American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 1

S
F


POLLS ON ATTITUDES ON
HOMOSEXUALITY & GAY
MARRIAGE


Compiled by Karlyn Bowman, Resident Fellow, AEI,
Heather Sims, Research Assistant, AEI,
and Jennifer Marsico, Senior Research Associate, AEI


(Updated June 2014)








Special thanks to intern Morgan Williams for her assistance in compiling this public opinion study.
AEI Public Opinion
Studies
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 2
Table of Contents
LGBT Timeline……..……………………………………….. 3
Acceptance…………………………………………………….4
Personal Comfort Level…………………………………… .13
Employment………………………………………………….16
Military Service……………………………………………...19
Gays and Lesbians in Politics……………………………….25
Know Someone?……………………………………………..28
Nature/Nurture…………………………………………...….32
Gay Marriage………………………………………………...34
Marriage or Civil Unions or Neither… ……………………47
Civil Unions/Legal Partnerships/Benefits…………………..50
United States v. Windsor (2013)………………………..55
Constitutional Amendment?…………………..…………….56
Families……………………………………………………….60
Adoption……………………………………………62
Partisan Identification & Voting of
Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals………………………..65
The 2004, 2008, and 2012 Campaigns………………………66
The 2004 Campaign…………………………………….66
The 2008 Campaign…………………………………….69
The 2012 Campaign…………………………………….71
Comparisons with Other Issues……………………………..76
Youth Attitudes………………………………………..……..81
Miscellaneous………………………………………..……….84











American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 3
LGBT Timeline

Jun. 28, 1969 Stonewall riots
Jun. 28, 1970 First gay pride marches
Nov. 27, 1978 San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk, first openly gay officeholder in California, is
assassinated
1980 Democratic Party endorses a homosexual rights platform plank
Sep. 1982 CDC uses the word “AIDS” for the first time
1983 MA Rep. Gerry Studds becomes first openly gay member of Congress
Oct. 2, 1985 Actor Rock Hudson becomes first major public figure to die from AIDS
Jun. 30, 1986 In Bowers v. Hardwick, the US Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of a
Georgia law criminalizing homosexual sex.
1987 First showing of the AIDS quilt on the National Mall
Dec. 21, 1993 “Don’t ask, don’t tell” becomes law
Sep. 21, 1996 Defense of Marriage Act becomes law; defines marriage as between one man and one
woman
Jun. 26, 2003 In Lawrence v. Texas, the US Supreme Court strikes down Texas sodomy law
(overturns Bowers v. Hardwick).
Massachusetts becomes first US state to legalize same-sex marriage
Sep. 20, 2011 Don’t Ask Don’t Tell repealed
2012 Maine, Maryland, and Washington become the first states to pass same-sex marriage
via popular vote
Tammy Baldwin becomes first openly gay Senator
Barack Obama becomes first president to support same-sex marriage
Democratic Party platform supports same-sex marriage
Jun. 26, 2013 In US v. Windsor, the US Supreme Court declares Section 3 of the Defense of
Marriage Act (which defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman)
unconstitutional
In Hollingsworth v. Perry, the US Supreme Court declares California’s voter-
approved Proposition 8 (which took away the ability of same-sex couples to marry)
unconstitutional










American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 4

 What about sexual relations between two adults of the same sex - do you think it is always wrong, almost always wrong,
wrong only sometimes, or not wrong at all?

Always wrong Almost always Only sometimes Not wrong
1973 NORC/GSS 73% 7% 8% 11%
1974 NORC/GSS 69 6 9 13
1976 NORC/GSS 70 6 8 16
1977 NORC/GSS 73 6 8 14
1980 NORC/GSS 75 6 6 14
1982 NORC/GSS 74 5 7 14
1984 NORC/GSS 76 5 6 13
1985 NORC/GSS 75 4 7 12
1987 NORC/GSS 77 4 7 12
1988 NORC/GSS 77 4 6 13
1989 NORC/GSS 74 4 6 15
1990 NORC/GSS 76 5 6 13
1991 NORC/GSS 78 4 4 15
1993 NORC/GSS 66 4 8 22
1994 NORC/GSS 68 4 6 23
1996 NORC/GSS 61 5 6 28
1998 NORC/GSS 59 6 7 28
2000 NORC/GSS 59 4 8 29
2002 NORC/GSS 56 5 7 32
2004 NORC/GSS 58 5 7 30
2006 NORC/GSS 56 5 7 32
2008 NORC/GSS 52 3 7 38
2010 NORC/GSS 46 4 8 43
2012 NORC/GSS 43 3 7 42

Subpopulation Note: Asked of 2/3 sample of national adults.
ACCEPTANCE: In 1973, when the National Opinion Research Center at the University of
Chicago first asked people about sexual relations between two adults of the same sex, 73
percent described them as “always wrong” and another seven percent as “almost always
wrong.” When the organization last asked the question in 2012, 43 percent called them
always wrong and 3 percent almost always wrong. In 2010 for the first time, less than a
majority of those surveyed said that homosexual relations were either always or almost
always wrong.
NORC interviewers have asked the same question about extramarital sexual
relations over the period, and they find no liberalization in attitudes. As for pre-marital
sexual activity, in 1972, 36 percent told NORC interviewers that premarital sexual relations
were always wrong. In the latest poll from 2012, 21 percent gave that response, while 56
percent said they were not wrong at all (See “Comparisons” section of this document).
Forty-three percent in 1977 told Gallup interviewers that homosexual relations
between consenting adults should be legal. In July 2003, after the Supreme Court’s June 26
decision in Lawrence vs. Texas, 48 percent gave that response. In November 2012, 64
percent gave that response. Acceptance can be measured in ways other than legality as other
findings in this document show.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 5
Cohort Analysis of NORC Data
Homosexual Sexual Relations Always Wrong

1973 1974 1998 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

Total 73% 69% 59% 56% 58% 56% 52% 46% 46%
Sex
Male 72 71 61 58 59 59 57 50 50
Female 73 68 56 53 57 54 48 42 41
Race
White 71 69 57 53 55 53 49 43 43
Black 84* 75* 68 75 80 75 72 67 61
Age
18-29 56 53 41 51 52 45 41 27 ---
30-44 74 69 59 49 64 53 48 45 ---
45-59 76 76 58 54 52 58 52 50 ---
60 and over 89 83 77 69 66 69 69 55 ---
Education
Less than high school 90 82 77 75 76 72 71 62 61
High school 68 68 60 58 64 61 56 50 48
Junior college 30^ 56 59 50 62 52 57 46 46
Bachelor’s 43 45 46 46 46 43 38 32 37
Graduate degree 43 48 41 30 26 32 26 25 27
Church attendance
One to two times/year 63 62 44 49 38 43 40 31 ---
Once a month 72 68 47 47 58 50 45 39 ---
Nearly weekly 81 72 64 61 72 69 59 55 ---
Weekly or more 84 79 83 80 77 79 79 76 ---
Region
Northeast 64 59 47 40 51 44 40 33 ---
Midwest 75 73 63 55 53 53 47 44 ---
South 84 77 69 71 69 69 66 57 ---
West 59 63 48 48 50 47 45 35 ---
Party
Democrat 77 74 56 54 53 51 46 41 42
Republican 75 73 72 68 63 68 65 61 60
Independent 64 61 53 49 59 52 50 41 42
Ideology
Liberal NA 55 29 31 25 28 26 23 ---
Moderate NA 69 58 54 57 53 48 42 ---
Conservative NA 84 79 78 83 83 81 70 ---

Note: * = Sample size less than 200.
^ = According to NORC, this result is unexpectedly low.
t = Change from 1974 to 2000.

 For each one, please say whether you are very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied.
How about the acceptance of homosexuality in the nation?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Jan. 2001 Gallup 5% 30% 28% 29%
Jan. 2002 Gallup 5 35 23 31
Jan. 2003 Gallup 7 30 27 27
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 6
Jan. 2004 Gallup 4 35 24 32
Jan. 2005 Gallup 6 26 23 37
Jan. 2006 Gallup 5 27 28 31
Jan. 2007 Gallup 7 27 23 35
Jan. 2008 Gallup 7 31 23 29
Jan. 2012 Gallup 8 33 22 29
Jan. 2013 Gallup 8 41 19 26

 Do you think homosexual relations between consenting adults should or should not be legal?

Should be legal Should not be legal
Jun. 1977 Gallup 43% 43%
May 1981 ABC/ Wash Post 39 50
Jun. 1982 Gallup 45 39
Nov. 1985 Gallup 44 47
Jul. 1986 Gallup 32 57
Sep. 1986 Gallup 33 54
Mar. 1987 Gallup 33 55
July 1988 Gallup 35 57
Oct. 1989 Gallup 47 36
Aug.-Sep. 1991 Gallup 36 54
Jun. 1992 Gallup 48 44
Aug. 1992 CBS/NYT 41 44
Feb. 1993 CBS /NYT 46 43
Jun. 1994 ABC/Wash Post 51 45
Jul. 1994 CBS/NYT 45 46
Nov. 1996 Gallup 44 47
Aug. 1998 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 55 34
Feb. 1999 Gallup 50 43
May 2001 Gallup 54 42
May 2002 Gallup 52 43
May 2003 Gallup 60 35
May 2003 (mid) Gallup 59 37
Jul. 2003 (early) CBS/NYT 54 39
Jul. 2003 (mid) Gallup 50 44
Jul. 2003 (late) Gallup 48 46
Dec. 2003 CBS/NYT 41 49
Jan. 2004 Gallup 46 49
May 2004 Gallup 52 43
May 2005 Gallup 52 43
Aug. 2005 Gallup 49 44
May 2006 Gallup 56 40
May 2007 Gallup 59 37
May 2008 Gallup 55 40
May 2009* Gallup 56 40
May 2010 Gallup 58 36
May 2011 Gallup 64 32
May 2012 Gallup 63 31
Nov. 2012 Gallup 64 33
May 2013 Gallup 65 31
Jul. 2013 Gallup 64 31

Note: * Beginning in May 2009, Gallup’s question wording read “Do you think gay or lesbian relations between
consenting adults should or should not be legal?”
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 7
 Please tell me whether you personally believe that in general it is morally acceptable or morally wrong. How about
homosexual behavior?
Morally Morally
acceptable wrong
May 2001 Gallup 40% 53%
May 2002 Gallup 38 55
May 2003 Gallup 44 52
May 2004 Gallup 42 54
May 2005 Gallup 44 52
May 2006^ Gallup 44 51
May 2007 Gallup 47 49
May 2008 Gallup 48 48
May 2009* Gallup 49 47
May 2010 Gallup 52 43
May 2011 Gallup 56 39
May 2012 Gallup 54 42
May 2013 Gallup 59 38
May 2014+ Gallup 58 38

Note: ^ Question wording changed “homosexual relations”. *Question wording changed to “gay or lesbian
relations.” +The 1 percent decrease in the “Morally acceptable” response since 2013 became a 1 percent increase in
the “Depends on situation” response in 2014. See “Comparisons” section to see where this issue ranked compared
to other social issues.

 Do you personally believe that (insert item) is morally acceptable, morally wrong, or is it not a moral issue?

Having an abortion Acceptable Wrong Not a moral issue Depends
Feb. 2006 Pew 12% 52% 23% 11%
Aug. 2009 Pew 10 52 25 8
Feb. 2012 Pew 13 48 25 9
Jan. 2013 Pew 13 47 27 9
Mar. 2013 Pew 15 49 23 9

Homosexual behavior
Feb. 2006 Pew 12% 50% 33% 1%
Aug. 2009 Pew 9 49 35 2

Divorce
Aug. 2009 Pew 20% 29% 40% 6%
Feb. 2012 Pew 23 21 48 6

Drinking alcohol
Aug. 2009 Pew 20% 15% 56% 6%

Using contraceptives
Feb. 2012 Pew 42% 8% 43% 2%







American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 8
 (Next, I'm going to read some behaviors. For each, please tell me whether you personally believe that it is morally
acceptable, morally wrong, or is it not a moral issue?

Feb. 1-5, 2006 Pew
Morally Morally
wrong acceptable Not a moral issue
Married people having an affair 88% 3% 7%
Not reporting all income on taxes 79 5 14
Drinking alcohol excessively 61 5 31
Having an abortion 52 12 23
Smoking marijuana 50 10 35
Homosexual behavior 50 12 33
Telling a lie to spare someone’s feelings 43 23 26
Sex between unmarried adults 35 22 37
Gambling 35 17 42
Overeating 32 6 58

 (Next, I’m going to read some behaviors. For each, please tell me whether you personally believe that it is morally
acceptable, morally wrong, or is it not a moral issue?

Feb. 1-5, 2006 Pew
Morally Morally
acceptable wrong Not a moral issue
Married people having an affair 3% 88% 7%
Not reporting all income on taxes 5 79 14
Drinking alcohol excessively 5 5 31
Having an abortion 12 52 23
Smoking marijuana 10 50 35
Homosexual behavior 12 50 33
Telling a lie to spare someone’s feelings 23 43 26
Sex between unmarried adults 22 35 37
Gambling 17 35 42
Overeating 6 32 58

 Do you personally believe that…homosexual behavior is morally acceptable, morally wrong, or is it not a moral issue?

Morally Morally
acceptable wrong Not a moral issue
Aug. 2009 Pew 9% 49% 35%

 Do you personally believe that…homosexuality is morally acceptable, morally unacceptable, or is it not a moral issue?

Morally Morally
acceptable unacceptable Not a moral issue
Mar. 2013 Pew 23% 37% 35%

 Do you think homosexual relations between consenting adults is wrong, or not?

Yes No
Jan. 2009 CBS 41% 54%
May 2010 CBS 43 48
Mar. 2013 CBS 37 54

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 9
 Do you personally think that homosexual relations between consenting adults is morally wrong, or not a moral issue?

Morally wrong Not a moral issue
Apr. 1978 CNN/Time 53% 38%
Jun. 1994 CNN/Time 53 41
Oct. 1998 CNN/Time 48 45
Jan. 2001 CNN/Time 55 40
Feb. 2004 CNN/Time 51 45
Feb. 2010 CNN/ORC 48 50

 Do you personally think that homosexual relationships between consenting adults is morally wrong, or not a moral
issue?
Morally wrong Not a moral issue
Jan. 10-11, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 55% 40%
Feb. 5-6, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 51 40
Feb. 10-15, 2010 CNN/ORC 48 50
June 11-13, 2013 CNN/ORC 44 54
 Do you feel that homosexuality should be considered an acceptable alternative lifestyle or not?

Acceptable Not acceptable
Jun. 25-28, 1982 Gallup 34% 51%
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 38 57
Aug. 20, 1992 CBS/NYT 38 50
Mar. 15-17, 1996 Gallup 44 50
April 18-20, 1997 Gallup 42 52
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 50 46
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 52 43
May 6-9, 2002 Gallup 51 44
May 5-7, 2003 Gallup 54 43
Jul. 25-27, 2003 Gallup 46 49
May 2-4, 2004 Gallup 54 42
May 2-5, 2005* Gallup 51 45
May 8-11, 2006* Gallup 54 41
May 10-13, 2007 Gallup 57 39
May 8-11, 2008 Gallup 57 40

Note: *Asked of half sample.
 Now I’m going to read a few more pairs of statements. Again, just tell me whether the first statement or the second
statement comes closer to your own views—even if neither is exactly right. Homosexuality is a way of life that should
be accepted by society, or homosexuality is a way of life that should be discouraged by society.

Should be Should be
accepted discouraged
Jul. 1994 Pew 46% 49%
Oct. 1994 Pew 46 48
Apr. 1995 Pew 47 48
Oct. 1995 Pew 45 50
Apr. 1996 Pew 44 49
Oct. 1996 Pew 44 49
Jun. 1997 Pew 45 50
Oct. 1997 Pew 46 48
Aug. 1999 Pew 49 44
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 10
Sep. 2000 Pew 50 41
Jun. 2003 Pew 47 45
Dec. 2004 Pew 49 44
Oct. 2006 Pew 51 38
Mar. 2011 Pew 58 33
Jan. 2012 Pew 56 32
Mar. 2013 Pew 57 36

 Here are some pairs of statements. Please tell me whether the first statement or the second statement comes closer to
your own views--even if neither is exactly right....Homosexuality should be accepted by society. Homosexuality should
be discouraged by society.

Should be Should be
accepted discouraged
May 2013 Pew 60% 31%

 Now I’d like to ask you some questions about homosexuals – or gays and lesbians as they are sometimes called. Today
there are many different kinds of lifestyles which people find acceptable, such as homosexual relationships. How do you
feel about this? Do you find it acceptable for other people but not for yourself, acceptable for other people and for
yourself, or not acceptable at all?

Acceptable Acceptable Not
for both for others acceptable
Mar. 14-18, 1978 Yankelovich 6% 35% 59%
Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 6 52 39
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Harris/CNN/Time 12 52 33
Feb. 5-6, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 11 49 38
 I have a few questions about efforts to protect the rights of gays and lesbians in this country. Some people believe that
about the right amount of effort has been made to protect gay rights. Others believe more effort is needed. Still others
think efforts to protect gay rights have gone too far in giving gays special privileges. Which comes closer to your
opinion?

Right amount More effort Too far
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 26% 27% 40%
Jun. 16-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 26 23 42
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 22 25 45
 Do you think more acceptance of gays and lesbians would be a good thing or a bad thing for the country—or that it
would not make much difference either way?

Good for Bad for Wouldn’t make
country country much difference
Feb. 7-Sept. 4, 2000* PSRA/Kaiser 29% 23% 44%
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 23 31 42

Note: * Question wording was preceded by “Regardless of what you think is actually happening…”






American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 11
 Here is a list of things some people today find acceptable behavior if people choose to do them, and others find
unacceptable. For each one would you tell me whether you find it acceptable for anyone, or acceptable for others but
not yourself, or not acceptable for anyone…People living in a homosexual relationship?

Acceptable Not
Acceptable for others acceptable
Nov. 1986 Roper GfK-NOP 4% 22% 71%
Nov. 1991 Roper GfK-NOP 9 27 60
Jul. 1998 Roper GfK-NOP 12 33 53
Aug. 2003 Roper GfK-NOP 14 29 55

 What do you think about sexual relations between two adults of the same gender? Do you think it is always wrong, or
almost always wrong, or only wrong sometimes, or not wrong at all?

Always wrong Almost always Only sometimes Not wrong
Dec. 5-12, 1985 LAT 67% 5% 7% 15%
July 23-26, 1994 LAT 61 7 6 18
Oct. 27-30, 1995 LAT 61 6 7 19
Jun. 8-13, 2000 LAT 51 4 9 27

 We frequently hear of the influence special interest groups have in this country. Please look at this list and tell me for
each group whether you think it has too much influence in our society today, or too little influence, or about the right
amount: Gay rights organizations.

Too much About right Too little
Jan. 1987 Roper GfK-NOP 48% 26% 11%
Jan. 1990 Roper GfK-NOP 47 25 12
Jan. 1995 Roper GfK-NOP 54 NA 12
Feb. 2000 Roper GfK-NOP 42 30 15
Note: Prior to 1995, the choice offered was “gay rights groups”…The percentage of respondents who said gay
rights organizations had too much influence (42 percent) is lower than those who thought lawyers’ organizations
(56) and medical and health insurance industries (49) had too much influence. The bottom-ranked groups were
organizations for the disabled (4), veterans groups (5), and senior citizens groups (6).

 Do you think that homosexual relations between consenting adults should be legal or illegal?

Should be legal Should not be legal
June 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 58% 32%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 55 33
 I would like to read you several statements about some social issues facing America. For each issue, please tell me
whether you agree strongly, agree somewhat, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with that
statement…Homosexuality should be considered a socially permissible lifestyle?

Agree Disagree
Jun. 4-8, 1993 NBC/WSJ 43% 53%
Jun. 10-14, 1994 NBC/WSJ 39 56





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 12
 Do you think same-sex relations between consenting adults is wrong, or not?

Yes No
May 2010 CBS 39% 53%
March 2013 CBS 36 57

 On another topic, for each of the following issues, please indicate how you feel. Gay rights?

Support Neither Oppose
Aug. 2007 Harris Interactive 40% 22% 33%
 (Next I’m going to read you some words and phrases and ask you to rate how well each describes you. Please use a scale
from 1 to 10, where ‘10’ represents a description that is perfect for you, and ‘1’ represents a description that is totally
wrong for you.) On this scale of 1 to 10, how well does…a supporter of gay rights describe you?

Description totally (4-7) Description perfect
wrong (1-3) (8-10)
Feb. 2014 Pew 27% 32% 39%

 The Supreme Court recently made some important rulings. Please say for each of the following if you agree or disagree
with it…It is not illegal for consenting adults to have homosexual sex in their own homes?

