
0.1756
0.1020
0.1826
0.7898

0.1123
0.2396
0.5138
0.2662
0.6381
0.4588
0.8244
0.8980
0.8174
0.2102

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*

*

0.4744
0.3416
0.3124
0.7319
0.6428
0.1395
0.2231
0.2828
0.9270
0.1951
0.2812
0.3323
0.6191
0.3940
0.8110
0.3297
0.1976
0.0658
0.4944
0.2466
0.1468
0.3935
0.7605
0.1628
0.2248
0.6296
0.2855
0.1357
0.8872
0.7282
0.4162

0.5256
0.6584
0.6876
0.2681
0.3572
0.8605
0.7769
0.7172
0.0730
0.8049
0.7188
0.6677
0.3809
0.6060
0.1890
0.6703
0.8024
0.9342
0.5056
0.7534
0.8532
0.6065
0.2395
0.8372
0.7752
0.3704
0.7145
0.8643
0.1128
0.2718
0.5838

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 335
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.7384

0.2616

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 336
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))

j

k

k

Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

21
65.63

11
34.38

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

31
44.29

39
55.71

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.3438
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.3035

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 337
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
4
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

69
68
1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name
_0
_1

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 338
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k

Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

*
*

*
*

*

*

0

1

1.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
0.6404
0.4419
0.6404
0.6404
1.0000
1.0000
0.4419
0.4419
0.8261
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000
0.8261
0.8261
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000

0.0000
0.3596
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
0.3596
0.5581
0.3596
0.3596
0.0000
0.0000
0.5581
0.5581
0.1739
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000
0.1739
0.1739
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 339
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0

*

*

*
*

0

1

0.4419
0.8261
0.6404
0.6404
1.0000
0.2289
0.8261
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000
0.4419
0.6404
0.4419
1.0000
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.6404
0.0000
0.6404

0.5581
0.1739
0.3596
0.3596
0.0000
0.7711
0.1739
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000
0.5581
0.3596
0.5581
0.0000
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.3596
1.0000
0.3596

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 *
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

0.8261
0.6404
0.8261
1.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.0000
0.2289
0.6404
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.6404

0.1739
0.3596
0.1739
0.0000
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
1.0000
0.7711
0.3596
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.3596

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 340
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

69
70

0
1

Classified
into coast
0
1

0

1

0.8261
0.4419

0.1739
0.5581

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 341
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

29
90.63

3
9.38

32
100.00

1

8
21.05

30
78.95

38
100.00

Total

37
52.86

33
47.14

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0938
0.5000

0.2105
0.5000

0.1521

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 342
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

0

1

1.0000
0.8222
0.8222
0.0000
0.2242
0.2242
0.8222
0.4353
0.8222
0.4497
1.0000
1.0000
0.4497
0.6343
0.8306
0.0000
0.6343
1.0000
0.8306
0.8222
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.1778
0.1778
1.0000
0.7758
0.7758
0.1778
0.5647
0.1778
0.5503
0.0000
0.0000
0.5503
0.3657
0.1694
1.0000
0.3657
0.0000
0.1694
0.1778
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000

26
27

1
0

1
0

0.4353
1.0000

0.5647
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 343
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

*
*
*

*

*
*

*
*

0

1

0.6343
0.8222
0.6477
0.4497
0.8306
0.4353
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
0.6477
0.8306
0.4497
0.6477
0.4353
1.0000
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
0.2346
0.8222
0.0000
0.6477
0.6477
0.6477
0.8306
0.8306
0.2242
0.2242
0.0000
0.6343
0.0000
0.2242
0.6343
0.8306
0.0000
0.0000
0.4353
0.2242
0.0000
1.0000
0.6477

0.3657
0.1778
0.3523
0.5503
0.1694
0.5647
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.3523
0.1694
0.5503
0.3523
0.5647
0.0000
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.7654
0.1778
1.0000
0.3523
0.3523
0.3523
0.1694
0.1694
0.7758
0.7758
1.0000
0.3657
1.0000
0.7758
0.3657
0.1694
1.0000
1.0000
0.5647
0.7758
1.0000
0.0000
0.3523

