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Seed Structure and Germination

Mico Practising School Science Club

Lesson Objectives
Students should be able to:
Identify the main parts of the seed ! seed coat "testa# seed leaves
"cotyledons# embryo and micropyle$
%ra& labeled diagrams to illustrate the internal and e'ternal features
of a typical seed
%efine the term germination
%iscuss the conditions necessary for germination
Classify seeds as monocots and dicots
Parts of the Seed
Parts of the seed and their function
(he (esta
(he testa is the outer coating of the seed It stops the embryo from being
damaged as it prevents fungus and bacteria from entering the seed
(he micropyle
(he micropyle is a tiny hole in the testa of the seed (he micropyle is the
result of the same hole in the ovule that the pollen tube gre& through
allo&ing the male se' cell to combine &ith the female se' cell In the
process of germination &ater enters the seed through this hole
(he cotyledon
(he cotyledon is a food store for the embryo It contains protein and
starch to support the proper gro&th and development of the embryo until
it is able to ma)e its o&n food
(he *adicle
(he radicle is the part of the seed that &ill gro& into the root system of
the plant
(he Plumule
(he plumule is the part of the seed that develops into the shoot system of
the plant (he shoot is the part of the plant containing leaves
+hat is germination,
Germination can be defined as the process by &hich the embryo in the
seed begins to gro& Germination is symboli-ed by the emergence of the
radicle from the seed
+hat are the conditions necessary for germination,
Seeds depend on both internal and e'ternal conditions for them to
germinate .'amples of these conditions are &ater/ o'ygen/ temperature
and light
&ater is important to germination because mature seeds are usually dry
and need to ta)e in substantial amounts of &ater in order to allo& the
embryo to become active (his &ater enters the seed through the
micropyle (he seed becomes s&ollen &hen it has absorbed enough &ater
It &ill continue to s&ell until the testa splits
O'ygen is re0uired by germination (he embryo is a living thing and it
re0uires o'ygen to release energy from food in a process called
1ll seeds have a temperature at &hich they germinate (his temperature
varies from seed to seed 2or e'ample an ac)ee seed &ill germinate at a
higher temperature than an 1merican apple seed 3o&ever all seeds are
unable to germinate at temperatures belo& 4
Grouping Seeds
Seeds can be placed into groups based on the amount of cotyledons that
they have Seeds that have t&o cotyledons are called dicots Seeds that
have one cotyledon are called monocots
.'amples of monocot seeds are corn/ banana and grasses
.'amples of dicot seeds are red beans/ gungo peas and orange seeds
1ns&er the follo&ing 0uestions
5 Give the name of the part of the seed &here &ater enters the seed,
6 Give the name of the part of the plant that stores food for the
7 +hat is the name of the part of the seed that protects the embryo
from bacteria and fungus,
8 Give the name of the part of the seed that develops into the root
4 Give the name of the part of the seed that develops into the shoot of
the plant
9 List the conditions necessary for germination and state &hy each
condition is important !: mar)s$
; +hat are monocot seeds,
< +hat are dicot seeds,