Agree Disagree
Jul. 14-20, 2003 Harris Interactive 72% 19%

 Do you think it should be legal or should not be legal for two men who are consenting adults to have sex with each other
in their own home? (Asked of half sample)

Should be legal Should not be legal
May 30-Jun. 1, 2003 Gallup 62% 31%

 Do you think it should be legal or should not be legal for two women who are consenting adults to have sex with each
other in their own home? (Asked of half sample)

Should be legal Should not be legal
May 30-Jun. 1, 2003 Gallup 63% 30%

 Do you think that the U.S. Supreme Court should overturn or uphold state laws that criminalize private, consenting sex
between same-sex couples, but allow the same conduct between opposite-sex couples?

Overturn Uphold
Apr. 17-23, 2003 Harris Interactive 74% 26%

 In general do you agree or disagree with the decision that allowed states to make homosexual relations illegal?

Agree Disagree
Feb. 26-Mar. 3, 2003 Quinnipiac 38% 57%

 What is your impression of how most Americans feel about homosexual behavior—do most Americans think it is
acceptable or not acceptable?

Acceptable Not acceptable
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 21% 74%
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 13

 Overall, do you sometimes feel uncomfortable when you are around gay men or does that not happen to you? How
about being around lesbian women? Does that make you feel uncomfortable sometimes, or does that not happen to you?

-----------Uncomfortable------------ Not uncomfortable
w/both w/gay men w/lesbian women
Sep. 18-23, 1983 LAT 20% 8% 10% 40%
Dec. 5-12, 1985 LAT 18 6 11 50
Jun. 8-13, 2000 LAT 13 6 10 60
Mar. 24-27, 2004 LAT 9 5 6 56

 Please tell me whether you would or would not do each of the following:

Yes No
Buy something from a salesperson
who is homosexual

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 75% 21%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 84 12

Vote for a political candidate
who is homosexual

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 48% 45%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 58 36

See a doctor who is homosexual

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 39% 56%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 53 41

Allow a child of yours to play in the home
of a friend who has a homosexual parent

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 43% 50%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 54 38




PERSONAL COMFORT LEVEL: Americans are growing more comfortable with gays and
lesbians in a variety of occupations. Fifty-eight percent in 1998, up from 48 percent in 1994, say
they would vote for a political candidate who is homosexual. Majorities now say they would see a
doctor who is homosexual, allow a child to play in the home of a friend who has a homosexual
parent, and allow a child to attend a school with homosexual staff members. In a 2004 LA Times
poll, 26 percent said they would object to having a gay person as their child’s teacher; 68 percent
said it would not bother them. Solid majorities are comfortable being around people who are gay.
No questions concerning personal comfort level with homosexuality have been asked since 2004,
which perhaps indicates that society as a whole are quite comfortable around gays and lesbians.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 14
Yes No
Allow a child of yours to attend a preschool
which had homosexual staff members

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 42% 52%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 51 42

Allow a child of yours to watch a TV
program which has a homosexual
character on it

Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 46% 47%
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 49 43

 If you had a child of elementary school age, would you object to having a gay person as your child’s school teacher or
would that not bother you?

Object Not bother
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 26% 68%

 If you had a child, would you permit or not permit…?

Your child to play at the home of a
friend who lives with a gay parent
Permit Not permit
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 58% 30%

A gay person to baby-sit your child
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 45% 43%

Your child to read a book that contains
a story about a same-sex couple
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 45% 44%

 In general, how comfortable are you personally being around homosexuals – very comfortable, somewhat comfortable,
somewhat uncomfortable, or very uncomfortable?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
comfortable comfortable uncomfortable uncomfortable
Nov. 27-Dec. 17, 1995 PSRA/Kaiser/
Harvard 32% 29% 15% 17%
Sep. 17-Oct. 19, 1997 PSRA/Kaiser/
Harvard 31 30 15 20

 In general, would you say you, personally, are offended - or not offended - by homosexuality you see/hear on television?

Offended Not offended
Feb. 6-8, 2004 Gallup 52% 46%





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 15
 Now thinking generally about homosexuality in America, would you say your overall opinion of gay men is very
favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable or very unfavorable?

Very Mostly Mostly Very
favorable favorable unfavorable unfavorable
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 8% 30% 21% 29%
May 1-5, 2013 Pew 18 36 15 17

 Now thinking generally about homosexuality in America, would you say your overall opinion of lesbian women is very
favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable or very unfavorable?

Very Mostly Mostly Very
favorable favorable unfavorable unfavorable
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 9% 30% 22% 26%
May 1-5, 2013 Pew 20 38 14 15
 Now I’d like you to think about how your attitudes toward gays and lesbians might have changed in the past few years.
Have you become more accepting of gays and lesbians, have your attitudes not changed, or have you become less
accepting of gays and lesbians?

More Not Less
accepting changed accepting
Jul. 18-20, 2003 Gallup 32% 59% 8%
May 2-7. 2013 Gallup 36 57 7

 Does it bother you to be around people who are gay or lesbian? If yes, is that a lot or a little?

----------Bother--------- Not bothered
A lot A little
Aug. 10-27, 1998 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 10% 12% 74%

 Now I’d like to ask you some questions about homosexuals – or gays or lesbians as they are sometimes called. In
general, do you feel comfortable or uncomfortable when you are around someone you know is gay or lesbian?

Comfortable Uncomfortable
Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 58% 32%

 What is your attitude toward homosexuality? Do you personally approve of homosexual relations between consenting
adults, or do you think it’s alright for other people but not for yourself, or do you oppose it for everyone?

Alright
Approve for others Oppose
Sep. 18-22, 1983 LAT 5% 39% 52%
Dec. 5-12, 1985 LAT 6 40 50

 (As you read a list of different groups, please rate that group using a feeling thermometer, a scale that goes between 1
and 100. Ratings between 51 degrees and 100 degrees mean that you feel favorable and warmer toward the group.
Ratings between 1 degree and 49 degrees mean that you feel unfavorable and colder toward the group. If you don’t feel
particularly warm or cold toward the group, you would rate the group at the 50 degree mark.)…Gay or lesbian people

(1-25) (26-50) (51-75) (76-100) Refused
Sep. 2013 Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) 15% 20% 18% 25% 23%


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 16


 In general, do you think homosexuals should or should not have equal rights in terms of job opportunities?

Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 56% 33%
Jun. 25-28, 1982 Gallup 59 28
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 71 18
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 74 18
Aug. 20, 1992 CBS/NYT 79 13
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 78 17
Jan. 12-14, 1993 CBS/NYT 79 16
Feb. 9-11, 1993 CBS/NYT 78 15
Apr. 22-24, 1993 Gallup 80 14
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 74 19
Feb. 22-24, 1996 CBS/NYT 83 12
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 84 12
Jun. 14-16, 1996 AP 86 10
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 84 12
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 84 13
July 28-30, 1998* PSRA/Newsweek 83 14
Aug. 10-27, 1998 WP/Kaiser/Harvard 87 9
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 83 13
Mar. 9-10, 2000* PSRA/Newsweek 83 12
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 85 11
Apr. 25-26, 2002* PSRA/Newsweek 85 10
May 6-9, 2002 Gallup 86 11
May 5-7, 2003 Gallup 88 9
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 88 10
Feb. 5-6, 2004* PSRA/Newsweek 87 10
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 87 11
May 8-11, 2006 Gallup 89 9
May 10-13, 2007 Gallup 89 8
May 8-11, 2008 Gallup 89 8
Dec. 3-4, 2008* PSRA/Newsweek 87 10

Note: *Question wording was “Thinking about what might be done to protect the rights of gays and lesbians, do
you think there should or should not be equal rights for gays and lesbians in terms of job opportunities?”

 For each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or
completely disagree with it. School boards ought to have the right to fire teachers who are known homosexuals.

Agree Disagree
May 1987 Pew 51% 42%
May 1988 Pew 51 43
Feb. 1989 Pew 48 47
May 1990 Pew 49 45
Nov. 1991 Pew 39 56
EMPLOYMENT: Large majorities say that gays and lesbians should have equal rights in terms of
job opportunities. And Americans tell the pollsters that homosexuals should be hired for a wide
variety of occupations. Majorities now support hiring gays and lesbians as elementary school
teachers, an occupation about which there had been resistance in the past.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 17
Jun. 1992 Pew 40 55
May 1993 Pew 34 60
Jul. 1994 Pew 39 58
Nov. 1997 Pew 33 63
Sep. 1999 Pew 32 62
Aug. 2002 Pew 36 59
Aug. 2003 Pew 33 62
Jan. 2007* Pew 28 66
Apr. 2009* Pew 28 67
Apr. 2009 PSRA/Newsweek 25 66
Apr. 2012* Pew 21 75

Note: *Asked of half sample.

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Elementary school
teachers.
Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 27% 65%
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 42 48
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 41 54
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 51 45
Feb 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 47 46
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 55 40
July 28-30, 1998* PSRA/Newsweek 55 40
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 54 42
Mar. 9-10, 2000* PSRA/Newsweek 60 36
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 56 40
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 61 37
May 2-5, 2005* Gallup 54 43
Dec. 3-4, 2008* PSRA/Newsweek 62 33
May 7-10, 2009* Gallup 69 28

Note: * In these askings, “homosexuals” was changed to “gays and lesbians.”

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? High school teachers.

Should Should not
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 47% 43%
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 47 49
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 54 42
Feb 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 53 40
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 60 34
July 28-30, 1998* PSRA/Newsweek 60 34
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 61 36
Mar. 9-10, 2000* PSRA/Newsweek 63 32
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 63 33
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 67 31
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 62 36
Dec. 3-4, 2008* PSRA/Newsweek 69 26

Note: In these askings, “homosexuals” was changed to “gays and lesbians.”


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 18
 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Salesperson.

Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 68% 22%
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 79 13
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 82 13
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 83 12
Feb 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 84 11
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 90 7
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 88 8
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 90 8
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 88 8
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 91 6
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 92 6
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 90 7

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Doctors.

Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 44% 44%
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 53 42
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 69 25
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 70 25
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 75 21
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 75 20
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 78 18
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 82 15
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 78 19

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Clergy

Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 36% 54%
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 44 43
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 43 50
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 53 40
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 51 44
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 54 40
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 52 40
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 54 39
Apr. 25-26, 2002 PSRA/Newsweek 40 46
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 56 39
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 49 47

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Professional Athletes.

Should Should not
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 85% 11%
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 86 8





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 19
 We can choose our friends, but we can’t always choose the people we work closely with. Here is a list of some different
types of people. For each one, would you tell me whether you strongly object to working around them, or prefer not to
work around them, or wouldn’t mind working around them…people who are homosexual?

Strongly Prefer Wouldn’t
object not to mind
Jan. 1982 Roper GfK-NOP 25% NA NA
Apr. 1987 Roper GfK-NOP 25 27% 45%
Jan. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 16 33 46

 These days, do you think it is necessary to have laws to protect gays and lesbians from discrimination in hiring and
promotion, or don’t you think it’s necessary?

Necessary Not necessary
May 2010 CBS 53% 43%
 Do you favor or oppose laws to protect gays against job discrimination?
Favor Oppose
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 72% 18%

 All in all, do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose…laws that would protect gay and lesbian people
against job discrimination?
Strongly favor Favor Oppose Strongly oppose
Sep. 2010 PRRI 29% 39% 17% 10%
Jul. 2011 PRRI 30 41 16 11
May 2013 PRRI 33 40 13 9
Nov. 2013 PRRI 33 39 15 8






 Do you think gays or lesbians should be allowed to serve openly in the United States military?
Yes No
May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH 79% 18%
 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay men and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Favor Favor not Oppose not Oppose
strongly so strongly so strongly strongly DK/NA
Oct. 2010 CBS News 46% 16% 9% 19% 10%
Nov. 2010 CBS News 53 16 8 15 8
Sep. 2011 CBS News 50 18 7 15 10

 Do you favor or oppose gays and lesbians serving openly in the military?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 2010 CBS 58% 28 %
Aug. 2010 CBS 64 28
MI LI TARY SERVI CE: At the time “don’t ask, don’t tell” was made the official US policy
towards gays and lesbians in the military in December 1993, the country was fairly divided
on whether homosexuals should be able to serve openly. Since then, however, solid majorities
have supported the idea of openly gay and lesbian Americans serving in the military. This
support has remained strong since “don’t ask, don’t tell” was ended in September 2011.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 20
Oct. 2010 CBS 56 31
Oct. 22-26, 2010 CBS/NYT 62 28

 Do you favor or oppose allowing openly gay men and lesbian women to serve in the military? (Gallup/USA Today)
 Do you favor or oppose permitting people who are openly gay or lesbian to serve in the military? (CNN/ORC)
 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay men and lesbians to serve openly in the military? (CBS News)

Favor Oppose
Nov. 2004 Gallup/USA Today 63% 32%
May 2009 Gallup/USA Today 69 26
May 2010 Gallup 70 25

Jun. 1994* CNN/Time 53% 41%
Oct. 1998* CNN/Time 52 39
Feb. 2010 CNN/ORC 69 27
Sep. 2010 CNN/ORC 67 28
Nov.2010 CNN/ORC 72 23

Nov. 2010 CBS 69% 23%
Oct. 2011 CBS 68 22

Note: *Question wording omitted “people who are”.

 Federal law currently prohibits openly gay men and women from serving in the military. Do you think this law should be
repealed or not?

Ban on gays in the military
should be repealed Should not
Apr. 2009 Quinnipiac 56% 37%
Feb. 2010 Quinnipiac 57 36
Nov. 2010 Quinnipiac 58 34

 As I list some programs and proposals that are being discussed in this country today, please tell me whether you strongly
favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose…allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Favor Oppose
Jul. 1994 * Pew 52% 45%
Jul. 2005 * Pew 58 32
Mar. 2006* Pew 60 32
Mar. 2009* Pew 59 32
Feb. 2010 Pew 61 27
Jul.-Aug. 2010* Pew 60 30
Nov. 2010 Pew 58 27
Dec. 2010 Pew 59 24

Note: *Question asked as part of a list.

 Do you favor or oppose permitting homosexuals to serve in the military?

Favor Oppose Don’t know
Feb. 1993 CBS 42% 42% 15%
Jan. 11-15, 2009 CBS/NYT 67 17 16
Feb. 2010 CBS 70 19 --
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 21
Aug. 2010 CBS 75 19 --
Oct. 6-8, 2010 CBS 69 21 --

 Do you think homosexuals/gays and lesbians who DO publicly disclose their sexual orientation should be allowed to
serve in the military or not?*

Should be allowed Should not Unsure
May 1993 ABC/Wash Post 44% 55% 2%
Jan. 2001 ABC/Wash Post 62 35 3
Jul. 2008 ABC/Wash Post 75 22 3
Feb. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 75 24 1
Dec. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 77 21 2

Note: “Homosexuals” and “gays and lesbians” each asked of half the sample.

 Do you think homosexuals/gays and lesbians who do NOT publicly disclose their sexual orientation should be allowed
to serve in the military or not?*

Should be allowed Should not Unsure
May 1993 ABC/Wash Post 63% 35% 2%
Jan. 2001 ABC/Wash Post 75 22 3
Jul. 2008 ABC/Wash Post 78 18 5
Feb. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 83 15 1
Dec. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 83 14 4

Note: “Homosexuals” and “gays and lesbians” each asked of half the sample.

 Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Strongly favor Favor Oppose Strongly oppose
Feb. 2010 Pew 18% 43% 17% 10%
Nov. 2010 Pew 23 35 16 11
Dec. 2010 Pew 21 38 16 8

 As you may know, Congress is considering several issues during its lame duck session between now and the end of the
year. The lame duck session includes many current members of Congress who will leave when the new Congress takes
over in January. How important is it to you that the current lame duck Congress complete action on each of the
following this year: very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not important at all? How about passing
legislation to allow openly gay men and women to serve in the military?

Very Somewhat Not too Not important
important important important at all
Nov. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 32% 24% 18% 23%

 Now, thinking about the military: Let me read you three statements about gay men and women serving in the military,
and please tell me which one comes closest to your point of view. I favor allowing gay men and women to serve in the
military. I favor allowing gay men and women to serve in the military under the existing “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy. I
oppose allowing gay men and women to serve in the military.

Allow to serve Favor under DADT Oppose service
Nov. 2000 NBC/WSJ 40% 34% 22%
Nov. 2010 NBC/WSJ 50 38 10

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 22
 Suppose that on Election Day you could vote on key issues as well as candidates. Please tell me whether you would vote
for or against a law that would do each of the following. First, would you vote for or against a law that would allow gays
and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Vote for Vote against Unsure
Dec. 2010 Gallup 67% 28% 5%

 What if they openly announce their sexual orientation? In that case would you favor or oppose permitting homosexuals
to serve in the military?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 1993 CBS 37% 56%
Jan. 11-15, 2009 CBS/NYT 62 26
Aug. 20-24, 2010 CBS 64 9

 Do you think people who are openly gay or homosexual should or should not be allowed to serve in the U.S. military?

Should be allowed Should not
Dec. 5-7, 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 79% 18%
May 4-6, 2007 CNN/ORC 79 18
Dec. 19-21, 2008 CNN/ORC 81 17
May 21-23, 2010 CNN/ORC 78 20

 Do you favor or oppose allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Favor Oppose
Jan. 2000* Fox 61% 30%
Aug. 2003* Fox 64 25
Feb. 2010* Fox 61 30

Note: *Asked of national registered voters.

 Do you favor or oppose the policy sometimes called “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” in which the U.S. military does not ask
new recruits whether they are gay or lesbian, but prohibits gays and lesbians from serving in the military if they reveal
their sexual orientation?

Favor Oppose Unsure
Aug. 2007* CNN/ORC 38% 57% 6%
Apr. 2009 CNN/ORC 48 47 5

Note: The 2007 asking was worded “Do you favor or oppose the plan in which the U.S. military does not ask new
recruits whether they are homosexual, but would still prohibit homosexuals from serving if they reveal their sexual
orientation?”

 Do you think there should or should not be gays and lesbians serving openly in the military?

Should Should not
Jul. 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 56% 38%
Mar. 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 57 35
Feb. 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 60 29
Dec. 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 66 29


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 23
 Do you think gays and lesbians should or should not be able to serve openly in the military?

Should Should not
Mar. 2007 PSRA/Newsweek 63% 28%
Aug. 2007 PSRA/Newsweek 68 23

 Do you favor or oppose the plan in which the U.S. military does not ask new recruits whether they are homosexual,
but would still prohibit homosexuals from serving if they reveal their sexual orientation?

Favor Oppose
May 1993 CNN/Time 44% 48%
Aug. 2007 CNN/ORC 38 57

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Armed Forces.
Should Should not
Jun. 17-20, 1977 Gallup 51% 38%
Oct. 12-15, 1989 Gallup 60 29
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 57 37
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 59 36
Nov. 19-20, 1992 Gallup 48 44
Jun. 4-8, 1993 NBC/WSJ 47 43
Feb 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 58 35
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 65 29
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 66 30
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 70 26
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 69 25
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 72 23
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 80 18
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 76 22
 Do you favor or oppose allowing openly gay men and lesbian women to serve in the military?

Favor Oppose
Jul. 24-27, 1993 NBC/WSJ 52% 40%
Nov. 19-21, 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 63 32
May 7-9, 2009 Gallup/USA Today 69 26
May 3-6, 2010 Gallup 70 25
 Which of the following, if any, do you think has been Barack Obama and the Congress’ biggest accomplishment over
the last two years?

Pew Jan. 2011

Health care legislation 25%
Extending tax cuts 21
The economic stimulus package 18
Allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military 11
Financial regulation legislation 9
DK/Refused 8
No successes/None 7




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 24
 Do you approve or disapprove of the way President Barack Obama is handling – the issue of gays in the military?

Approve Disapprove DK/No answer
Jan. 2011 Quinnipiac 54% 32% 14%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Would you vote for or against a law that would allow gays and lesbians to serve openly in the U.S. military?

For Against
Dec. 2010 Gallup 67% 28%

 Some people say that allowing openly gay men and women to serve in the military would be divisive for the troops and
hurt their ability to fight effectively. Do you agree or disagree?

Would be divisive to
allow gays to serve Would not
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 35% 58%
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 30 65

 Some people say that not allowing openly gay men and women to serve in the military is discrimination. Do you agree
or disagree?

Agree that not allowing gays
in the military is discrimination Is not
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 60% 36%
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 66 31

 Do you think the military should aggressively pursue disciplinary action against gay service members whose orientation
is revealed against their will by third parties, or should this practice be ended?

Disciplinary action End practice Unsure
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 10% 82% 8%

 Do you think gay military personnel should face any restrictions on exhibiting their sexual orientation on the job or not?

Should Should not Unsure
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 54% 38% 8%

 Do you think the Pentagon should be responsible to provide for the domestic partners of gay personnel or not?