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 344
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast

Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

0
0 *

0.8306
0.6343

0.1694
0.3657

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 345
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

13
34.21

25
65.79

38
100.00

Total

40
57.14

30
42.86

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.3421
0.5000

0.2492

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 346
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

98.526
100.774
96.526

85.068
96.310
75.068

AIC
SC
-2 Log L

Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0
Test
Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

21.4579
19.1840
15.2237

4
4
4

0.0003
0.0007
0.0043

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 347
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

1
1
1
1
1

-0.2437
0.0895
-0.0865
-0.1385
-0.0840

0.2868
0.0355
0.0381
0.0535
0.0842

0.7219
6.3396
5.1565
6.7067
0.9954

0.3955
0.0118
0.0232
0.0096
0.3184

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

Point
Estimate
1.094
0.917
0.871
0.919

95% Wald
Confidence Limits
1.020
0.851
0.784
0.780

1.172
0.988
0.967
1.084

Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

81.7
18.3
0.0
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.633
0.633
0.319
0.817

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 348
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1

0.81644
0.93471
0.65828
0.05431
0.15831
0.17600
0.59544
0.56774
0.85025
0.49068
0.78394
0.81837
0.37140
0.31765
0.84887
0.04188
0.30404
0.79181
0.46486
0.28345
0.76451
0.76759
0.18556
0.83062
0.08981
0.21292
0.71278
0.44190
0.82652
0.72580
0.48055
0.68403
0.30879
0.49732
0.15141
0.08201
0.25008
0.74547
0.43319
0.36223
0.28908
0.67957
0.60909
0.10363
0.20276
0.29836
0.87048
0.16796

0.18356
0.06529
0.34172
0.94569
0.84169
0.82400
0.40456
0.43226
0.14975
0.50932
0.21606
0.18163
0.62860
0.68235
0.15113
0.95812
0.69596
0.20819
0.53514
0.71655
0.23549
0.23241
0.81444
0.16938
0.91019
0.78708
0.28722
0.55810
0.17348
0.27420
0.51945
0.31597
0.69121
0.50268
0.84859
0.91799
0.74992
0.25453
0.56681
0.63777
0.71092
0.32043
0.39091
0.89637
0.79724
0.70164
0.12952
0.83204

0.81644
0.93471
0.65828
0.05431
0.15831
0.17600
0.59544
0.56774
0.85025
0.49068
0.78394
0.81837
0.37140
0.31765
0.84887
0.04188
0.30404
0.79181
0.46486
0.28345
0.76451
0.76759
0.18556
0.83062
0.08981
0.21292
0.71278
0.44190
0.82652
0.72580
0.48055
0.68403
0.30879
0.49732
0.15141
0.08201
0.25008
0.74547
0.43319
0.36223
0.28908
0.67957
0.60909
0.10363
0.20276
0.29836
0.87048
0.16796

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 349
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression

Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0

0.36779
0.33359
0.64945
0.43006
0.77973
0.30754
0.17630
0.05673
0.46031
0.20756
0.14304
0.34281
0.71468
0.13599
0.20249
0.54174
0.23510
0.11497
0.84881
0.74519
0.45743
0.64627

0.63221
0.66641
0.35055
0.56994
0.22027
0.69246
0.82370
0.94327
0.53969
0.79244
0.85696
0.65719
0.28532
0.86401
0.79751
0.45826
0.76490
0.88503
0.15119
0.25481
0.54257
0.35373

0.36779
0.33359
0.64945
0.43006
0.77973
0.30754
0.17630
0.05673
0.46031
0.20756
0.14304
0.34281
0.71468
0.13599
0.20249
0.54174
0.23510
0.11497
0.84881
0.74519
0.45743
0.64627