Should Should not Unsure
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 43% 50% 8%

 Do you think heterosexual military personnel should be required to share quarters with gay personnel or not?

Should Should not Unsure
Feb. 2-8, 2010 Quinnipiac 45% 46% 8%





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 25
 Personally, how comfortable are you in the presence of gays and lesbians?

Comfortable Uncomfortable
Oct. 24-26, 2006 Zogby International 73% 19%

Note: Sample is of U.S. military personnel of who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan.
 How does the presence of gays or lesbians in your unit impact your personal morale?

Negative No impact Positive
Oct. 24-26, 2006 Zogby International 28% 66% 6%

Note: Sample is of U.S. military personnel of who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan.
 How does the presence of gays or lesbians in your unit impact your unit’s overall morale?

Negative No impact Positive
Oct. 24-26, 2006 Zogby International 27% 64% 3%

Note: Sample is of U.S. military personnel of who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan.
 Do you agree or disagree with allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the military?

Agree Neutral Disagree
Oct. 24-26, 2006 Zogby International 26% 32% 37%

Note: Sample is of U.S. military personnel of who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan.










 If your party nominated a generally well-qualified person for president who happened to be a homosexual, would you
vote for that person?

Yes No
Jul. 21-24, 1978 Gallup 26% 66%
Apr. 29-May 2, 1983 Gallup 29 64
Feb. 19-21, 1999 Gallup 59 37
Feb. 9-11, 2007 Gallup 55 43
Mar. 2-4, 2007 Gallup 55 42
Dec. 6-9, 2007 Gallup 56 41
Jun. 9-12, 2011* Gallup 67 32
Aug. 4-7, 2011* Gallup 69 29
Jun. 7-10, 2012* Gallup 68 30

Note: * In these askings, the words “a homosexual” were replaced with “gay or lesbian.”

GAYS AND LESBI ANS I N POLI TI CS: Americans are becoming increasingly comfortable
with the idea of gay and lesbian officeholders. According to Gallup, around seven in ten
Americans say they would vote for a well-qualified gay or lesbian candidate for president.
This is a major switch from Gallup’s first asking of the question in July 1978, in which only
about a quarter of Americans said they would vote for a homosexual candidate for the
nation’s highest office.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 26
 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Member of the
president’s cabinet.

Should Should not
Jun. 4-8, 1992 Gallup 54% 39%
Nov. 19-20, 1992 Gallup 56 34
Nov. 21-24, 1996 Gallup 71 24
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 74 23
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 75 21
May 19-21, 2003 Gallup 79 19
May 2-5, 2005 Gallup 75 23

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not be hired for each of the following occupations? Major political
officeholders.

Should Should not
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 68% 27%
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 71 24

 Let me mention several things you might learn about a candidate running for president. For each one, please tell me
whether this should or should not disqualify them from becoming president of the United States. If someone is gay or
lesbian, do you think this should or should not disqualify this person from becoming president of the United States?

Should Should not
disqualify disqualify
Oct. 25-29, 1991 NBC/WSJ 47% 47%
Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 1992 NBC/WSJ 42 53

 Would you say you are more likely to vote for a candidate who supports same-sex marriage, a candidate who opposes
same-sex marriage, or would it not make much difference in how you might vote?

More likely to More likely to Would not make
vote for supporter vote for opponent much difference
Mar. 2012 NBC/WSJ 25% 20% 54%

 If you knew that a presidential candidate was a strong supporter of gay rights, including same-sex marriages and
gays and lesbians serving openly in the military, would that make you more likely or less likely to vote for that
candidate – or would it not make much difference either way?

More likely Less likely Not much difference
Aug. 2007 PSRA/Newsweek 12% 34% 51%

Note: Sample is registered voters.
 If a candidate for political office were to come out in favor of legalizing gay marriages, would you be more likely to vote
for the candidate, less likely, or would that make no difference?

More likely Less likely No difference
Feb. 5-6, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 10% 48% 39%




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 27
 Let’s go through this list again, this time please tell me if you were considering a candidate whom you would otherwise
support, and you discovered that they had had a homosexual relationship, would you still vote for them, probably vote
against them, or definitely vote against them?

Still vote Probably vote Definitely vote
for against against
May 10-11, 2000 Fox News 53% 14% 26%

Note: Asked of registered voters. The percentage of respondents who said they definitely would vote against a
candidate who had a homosexual relationship (26 percent) is higher than the percentage of those who would vote
against a candidate who abused alcohol (11), had an extramarital affair (13), used marijuana (17), or been treated
for a mental illness (25). It is lower than the percentage of those who definitely would vote against a candidate who
lied on his resume (34), used cocaine (37), or cheated on his taxes (38).

 I’d like to ask whether certain information about a candidate for political office would cause you to vote against him,
regardless of other factors. What if you found out that the candidate was a homosexual…would that alone cause you to
vote against him?
Yes No
Sep. 19-20, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 37% 58%

 Do you think homosexuals should be allowed to serve in a position of high governmental office, for instance as a
member of the President’s Cabinet, or don’t you think so?

Should Should not
May 27-30, 1992 CBS 47% 43%

 If you were considering voting for a presidential candidate and then learned that candidate was a homosexual, would that
cause you to vote for someone else, or would that be one factor among many, or would it not affect your vote?

Vote for One factor Would not
someone else among many affect vote
Oct. 15-18, 1991 CBS/NYT 44% 24% 29%

 I’m going to read you a few attributes that might be found in a candidate for president. Tell me if each would make you
more likely to vote for that candidate for president, or less likely to vote for that candidate, or if it wouldn’t matter…a
homosexual?

More likely Not matter Less likely
Apr. 29-May 8, 1988 AP/Media General 1% 23% 74%








American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 28


 Please tell me if any of the following apply to you . . . ?

Yes No
Work with someone you know is gay or lesbian

Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 20% 78%
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 19 79
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 31 66
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 25 72
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 31 67
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 32 66
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 38 59

Have someone in your family who is gay or lesbian

Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 9% 90%
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 12 88
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 18 80
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 18 80
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 21 76
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 23 75
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 33 64

Have a friend or close acquaintance who is gay or lesbian

Aug. 1-2, 1985 PSRA/Newsweek 22% 77%
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 43 56
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 56 42
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 50 47
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 55 44
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 56 42
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 66 32

 Do you have a work colleague, close friend, or relative who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Mar. 2004 CBS/NYT 55% 44%
May 2010 CBS/NYT 63 55
May 2012 CBS/NYT 69 28
Mar. 2013 CBS 61 37
May 2013 CBS/NYT 52 45




KNOW SOMEONE?: Awareness of homosexuality has grown, or perhaps people are more
willing to acknowledge it to pollsters. Twenty-two percent in 1985 told PSRA/Newsweek
interviewers that they had a gay friend or close acquaintance; in 2008, 66 percent gave that
response. Around five in ten said they have a work colleague, close friend, or family member
who is gay or lesbian, according to a May 2012 CBS/New York Times question.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 29
 Do you happen to have a family member or close friend who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Jun. 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 32% 66%
Oct. 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 41 57
Aug. 2007 CNN/ORC 45 55
Apr. 2009 CNN/ORC 49 51
Nov. 2010 CNN/ORC 49 50
May 2012 CNN/ORC 60 40
Mar. 2013 CNN/ORC 57 42

 Do you happen to personally know someone who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Aug. 20, 1992 CBS/NYT 47% 51%
May 6-9, 2010 CBS 81 19
May 20-24, 2010 CBS/NYT 77 22

 Do you have a close friend or family member who is gay?

Yes No
Dec. 2006-Jan. 2007 Pew 41% 58%
Apr. 2009 Pew 44 55
Jan. 2010 Pew 43 56
 Do you have any friends or relatives or co-workers who have told you, personally, that they are gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Dec. 5-12, 1985 Harris 24% 75%
Jul. 17-19, 1998 LAT 37 62
Jul. 18-20, 2003 Gallup 56 43
Jan. 9-11, 2004 Gallup 58 42
May 30-Jun. 1, 2008 Gallup 57 42
May 7-10, 2009 Gallup 58 40
May 2-7, 2013 Gallup 75 25

 For each description I read, please tell me if it applies to you or not. Do you have a friend, colleague, or family member
who is gay?

Yes No
Jul. 14-Sep. 9, 1999 Pew 39% 60%
Aug. 14-25, 2002 Pew 45 53
Jun. 24-Jul. 8, 2003 Pew 45 52
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 60 38
Oct. 15-19, 2004 Pew 46 53
 Do you happen to have a family member or close friend who is gay or lesbian, or not?

Yes No Don’t know/Refused
Apr. 2011 Kaiser 52% 47% 1%




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 30
 Do you have close friends or close relatives who are gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 63% 34%
Mar. 26-Apr. 1, 2013 Quinnipiac 65 33

 Do you have a close friend or family member who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No Don’t know/Refused
Nov. 2013 PRRI 65% 35% 1%

 Now I’d like to ask you if you ever had the following experiences in your life…had a friend who was openly gay or
lesbian?
Yes No
Mar.-Apr. 2006 Kaiser Family Foundation
National 64% 35%
Black men 48 51
Black women 62 38
White men 59 41
White women 70 29
 Do you have a friend, colleague, or family member who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Oct. 7-Nov. 24, 2003 NAES 43% 55%

 Thinking of all the people you know, either well or even casually—do you know anyone who is openly gay?
 (If no) Do you know anyone who you think is gay?

Yes, openly Yes, think is gay No
Jun. 8-13, 2000 LAT 73% 7% 19%

 Do you have any close personal friends who are gay or lesbian or not?

Yes No
Jan. 6-10, 2000 Harris Interactive 41% 58%

 Do you yourself have a friend, family member, or acquaintance who is gay or lesbian, or not?

Yes No
Aug. 10-27, 1998 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 59% 40%
Feb. 4-8, 2010 ABC/Wash Post 63 36
May 17-20, 2012 ABC/Wash Post 71 28
 Do you have any close personal friends or relatives who are gay or lesbian, or not?

Yes No
Jul. 17-19, 1998 Harris Interactive 37% 62%

 Do you happen to know any males who are gay or women who are lesbian?

Yes No
Jun. 14-18, 1996 AP 54% 44%
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 31
 Do you have a co-worker, friend or relative who is openly homosexual?

Yes No
Jul. 19-21, 1993 Gallup 23% 76%

 Do you personally know anyone who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Jun. 4-8, 1993 NBC/WSJ 61% 37%

 Do you personally know or work with someone who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Mar. 6-Mar. 8, 2004 NBC/WSJ 62% 35%
Feb. 29-Mar. 3, 2012 NBC/WSJ 64 33
May 16-20, 2012 NBC/WSJ 67 30
Dec. 6-9, 2012 NBC/WSJ 65 33
Apr. 5-8. 2013 NBC/WSJ 79 20

 Do you have any close friends or family members who are gay or lesbian?

Yes No
Jan. 12-14, 1993 CBS/NYT 19% 79%
Feb. 9-11, 1993 CBS/NYT 22 77

 Do you have a friend or someone you associate with on a regular basis who is a male homosexual?

Yes No
Sep.19-23, 1985 ABC/Wash Post 8% 91%
Mar. 5-9, 1987 ABC/Wash Post 11 89
Jun. 15-19, 1990 ABC 13 87

 Do you know any friends, or relatives, or co-workers who have told you, personally, that they are gay or lesbian? (If not)
Do you know any friends, or relatives, or co-workers who you seriously suspect are gay or lesbian – but they haven’t
told you that?

Told you Suspect are No, don’t know
personally homosexual or suspect
Dec. 5-12, 1985 LAT 24% 21% 54%

 Do you know any friends or co-workers who are openly homosexual? (If not) Do you know any friends or co-workers
whom you suspect are homosexuals?

Know friends/
coworkers openly Suspect are No, don’t know
homosexual homosexual or suspect
Sep. 18-22, 1983 LAT 30% 14% 53%



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 32

 In your view, is homosexuality something a person is born with or is homosexuality due to other factors such as
upbringing and environment?

--------------------------------Total sample ---------------------------
Born Upbringing/
with Environment Both (vol.) Neither (vol.)
Jun. 1977 Gallup 13% 56% 14% 3%
Jun. 1982 Gallup 17 52 13 2
Oct. 1989 Gallup 19 48 12 2
Mar. 1991 PSRA/Newsweek 24 51 9 16
Nov. 1996 Gallup 31 40 13 3
Jul. 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 33 44 13 10
Feb. 1999 Gallup 34 44 13 1
Mar. 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 28 40 17 15
May 2001 Gallup 40 39 9 3
May 2002 Gallup 40 36 12 4
May 2003 Gallup 38 44 11 2
May 2004 Gallup 37 41 11 3
May 2005 Gallup 38 44 10 2
May 2006* Gallup 42 37 11 2
May 2007 Gallup 42 35 11 2
Jun. 2007 CNN/ORC 39 42 10 3
May 2008^ Gallup 41 38 9 2
May 2009 Gallup 35 42 12 2
May 2010 Gallup 36 37 12 3
May 2011 Gallup 40 42 6 3
Sep. 2011 CNN/ORC 45 39 9 3
May 2012 Gallup 40 35 11 4
Nov. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 45 36 10 2
May 2013 Gallup 47 33 9 3
May 2014 Gallup 42 37 9 4

Note: * Asked of half sample. ^ 1977 to 2008 question wording read “in your view, is homosexuality something a
person is born with, or is homosexuality due to factors such as upbringing and environment.”

 Do you think being homosexual is something people choose to be, or do you think it is something they cannot change?

Choose to be Cannot change
Feb. 1993 CBS/NYT 44% 43%
Jan.-May 1994 NORC/GSS 42 45
Dec. 2003 CBS/NYT 44 44
Mar. 2004 CBS/NYT 43 41
Nov. 2004 CBS/NYT 39 47
Oct. 2006 CBS/NYT 35 53
Sep. 2008* CBS/NYT 37 51
May 2010 CBS/NYT 36 51
Mar. 2013 CBS 32 51

NATURE/NURTURE: One of the most dramatic changes in attitudes about homosexuality
appears to be about its cause. More people today than in the past say that people are born
homosexual or that it is an orientation that they cannot change. In a Gallup question from 1977,
13 percent said a person is born gay or lesbian; in 2014, 42 percent gave that response.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 33
 Do you think that someone who is homosexual can change their sexual orientation if they choose to do so, or don’t you
think so?
Change Don’t
orientation think so
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 51% 36%
Jan. 10-11, 2001 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 42 45
Jun. 22-24, 2007 CNN/ORC 36 56
May 29-31, 2012 CNN/ORC 34 58
 Do you think a gay or lesbian person’s sexual orientation can be changed or cannot be changed?

Can be Can’t be
changed changed
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 42% 42%
Jul. 6-19, 2006 SRB/Pew Research Center 39 49
Jun. 28-Jul. 9,2012 Pew 36 51
 Do you think being homosexual is something that people choose to be, or do you think it’s just the way they are?

Choose to be The way they are
Jun. 23-26, 1994 ABC/Wash Post 40% 49%
Oct. 12-14, 2004^ ABC 33 57
Mar. 7-10, 2013 ABC/Wash Post 24 62
Feb. 27-Mar. 2, 2014 ABC/Wash Post 25 65

Note: ^ Asked of likely voters.
 In your view, is being gay or lesbian something a person is born with, or due to factors such as upbringing or
environment?

Born with Upbringing or Both (vol.) Neither (vol.) Don’t know/
environment Refused
Nov. 2013 PRRI 44% 36% 12% 2% 7%

 In your opinion, what causes someone to be gay? Is it something that people are born with, or is it something that
develops because of the way people are brought up, or is it just the way that people choose to live?

Born Brought up Choice
Sep. 18-23, 1983 LAT 16% 25% 37%
Dec. 5-12, 1985 LAT 20 23 42
Apr. 22-24, 1993 Gallup 31 14 35
Jul. 19-21, 1993 Gallup 29 15 32
Jun. 8-10, 2000 LAT 33 11 37
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 30 14 42

 In your opinion, what causes someone to be gay or lesbian - Do you believe that people are born gay or lesbian, or that
people become gay or lesbian because of the way they are brought up, or is it just the way that some people choose to
live?

Born that way Way brought up Choice
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 42% 6% 36%



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 34
 From what you know about gay and lesbian people, do you think that gay and lesbian people choose to be homosexual
or are born homosexual?
Are born Choose to be
homosexual homosexual
May 17-21, 2000 AP 30% 46%

 A scientific magazine recently repudiated its own study showing that homosexuality may be genetic. Meanwhile, a new
ad campaign features men and women who have left homosexuality. On the issue, do you personally believe that
homosexuals are born that way or believe that homosexuals are not born that way and can change?

Not born
Born that way/
that way Can change
Jul. 23-26, 1999 Wirthlin Worldwide 41% 45%

 Do you think that homosexuality is something a person is born with, or is it due to factors such as how they were raised
or to their environment?

Born with Raised/Environment
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 33% 40%

 In your opinion, what is the main cause of homosexuality? Are people born homosexual, do people become homosexual
because of their experiences while growing up, or do people choose to be homosexual on their own?

Born Experience Choice
Aug. 10-27, 1998 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 32% 20% 33%

 Do you think that being homosexual is something people choose to be, or do you think that people are born homosexual
and it is something they cannot change?

Choose to be Cannot change
July 25-27, 1998 NBC/WSJ 38% 41%
Apr. 5-8, 2013* NBC/WSJ 31 50

Note: *Wording changed from “homosexual” to “gay.”


 Do you agree or disagree: Homosexual couples should have the right to marry one another?

Strongly agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly disagree
1988 NORC/GSS 3% 9% 15% 26% 47%
2004 NORC/GSS 12 19 14 20 35
2006 NORC/GSS 15 20 14 16 35
2008 NORC/GSS 15 24 13 16 32
2010 NORC/GSS 21 25 13 16 25
2012 NORC/GSS 25 24 12 14 25
GAY MARRI AGE: The first national poll question we have been able to locate about same-
sex marriage was asked by the National Opinion Research Center in 1988. The responses are
displayed below. In 1996, Gallup found that 27 percent thought “marriages between
homosexuals should be recognized by law as valid, with the same rights as traditional
marriage.” In the May 2014 Gallup asking, 55 percent gave this response.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 35
 Do you think marriages between same-sex couples should or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with the same
rights as traditional marriages?

Should be valid Should not be valid
Mar. 1996* Gallup 27% 68%
Feb. 1999* Gallup 35 62
May 2004* Gallup 42 55
Aug. 2005* Gallup 37 59
May 2006*^ Gallup 39 58
May 2006^ Gallup 42 56
May 2007 Gallup 46 53
May 2008^ Gallup 40 56
May 2009 Gallup 40 57
May 2010 Gallup 44 53
May 2011 Gallup 53 45
Dec. 2011 Gallup/USA Today 48 48
May 2012 Gallup 50 48
Nov. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 53 46
May 2013 Gallup 53 45
Jul. 2013 Gallup 54 43
May 2014 Gallup 55 42

Note: *Question wording was, “Do you think marriages between homosexual couples should or should not be
recognized by the law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages?” ^ Asked of a half sample.

 Do you think marriages between gay and lesbian couples should or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with
the same rights as traditional marriages?

Same rights Not recognize
Jun. 26-29, 2008 CNN/ORC 44% 53%
Dec. 19-21, 2008 CNN/ORC 44 55
Apr. 23-36, 2009 CNN/ORC 44 54
Apr. 9-10, 2011 CNN/ORC 51 47
Sep. 9-11, 2011 CNN/ORC 53 46
May 29-31, 2012 CNN/ORC 54 42
Mar. 15-17, 2013 CNN/ORC 53 44
Jun. 11-13, 2013 CNN/ORC 55 44

 If you had to decide, do you think it should be legal or not legal for same sex couples to marry?

Legal Not legal
May 2012 CBS/NYT 42% 51%
Jul. 2012* CBS/NYT 46 44
Sep. 2012* CBS/NYT 51 41
Nov. 2012* CBS 51 41
Feb. 6-10, 2013* CBS 54 39
Feb. 23-13, 2013* CBS/NYT 53 41
Mar. 2013* CBS 53 39
May 2013* CBS/NYT 51 44
Jul. 2013* CBS 55 39
Feb. 2014* CBS/NYT 56 39

Note: *Question does not begin with “If you had to decide.”
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 36
 Do you think it should be legal or illegal for gay and lesbian couples to get married?

Legal Illegal
Sep. 2003 ABC/Wash Post 37% 55%
Jan. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 41 55
Feb. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 39 55
Mar. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 38 59
Aug. 2005 ABC/Wash Post 39 58
Jun. 2006 ABC/Wash Post 36 58
Apr. 2009 ABC/Wash Post 49 46
Feb. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 47 50
Mar. 2011 ABC/Wash Post 53 44
Jul. 2011 ABC/Wash Post 51 45
Mar. 2012 ABC/Wash Post 52 43
May 2012 ABC/Wash Post 53 39
Aug. 2012 ABC/Wash Post 53 42
Mar. 2013 ABC/Wash Post 58 36
 Do you think it should be legal or illegal for gay and lesbian couples to get married? Do you feel that way strongly or
somewhat?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Apr. 2009 ABC/Wash Post 31% 18% 7% 39%
Feb. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 31 16 9 42
Mar. 2011 ABC/Wash Post 36 17 9 35
Jul. 2011 ABC/Wash Post 32 19 9 36
Mar. 2012 ABC/Wash Post 36 17 7 36
May 2012 ABC/Wash Post 39 14 7 32
Mar. 2013 ABC/Wash Post 41 17 6 30
 In general, do you support or oppose same-sex marriage?

Support Oppose
Jul. 2008 Quinnipiac 36% 55%
Nov. 2012 Quinnipiac 48 46
Feb. 2013 Quinnipiac 47 43
Mar. 2013 Quinnipiac 50 41
Apr. 2013 Quinnipiac 45 47

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Do you favor or oppose legalizing same-sex marriage?

Favor Oppose
Oct. 2012 Fox News 42% 44%
Feb. 2013 Fox News 46 46
Mar. 2013 Fox News 49 46
Jun. 2013 Fox News 46 47
Jan. 2014 Fox News 47 47

Note: Asked of registered voters.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 37
 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to enter into same-sex marriages?

Favor Oppose
Sep. 1996* NBC/WSJ 25% 67%
Jul. 2003 NBC/WSJ 32 51
Dec. 2003 NBC/WSJ 32 56
Mar. 2004 NBC/WSJ 30 62
Oct. 2009 NBC/WSJ 41 49
Mar. 2012 NBC/WSJ 49 40
Dec. 2012 NBC/WSJ 51 40
Apr. 2013 NBC/WSJ 53 42

Note: *Asked of registered voters.

 Would you support or oppose a law in your state that would allow same-sex couples to get married?

Support a law allowing
gay marriage in your state Oppose
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 38% 55%
Jul. 5-11, 2011 Quinnipiac 46 48
Jun. 28-Jul. 8, 2013 Quinnipiac 49 44
Sep. 23-29, 2013 Quinnipiac 56 36

 I am going to read you a list of some programs and proposals that are being discussed in this country today. For each
one, please tell me whether you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose it…Allowing gays and lesbians to
marry legally?

Strongly Strongly
favor Favor Oppose oppose
May 31-Jun. 9, 1996 Pew 6% 21% 24% 41%
Mar. 5-18, 2001 Pew 8 27 23 34
Jun. 24-Jul.8, 2003 Pew 10 28 23 30
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 9 23 24 35
Nov. 18-Dec. 1, 2003 Pew 10 20 21 42
Feb. 11-16, 2004 Pew 9 21 21 42
Mar. 17-21, 2004 Pew 10 22 24 35
Jul. 2004 Pew 10 22 23 33
Aug. 2004 Pew 8 21 25 35
Dec. 2004 Pew 14 18 23 38
Jul. 2005 Pew 13 23 22 31
Mar. 2006 Pew 10 29 23 28
Jun. 2006 Pew 13 20 32 23
Jul. 2006 Pew 12 23 31 25
Dec. 2006-
Jan. 2007 Pew 13 24 22 33
Aug. 2007 Pew 13 23 24 31
Nov. 2007 Pew 12 24 25 29
May 2008 Pew 15 23 20 29
Jun. 2008 Pew 15 25 21 31
Aug. 2008 Pew 13 26 22 30
Apr. 2009 Pew 14 21 23 31
Aug. 2009* Pew 14 25 22 31
Jul.-Aug. 2010* Pew 17 24 24 24
Aug.-Sep. 2010* Pew 16 27 22 26
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 38
Feb.-Mar. 2011* Pew 20 25 21 25
Apr. 2012^ Pew 22 25 21 22
Jun. 2012 Pew 23 25 20 24
Oct. 2012 Pew 22 27 21 19
Mar. 2013 Pew 22 27 21 22
May 2013 Pew 21 30 19 22
Feb. 2014 Pew 24 30 19 20

Note: *Question wording read “allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry legally.” ^Asked of a half sample.
 Do you support or oppose gay marriage?

Support Oppose
Nov. 2012 ABC/Wash Post 51% 47%

 Do you think gays and lesbians have a constitutional right to get married and have their marriage recognized by law as
valid?
Have right Does not have right
May 14-17, 2009 CNN/ORC 45% 54%
Aug. 6-10, 2010 CNN/ORC 49 51

 Which of these statements comes closer to your view (1) “supporters of gay marriage should not push too hard to make
it legal right away, because doing so could create bad feelings against homosexuals” or (2) “supporters of gay marriage
should push hard to make it legal as soon as possible, despite the risk of creating bad feelings against homosexuals”?

Statement 1 Statement 2 Don’t know/Refused
Jul. 2006* Pew 41% 51% 8%
Oct. 2009^ Pew 42 45 13

Note: *Asked of those who favor/strongly favor allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally (35%). ^Asked of
those who favor allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally (39%).
 Would you favor or oppose legislation in your state that would prohibit marriages between gay or lesbian couples? Is
that strongly or somewhat?
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor Neutral oppose oppose
May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH 39% 7% 7% 10% 36%

 Would you support or oppose a law in your state that would ban same-sex marriage?

Support Oppose Unsure
Jul. 2008 Quinnipiac 45% 49% 6%

Note: Asked of registered voters.










American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 39
 Should the government give legal recognition to marriages between couples of the same sex?

Should Should not Unsure
Sep. 2009* AP-GfK/Roper 46% 53% 1%
Aug. 2010^ AP-GfK/Roper 52 46 2
Aug. 2011^ AP-GfK/Roper 53 44 2
Aug. 2012 AP-GfK/Roper 53 42 4

Note: * The 2009 asking was worded “Should the federal government give legal recognition to marriages between
couples of the same sex?” ^ The 2010 and 2011 askings were worded “Should the federal government give legal
recognition to marriages between couples of the same sex, or not?”
 Do you think marriages between homosexuals/same sex couples should or should not be recognized by the law as valid,
with the same rights as traditional marriages?

Should Should not
be valid be recognized
Feb. 8-9, 1999 Gallup 35% 62%
May 2-4, 2004 Gallup 42 55
Aug. 22-25, 2005 Gallup 38 59
May 8-11, 2006^ Gallup 39 58
May 8-11, 2006^ Gallup 42 56
May 10-13, 2007 Gallup 46 53
May 8-11, 2008^ Gallup 40 56
May 7-10, 2009 Gallup 40 57
May 3-6, 2010 Gallup 44 53
May 5-8, 2011 Gallup 53 45
Dec. 15-18, 2011 Gallup/USA Today 48 48
May 3-6, 2012 Gallup 50 48
Nov. 26-29, 2012 Gallup/USA Today 53 46
May 2-7, 2013 Gallup 53 45
Jul. 10-14, 2013 Gallup 54 43
May 2014 Gallup 55 42

Note: ^ Asked of two different half samples.

The following questions used the exact same wording as the Gallup question above, but they were not preceded by questions
on homosexual rights and relations.

Should Should not
be valid be recognized
Mar. 15-17, 1996 Gallup 27% 68%
Jan 13-16, 2000 Gallup 34 62
Jun. 27-29, 2003 Gallup 39 55
Oct. 24-26, 2003 Gallup 35 61
Dec. 15-16, 2003 Gallup 31 65
Feb. 6-8, 2004 Gallup 36 59
Feb. 16-17, 2004 Gallup 32 64
Mar. 5-7, 2004 Gallup 33 61
July 19-21, 2004 Gallup 32 62
Mar 18-20, 2005 Gallup 28 68
Apr. 29-May 1, 2005 Gallup 39 56
Aug. 6-8, 2007 CNN/ORC 40 57

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 40
 Thinking about what might be done to protect the rights of gays and lesbians, do you think that there should or should
not be legally sanctioned gay marriages?
Should Should not
Feb. 21-24, 1991* PSRA 30% 62%
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 35 58
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 29 62
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 33 58
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 35 56
July 28-30, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 33 61
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 34 57
Apr. 25-26, 2002 PSRA/Newsweek 35 57
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 33 58
Dec. 3-5, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 39 55

Note: *In 1991, question wording was, “Do you think that homosexual couples should be allowed to get legally
married or not?”

 Now I have a few questions about the situation for gay men and women in this country and the issue of gay rights….Do
you think there should or should not be . . . ?

Legally sanctioned gay and lesbian unions or partnerships
Should be Should not be
Feb. 2000* PSRA/Newsweek 47% 42%
Feb. 2004* PSRA/Newsweek 40 51
Dec. 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 55 36

Note: *Asked of a form B/2 half sample (2004/2000).
 Would you support or oppose a law that would allow same-sex couples to get married?

Support Oppose
Dec. 4-8, 2003 Quinnipiac 35% 60%
Jan. 28-31, 2004 Quinnipiac 34 61
Mar. 16-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 31 63
Jul. 18-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 31 63
Dec. 7-12, 2004 Quinnipiac 31 65
Nov. 13-19, 2006 Quinnipiac 34 63
Apr. 21-27, 2009* Quinnipiac 38 55
Jul. 5-11, 2011 Quinnipiac 46 48
Jun. 28-Jul. 8, 2013 Quinnipiac 49 44
Sep. 23-29, 2013 Quinnipiac 56 36

*Note: Starting in April 2009, the question wording added “a law in your state.”










American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 41
 How do you feel about so-called same sex marriages, between two men or two women? Specifically, would you say you
approve or disapprove or don’t feel strongly about the issue?

------Marriage between two men------ ----Marriage between two women-----
Don’t feel Don’t feel
Approve Disapprove strongly Approve Disapprove strongly
1996 Harris 10% 64% 24% 11% 63% 25%
2000 Harris 15 57 24 16 55 26
Mar. 18-29, 2004 Harris 26 51 18 27 50 19

Note: In the 1996 and 2000 surveys, the words “single sex” were used rather than same sex.

 Would you favor or oppose a law that would allow homosexual couples to marry, giving them the same legal rights as
other married couples?

Favor Oppose
Jul. 13-27, 2003 CBS/NYT 40% 55%
Dec. 10-13, 2003 CBS/NYT 34 61
Feb. 24-27, 2004 CBS 30 62

 Do you think marriages between homosexual men or homosexual women should be recognized as legal by the law, or
not?

Yes No
Oct. 23-25, 1989 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 23% 69%
Aug. 19-20, 1992 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 27 67
Jan. 22-25, 1993 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 27 65
Jun. 15-16, 1994 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 31 64
Sep. 1996 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 26 65
Oct. 14-15, 1998 Yankelovich/CNN/Time 29 64
Jul. 16-17, 2003 Harris/CNN/Time 33 60
Nov. 18-19, 2003 Harris/CNN/Time 32 62
Feb. 5-6, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 30 62
May 12-13, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 32 60
 Thinking more generally, I’m going to read you some statements, some of which you will probably agree with, others
you will probably disagree with. The first is…allowing gay and lesbian couples to legally marry would undermine the
traditional American family, do you completely agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with
this statement?

Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
Feb. 7-Sep. 4, 2000* PSRA/Kaiser 37% 17% 16% 26%
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 40 16 15 24

Note: *Question wording was “Now I’m going to read you a series of statements that describe different views about
gays, lesbians and human sexuality. Some statements will probably come very close to describing your own
opinions, while others will not come close at all. As I read each statement, please tell me if you completely agree
with it, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with it.”



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 42
 Recently there has been a lot of talk about allowing gays and lesbians to marry a partner of the same sex. Do you favor
or oppose same-sex marriage?

Favor Oppose
Jun. 26-27, 1996 Fox News 22% 65%
Aug. 12-13, 2003 Fox News 26 62

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Here is a list of issues that some people have mentioned as ones that the federal government should focus on in the
coming year. For each one, please say how much effort you would like the federal government to expend on this issue in
2014…No effort at all, only a little effort, a moderate amount of effort, a lot of effort, a great deal of effort…Advancing
gay rights

No effort Only a A moderate amount A Lot A great deal
at all little effort of effort of effort of effort
Dec. 2013 AP/NORC 36% 18% 24% 12% 8%

 Laws relating to marriage have traditionally been handled by individual states, not the federal government. But some
believe Washington should set uniform national laws about whether marriages between individuals of the same gender
should be recognized. Would you prefer Congress…?

May 17-20, 2012 United Technologies/National Journal Congressional Connection Poll

Pass a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex 24%
marriage in every state regardless of state law
Pass a constitutional amendment to permit same-sex 27
marriage in every state regardless of state law
Take no action and let each state decide whether to 42
permit or ban same-sex marriage
 As I read a list of some stories covered by news organizations this past week, please tell me if you happened to follow
each news story very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely... Did you follow President Barack
Obama expressing his support for gay marriage very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely?

Very Fairly Not too Not at all
May 2012 Pew 37% 23% 18% 21%
 Did President Barack Obama expressing his support for gay marriage make you think more favorably of him, less
favorably of him, or did it not affect your opinion of Barack Obama?

More favorably Less favorably Did not affect opinion
May 2012 Pew 19% 25% 52%
 Does President Obama’s support for same-sex marriage make you more likely to vote for him, less likely to vote for
him, or doesn’t it make any difference?

More likely No difference Less likely
May 2012 Gallup 13% 60% 26%



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 43
 Next, as you may know, on Wednesday President Obama said for the first time he thinks same-sex couples should be
able to legally marry. Do you approve or disapprove of his position on the issue?

Approve Disapprove
May 10, 2012 Gallup 51% 45%
 Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry legally?

Strongly Strongly
favor Favor Oppose oppose
Mar. 2012* PRRI/RNS 22% 30% 19% 25%
Jun. 2012* PRRI 25 24 18 26
May 2013 PRRI 24 28 22 21
Jun. 2013 PRRI 22 30 21 20
Feb. 2013 PRRI 22 31 21 20
Aug. 2013 PRRI 21 34 21 22
Sep. 2013 PRRI 25 27 19 25
Nov. 2013 PRRI 22 31 21 20

Note: *Question wording read “I'd like to get your views on some issues that are being discussed in the country today.
All in all, do you . . . ?

 Would you favor, oppose, or neither favor nor oppose a law allowing same-sex couples to be legally married in your
state?
Neither favor Already legal
Favor Oppose nor oppose in my state
Aug. 2011 AP-GfK/Roper 42% 45% 10% 1%
Jun. 2012 AP-GfK/Roper 40 42 15 1
 All things being equal, would you rather live in a state that makes it easy or difficult for gay and lesbian couples to
marry, or does it not matter much to you?

Make it easy Make it difficult Does not matter Not sure
Mar. 2014 Bloomberg 30% 18% 50% 2%

 Do you support or oppose allowing same-sex couples to get married?

Support Oppose Not sure
Mar. 2014 Bloomberg 55% 36% 9%

 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay or lesbian couples to enter into same-sex marriages? Would you say that you
strongly favor/oppose or just somewhat favor/oppose?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Feb. 29-Mar. 3 2012 NBC/WSJ 32% 17% 9% 31%
Dec. 6-9, 2012 NBC/WSJ 33 18 10 30
Apr. 5-8, 2013 NBC/WSJ 38 15 10 32

 Do you approve or disapprove of the way Barack Obama is handling same sex marriage?

Approve Disapprove
Jul. 2011 Quinnipiac 37% 42%
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 44
 Should state governments give legal recognition to marriages between couples of the same sex?

Yes No
Sep. 2009 AP-GfK/Roper 46% 52%

 For each of the following please say whether you think ____ should strictly be a private decision between two people
who want to marry or if the government has a right to pass laws to prohibit or allow such marriages. How about a
marriage involving . . . ?

May 30-Jun. 1, 2008 Gallup/USA Today Strictly a Government has right
private decision to pass laws

Two people of different religions 97% 2%
Two people of different races 95 4
Two people of the same sex 63 33
One or both people practicing polygamy, that is having
more than one spouse at the same time 30 66
One or both people under the age of 16 18 78

 Should gay and lesbian couples be allowed to marry, giving them full legal rights of married couples, or not?

Should be allowed Should not
Jun. 2008 Time/ABT/SRBI 42% 51%
Jul. 2008 Time/ABT/SRBI 47 47

 On another topic, for each of the following issues, please indicate how you feel. Same sex marriage?

Support Neither Oppose
Aug. 2007 Harris Interactive 31% 19% 46%

 Would you favor or oppose a law that would ban gay marriage, requiring that marriage should be between a man and a
woman?

Favor ban Oppose ban
Aug. 8-12, 2003 AP 52% 41%
Jan. 16-18, 2007 AP/AOL/Ipsos 51 45

 Do you favor or oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally?

Favor Oppose
Apr. 4-5, 2006 Fox News 33% 55%

Note: Asked of national registered voters.
 Overall, do you approve or disapprove of gay and lesbian couples being allowed to get married? Is that strongly or just
somewhat?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
approve approve Neutral disapprove disapprove
May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH 25% 12% 11% 8% 42%



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 45
 There has been some debate about which of branch of government should decide if gay marriages are legal. Some
people argue that courts should decide whether gay marriage should be legal and other people argue that these decisions
should be made by legislatures. Which best represents your view? Should courts make decisions about legalizing gay
marriage or should these decisions be left to legislatures?

May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH
Courts Legislature Either Depends on state
All 29% 52% 6% 2%
Democrats 40 39 7 4
Republicans 21 68 4 1
Independents 20 56 6 2
 Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally?

Strongly favor Favor Oppose Strongly oppose
Nov. 19-21, 2004 AP/Ipsos 14% 21% 25% 36%

 Do you approve or disapprove of changing the definition of the word marriage to also include same-sex couples?

Approve Disapprove
Mar. 3-4, 2004 Fox News 25% 66%
Jun. 9-11, 2013 Fox News 39 56

Note: Asked of national registered voters.

 Would you favor or oppose a law that would allow homosexual couples to legally get married, or do you not have an
opinion either way?

Favor Oppose
Jan. 9-11, 2004 Gallup 24% 53%

Note: Further breakdown reveals 16 percent of respondents favor strongly, 8 percent favor moderately, 9 percent
oppose moderately, and 44 percent oppose strongly.

 Would you favor or oppose a law in your state that would allow gays and lesbians to marry a partner of the same sex?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Oct. 7-Nov. 24, 2003 NAES 17% 17% 11% 49%
 Today/yesterday, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of gay marriage in that state. Do you favor or
oppose same-sex marriage?
Favor Oppose
Nov. 18-19, 2003 Fox News 25% 66%
Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Do you support or oppose allowing same-sex couples to marry, or haven’t you heard enough about it yet to say?

Haven’t heard
Support Oppose enough
Nov. 15-18, 2003 LAT 31% 55% 14%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 46
 Thinking more generally, I’m going to read you some statements, some of which you will probably agree with, others
you will probably disagree with. The first is…gay marriage would go against my religious beliefs, do you completely
agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with this statement?

Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 50% 12% 10% 23%
 Just your best guess, do you think that allowing two people of the same sex to legally marry will change our society for
the better, will it have no effect, or will it change our society for the worse?

Better No effect Worse
Sep. 19-21, 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 10% 40% 48%
May 7-9, 2009 Gallup/USA Today 13 36 48
May 2-7, 2013 Gallup 19 40 39

 Now I am going to read you a list of things that some people do. For each, thinking your own values and morals, I’d like
you to tell me whether you think it is generally acceptable or generally unacceptable: Marriages between people of the
same sex?
Generally Generally not
acceptable acceptable
Mar. 8-Apr. 22, 2001 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard 34% 64%

 Thinking now about gay marriage, that is, allowing a couple who are gay or lesbian to marry one another legally, do you
support or oppose gay marriage?

Support Oppose
Jun. 8-13, 2000 LAT 34% 58%

 In general, do you think gays and lesbians should or should not be allowed to be legally married?

Should Should not
May 17-21, 2000 AP 34% 51%

 Do you think marriage between two people of the same sex should be legal, or do you think marriage should be limited
only to the union of a man and woman?

Only man
Legal and woman
Mar. 13-16, 2000 NYT 28% 62%

 I’m going to mention several issues, and I’d like to get your reaction. For each item I read, please tell me whether this is
something you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose…Allowing homosexual couples to
be legally married?
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Jun. 16-19, 1999 NBC/WSJ 13% 15% 14% 50%

 Do you feel same-sex couples should have the right to be legally married?

Yes No
Dec. 6-8, 1996 Wirthlin Worldwide 29% 67%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 47
 Would you, personally, support or oppose giving homosexuals a legal right to marry a partner of the same sex?