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 350
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
The FREQ Procedure
Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
19 ‚
13 ‚
32
‚ 27.14 ‚ 18.57 ‚ 45.71
‚ 59.38 ‚ 40.63 ‚
‚ 67.86 ‚ 30.95 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
9 ‚
29 ‚
38
‚ 12.86 ‚ 41.43 ‚ 54.29
‚ 23.68 ‚ 76.32 ‚
‚ 32.14 ‚ 69.05 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
28
42
70
40.00
60.00
100.00
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 351
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables
Classes

70
6
2

DF Total
DF Within Classes
DF Between Classes

Class Level Information

69
68
1

coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

Pooled Covariance Matrix Information
Covariance
Matrix Rank

Natural Log of the
Determinant of the
Covariance Matrix

6

21.13766

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 352
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Pairwise Generalized Squared Distances Between Groups
2
_
_
-1 _
_
D (i|j) = (X - X )' COV
(X - X )
i
j
i
j
Generalized Squared Distance to coast
From coast

0

1

0
1

0
3.35059

3.35059
0

Linear Discriminant Function
_
-1 _
Constant = -.5 X' COV
X
j
j

-1 _
Coefficient Vector = COV
X
j

Linear Discriminant Function for coast
Variable

0

1

Constant
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

-0.49370
-0.04679
0.25256
-0.03908
-0.01878
-0.06205
-0.04034

-0.35010
0.03940
-0.21268
0.03291
0.01581
0.05225
0.03397

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 353
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j

Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

*

*
*
*

0

1

0.8090
0.9382
0.3952
0.1090
0.0747
0.0431
0.9018
0.7422
0.6135
0.9196
0.8756
0.8753
0.9502
0.3073
0.8361
0.0232
0.4860
0.8364
0.9495
0.1704
0.8488
0.9289
0.0679
0.8988
0.0670
0.0855
0.8714
0.3268

0.1910
0.0618
0.6048
0.8910
0.9253
0.9569
0.0982
0.2578
0.3865
0.0804
0.1244
0.1247
0.0498
0.6927
0.1639
0.9768
0.5140
0.1636
0.0505
0.8296
0.1512
0.0711
0.9321
0.1012
0.9330
0.9145
0.1286
0.6732

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 354
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

0 *
0
0
0
0 *
1 *
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

0.8111
0.9257
0.8942
0.9468
0.8647
0.4812
0.0388
0.1129
0.6666
0.8568
0.9776
0.5041
0.0154

0.1889
0.0743
0.1058
0.0532
0.1353
0.5188
0.9612
0.8871
0.3334
0.1432
0.0224
0.4959
0.9846

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
1 *
0 *
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0 *
1
1
0
0
0

0.8680
0.5643
0.0128
0.0261
0.2492
0.9228
0.0065
0.6376
0.9617
0.7563
0.6644
0.6420
0.1642
0.0381
0.0559
0.0614
0.0076
0.0092
0.2013
0.8527
0.0183
0.0561
0.8093
0.1329
0.0168
0.9201
0.6505
0.9248

0.1320
0.4357
0.9872
0.9739
0.7508
0.0772
0.9935
0.3624
0.0383
0.2437
0.3356
0.3580
0.8358
0.9619
0.9441
0.9386
0.9924
0.9908
0.7987
0.1473
0.9817
0.9439
0.1907
0.8671
0.9832
0.0799
0.3495
0.0752

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 355
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.8627

0.1373

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 356
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X )' COV (X-X )
j
j
j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k

Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

30
93.75

2
6.25

32
100.00

1

9
23.68

29
76.32

38
100.00

Total

39
55.71

31
44.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0625
0.5000

0.2368
0.5000

0.1497

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 357
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

*

*
*
*

*

0

1

0.7897
0.9770
0.4933
0.1298
0.1009
0.0448
0.9337
0.8020
0.7648
0.9132
0.8681
0.8656
0.9397
0.3580
0.8181
0.0228
0.5890
0.8241
0.9409

0.2103
0.0230
0.5067
0.8702
0.8991
0.9552
0.0663
0.1980
0.2352
0.0868
0.1319
0.1344
0.0603
0.6420
0.1819
0.9772
0.4110
0.1759
0.0591