Support Oppose
Jun. 14-16, 1996 AP 31% 59%

 Next, I’m going to read you some statements about the issue of gay marriages. For each statement please tell me if you
agree or disagree …gay marriage would go against my religious beliefs?

Agree Disagree
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 67% 29%

 Do you think homosexuals should or should not have equal rights to marry one another?

Should Should not
Jun. 23-26, 1994 ABC/Wash Post 39% 56%



 Which comes closest to your view: Gay couples should be allowed to legally marry or gay couples should be allowed to
form civil unions but not legally marry or there should be no legal recognition of a gay couple relationship?

Legally marry Civil unions No recognition
Mar. 2004 CBS/NYT 22% 33% 40%
May 2004 CBS 28 29 40
Jul. 2004 CBS/NYT 28 31 38
Oct. 2004 CBS/NYT 21 38 34
Nov. 2004 CBS/NYT 21 32 44
Feb. 2005 CBS/NYT 23 34 36
Jul. 2005 CBS 27 27 43
Jun. 2006 CBS/NYT 27 30 40
Oct. 2006 CBS/NYT 28 29 38
Mar. 2007 CBS/NYT 28 32 35
May 2008 CBS 30 28 36
Aug. 2008 CBS/NYT 34 22 39
Mar. 2009 CBS/NYT 33 27 35
Apr. 2009 CBS/NYT 42 25 28
Jun.2009 CBS/NYT 33 30 32
Apr. 2010 CBS/NYT 39 24 30
Aug. 2010 CBS 40 30 25
Dec. 2010 CBS 37 23 32
Mar. 2011 CBS 40 25 30
Jun. 2011 CBS 40 23 30
Sep. 2011 CBS/NYT 38 27 28
Feb. 2012 CBS/NYT 40 23 31
May 2012 CBS/NYT 38 24 33

MARRI AGE OR CI VI L UNI ONS OR NEI THER: In January 2000, Fox News asked whether
gay couples should be allowed to legally marry, be given legal partnerships similar to but not
called marriage, or whether there should be no legal recognition of gay and lesbian relationships.
Other pollsters now ask similar questions. In most of these questions, around four in ten now say
they support gay marriage. Only about three in ten say there should be no legal recognition for
gay and lesbian partnerships.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 48
Demographic breakdowns

May 2012 Republicans 9% 37% 49%
Democrats 58 17 19
Independents 40 26 30

Ages 18-44 53% 17% 30%
Ages 45+ 24 31 36

 Do you believe gays and lesbians should be allowed to get legally married, allowed a legal partnership similar to but not
called marriage, or should there be no legal recognition to gay and lesbian relationships?

Allowed to get Allowed legal No legal
legally married partnership recognition
Jan. 2000 Fox 19% 24% 47%
Mar. 2004 Fox 20 33 40
May 2004 Fox 25 26 40
Jun. 2006 Fox 27 25 39
May2009 Fox 33 33 29
Aug. 2010 Fox 37 29 28
May 2012 Fox 37 33 25

Note: Sample is registered voters.

 Do you think same-sex couples should be allowed legally to marry, should be allowed legally to form civil unions but
not marry, or should not be allowed to obtain legal recognition of their relationships?

Marry Civil unions No recognition
Jul. 8-13, 2008 Quinnipiac 32% 33% 29%
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 33 26 34
 There has been much talk recently about whether gays and lesbians should have the legal right to marry someone of the
same sex. Which one of the following comes closest to your position on this issue? Do you support full marriage rights
for gay and lesbian couples, support gay civil unions or partnerships but not gay marriage or oppose any legal
recognition for gay and lesbian couples?

Full marriage Civil No legal
rights unions recognition
Feb. 19-20, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 23% 24% 45%
May 13-14, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 28 23 43
Oct. 26-27, 2006 PSRA/Newsweek 24 26 40
Mar. 14-15, 2007 PSRA/Newsweek 26 24 44
Jun. 18-19, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 30 27 37
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 31 32 30

 Which of the following statements comes closest to your view? “Same-sex couples should be allowed to legally
marry”, or “Same-sex couples should be allowed to legally form civil unions, but not marry”, or “Same-sex couples
should not be allowed to either marry or form civil unions”.

Legally Civil
marry unions Neither
June 5-8, 2004 LAT 26% 35% 35%
July 17-21, 2004 LAT 26 38 31
Oct. 19-22, 2007 LAT/Bloomberg 30 26 38
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 49
 Which of the following arrangements between gay or lesbian couples do you think should be recognized as legally valid
– same-sex marriages, civil unions but not same-sex marriages, or neither same-sex marriages nor civil unions?

Same-sex Civil
marriages unions Neither
Nov. 19-21, 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 21% 32% 43%
Mar. 18-20, 2005* Gallup/CNN/USA Today 20 27 45
Oct. 27-29, 2006 CNN/ORC 24 26 45
May 4-6, 2007 CNN/ORC 24 27 43

Note: * Asked of half-sample.

 If a state’s government does not legally recognize marriages between gays or lesbians, do you think that state should or
should not allow gay and lesbian couples to form civil unions which would give them some of the legal rights of married
couples?

Should Should not Unsure
Apr. 2009 CNN/ORC 60% 38% 2%

 Would you support or oppose a law in your state that would allow civil unions for same-sex couples?

Support a law in your
state allowing civil unions Oppose
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 57% 38%

 Do you think the issue of whether gays and lesbians can legally marry should be decided at the state or federal level?

State Federal
Jun. 13-14, 2006 Fox News 48% 38%
 Which do you think comes closest to the views of most people in the United States? Gay couples should be allowed to
legally marry, or gay couples should be allowed to form civil unions but not legally marry, or there should be no legal
recognition of a gay couple’s relationship?

Legally marry Civil unions Nothing
Nov. 18-21, 2004 CBS/NYT 6% 39% 49%
 Which comes closest to your view of gay and lesbian couples?

--------------------Voters-------------------------
Legally Civil No legal
marry unions recognition
Nov. 2, 2004 NEP 25% 35% 37%

Note: The exit poll consortium, NEP, consisted of the five major networks and the Associated Press.
 Which of the following statements comes closest to your view? “Same-sex couples should be allowed to legally marry”,
or “Same-sex couples should be allowed to legally form civil unions, but not marry”, or “Same-sex couples should not
be allowed to either marry or form civil unions.”

Legally form
Legally marry civil unions Neither
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 24% 38% 34%
Jun. 5-8, 2004 LAT 26 35 35
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 50
Jul. 17-21, 2004 LAT 26 38 31
Oct. 21-24, 2004 LAT 21 42 32
Oct. 19-22. 2007 LAT/Bloomberg 30 26 38

 Do you think that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry, allowed to have civil unions with all the same rights of
a married couple but not call it marriage or neither of these two?

Allowed to marry Civil unions Neither
Mar. 18-29, 2004 Harris 27% 31% 35%



 Under current federal law spouses in same-sex marriages are denied eligibility for federal benefits. Do you think this law
should remain in existence or not?

Yes No
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 39% 54%
Jul. 5-11, 2011 Quinnipiac 35 59
 Should couples of the same sex be entitled to the same government benefits as married couples of the opposite sex, or
should the government distinguish between them?

Same benefits Distinguish Don’t know
Aug. 2008 AP/NCC/GfK 51% 43% 4%
Aug. 2009 AP/NCC/GfK 51 43 4
Sep. 2009 AP/NCC/GfK 54 42 4
Aug. 2010 AP/NCC/GfK 58 38 3
Aug. 2011 AP/NCC/GfK 57 40 2
Aug. 2012 AP/NCC/GfK 63 32 4

 Do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to enter into legal agreements
with each other that would give them many of the same rights as married couples?

Strongly favor Favor Oppose Strongly oppose
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 14% 31% 20% 27%
Mar. 17-21, 2004 Pew 16 33 18 26
Jul. 2004 Pew 18 31 18 25
Aug. 2004 Pew 15 33 21 24
Jul. 2005 Pew 22 31 16 24
Jul. 2006 Pew 19 35 18 24
May 2008 Pew 21 30 16 25
Aug. 2008 Pew 18 36 19 21
Apr. 2009 Pew 20 33 18 21
Aug. 2009 Pew 22 35 17 21
Jul. 2011 PRRI 26 36 17 18

CI VI L UNI ONS/LEGAL PARTNERSHI PS/BENEFI TS: Support for legal gay and lesbian
partnerships is stronger when people are asked about civil unions and specifically about
providing homosexual couples health insurance coverage and inheritance rights, compared to
questions concerning support of gay marriage. Sixty-two percent thought gay or lesbian
couples should be allowed to form legal partnerships giving them many of the same rights as
married couples, according to a July 2011 PRRI survey.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 51
 Do you think homosexual couples should or should not be allowed to form legally recognized civil unions, giving them
the legal rights of married couples in areas such as health insurance, inheritance and pension coverage?

Should Should not
Sep. 3-7, 2003 ABC 40% 51%
Jan. 15-18, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 46 51
Feb. 18-22, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 45 48
Mar. 4-7, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 51 46
Jun. 2006 ABC/Wash Post 45 48
Nov. 2007 ABC/Wash Post 55 42
Feb. 2010* ABC/Wash Post 66 31

Note: *Wording changed from “homosexual” to “gay and lesbian.”

 Thinking again about what might be done to protect gay rights, do you think there should or should not be…?

Inheritance rights for gay spouses
Inheritance rights for gay and lesbian domestic partners^
Should Should not
Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 70% 25%
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 61 30
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 61 29
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 62 30
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 59 33
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 62 28
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 60 30
Dec. 3-4, 2008^ PSRA/Newsweek 74 20

Social Security benefits for gay spouses
Social Security benefits for gay and lesbian domestic partners^

Aug. 27, 1992 PSRA/Newsweek 58% 35%
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 55 39
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 48 43
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 57 37
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 52 41
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 54 38
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 55 36
Dec. 3-4, 2008^ PSRA/Newsweek 67 27

Health insurance and other employee benefits for gay spouses
Health insurance and other employee benefits for gay and lesbian domestic partners^

Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 59% 36%
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 58 37
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 58 34
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 60 33
Dec. 3-4, 2008^ PSRA/Newsweek 73 23

 Would you support or oppose a law that would allow same-sex couples to form civil unions, giving them many of the
legal rights of married couples?

Support Oppose
Dec. 4-8, 2003 Quinnipiac 40% 53%
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 52
Jan. 28-31, 2004 Quinnipiac 40 53
Mar. 16-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 40 53
Jul. 18-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 40 55
Dec. 7-12, 2004 Quinnipiac 45 51
Nov. 13-19, 2006 Quinnipiac 45 52

 Do you think homosexual couples should or should not be allowed to form legally recognized civil unions, giving them
the legal rights of married couples in areas such as health insurance, inheritance and pension coverage?

Should Should not
Sep. 3-7, 2003 ABC 40% 51%
Jan. 15-18, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 46 51
Feb. 18-22, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 45 48
May 31- Jun. 4, 2006 ABC 45 48
Feb. 4-8, 2010* ABC/Wash Post 66 31

Note: *Wording changed from “homosexual” to “gay and lesbian.”

 Would you favor or oppose a law that would allow homosexual couples to legally form civil unions, giving them some
of the legal rights of married couples?

Favor Oppose
Oct. 25-28, 2000 Gallup 42% 54%
May 10-14, 2001 Gallup 44 52
Feb. 8-10, 2002 Gallup 41 53
May 6-9, 2002 Gallup 46 51
May 5-7, 2003 Gallup 49 49
Jul. 25-27, 2003 Gallup 40 57
Aug. 7-11, 2003 Wash Post 37 58
Mar. 5-7, 2004 Gallup 54 42
May 2-4, 2004 Gallup 49 48
 What about civil unions between gay or lesbian couples that would give them some, but not all, of the legal rights of
married couples…should same sex couples be allowed to form civil unions but not legally marry in your state? Is that
strongly favor or just somewhat?
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor Neutral oppose oppose
May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH 28% 18% 7% 8% 33%

 Would you favor or oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples who are willing to make a life-long commitment through a
legal contract to receive the same rights and benefits that heterosexual couples receive?

Favor Oppose
Dec. 12-13, 2003 NBC/WSJ 43% 44%
Mar. 6-8, 2004 NBC/WSJ 46 47

 Would you favor or oppose a law that would allow homosexual couples to legally form civil unions, giving them some
of the legal rights of married couples, or do you not have an opinion either way?

Favor Oppose No opinion
Jan. 9-11, 2004 Gallup 34% 41% 25%

Note: Further breakdown reveals 20 percent of the respondents favor strongly, 14 percent favor moderately, 6
percent oppose moderately, and 35 percent oppose strongly.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 53
 Do you support or oppose allowing homosexual couples to form civil unions that are not marriages, but would give gay
couples rights such as inheritance, insurance and hospital visiting privileges?

Support Oppose
Sep. 23-24, 2003 Fox News 46% 44%
Nov. 18-19, 2003 Fox News 41 48

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Would you support or oppose allowing same-sex couples to form civil unions that are not marriages, but would give
similar legal protection in areas such as inheritance and hospital visits, or haven’t you heard enough it yet to say?

Support Oppose Haven’t heard
Nov. 15-18, 2003 LAT 36% 40% 24%

 Do you think gay or lesbian couples should or should not be allowed all the same legal rights as married couples in every
state, or doesn’t it matter to you?

Should Doesn’t matter Should not
Sep. 19-21, 2003 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 32% 32% 35%

 Would you favor or oppose allowing gays and lesbians to form a civil union that would give a same-sex couple the same
rights and benefits as a married couple?

Favor Oppose
Aug. 8-12, 2003 AP 41% 53%

 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to enter into legal agreements with each other that are not
marriages, but that would give them many of the same legal and financial relationships as married couples? (Asked of
half sample)

Favor Oppose
Jul. 26-27, 2003 NBC/WSJ 53% 34%

 Do you think homosexual couples should or should not have the same legal rights as married heterosexual couples
regarding health care benefits and Social Security survivor benefits?

Should Should not
May 5-7, 2003 Gallup 62% 35%

 What about allowing gay and lesbian couples the same type of rights and benefits that married couples currently enjoy,
such as inheritance rights, health care benefits, or a tax break. Do you support or oppose rights and benefits for gay and
lesbian couples?

Support Oppose
Jun. 8-13, 2000 LAT 50% 40%

 In general, do you think that gays and lesbians should or should not be allowed to form a domestic partnership that
would give the same-sex couple the same rights and benefits as opposite-sex marriages?

Should Should not
May 17-21, 2000 AP 42% 47%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 54
 I would like to read you a proposal in the area of legal recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For each one, tell
me whether you would favor or oppose this proposal...?

Favor Oppose
Providing health insurance coverage to gay partners
May 17-21, 2000 AP 53% 37%

Providing Social Security benefits to gay partners
May 17-21, 2000 AP 50% 41%


Providing inheritance rights to gay partners
May 17-21, 2000 AP 56% 32%

 Do you think gay partners who make a legal commitment to each other should or should not be entitled to the same
rights and benefits as couples in traditional marriages?

Should be entitled Should not be entitled
to same rights to same rights
Jan 13-16, 2000 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 40% 53%
May 6-9, 2002 Gallup 40 53

 Do you support or oppose allowing homosexual couples to have the same benefits as married heterosexual couples, such
as health benefits, inheritance rights and Social Security survivor benefits?

Support Oppose
Aug. 1-5, 1996 ABC/Wash Post 37% 59%

 Now I would like to read you several more statements about some of the social issues facing America. For each issue,
please tell me whether you agree strongly, agree somewhat, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with this
statement…Homosexual couples should be able to enjoy the full rights granted to married heterosexual couples?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor oppose oppose
Jun. 4-8, 1993 NBC/WSJ 15% 23% 14% 43%

 What about a homosexual couple? Do you think a homosexual couple who live together in a long-term relationship
should be able to get the same job benefits as a married couple, or not?

Yes No
Feb. 21-24, 1991 PSRA 39% 56%

 Should homosexual couples have the same legal rights as married couples?

Should Should not
Oct. 1-4, 1989 Gallup 23% 69%








American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 55
United States v. Windsor (2013)
 Thinking about some cases the Supreme Court will decide on next week (June 2013)...How interested are you in the
court's decision on...federal and state laws about gay marriage--very interested, fairly interested, not too interested,
or not at all interested?

Very Fairly Not too Not at all
Interested Interested Interested Interested
Jun. 2013 Pew 35% 23% 15% 25%

 As you may know, the Supreme Court recently ruled that married gay and lesbian couples are entitled to federal
benefits. Do you agree or disagree with the Supreme Court's decision?

Agree Disagree
Jun. 2013 Quinnipiac 62% 34%

 Now I would like to ask you a few more questions about two rulings made by the Supreme Court this week. As you
may know, the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a part of the Defense of Marriage Act that denied married
gays and lesbians federal benefits that are available to married couples of the opposite sex. Do you favor or oppose
the Supreme Court's ruling in this case?

Favor Oppose Unsure
June 27-30, 2013 USA Today 48% 43% 9%
 From what you’ve read and heard about the Supreme Court’s decisions on same-sex marriage, would you say you
strongly approve, approve, disapprove, or strongly disapprove of their decision?

Strongly approve Approve Disapprove Strongly disapprove
Jun. 27-30, 2013 Pew 19% 26% 18% 22%

 Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision providing legally married same-sex
couples with the same federal benefits given to other married couples?

Approve Disapprove Unsure
Jun. 26-30, 2013 ABC/WP 56% 41% 3%

 Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision letting stand a lower court ruling that
allows gay marriage in California?

Approve Disapprove Unsure
Jun. 26-30, 2013 ABC/WP 51% 45% 4%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 56

 Would you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would allow marriage only between a man and a
woman?

Favor Oppose
Dec. 2003 CBS/NYT 55% 40%
Mar. 2004 CBS/NYT 59 35
May 2012 CBS/NYT 50 46

 Would you favor or oppose passing a constitutional amendment that would define marriage as being between a man and
a woman?

Favor Oppose
Aug. 2003 Fox 58% 34%
Mar. 2004 Fox 52 40
May 2012 Fox 38 53
May 2013 Fox 41 52

Note: Asked of registered voters.
 Would you support or oppose amending the United States Constitution to ban same-sex marriage?

Support Oppose
Mar. 16-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 41% 51%
Jul. 18-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 39 55
Dec. 7-12, 2004 Quinnipiac 43 53
Nov. 13-19, 2006 Quinnipiac 43 53
Jul. 8-13, 2008 Quinnipiac 38 56

 Would you favor or oppose a constitutional amendment that would define marriage as being between a man and a
woman, thus barring marriages between gay or lesbian couples?

Favor Oppose
Jul. 18-20, 2003 Gallup 50% 45%
Feb. 6-8, 2004^ Gallup 47 47
Feb. 9-12, 2004 Gallup 53 44
Mar. 5-7, 2004 Gallup 50 45
CONSTI TUTI ONAL AMENDMENT?: Pollsters have experimented with different question
wordings to see how much support there is for a constitutional amendment that would define
marriage as a union between a man and a woman. In September 2003, January and February
2004 polling by ABC News and the Washington Post, 55 percent said it should be illegal for
homosexual couples to marry. The 55 percent in the September poll who thought it should be
illegal were then asked whether they supported a constitutional amendment to make it illegal.
Thirty-six percent did, and 60 percent did not. In another ABC/Washington Post question
from January 2004, 38 percent favored a constitutional amendment, but 58 percent said the
matter should be left up to individual states.
A May 2012 CBS/New York Times survey indicated 50 percent supported an
amendment that would allow marriage only between a man and a woman. But a Fox poll of
registered voters from the same month showed only 38 percent support for a constitutional
amendment.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 57
May 2-4, 2004 Gallup 51 45
July 19-21, 2004^ Gallup 48 46
Mar 18-20, 2005 Gallup 57 37
Apr. 29-May 1, 2005 Gallup 53 44
May 8-11, 2006 Gallup 50 47
May 8-11, 2008^ Gallup 49 48

Note: ^ Asked of a half sample.

 Would you favor or would you oppose an amendment to the United States Constitution that defines marriage as a union
only between a man and a woman and makes same-sex marriages unconstitutional?

Favor Oppose
Dec. 12-13, 2003 NBC/WSJ 48% 44%
Mar. 6-8, 2004 NBC/WSJ 54 42
May 1-3, 2004 NBC/WSJ 50 44
Jun. 25-28, 2004 NBC/WSJ 51 44
Jul. 19-21, 2004 NBC/WSJ 50 44
Oct. 16-18, 2004 NBC/WSJ 47 46

Note: Prior to May 2004, the question was phrased, “Would you favor or would you oppose a
constitutional amendment that defined marriage as a union only between a man and a woman and made
same-sex marriage unconstitutional?”

 Would you favor or oppose a Constitutional amendment that would ban gay marriage in all states?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 47% 45%
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 43 52
 Do you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would ban same-sex couples from getting married?

Favor Oppose
Oct. 2004 Time/SRBI 41% 54%
Jun. 2008 Time/ABT/SRBI 36 58
Jul. 2008 Time/ABT/SRBI 35 58
 Would you favor or oppose an amendment to the US Constitution that would define marriage as being between a man
and a woman, this prohibiting marriages between gay or lesbian couples? Is that strongly or somewhat?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
favor favor Neutral oppose oppose
May 4-9, 2005 Boston Globe/UNH 38% 7% 5% 11% 36%

 Do you think defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman is an important enough issue to be worth
changing the Constitution for, or isn’t it that kind of issue?

Important Not that
enough kind of issue
Mar. 10-14, 2004 CBS/NYT 38% 56%
Nov. 18-21, 2004 CBS/NYT 40 56


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 58
 Do you favor or oppose and amendment to the U.S. Constitution that legally defines marriage as a union between a man
and a woman only, and would prevent states from legally recognizing same-sex marriages?

Favor Oppose
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 51% 42%
July 17-21, 2004 LAT 48 47

 Why do you think the Constitution should not be amended to ban gay marriages?

Mar. 17-21, 2004 Pew
Reasons
Stable document/Way founders wrote it/Leave it alone 18%
Government should stay out of it/Favor individual rights 14
Let the states handle it/Other ways to address it 11
Trivial/Not that important/Other priorities 8
Gay marriage is not a constitutional issue 6
It would open the door to other changes 5
It wouldn’t work/People will do what they want 2
Unspecific reason 1
Other reasons 9

Note: Based on respondents who oppose gay marriage, but also believe a constitutional
amendment is a bad idea (which equals 36% of those who oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry).

 As you may know, there is a legal proposal in Congress to amend the U.S. Constitution to make same sex marriages
illegal. Supporters of this proposed amendment say that it is a serious attempt to address the issue of gay marriages.
Opponents of this proposal say that it is being promoted for political, election year purposes. Whom do you agree with
more—supporters of the amendment, or opponents of the amendment?

Supporters Opponents
Mar. 6-8, 2004 NBC/WSJ 42% 50%

 Would you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would allow marriages only between a man and
a woman?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 24-27, 2004 CBS 51% 42%
Mar. 10-14, 2004 CBS 59 35

Note: Asked of a half sample.

 Would you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would allow marriage only between a man and a
woman, and outlaw marriages between people of the same sex?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 24-27, 2004 CBS 51% 42%

Note: Asked of a half sample.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 59
 Would you favor/oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that no state can allow two men to marry each other or
two women to marry each other?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 5-8, 2004 NAES 42% 49%
Feb. 14-23, 2004 NAES 41 48

 Would you support amending the U.S. Constitution to make it illegal for homosexual couples to get married anywhere in
the U.S., or should each state make its own laws on homosexual marriage?

Support States make
amendment own laws
Jan. 15-18, 2004 ABC/Wash Post 38% 58%
Feb. 18-22, 2004^ ABC/Wash Post 46 46
Mar. 4-7, 2004^ ABC/Wash Post 44 53
Aug. 26-29, 2004^ ABC/Wash Post 44 51
Apr. 21-24, 2005* ABC/Wash Post 39 56
May 31-Jun. 4, 2006* ABC 42 51

Note: *Wording changed to: “…make it against the law for homosexual couples…” ^Question added “strongly or
somewhat?”

 Would you support a Constitutional amendment that would ban gay marriages in all 50 states, or do you think it should
be left up to the individual states to pass their own laws about gay marriage?


Amendment States Full rights
Feb. 19-20, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 39% 33% 23%*

Note: *Answer given in a previous question that asked: “There has been much talk recently about
whether gays and lesbians should have the legal right to marry someone of the same sex. Which of the
following comes closest to your position on this issue? Do you… support full marriage rights for gay and
lesbian couples?”

 Do you favor or oppose an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that legally defines marriage as a union between a man
and woman only, and would prevent states from legally recognizing marriages between homosexual men or between
homosexual woman?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 5-6, 2004 Harris/CNN/Time 47% 46%

 I’d like to ask you some questions about priorities for President Bush and Congress this year. As I read from a list, tell
me if you think the item that I read should be a top priority, important but lower priority, not too important or should it
not be done? Passing a constitutional amendment that would prohibit gay marriages.

Top Important/ Not too Should not
priority Lower priority important be done
Jan. 6-11, 2004 Pew 22% 16% 22% 37%

Note: Passing a constitutional amendment ranked 21st of 22 issues Pew inquired about as a “top priority.”



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 60
 If the courts in your state ruled that your state’s government must legally recognize gay marriages, would you favor or
oppose amending your state’s constitution to legally define marriage as a union between a man and a woman?

Favor Oppose
Nov. 18-19, 2003 Harris Interactive 53% 40%

 (Asked of the 59 percent of respondents who said they opposed “allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally)
Should the U.S. Constitution be amended to ban gay marriage, or is it enough to prohibit gay marriage by law without
changing the Constitution?

Amend the Enough to
Constitution prohibit by law
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 17% 71%

 Congress is considering a constitutional amendment that marriage should only be between a man and a woman. Would
you favor or oppose the amending of the Constitution to specify marriage should be between a man and a woman?

Favor Oppose
Aug. 8-12, 2003 AP 54% 42%



 You hear a lot today about the changing American family. I’d like to know your opinion on what a ‘family’ is. For each
of the following types of living arrangements, please tell me whether you would definitely call it a family, you definitely
would not call it a family, or if you aren’t sure.

A married couple living with their children:

Family Not family Aren’t sure
Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 98% 1% 1%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 99 1 1
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 98 1 1

A married couple living with their children from a previous marriage:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 93% 5% 2%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 96 3 1
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 95 3 2

A man and a woman who are married, but don’t have any children:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 87% 10% 3%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 88 11 2
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 86 11 3

FAMI LI ES: In 1999, about two in ten said that committed same-sex couples constitute a
family. In 1977, 14 percent told Gallup that homosexuals should be allowed to adopt children,
and 77 percent said they should not. In the 2004 PSRA/Newsweek poll, 45 percent said there
should be adoption rights for gay spouses, but 47 percent disagreed. In 2012, in a
PRRI/Religion News Service question, 54 percent said homosexual couples should have the
legal right to adopt a child; 40 percent said they should not.
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 61
A divorced mother living with her children:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 84% 13% 2%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 85 14 1
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 86 12 2

A divorced father living with his children:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 80% 17% 3%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 79 19 2
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 83 13 4

An unwed (never married) mother living with her children:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 81% 14% 5%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 83 15 2
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 82 14 4

An unwed (never married) father living with his children:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 73% 19% 7%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 74 22 4
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 78 16 6

A man and a woman committed (but not married) to each other and living together, who are raising children:
(question wording differed slightly in 1992)

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 77% 17% 6%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 72 24 3
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 75 18 6

A man and woman committed to each other and living together (but not married):
(question wording differed slightly in 1992)

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 53% 37% 11%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 57 39 4
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 50 40 9

A group of unrelated adults who live together and consider themselves a “family”:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 28% 60% 12%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 33 63 4
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 29 59 12

Two lesbian women living with children they are raising together:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 27% 62% 11%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 27 68 5
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 29 59 12




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 62
Two gay men living with children they are raising:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 26% 65% 9%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 29 66 5
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 26 61 13

Two gay men committed to each other and living together:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 20% 71% 9%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 21 75 4
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 21 69 10

Two lesbian women committed to each other and living together:

Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 21% 69% 10%
Feb. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 22 72 6
Mar. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 20 66 13
Adoption

 All in all, do you strongly favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to adopt children?

Strongly Strongly
favor Favor Oppose oppose
Sep. 2010 PRRI 19% 34% 20% 22%
Jul. 2011 PRRI 20 33 22 22
Mar. 2012 PRRI/Religion News Service 23 31 19 21
Mar. 2013 PRRI 24 32 18 19
Nov. 2013 PRRI 23 35 20 17

 Do you think there should or should not be adoption rights for gay spouses?

Should Should not
Feb. 3-4, 1994 PSRA/Newsweek 29% 65%
May 22-23, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 36 52
Oct. 17-18, 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 36 47
Jun. 19-20, 1997 PSRA/Newsweek 40 49
Jul. 30-31, 1998 PSRA/Newsweek 36 56
Mar. 9-10, 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 39 50
Feb. 7-Sep. 4, 2000 PSRA/Kaiser 46 47
Apr. 25-26, 2002 PSRA/Newsweek 46 44
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 45 47
Dec. 3-4, 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 53 39

 Do you favor or oppose allowing gay or lesbian couples to adopt a child?

Favor Oppose
Feb. 2014 ABC/WP 61% 34%

 Do you think same-sex marriage couples should or should not have the legal right to adopt a child?

Yes No
May 2014 Gallup 63% 35%
American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 63
 And do you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose allowing gays and lesbians to adopt children?

Strongly Strongly
favor Favor Oppose oppose
Sep. 1999 Pew Research Center 10% 28% 30% 27%
Mar. 2006 Pew Research Center 14 32 26 22
Jul. 2006 Pew Research Center 11 31 24 28
Aug. 2008 Pew Research Center 16 30 22 26
Jun. 2012 Pew Research Center 23 28 20 22

 Do you think that homosexual couples should be legally permitted to adopt children or don’t you think so?

Yes, legal No
Aug. 1992 Time/CNN 29% 63%
Jun. 1994 Time/CNN 28 65
Oct. 1998 Time/CNN 35 57
Sep. 2007 Gallup 46 50

 On another subject, thinking about adoption in general, would you favor or oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to
adopt a child?

Favor Oppose
Jun. 1977 Gallup 14% 77%
Mar. 2004 LAT 40 52
Mar. 2006 Pew 46 48
May 2006 ABC/Time 49 48
May 2007 CNN/ORC 57 40

Note: Question wording varies. Gallup asked, “do you think homosexuals should or should not be allowed to adopt
children?” The LA Times asked “do you favor or oppose gay couples legally adopting children?” Pew asked, “As I list
some programs and proposals that are being discussed in this country today, please tell me whether you strongly favor,
favor, oppose, or strongly oppose each…Allowing gays and lesbians to adopt children?” CNN asked, “Do you think gay
or lesbian couples should or should not have the legal right to adopt a child?”
 What about adoption of children by two men or two women who live together as a couple, whether they are married or
not. Do you approve or disapprove or don’t feel strongly about the issue?

-----------Male couple adopting------- ---------Female couple adopting---------
Don’t feel Don’t feel
Approve Disapprove strongly Approve Disapprove strongly
1996 Harris 15% 65% 18% 16% 61% 21%
2000 Harris 21 57 18 22 55 19
2004 Harris 33 45 15 36 43 16










American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 64
 Thinking more generally, I’m going to read you some statements, some of which you will probably agree with, others
you will probably disagree with. The first is…gay and lesbian couples can be as good parents as heterosexuals, do you
completely agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with this statement?

Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
Feb. 7-Sep. 4, 2000* PSRA/Kaiser 32% 22% 11% 28%
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 30 24 11 26

Note: *Question wording was “Now I’m going to read you a series of statements that describe different views about
gays, lesbians and human sexuality. Some statements will probably come very close to describing your own opinions,
while others will not come close at all. As I read each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it,
somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with it.”
 Would you favor or oppose this proposal…allowing gay couples to adopt a child?

Favor Oppose
May 25-26, 1993 US News 24% 70%
Sep. 1-12, 1999 Pew 38 57
 If gay couples are allowed to marry, should it be easy for them to adopt children as it is for heterosexual married
couples, should it be more difficult, or should they not be allowed to adopt at all?

As easy More difficult Not allowed at all
May 1996 PSRA/Newsweek 30% 20% 44%
Jul. 1997 PSRA 30 20 44

 Do you support or oppose allowing same-sex couples to adopt children?

Support adoption Oppose
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 53% 40%
 Do you think homosexual couples should or should not have the legal right to adopt a child?

Should Should not
May 5-7, 2003 Gallup 49% 48%
 Do you approve or disapprove or don’t feel strongly about a male couple adopting a child?

Approve Disapprove
Jan. 6-10, 2000 Harris Interactive 21% 57%

Note: A September 2002 poll in Great Britain found that 44 percent agreed with the statement “Gay couples should
be allowed to adopt children” and 36 percent disagreed. In a 2000 poll the results were 33 percent agreed and 55
percent disagreed. For more information, go to http://www.mori.com/digest/2002/pd021101.shtml.









American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 65








 Are you gay, lesbian, or bisexual?*

Exit poll of voters leaving the polls
Year Self-identified -------How self-identified gays voted------
gay/lesbian/bisexual*
1992 VRS 2% Clinton 72% Bush 14%
1996 VNS 5 Clinton 66 Dole 22
2000 VNS 4 Gore 71 Bush 25
2004 NEP 4 Kerry 77 Bush 23
2008 NEP 4 Obama 70 McCain 27
2012 NEP 5 Obama 76 Romney 22
Note: National exit polls. *Voters check boxes on the exit poll “ballot” if various terms apply to
them.

 In politics today, do you consider yourself a Republican, Democrat, or independent? (Asked of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals
only)

Democrat Republican Independent
Apr. 1993 PSRA/Newsweek 72% 7% 19%
Feb.-Sep. 2000* PSRA/Kaiser 61 8 26
Mar. 2000 PSRA/Newsweek 59 10 27

Note: Asked of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals only.

 Regardless of how you may vote, what do you usually consider yourself – a Republican, a Democrat, an Independent, or
some other party? (Asked of gays and lesbians only)

Democrat Republican Independent
Apr. 2000 Harris Interactive 38% 18% 41%

Note: Asked of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals only.

 In last November’s presidential election, when Clinton ran against Bush and Perot, did things come up that kept you from
voting, or did you happen to vote? (If Yes) Did you happen to vote for Clinton, Bush or Perot? (Asked of gays and lesbians
only)

Clinton Bush Perot
Apr. 1993 PSRA/Newsweek 89% 2% 3%

Note: This is not an exit poll. Asked of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals only


PARTI SAN I DENTI FI CATI ON & VOTI NG OF GAYS, LESBI ANS, AND BI SEXUALS:
Gays, lesbians, and bisexuals have always been strongly Democratic in their voting habits. In
2012, about three-quarters of those who self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual in the exit
poll voted for Barack Obama. However, as with Americans as a whole, growing percentages
consider themselves independent.
66

The 2004 Campaign

 Is it possible you would ever vote for a candidate who does not share your views on the issue of gay marriage, or is the
subject so important that you could not vote for a candidate who disagrees with it?

Yes, would No, would not
Feb. 24-27, 2004 CBS 52% 40%
Mar. 10-14, 2004 CBS/NYT 45 44
May 20-23, 2004 CBS 56 35
Oct. 28-30, 2004 CBS/NYT 64 28
Nov. 18-21, 2004 CBS/NYT 57 33

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Which do you think comes closer to reflecting your own views on the issue of gay marriage-- George W. Bush or John
Kerry?

Bush Kerry
Feb. 5-6, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 38% 29%
July 29-30, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 46 33
Sep. 2-3, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 44 36
Oct. 14-15, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 41 39
Oct. 21-22, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 39 43
Oct. 27-29, 2004 PSRA/Newsweek 46 41

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Now I’d like you to compare George W. Bush and John Kerry on a few issues. For each one, please tell me whether you
think that George W. Bush or John Kerry would be better on that issue. If you think that both would be equally good and
that neither would be good on a particular issue, just say so….Same-sex marriage?

George W. Bush John Kerry Both would Neither
better better be equally good would be good
May 2004 NBC/WSJ 39% 29% 8% 10%
Sep. 17-19, 2004 NBC/WSJ 39 34 7 9
Oct. 16-18, 2004 NBC/WSJ 37 33 11 12
 In response to a question on homosexuality in the last presidential debate, Kerry mentioned that Vice President Dick
Cheney’s daughter is a lesbian. That’s something Cheney has acknowledged. Do you think that it was appropriate or
inappropriate for Kerry to mention it?
Appropriate Not appropriate
Oct. 12-14, 2004^ ABC 33% 64%

Note: ^ Asked of likely voters.

THE 2004, 2008, AND 2012 CAMPAI GNS: In the three most recent presidential elections,
gay marriage has ranked very low among voters’ priorities, and many people have told
pollsters that candidates’ positions on gay marriage would have little bearing on their voting
decisions. Solid majorities consistently said that they would vote for a candidate who differed
with their own views on gay marriage.
67
 Who do you think would do the best job of handling social issues, such as abortion and gay marriage: George W. Bush or
John Kerry?

Bush Kerry
Sep. 25-28, 2004 LAT 43% 41%
 Which one of the following issues will be most important to your vote for president?
Jun. 22 -23, 2004 Fox News
Extremely
important
The economy 26%
Health care/Medicare 16
Terrorism/Homeland security 18
Education 6
Social Security 6
Iraq 5
Foreign policy 5
Taxes 4
Gay marriage 3

Sep. 21-22, 2004 Fox News

Extremely
important
The economy 23%
Health care/Medicare 12
Terrorism/Homeland security 22
Education 5
Social Security 7
Iraq 8
Foreign policy 8
Taxes 4
Gay marriage 4

 Thinking about how the gay marriage issue might affect your vote for major offices, would you only vote for a candidate
who shares your views on gay marriage, consider a candidate’s position on gay marriage as just one of many important
factors when voting, or would you not see gay marriage as a major issue?

Candidates must One of many Not a
share view important factors major issue
May 2-4, 2004 Gallup 16% 46% 35%
May 8-11, 2008 Gallup 16 49 33

 Do you approve or disapprove of the way President Bush is handling the issue of same sex marriage?

Approve Disapprove
Mar. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 44% 52%
Apr. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 45 49

 Who do you trust to do a better job handling the issue of same sex marriage, Bush or Kerry?

Bush Kerry
Mar. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 44% 43%
Apr. 2004 ABC/Wash Post 51 35
68
 “He would do a better job of handling the issue of same-sex marriage”: Does this apply more to George W. Bush or more to
John Kerry?
Bush Kerry
Mar. 27-30, 2004 LAT 36% 35%

 Regardless of how you intend to vote, who do you think would do a better job on gay marriage--George W. Bush or John
Kerry?

Bush Kerry
Mar. 16-22, 2004 Quinnipiac 41% 37%

 Regardless of which presidential candidate you support, please tell me if you think John Kerry or George W. Bush would
handle each of the following issues. How about gay marriage?

Bush Kerry
Mar. 5-7, 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 46% 41%
 I am going to read you a list of some of the issues that will probably be discussed in next year’s presidential
election campaigns. As I read each one, please tell me how important the candidates’ positions on that issue will be in
influencing your vote for president?

Feb. 6-8, 2004 Gallup

Extremely
important
Terrorism 43%
Education 41
Situation in Iraq 39
Economy 38
Healthcare 38
Federal budget deficit 30
Taxes 29
Environment 25
Corporate corruption 23
Abortion 22
Same-sex marriage 22
Foreign affairs 21
Gun policy 21
Immigration 19

 What if a presidential candidate favored gay marriage? Would that make you more likely to support that candidate, less
likely, or wouldn’t it make any difference in your decision to support a particular candidate?

More No Less
likely difference likely
Aug. 8-12, 2003 AP 10% 39% 49%

 If a presidential candidate favored allowing gays and lesbians to form a civil union that would give them the same rights and
benefits as a married couple, would that make you more likely to support that candidate, less likely, or wouldn’t it make any
difference?

More No Less
likely difference likely
Aug. 8-12, 2003 AP 12% 43% 44%
69
The 2008 Campaign

 In making your decision about who to vote for this fall, will the issue of gay marriage be very important, somewhat
important, not too important, or not at all important?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
Oct. 2007 Pew 22% 21% 21% 32%
May 2008 Pew 28 21 19 29
Oct. 2008 Pew 28 21 21 27

Note: Question asked of registered voters.

Demographic breakdown, Party ID

Oct. 2007

Republican 27% 19% 20% 31%
Democrat 20 24 21 30
Independent 21 23 20 33

May 2008

Republican 41% 17% 17% 22%
Democrat 22 25 20 29
Independent 23 19 20 35

 What if a presidential candidate took a position on gay marriage that was different from your own, would you still consider
voting for him because of his position on other issues, or would you not vote for him under any circumstances?

Still consider Not vote
Jun. 2008* Time/Abt SRBI 72% 22%
Jul. 2008# Time/Abt SRBI 72 22

Demographic breakdown, Party ID

Jun. 2008

Republican 65% 31%
Democrat 75 18
Independent 75 20

Jul. 2008

Republican 63% 33%
Democrat 75 17
Independent 78 18

Note: *Question asked of registered voters who said they will definitely/probably vote in the 2008 election. #Question asked
of likely voters.