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0.1876
0.8224
0.9213
0.0830
0.8845
0.0717
0.0933
0.8541
0.3718

0.8124
0.1776
0.0787
0.9170
0.1155
0.9283
0.9067
0.1459
0.6282

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 358
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0

*

*
*
*
*

*
*

*

*

0

1

0.8760
0.9209
0.8853
0.9443
0.9303
0.4595
0.0402
0.1283
0.4832
0.8405
0.9770
0.4410
0.0148
0.8617
0.5015
0.0105
0.0265
0.2119
0.9521
0.0045
0.5281
0.9562
0.7148
0.4764
0.6061
0.1923
0.0396
0.0605
0.0660
0.0054
0.0081
0.2189
0.8470
0.0176
0.0586
0.8643
0.1753
0.0160
0.9103
0.5737
0.9100

0.1240
0.0791
0.1147
0.0557
0.0697
0.5405
0.9598
0.8717
0.5168
0.1595
0.0230
0.5590
0.9852
0.1383
0.4985
0.9895
0.9735
0.7881
0.0479
0.9955
0.4719
0.0438
0.2852
0.5236
0.3939
0.8077
0.9604
0.9395
0.9340
0.9946
0.9919
0.7811
0.1530
0.9824
0.9414
0.1357
0.8247
0.9840
0.0897
0.4263
0.0900

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 359
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4

RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using Linear Discriminant Function
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

70

1

0 *

0.9119

0.0881

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 360
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: Linear Discriminant Function
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using Linear Discriminant Function
Generalized Squared Distance Function
2
_
-1
_
D (X) = (X-X
)' COV
(X-X
)
j
(X)j
(X)
(X)j
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
2
2
Pr(j|X) = exp(-.5 D (X)) / SUM exp(-.5 D (X))
j
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

37
52.86

33
47.14

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.2097

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 361
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Observations
Variables

70
6

DF Total
DF Within Classes

69
68

Classes

2

DF Between Classes

1

Class Level Information
coast
0
1

Variable
Name

Frequency

Weight

Proportion

Prior
Probability

32
38

32.0000
38.0000

0.457143
0.542857

0.500000
0.500000

_0
_1

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 362
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

*
*

*
*

*
*

0

1

1.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.4419
0.6404
1.0000
1.0000
0.8261
0.6404
0.8261
0.0000
0.6404
1.0000
0.8261
0.2289
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000

0.0000
0.3596
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3596
0.3596
0.5581
0.3596
0.0000
0.0000
0.1739
0.3596
0.1739
1.0000
0.3596
0.0000
0.1739
0.7711
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 363
Classification Analysis on Coast using

PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

Classified
into coast
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*

*

*
*
*

*

0

1

0.4419
0.6404
0.6404
0.8261
0.8261
0.4419
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
1.0000
0.6404
0.6404
0.0000
1.0000
0.4419
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.8261
0.0000
0.6404
0.8261
0.6404
0.6404
1.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.2289
0.0000
0.0000
0.4419
0.8261
0.0000
0.2289
0.6404
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.6404

0.5581
0.3596
0.3596
0.1739
0.1739
0.5581
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.0000
0.3596
0.3596
1.0000
0.0000
0.5581
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.1739
1.0000
0.3596
0.1739
0.3596
0.3596
0.0000
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
0.7711
1.0000
1.0000
0.5581
0.1739
1.0000
0.7711
0.3596
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.3596

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 364
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

69

0

Classified
into coast
0

0

1

1.0000

0.0000

70

1

0 *

0.6404

0.3596

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 365
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Resubstitution Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

29
90.63

3
9.38

32
100.00

1

10
26.32

28
73.68

38
100.00

Total

39
55.71

31
44.29

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.0938
0.5000

0.2632
0.5000

0.1785

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 366
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X

Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

*
*

*
*
*

*
*

0

1

1.0000
0.8222
0.6343
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
0.8222
0.8222
0.4353
0.4497
1.0000
1.0000
0.6477
0.6343
0.8306
0.0000
0.6343
1.0000
0.6477
0.4353
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.4353
1.0000

0.0000
0.1778
0.3657
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
0.1778
0.1778
0.5647
0.5503
0.0000
0.0000
0.3523
0.3657
0.1694
1.0000
0.3657
0.0000
0.3523
0.5647
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.5647
0.0000

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 367
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1

Classified
into coast
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

*
*

*

*

*

0

1

0.6343
0.8222
0.6477
0.8306
0.8306
0.6343
0.6477
0.0000
0.0000
0.4497
1.0000
0.6477
0.6477
0.0000
0.8306
0.4497
0.0000
0.0000

0.3657
0.1778
0.3523
0.1694
0.1694
0.3657
0.3523
1.0000
1.0000
0.5503
0.0000
0.3523
0.3523
1.0000
0.1694
0.5503
1.0000
1.0000

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0

*
*

*

*

*

0.4497
1.0000
0.0000
0.6477
0.8306
0.6477
0.4497
0.8306
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.2242
0.0000
0.0000
0.6343
0.8306
0.0000
0.2242
0.8222
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
0.6477

0.5503
0.0000
1.0000
0.3523
0.1694
0.3523
0.5503
0.1694
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
0.7758
1.0000
1.0000
0.3657
0.1694
1.0000
0.7758
0.1778
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.3523

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 368
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Results for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Results using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Posterior Probability of Membership in coast
Obs

From
coast

Classified
into coast

0

1

69
70

0
1

0
0 *

0.8306
0.6343

0.1694
0.3657

* Misclassified observation
18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 369
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
RULE: K Nearest Neighbor
The DISCRIM Procedure
Classification Summary for Calibration Data: WORK.PCCOMB
Cross-validation Summary using 5 Nearest Neighbors
Squared Distance Function
2
-1
D (X,Y) = (X-Y)' COV (X-Y)
Posterior Probability of Membership in Each coast
m (X) = Proportion of obs in group k in 5
k
nearest neighbors of X
Pr(j|X) = m (X) PRIOR / SUM ( m (X) PRIOR )
j
j
k
k
k
Number of Observations and Percent Classified into coast
From coast

0

1

Total

0

27
84.38

5
15.63

32
100.00

1

13
34.21

25
65.79

38
100.00

Total

40
57.14

30
42.86

70
100.00

Priors

0.5

0.5

Error Count Estimates for coast

Rate
Priors

0

1

Total

0.1563
0.5000

0.3421
0.5000

0.2492

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 370
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Model Information
Data Set
Response Variable
Number of Response Levels
Model
Optimization Technique

WORK.PCCOMB
coast
2
binary logit
Fisher's scoring

Number of Observations Read
Number of Observations Used

70
70

Response Profile
Ordered
Value

coast

Total
Frequency

1
2

0
1

32
38

Probability modeled is coast=0.
Model Convergence Status
Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied.
Model Fit Statistics

Criterion
AIC
SC
-2 Log L

Intercept
Only

Intercept
and
Covariates

98.526
100.774
96.526

67.850
83.589
53.850

Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0

Test

Chi-Square

DF

Pr > ChiSq

42.6757
32.2834
15.9235

6
6
6

<.0001
<.0001
0.0142

Likelihood Ratio
Score
Wald

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 371
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
The LOGISTIC Procedure
Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter

DF

Estimate

Standard
Error

Wald
Chi-Square

Pr > ChiSq

Intercept
PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-0.8732
-0.0820
0.5831
-0.0865
0.00680
-0.1632
-0.0139

0.4857
0.0430
0.1783
0.0673
0.0607
0.0770
0.1062

3.2325
3.6264
10.6976
1.6534
0.0126
4.4861
0.0170

0.0722
0.0569
0.0011
0.1985
0.9108
0.0342
0.8961

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect

Point
Estimate

PCT1
PCT2
PCO1
PCO2
PCO3
PCO4

95% Wald
Confidence Limits

0.921
1.792
0.917
1.007
0.849
0.986

0.847
1.263
0.804
0.894
0.730
0.801

1.002
2.541
1.046
1.134
0.988
1.214

Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses
Percent Concordant
Percent Discordant
Percent Tied
Pairs