70
 How important will policies toward gays and lesbians be to your vote for President in 2008?

Extremely Very Moderately Not that important
May 2007 CNN/ORC 13% 15% 30% 41%
Nov. 2007 CNN/ORC 10 17 27 45
Jun. 2008* CNN/ORC 16 20 27 37

Demographic breakdown, Party ID

May 2007

Republican 15% 16% 30% 38%
Democrat 13 17 29 41
Independent 11 14 31 43

Nov. 2007

Republican 12% 16% 25% 47%
Democrat 10 17 30 42
Independent 10 17 26 47

Jun. 2008

Republican 19% 19% 29% 33%
Democrat 15 20 29 36
Independent 14 19 24 43

Note: *Question asked of registered voters.

 If you knew a presidential candidate was a strong supporter of gay rights, including same-sex marriages and gays and
lesbians serving openly in the military, would that make you more or less likely to vote for that candidate—or would it not
make much difference either way?

More Less No difference
Aug. 2007 PRSA/Newsweek 12% 34% 51%

Note: Question asked of registered voters.

 Would the following information about a presidential candidate cause you to vote against this candidate? The candidate was
a strong supporter of full marriage rights for same-sex couples.

Yes No
Mar. 2007 PRSA/Newsweek 38% 59%

Demographic breakdown, Party ID

Republican 49% 47%
Democrat 31 67
Independent 35 63



71
The 2012 Campaign

 Below are some issues facing the country. For each one, indicate whether you approve or disapprove of the way Barack
Obama is handling the issue. . . Gay rights.

Economist/YouGov

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
approve approve disapprove disapprove
Jan. 2-5, 2010 10% 21% 18% 24%
Jan. 10-12, 2010 10 23 16 23
Jan.16-19, 2010 8 23 17 26
Jan. 24-26, 2010 9 23 16 21
Jan. 31-Feb. 2, 2010 10 25 17 23
Feb. 7-9, 2010 12 25 15 23
Feb. 13-16, 2010 14 26 13 21
Feb. 21-23, 2010 14 23 13 25
Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 2010 11 27 13 23
Mar. 6-8, 2010 11 25 13 21
Mar. 13-16, 2010 9 24 15 24
Mar. 20- 22, 2010 11 22 18 23
Mar. 27-30, 2010 11 23 14 24
Apr. 3-6, 2010 10 23 15 24
Apr. 10- 13, 2010 12 24 11 23
Apr. 17-20, 2010 10 25 13 23
Apr. 24-27, 2010 11 27 14 24
May 1-4, 2010 11 25 15 23
May 8-11, 2010 10 24 14 24
May 15-18, 2010 11 24 15 25
May 22-25, 2010 9 26 14 23
May 29-Jun. 1, 2010 13 24 12 24
Jun. 5-8, 2010 12 24 14 24
Jun. 12-15, 2010 12 23 13 25
Jun. 19-22, 2010 14 24 12 26
Jun. 26-29, 2010 10 24 14 27
Jul 3-6, 2010 12 26 15 24
Jul. 10-13, 2010 12 24 13 25
Jul. 17-20, 2010 12 23 12 24
Jul.24-27, 2010 10 25 15 24
Jul. 31- Aug. 3, 2010 10 22 14 23
Aug. 7-10, 2010 11 23 17 26
Aug. 14-17, 2010 9 22 15 30
Aug. 28-31, 2010 9 22 17 28
Sep. 4-7, 2010 10 24 13 25
Sep. 11-14, 2010 11 23 15 27
Sep. 18-21, 2010 12 23 16 27
Sep. 25-28, 2010 10 24 15 26
Oct. 2-5, 2010 9 26 18 24
Oct. 9-12, 2010 9 24 15 26
Oct. 16-19, 2010 11 24 18 26
Oct. 23-26, 2010 10 25 17 27
Oct. 28- Nov. 1, 2010 10 26 17 28
Nov. 6-9, 2010 10 22 17 25
Nov. 13-16, 2010 7 24 17 27
72
Nov. 20-23, 2010 9 25 17 26
Nov. 27-30, 2010 10 24 16 25
Dec. 4-7, 2010 11 25 15 26
Dec. 11-14, 2010 8 21 21 26
Dec. 18-21, 2010 17 24 13 26
Dec. 25- 28, 2010 21 23 13 25
Jan. 1-4, 2011 18 25 11 26
Jan. 8-11, 2011 16 27 11 25
Jan. 15-18, 2011 17 24 13 24
Jan. 22-25, 2011 18 23 11 24
Jan. 29- Feb. 1, 2011 16 27 12 23
Feb. 5- 8, 2011 16 28 13 22
Feb. 12-15, 2010 16 22 13 25
Feb. 19-22, 2011 16 24 12 24
Feb. 26-Mar. 1, 2011 17 23 11 26
Mar. 5- 8, 2011 15 24 13 26
Mar. 12-15, 2011 16 24 13 24
Mar. 19-22, 2011 15 24 14 22
Mar. 26-29, 2011 12 23 12 27
Apr. 2-5, 2011 15 23 14 25
Apr. 9-12, 2011 13 24 13 26
Apr. 16-19, 2011 12 26 12 24
Apr. 23-26, 2011 12 25 12 23
Apr 30-May 3, 2011 15 21 14 23
May 7-10, 2011 11 28 14 21
May 14- 17, 2011 13 22 13 23
May 21-24, 2011 12 26 12 28
May 28-31, 2011 13 21 14 23
Jun. 4-7, 2011 12 25 13 24
Jul. 2-5, 2011 13 24 13 27
Jul. 9-12, 2011 13 24 11 24
Jul. 16-19, 2011 14 26 13 25
Jul. 23-26, 2011 14 26 13 24
Jul. 30-Aug. 2, 2011 14 24 13 25
Aug. 6-9, 2011 14 24 13 25
Aug. 13-16, 2011 13 23 10 25
Aug. 20-23, 2011 12 25 11 25
Aug. 27-30, 2011 10 25 12 24
Sep. 3-6, 2011 15 21 13 23
Sep. 17-20, 2011 12 21 13 26
Sep. 24-27, 2011 17 20 11 28
Oct. 1-4, 2011 18 21 11 24
Oct. 8-11, 2011 17 21 10 28
Oct. 15-18, 2011 15 23 13 26
Oct. 22-25, 2011 14 24 12 26
Oct. 29-Nov. 1, 2011 15 24 11 23
Nov. 5-8, 2011 14 21 13 28
Nov. 12-15, 2011 14 25 13 22
Nov. 19-22, 2011 13 25 12 25
Nov. 26-29, 2011 14 21 11 26
Dec. 3-6, 2011 14 23 11 27
Dec. 10-13, 2011 15 20 12 27
Dec. 17-20, 2011 14 21 13 25
Dec. 31, 2011-Jan. 3, 2012 13 25 14 20
73
Jan. 7-10, 2012 14 23 13 24
Jan. 14-17, 2012 14 25 13 23
Jan. 21-24, 2012 13 24 16 21
Feb. 11-14, 2012 12 23 14 22
Feb. 18-21, 2012 13 28 12 24
Feb. 25-28, 2012 10 26 13 26
Mar. 3-6, 2012 11 23 16 25
Mar. 10-13, 2012 11 25 12 27
Mar. 17-20, 2012 12 22 15 28
Mar. 24-27, 2012 10 21 14 27
Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 2012 10 24 15 25
Apr. 7-10, 2012 9 23 13 25
Apr. 14-16, 2012 9 23 15 24
Apr. 21-23, 2012 20 28 14 24
Apr. 28-30, 2012 11 24 13 25
May 5-7, 2012 9 23 16 25
May 12-14, 2012 18 23 11 33
May 19-21, 2012 20 19 12 32
May 26-28, 2012 20 21 12 32
Jun. 2-4, 2012 17 21 12 30
Jun. 9-11, 2012 18 21 13 30
Jun. 16-18, 2012 20 17 10 36
Jun. 23-25, 2012 19 20 12 32
Jun. 30-Jul. 2, 2012 20 19 9 31
Jul. 7-9, 2012 18 17 11 31
Jul. 14-16, 2012 21 19 8 31
Jul. 21-23, 2012 14 21 12 36
Jul. 28-30, 2012 17 21 12 31
Aug. 4-6, 2012 17 22 11 31
Aug. 11-13, 2012 18 18 12 34
Aug. 18-22, 2012 18 17 9 33
Aug. 25-27, 2012 17 19 12 33
Sep. 1-3, 2012 19 20 9 32
Sep. 8-10, 2012 22 21 13 29
Sep. 15-17, 2012 25 21 10 33
Sep. 22-24, 2012 26 19 11 30
Sep. 29-Oct. 1, 2012 19 23 10 27
Oct. 6-8, 2012 22 18 9 31
Oct. 13-15, 2012 21 21 10 32
Oct. 20-22, 2012 21 20 9 29
Oct. 26-28, 2012 22 21 8 32
Nov. 3-5, 2012 22 22 9 30
Nov. 10-12, 2012 21 21 10 28
Nov. 17-19, 2012 28 15 8 29
Nov. 23-26, 2012 20 19 9 29
Dec. 1-3, 2012 22 22 8 31
Dec. 8-10, 2012 18 24 8 28
Dec. 15-17, 2012 21 21 11 23
Dec. 22-24, 2012 18 22 11 25
Jan. 5-7, 2013 22 24 9 21
Jan. 12-14, 2013 19 20 11 28
Jan. 19-21, 2013 15 21 7 26
Jan. 26-28, 2013 23 22 10 26
Feb. 2-4, 2013 19 18 12 31
74
Feb. 9-11, 2013 22 20 10 29
Feb. 16-18, 2013 21 21 11 29
Feb. 23-25, 2013 20 20 10 28
Mar. 2-4, 2013 21 19 10 29
Mar. 9-11, 2013 20 19 9 32
Mar. 16-18, 2013 20 19 11 29
Mar. 23-25, 2013 18 23 10 28
Mar. 30-Apr. 1, 2013 20 22 10 28
Apr. 6-8, 2013 18 22 13 28
Apr. 13-15, 2013 22 21 11 28
Apr. 20-22, 2013 19 19 10 29
Apr. 27-29, 2013 18 16 12 31
May 4-6, 2013 21 20 8 27
May 11-13, 2013 20 18 10 31
May 18-20, 2013 19 24 9 30
May 25-27, 2013 19 22 11 32
Jun. 1-3, 2013 19 25 11 29
Jun. 8-10, 2013 19 21 14 28
Jun. 15-17, 2013 16 21 11 32
Jun. 22-24, 2013 18 20 11 32
Jun. 29-Jul. 1, 2013 19 19 9 36
Jul. 6-8, 2013 18 20 9 33
Jul. 13-15, 2013 20 22 9 30
Jul. 20-22, 2013 18 20 9 34
Jul. 27-29, 2013 18 19 9 33
Aug. 3-5, 2013 18 23 9 36
Aug. 10-12, 2013 19 21 7 31
Aug. 17-19, 2013 21 19 13 32
Aug. 24-26, 2013 16 22 9 33
Aug. 31-Sept. 2, 2013 18 20 10 33
Sept. 7-9, 2013 19 19 11 29
Sept. 14-16, 2013 19 20 9 30
Sept. 21-23, 2013 18 21 9 31
Sept. 28-30, 2013 20 23 10 26
Oct. 5-7, 2013 18 21 11 27
Oct. 12-14, 2013 20 22 11 28
Oct. 19-21, 2013 19 21 8 30
Oct. 26-28, 2013 18 20 11 27
Nov. 2-4, 2013 16 23 7 32
Nov. 9-11, 2013 16 21 12 30
Nov. 16-18, 2013 20 19 11 27
Nov. 23-25, 2013 15 22 11 32
Nov. 30-Dec. 2, 2013 18 21 9 31
Dec. 7-9, 2013 20 22 10 31
Dec. 14-16, 2013 16 23 11 31
Dec. 21-23, 2013 19 22 12 31
Dec. 28-30, 2013 16 21 12 28
Jan. 4-6, 2014 18 25 11 29
Jan. 11-13, 2014 17 23 12 29
Jan. 18-20, 2014 17 24 11 28
Jan. 25-27, 2014 21 23 13 27
Feb. 1-3, 2014 17 29 12 25
75
 How important will each of the following issues be to your vote for President [next/this year] – will it be extremely
important, very important, moderately important, or not that important? …Gay marriage.

Extremely Very Moderately Not that
important important important important
Jun. 2011 CNN/ORC 17% 17% 21% 45%
Jul. 2012 CNN/ORC 19 16 22 42

 And please tell me if you approve, disapprove or neither approve nor disapprove the way Barack Obama is handling each of
the following issues. How about same sex marriage?

Approve Disapprove Neither
Aug. 2011 AP-GfK/Roper 43% 47% 4%
Jun. 2012 AP-GfK/Roper 47 48 3
 In deciding who would like to see elected President this year, which one of the following issues be most important to you?

May 2012 CBS/NYT

The economy and jobs 62%
The federal budget deficit 11
Health care 9
Same-sex marriage 7
Foreign policy 4
Immigration 2
Something else 3
DK/NA 2

 Does Barack Obama’s support of same-sex marriage make you more likely to vote for him, less likely to vote for him, or
wouldn’t it affect how you will vote one way or another?

More likely Less likely No effect
May 2012 CBS/NYT 16% 25% 58%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Does Mitt Romney’s opposition to same-sex marriage make you more likely to vote for him, less likely to vote for him, or
wouldn’t it affect how you will vote one way or another?

More likely Less likely No effect
May 2012 CBS/NYT 23% 14% 59%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Would you be more likely to support Barack Obama because he supports same-sex marriage, Mitt Romney because he
opposes same-sex marriage—or does this not make much different in how you might vote? And, would it be much more
likely to vote for Barack Obama because he supports or Mitt Romney because he opposes same-sex marriage, or just
somewhat more likely?

May 2012 NBC/WSJ

Much more likely vote for Barack Obama 13%
Somewhat more likely vote for Barack Obama 4
76
Somewhat more likely vote for Mitt Romney 6
Much more likely to vote for Mitt Romney 14
No difference 62

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 I’d like to ask you about how important some issues are to you. In making your decision about who to vote for this fall, will
the issue of gay marriage be very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
important important important important
*Aug. 2004 Pew 34% 19% 15% 30%
*Oct. 2004 Pew 32 22 19 24
*Oct. 2007 Pew 22 21 21 32
*May 2008 Pew 28 21 19 29
*Aug. 2008 Pew 28 20 18 32
*Oct. 2008 Pew 28 21 21 27
*Jul.–Aug. 2010 Pew 31 20 17 31
^Apr. 2012 Pew 28 20 18 30

*Asked of registered voters.
^Asked of registered voters in a form b half sample.



 There's been a lot of discussion about the way morals and attitudes about sex are changing in this country. If a man and
woman have sex relations before marriage, do you think it is always wrong, almost always wrong, wrong only sometimes,
or not wrong at all?

---------------Premarital sexual relations----------
Always wrong Almost always Only sometimes Not wrong
1972 NORC/GSS 36% 11% 25% 28%
1974 NORC/GSS 33 13 24 30
1975 NORC/GSS 31 12 25 32
1977 NORC/GSS 31 10 23 36
1978 NORC/GSS 28 12 20 40
1982 NORC/GSS 29 9 21 41
1983 NORC/GSS 28 9 25 36
1985 NORC/GSS 28 9 20 44
1986 NORC/GSS 28 9 23 40
1988 NORC/GSS 26 10 22 41
1989 NORC/GSS 28 9 23 40
1990 NORC/GSS 25 11 25 40
1991 NORC/GSS 28 10 20 42
1993 NORC/GSS 27 10 22 41

COMPARI SONS WI TH OTHER I SSUES: NORC data indicates that Americans have
become more accepting of premarital sex; slightly more than half of Americans say that it is
not wrong at all. However, attitudes towards extramarital sexual relations have become
slightly more conservative. In 1973, seven in ten Americans said that extramarital sex was
always wrong; in 2012, eight in ten gave that answer.
77
1994 NORC/GSS 26 10 21 44
1996 NORC/GSS 24 10 23 44
1998 NORC/GSS 27 9 21 43
2000 NORC/GSS 28 9 21 42
2002 NORC/GSS 28 8 20 44
2004 NORC/GSS 27 10 19 44
2006 NORC/GSS 26 9 20 46
2008 NORC/GSS 23 7 15 55
2010 NORC/GSS 21 8 18 53
2012 NORC/GSS 21 5 15 56

Note: Asked of 2/3 sample.

Cohort Analysis of NORC Data
Premarital sex not wrong at all
Generation Gap 1972-2010
---------------------------------------------AGE-----------------------------------------
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+
1972 NORC/GSS 49 37 25 19 19 15
1985 NORC/GSS 50 57 54 39 26 27
1996 NORC/GSS 52 49 49 48 33 21
2010 NORC/GSS 54 64 56 55 52 37


 What about a married person having sexual relations with someone other than the marriage partner, it is always wrong,
almost always wrong, wrong only sometimes, or not wrong at all?


Always wrong Almost always Only sometimes Not wrong
1973 NORC/GSS 70% 15% 12% 4%
1974 NORC/GSS 74 12 12 3
1976 NORC/GSS 69 16 12 4
1977 NORC/GSS 73 14 10 3
1980 NORC/GSS 71 16 10 4
1982 NORC/GSS 73 13 11 3
1984 NORC/GSS 71 18 9 2
1985 NORC/GSS 75 14 9 3
1987 NORC/GSS 73 15 9 3
1988 NORC/GSS 79 13 6 2
1989 NORC/GSS 78 13 7 2
1990 NORC/GSS 79 13 7 1
1991 NORC/GSS 77 14 7 3
1993 NORC/GSS 77 14 6 3
1994 NORC/GSS 79 13 7 2
1996 NORC/GSS 78 15 5 2
1998 NORC/GSS 79 13 6 2
2000 NORC/GSS 79 11 7 3
78
2002 NORC/GSS 79 13 4 2
2004 NORC/GSS 80 12 5 2
2006 NORC/GSS 81 11 5 2
2008 NORC/GSS 83 9 5 1
2010 NORC/GSS 79 12 6 2
2012 NORC/GSS 81 11 6 1

Note: Asked of 2/3 sample.

Cohort Analysis of NORC Data
Extramarital sex always wrong
Generation Gap 1991-2008
---------------------------------------------AGE-----------------------------------------
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+
1991 NORC/GSS 75 71 65 81 73 83
1994 NORC/GSS 79 80 77 77 88 87
1998 NORC/GSS 85 77 81 79 84 82
2008 NORC/GSS 85 74 85 79 84 83

 Next, I’m going to read you a list of issues. Regardless of whether or not you think it should be legal, for each one,
please tell me whether you personally believe that in general it is morally acceptable or morally wrong. How about…?