88.8
11.1
0.1
1216

Somers' D
Gamma
Tau-a
c

0.777
0.778
0.391
0.889

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 372
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
Obs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0

0.57903
0.92329
0.33917
0.11274
0.10196
0.01764
0.77711
0.54451
0.36266
0.87164
0.76384
0.75608
0.84699
0.30315
0.69185

0.42097
0.07671
0.66083
0.88726
0.89804
0.98236
0.22289
0.45549
0.63734
0.12836
0.23616
0.24392
0.15301
0.69685
0.30815

0.57903
0.92329
0.33917
0.11274
0.10196
0.01764
0.77711
0.54451
0.36266
0.87164
0.76384
0.75608
0.84699
0.30315
0.69185

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1

0.00943
0.66473
0.71275
0.88576
0.07076
0.82293
0.85470
0.07368
0.67143
0.04612
0.07631
0.79968
0.24671
0.71728
0.79644
0.88053
0.91869
0.71323
0.31286
0.01502
0.06640
0.63231
0.85630
0.96064
0.54946
0.00226
0.84744
0.54399
0.00163
0.00801
0.18831
0.89549
0.00030

0.99057
0.33527
0.28725
0.11424
0.92924
0.17707
0.14530
0.92632
0.32857
0.95388
0.92369
0.20032
0.75329
0.28272
0.20356
0.11947
0.08131
0.28677
0.68714
0.98498
0.93360
0.36769
0.14370
0.03936
0.45054
0.99774
0.15256
0.45601
0.99837
0.99199
0.81169
0.10451
0.99970

0.00943
0.66473
0.71275
0.88576
0.07076
0.82293
0.85470
0.07368
0.67143
0.04612
0.07631
0.79968
0.24671
0.71728
0.79644
0.88053
0.91869
0.71323
0.31286
0.01502
0.06640
0.63231
0.85630
0.96064
0.54946
0.00226
0.84744
0.54399
0.00163
0.00801
0.18831
0.89549
0.00030

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 373
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression
Obs
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

coast

predict

phat

Pcoast

Pnoncoast

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

0.67194
0.96986
0.63307
0.69513
0.38215
0.12296
0.01287
0.03772
0.01904
0.00031
0.00129
0.14281
0.79349
0.00377
0.01586
0.68741
0.01201
0.00353
0.87506
0.58255
0.93808
0.56617

0.32806
0.03014
0.36693
0.30487
0.61785
0.87704
0.98713
0.96228
0.98096
0.99969
0.99871
0.85719
0.20651
0.99623
0.98414
0.31259
0.98799
0.99647
0.12494
0.41745
0.06192
0.43383

0.67194
0.96986
0.63307
0.69513
0.38215
0.12296
0.01287
0.03772
0.01904
0.00031
0.00129
0.14281
0.79349
0.00377
0.01586
0.68741
0.01201
0.00353
0.87506
0.58255
0.93808
0.56617

18:24 Saturday, November 21, 2009 374
Classification Analysis on Coast using
PCT1, PCT2, PCO1, PCO2, PCO3, AND PCO4
Logistic Regression

The FREQ Procedure
Table of coast by predict
coast

predict

Frequency‚
Percent ‚
Row Pct ‚
Col Pct ‚
0‚
1‚ Total
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
0 ‚
29 ‚
3 ‚
32
‚ 41.43 ‚
4.29 ‚ 45.71
‚ 90.63 ‚
9.38 ‚
‚ 76.32 ‚
9.38 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
1 ‚
9 ‚
29 ‚
38
‚ 12.86 ‚ 41.43 ‚ 54.29
‚ 23.68 ‚ 76.32 ‚
‚ 23.68 ‚ 90.63 ‚
ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒˆ
Total
38
32
70
54.29
45.71
100.00