Gallup 2001 2002 2003
Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally
acceptable wrong acceptable wrong acceptable wrong
Abortion 42% 45% 38% 53% 37% 53%
The death penalty 63 27 65 28 64 31
Doctor assisted suicide 49 40 50 44 45 49
Medical testing on animals 65 26 63 30 63 33
Buying and wearing clothing made of
animal fur 60 32 59 35 60 36
Sex between an unmarried man and woman 53 42 53 42 58 41
Married men and women having an affair 7 89 9 87 6 93
Divorce 59 28 63 28 66 27
Cloning animals 31 63 29 66 29 68
Cloning humans 7 88 7 90 8 90
Suicide 13 78 12 83 14 81
Medical research using stem cells
obtained from human embryos NA NA 52 39 54 38
Having a baby outside of marriage NA NA 45 50 51 46
Gambling NA NA NA NA 63 34
Polygamy, when one husband has more
than one wife at the same time NA NA NA NA 7 92
Homosexual behavior 40 53 38 55 44 52





79
2004 2005 2006
Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally
acceptable wrong acceptable wrong acceptable wrong
Abortion 40% 50% 40% 51% 43% 44%
The death penalty 65 28 70 25 71 22
Doctor assisted suicide 53 41 49 46 50 41
Medical testing on animals 62 32 66 30 61 32
Buying and wearing clothing made of
animal fur 63 31 64 32 62 32
Sex between an unmarried man and woman 60 36 58 39 59 37
Married men and women having an affair 7 91 5 93 4 93
Divorce 66 26 66 27 67 24
Cloning animals 32 64 35 61 29 65
Cloning humans 9 88 9 87 8 88
Suicide 15 79 13 82 15 78
Medical research using stem cells
obtained from human embryos 54 37 60 33 61 30
Having a baby outside of marriage 49 45 54 43 51 43
Gambling 66 30 64 32 60 34
Polygamy, when one husband has more than
one wife at the same time 7 91 6 92 5 93
Homosexual behavior* 42 54 44 52 44 51

2007 2008 2009
Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally
acceptable wrong acceptable wrong acceptable wrong
Abortion 40% 51% 40% 48% 36% 56%
The death penalty 66 27 62 30 62 30
Doctor assisted suicide 49 44 51 44 39 56
Medical testing on animals 59 37 56 38 57 36
Buying and wearing clothing made of
animal fur 58 38 54 39 61 35
Sex between an unmarried man and woman 59 38 61 36 57 40
Married men and women having an affair 6 91 7 91 6 92
Divorce 65 26 70 22 62 30
Cloning animals 36 59 33 61 34 63
Cloning humans 11 86 11 85 9 88
Suicide 16 78 15 78 15 80
Medical research using stem cells
obtained from human embryos 64 30 62 30 57 36
Having a baby outside of marriage 54 42 55 41 51 45
Gambling 63 32 63 32 58 36
Polygamy, when one husband has more than
one wife at the same time 8 90 8 90 7 91
Homosexual behavior* 47 49 48 48 49 47









80
2010 2011 2012
Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally Morally
acceptable wrong acceptable wrong acceptable wrong
Abortion 38% 50% 39% 51% 38 51
The death penalty 65 26 65 28 58 34
Doctor assisted suicide 46 46 45 48 45 48
Medical testing on animals 59 34 55 38 55 38
Buying and wearing clothing made of
animal fur 60 35 56 39 60 35
Sex between an unmarried man and woman 59 38 60 36 59 38
Married men and women having an affair 6 92 7 91 7 89
Divorce 69 23 69 23 67 25
Cloning animals 31 63 32 62 34 60
Cloning humans 9 88 12 84 10 86
Suicide 15 77 15 80 14 80
Medical research using stem cells
obtained from human embryos 59 32 62 30 58 33
Having a baby outside of marriage 54 40 54 41 54 42
Gambling 61 34 64 31 64 31
Polygamy, when one husband has more than
one wife at the same time 7 90 11 86 11 86
Homosexual behavior* 52 43 56 39 54 42
Pornography NA NA 30 66 31 64
Birth control NA NA NA NA 89 8

2014
Morally Morally
acceptable wrong
Abortion 42% 48%
The death penalty 61 30
Doctor assisted suicide 52 43
Medical testing on animals 57 38
Buying and wearing clothing made of
animal fur 58 37
Sex between an unmarried man and woman 66 31
Married men and women having an affair 7 91
Divorce 69 22
Cloning animals 34 60
Cloning humans 13 83
Suicide 19 74
Medical research using stem cells
Obtained from human embryos 65 27
Having a baby outside of marriage 58 38
Gambling 62 33
Polygamy, when one husband has more than
One wife at the same time 14 84
Homosexual behavior* 58 38
Pornography 33 64
Birth control 90 7

Note: This was changed to “homosexual relations” in 2005, and then to “gay and lesbian relations” in 2009.

81
 Now I am going to read a list of things that some people do. For each, thinking about your own values and morals, I’d like
you to tell me whether you think it is: always acceptable; acceptable in some situations but not in others; unacceptable, but
should be tolerated by society; or unacceptable and should not be tolerated . . . ?

Jul.-Aug. 2003 Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard

Always Sometimes Not
acceptable acceptable Tolerated acceptable
Marriages between blacks and whites 52% 23% 11% 12%
Sex before marriage 21 34 19 24
Divorce 19 57 14 9
Drinking alcohol 16 57 9 17
Having a child without being married 16 41 23 18
Sex between two adults of the
same sex 13 14 18 53
Marriages between two persons
of the same sex 13 10 15 61
Abortion 9 42 10 38
Making a sexist remark in a private
conversation 6 26 15 52
Smoking marijuana 5 26 12 55
Making a racist remark in a private
conversation 4 13 14 68
A married person having an affair 1 10 17 72

 Do you favor or oppose state laws that regulate consenting sexual relations that occur in the private home of an…?

Apr. 17-23, 2003 Harris Interactive
Favor Oppose
Adult married opposite-sex couple 13% 87%
Adult unmarried opposite-sex couple 14 86
Adult same-sex couple in a domestic partnership 18 82
Adult same-sex couple not in a domestic partnership 18 82






 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Homosexual relationships are morally wrong.

Agree Disagree Neither
Feb. 2010 Harvard IOP 29% 38% 29%
Mar. 2011 Harvard IOP 25 42 29
Apr. 2012 Harvard IOP 25 42 33
Apr. 2013 Harvard IOP 27 41 31
Apr. 2014 Harvard IOP 27 46 26

Note: Sample is of 18-29 year olds.

YOUTH ATTI TUDES: Not surprisingly, young people’s attitudes towards homosexuality
and gay marriage are consistently more liberal than those of the population as a whole.
Around three-quarters of college freshmen say they support same-sex marriage, and slightly
more agree that gay couples should have the ability to adopt a child.
82
 (How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements?...Strongly agree, somewhat agree, neither agree
nor disagree, somewhat disagree, strongly disagree)...Homosexual relationships are morally wrong.

Strongly Somewhat Neither agree Somewhat Strongly
agree agree nor disagree disagree disagree
Mar. 20-Apr. 8, 2013 Harvard IOP 18% 9% 31% 38% 33%
Mar. 22-Apr. 4, 2014 Harvard IOP 19 8 26 8 37

Note: Sample is of 18-29 year olds.

 It is important to have laws prohibiting homosexual relationships.

---------------College freshmen---------------
Strongly agree or
agree somewhat
1976 UCLA-CIRP* 47%
1977 UCLA-CIRP 49
1978 UCLA-CIRP 46
1979 UCLA-CIRP 47
1980 UCLA-CIRP 49
1981 UCLA-CIRP 49
1982 UCLA-CIRP 47
1983 UCLA-CIRP 49
1984 UCLA-CIRP 48
1985 UCLA-CIRP 48
1986 UCLA-CIRP 52
1987 UCLA-CIRP 53
1988 UCLA-CIRP 49
1989 UCLA-CIRP 45
1990 UCLA-CIRP 44
1991 UCLA-CIRP 42
1992 UCLA-CIRP 38
1993 UCLA-CIRP 36
1994 UCLA-CIRP 34
1995 UCLA-CIRP 31
1996 UCLA-CIRP 34
1997 UCLA-CIRP 34
1998 UCLA-CIRP 33
1999 UCLA-CIRP 30
2000 UCLA-CIRP 30
2001 UCLA-CIRP 26
2002 UCLA-CIRP 25
2003 UCLA-CIRP 26
2004 UCLA-CIRP 30
2005 UCLA-CIRP 27
2006 UCLA-CIRP 26
2007 UCLA-CIRP 24
2008 UCLA-CIRP 23

Note: *Cooperative Institutional Research Program, American Freshman Study, University of California at Los
Angeles.



83
 Same-sex couples should have the right to legal marital status.

------College freshmen------
Strongly agree or
agree somewhat
1997 UCLA-CIRP 50%
1998 UCLA-CIRP 49
1999 UCLA-CIRP 52
2000 UCLA-CIRP 56
2001 UCLA-CIRP 58
2002 UCLA-CIRP 59
2003 UCLA-CIRP 59
2005 UCLA-CIRP 60
2006 UCLA-CIRP 65
2007 UCLA-CIRP 68
2008 UCLA-CIRP 66
2009 UCLA-CIRP 65
2011 UCLA-CIRP 71
2012 UCLA-CIRP 75

 Gays and lesbians should have the legal right to adopt a child.

------College freshmen------
Strongly agree or
agree somewhat
2010 UCLA-CIRP 77%
2013 UCLA-CIRP 83

 Which comes closest to your view? Gay couples should be allowed to legally marry, gay couples should be allowed to
form civil unions but not legally marry, there should be no legal recognition of a gay couple’s relationship?

Legally marry Civil unions No legal recognition
Jun. 2007 CBS/MTV/NYT 44% 24% 30%
Note: Sample is 17 to 29 year-olds.

 Do you think being a homosexual is something people choose to be, or do you think it is something they cannot change?

Choose Cannot change
Jun. 2007 CBS/MTV/NYT 43% 50%
Note: Sample is 17 to 29 year-olds.

 Do you think homosexual relations between adults are morally wrong, or are they okay, or don’t you care much either
way?
Wrong Okay Don’t care
May 30-Jun. 9, 2006 MTV/CBS 30% 27% 43%

Note: National sample of 13-24 year olds. Forty-nine percent of adults said “morally wrong” while 13 percent said
okay. Thirty-six percent did not care.



84
 Do you personally know anyone who is gay or lesbian?
Yes No
May 30-Jun. 9, 2006 MTV/CBS 77% 23%

Note: National sample of 13-24 year olds.

 Do you have a close friend or family member who is gay or lesbian?

Yes No
May 30-Jun. 9, 2006 MTV/CBS 49% 51%

Note: National sample of 13-24 year olds.

 Would you favor or oppose a Constitutional amendment that would define marriage as specifically involving a man and a
woman, making same-sex marriages illegal and unconstitutional?

Favor Oppose
Jan. 2-18, 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek/MSNBC 43% 54%

Note: Asked of 18-29 year old registered voters.
 Should same-sex marriages be legal, or not?

Should Should not
Jan. 2-18, 2004 Ipsos/Newsweek/MSNBC 50% 47%

Note: Asked of 18-29 year old registered voters.









 (Now, as I read some statements on a few different topics, please tell to what extent you agree or disagree with each
one.)...Bullying of gay and lesbian teenagers is a major problem in our schools...Do you completely agree, mostly agree,
mostly disagree or completely disagree?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely Don’t know/
agree agree disagree disagree Refused
Nov. 2013 PRRI 35% 31% 14% 9% 10%

 College football player, Michael Sam is slated to be part of the 2014 NFL (National Football League) draft and has publicly
announced he is gay. If drafted he will become the first openly gay football player in the NFL. Do you think his
announcement if his sexual orientation will make NFL teams more likely to pick him in the draft, less likely to pick him, or
not make any difference to his selection in the NFL draft?

More likely Less likely Won’t make any difference
Apr. 2014 Marist 6% 25% 65%


MI SCELLANEOUS: According to Quinnipiac, more than half of registered voters in 2013
said that the Boy Scouts should end their ban on openly gay members. Americans are evenly
divided on which party they think would be better at handling the issue of gay marriage. A
clear majority also say they do not view gay marriage as a threat to traditional marriage.
85
 Do you think The Boy Scouts of America should continue its ban on openly gay members or end its ban on openly gay
members?

Continue ban End ban
Jan. 2013 Quinnipiac 33% 55%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Do you think the Boy Scouts of America should or should not allow openly gay adults to serve as Boy Scout leaders?

Yes, should allow No, should not No opinion
Nov. 2012 Gallup/USA Today 42% 52% 6%

 Do you think each state should make its own laws on same-sex marriage, or do you think the federal government should
make one law for all states on this issue?

Each state Fed. government Unsure
May 2012 ABC/Wash Post 49% 46% 5%

 Here is a list of some statements. For each one, please tell me how much you agree with it – do you completely agree,
mostly agree, mostly disagree, agree more than disagree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree more than agree, mostly
disagree, or do you completely disagree with the statement…Government should stay out of people’s personal lives, that is
their choices about relationships, sex, family life, etc.?

----------------------Govt. should stay out of personal lives-------------------------
Completely Mostly Agree Disagree Mostly Completely
agree agree more Neither more disagree disagree
Oct. 1995 Roper GfK-NOP 1% 39% 27% 16% 10% 5% 2%
Oct. 1997 Roper GfK-NOP 1 38 30 16 9 3 2
Oct. 2000 Roper GfK-NOP 1 36 33 17 7 3 3
 Thinking more generally, I’m going to read you some statements, some of which you will probably agree with, others
you will probably disagree with. The first is…society should not put any restrictions on sex between consenting adults in
the privacy of their own home, do you completely agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or completely disagree with
this statement?

Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
agree agree disagree disagree
Feb. 7-Sep. 4, 2000* PSRA/Kaiser 76% 12% 4% 6%
Oct. 15-19, 2003 Pew 61 19 5 8

Note: *Wording was “Now I’m going to read you a series of statements that describe different views about gays, lesbians
and human sexuality. Some statements will probably come very close to describing your own opinions, while others will
not come close at all. As I read each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it, somewhat agree, somewhat
disagree, or completely disagree with it.”

 As you may know, the Episcopal Church has given its bishops the option of allowing clergy to bless the committed
relationships of gay or lesbian couples. Do you approve or disapprove of this decision?

Approve Disapprove
Aug. 7-11, 2003 Wash Post 33% 60%

86
 Now thinking about your own religious faith or denomination, would you approve or disapprove of giving local churches
the option of blessing committed relationships of gay or lesbian couples?

Approve Disapprove
Aug. 7-11, 2003 Wash Post 31% 63%

 If the church you regularly attend decided to allow blessings of gay or lesbian couples, would you continue to attend that
church or would you look for another church to attend?

Continue Look for
to attend another
Aug. 7-11, 2003 Wash Post 48% 47%

 I’m going to read you some positions that someone running for Congress could take. For each, please tell me whether
you would be more likely to vote for a candidate for Congress who takes this position, less likely to vote for this candidate,
or would it not make a difference to you either way? Favors adding an amendment to the Constitution that bans gay
marriage.

More likely Less likely No difference
Jun. 9-12, 2006 NBC/WSJ 37% 39% 22%

 If a candidate for US Congress supports...gay marriage, would that make you more likely to vote for that candidate, less
likely or wouldn't it make much difference in your vote?

More likely Less likely Wouldn’t make much difference
Feb. 2014 ABC 28% 25% 46%

 Do you think the Republicans in Congress or the Democrats in Congress would do a better job of dealing with each of
the following issues and problems? How about…same-sex marriage?

Republicans Democrats
Jun. 23-25, 2006 Gallup/USA Today 34% 47%

 Which political party is closer to your own opinion on the issue of...gay marriage, the Democrats or the Republicans?

Democrats Republicans Both Neither No opinion
Jan. 2014 ABC 45% 33% 2% 8% 12%
Apr. 2014 ABC 45 31 2 8 16

 When it comes to dealing with gay marriage, which party do you think would do a better job—the Democratic party, the
Republican party, or both about the same? If you think that neither would do a good job, please just say so.

Democrats Republicans Both Neither
Dec. 2003 NBC/WSJ 33% 26% 10% 13%
Jan. 2004 NBC/WSJ 31 28 16 14
Jun. 2006 NBC/WSJ 35 21 16 20

 Please tell me whether you think the following groups are generally friendly or unfriendly toward gay, lesbian, bisexual and
transgender people....The Democratic Party...Do you think...the Democratic Party is very friendly, somewhat friendly, somewhat
unfriendly or very unfriendly toward gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Don’t know/
friendly friendly unfriendly unfriendly Refused
Nov. 2013 PRRI 31% 39% 9% 5% 16%
87
 (Please tell me whether you think the following groups are generally friendly or unfriendly toward gay, lesbian, bisexual and
transgender people.)...The Republican Party...Do you think...the Republican Party is very friendly, somewhat friendly, somewhat
unfriendly or very unfriendly toward gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Don’t know/
friendly friendly unfriendly unfriendly Refused
Nov. 2013 PRRI 5% 23% 27% 27% 18%

 Thinking about the Republican Party's position on some issues, do you think the Republican Party is too conservative, not
conservative enough, or about right when it comes to...gay marriage?

Too conservative Not conservative enough About right
Jul. 2013 PRRI 30% 28% 31%

 Do you think the question of whether gay marriage should be legal is something that should be decided at the national
level, or is it something that each state should decide for itself?

National State
Jul. 6-19, 2006 SRB/Pew Research Center 48% 46%

 Do you think the question of whether gay marriage should be legal is something that should be decided at the national level,
or is it something that each state should decide for itself?

National level State level
Nov. 2013 PRRI 43% 52%

 Some people say that not allowing same-sex couples to get married is discrimination. Do you agree or disagree?

It’s discrimination not
allowing same-sex
couples to get married Is not
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 45% 51%

 Some people say that same-sex marriage is a threat to traditional marriage between a man and woman. Do you agree or
disagree?

Gay marriage is a threat
to traditional marriage It isn’t
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 39% 58%

 Under current federal law states can refuse to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states. Do you think this law
should remain in existence or not?

Law should remain No, it shouldn’t
Apr. 21-27, 2009 Quinnipiac 50% 44%
Jul. 5-11, 2011 Quinnipiac 44 49

 If a gay or lesbian couple gets legally married in another state, do you think that marriage should or should not be
recognized as legal in your state?
Should be Should not be
Apr. 21-24, 2009 ABC/Wash Post 53% 43%



88
 Do you think states should give legal recognition to same-sex marriages performed in other states or not?

Should Should not Unsure
Jul. 2008 Quinnipiac 44% 50% 6%

Note: Asked of registered voters.
 Do you think laws regarding whether same-sex marriage is legal or not should be determined by the federal government or
left to each individual state government to decide?

Federal government State government
May 2012 CBS/NYT 32% 57%
Feb 2014 CBS/NYT 33% 64%

 In general, do you think straight people in your community who have traditional religious values are tolerant of gays and
lesbians and their beliefs, or not?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
tolerant tolerant intolerant intolerant
May 2009 Fox News 22% 45% 14% 14%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 In general, do you think gays and lesbians in your community are tolerant of straight people who have traditional religious
values and their beliefs, or not?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
tolerant tolerant intolerant intolerant
May 2009 Fox News 32% 43% 10% 9%

Note: Asked of registered voters.

 Some people say that ending discrimination against gay men and women is as necessary today as ending discrimination
against blacks was in the 1960s. Do you agree or disagree?

Agree Disagree Unsure
Apr. 2009 Quinnipiac 44% 50% 6%

 Just your impression, in the United States today, is there a lot of discrimination against...gay and lesbian people, or not?

Yes, there is a lot of discrimination No, there is not a lot of discrimination
Nov. 2013 PRRI 68% 27%

 How much, if at all, do your religious beliefs determine your views on the issue of gay marriage? Are your religious beliefs
very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important in determining your views on gay marriage?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
important important important important
Dec. 2008 PSRA/Newsweek 41% 21% 11% 23%





89
Additional Polls:

A number of survey organizations poll gays and lesbians about their attitudes. Some of them are listed here.
 A January 2000 survey by MORI (Market & Opinion Research International) provides data on British attitudes toward
homosexuality. It can be found at http://www.mori.com/polls/2000/m000127.shtml.

 The Kaiser Family Foundation’s poll of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals and their attitudes regarding sexual orientation and
public issues, conducted from February to September 2000, can be found at
http://www.kff.org/content/2001/3193/LGB%20Revised%20Release.pdf.

 Zogby International, GLCensus Partners, The S.I. Newhouse School at Syracuse, OpusComm Group and GSociety are
polling gays, lesbians, and bisexuals regularly about their attitudes (see http://www.zogby.com).

 PSRA/Newsweek has conducted four surveys on the attitudes of gays and lesbians, most recently in March 2000. The
other surveys were conducted in July 1998, June 1994, and April 1993.

 Harris Interactive does surveys on the attitudes of gays and lesbians in conjunction with Witeck-Combs Communications.
The most recent report was released in April 2004 (see http://www.witeckcombs.com/news.asp and
http://www.harrisinteractive.com/).

 The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force is polling gays, lesbians, and bisexuals regularly about their attitudes (see
http://www.ngltf.org/).

 Zogby International and Le Moyne University have more extensive polling data on Catholics attitudes towards
homosexuality (see http://www.lemoyne.edu/academics/zogby.htm ).

 The LA Times poll has information on Californians’ views in this area. (see
http://www.latimes.com/news/custom/timespoll/).















For comments or questions
contact Karlyn Bowman at kbowman@aei.org, Heather Sims at heather.sims@aei.org, or Jennifer Marsico at
jennifer.marsico@aei.org.

This document first appeared on
the AEI website in Oct. 2002

Many pollsters in the United States regularly supply us with their data. This report
could not have been done without their assistance, and we thank them for it. The data
in this report come from the archive of public opinion polls at the American
Enterprise Institute and from The Roper Center’s archive at the University of
Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. The Roper Center is the oldest and largest archive
of public opinion data in the world. To learn more about the Roper Center, visit
http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/.


Gary Jacobson, The Electoral Origins of Divided Government: Competition in U.S.
House Elections. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.

Morris Fiorina, Divided Government. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1992.

“Divided Government Defines the Era.” In America at the Polls 1996, by Regina
Dougherty, Everett C. Ladd, David Wilber, and Lynn Zayachkiwsky, 185-192.
Storrs: The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 1997.

James Sundquist, Needed: A Political Theory for the New Era of Coalition
Government in the United States. Political Science Quarterly 103: 613-35

Gary Jacobson, The Electoral Origins of Divided Government: Competition in U.S.
House Elections. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.