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Instructional Technology

Instructional Technology is the approach in which the teacher uses a variety of

electronic tools or devices in order to include them in the education process.
Computers, laptops, tablets, cameras, and so on are good examples of these electronic

Using these electronic tools students are able to discover and locate information from
millions of sources on the web, using online encyclopedias educated web page and
many more.

Instructional Design

Also called Instructional System Design (ISD); is just the practice and approach of
maximizing and at the same time improving the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of
instruction. this practice focuses on the learners needs and his/her correct achievement
of the goals for each individual in the educative environment.

Cognitive load Theory and the design of Instruction

This theory encourages students to use instructional materials and tools, in order to
know how this can affect negative or positivethe performance of this can learners using
instructional materials.

The cognitive load is much higher in second language development, because the brain
must work harder and process language while simultaneously trying to integrate new
information in order to be internalized by learners.

Cognitive load theory in the learning process provided some basic for the use of
instructional strategies all this is for the learning process. With that in mind Richard
Mayer related the learning effects to cognitive load . he formulated the theory of
multimedia learning.

Learning Design

According to experts it should be based in teaching methods, it also should be flexible
for both teachers and learners. Furthermore a particular learning design must be
suitable for all students learning styles and enhance the teaching-learning process
using E-tools.

Even though this approach can lead to many different results; teachers design the
whole learning instruction with the goals that students should be able to reach at the
end, but, the reality is that outcomes probably variety according to the performance of
learners follow the guidelines in the learning design. a good example for this is
Facebook privacy Polices that were established for uses but there is no guarantee that
facebooker use then or apply then in the correct way.

ADDIE Process

Perhaps the most common model used for creating instructional materials is the ADDIE
Process. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model:

Analyze: Analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, and so on. educators
must be aware of all their students learning styles, making an analysis of learners
strengths and weaknesses.

Design: Develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach. that means
plan the entire goal for both students and teachers as well.

Develop: Create instructional or training materials. all the resources needed for the
accurate development of a particular content.

Implement: Deliver or distribute the instructional materials. lead the students through
the tasks with the correct materials, tools, or resources; in that way learners are able to
perform all the activities with accuracy.
Evaluate: Make sure the materials achieved the desired goals. in this phase
teachers should be able to see the results of the whole education process. And if there
is something should be fixed teacher can correct it.

Rapid Prototyping

Is a design model in which educators look for solve learners problems as soon as they
arise and still are easy to fix. Problems related with education, learning and
performance should be aborted right away, if a solution is not working, teachers must
find out another one and keep going until the issue is completely solved or at least
improved. Them experience is useful because educator can face similarities different
language problems

Rapid Prototyping is seeing as naive and sometimes useless, but, the approach of this
method is primarily to come up with a practical solution before the problems gets bigger
or more difficult.

Dick and Carey.
It is known as the systematic Design because it focuses in context (in which is taught)
and content (what is taught) also the learning and the instructional.
For Dick and Carey all these components such as materials, teachers and learners
interact together with the content, with the purpose of reaching learners outcome.

Dick and Carey Model

Identify Instructional Goals. What are the objectives of the teaching.

Conduct Instructional Analysis. Evaluate if the instruction is adequate for the teaching.

Analyze Learners and Contexts. What type of learners are going to perform the task;
and in which context they have to do it. (School, home, park etc.)

Write Performance Objectives. A structured guideline to measure the accuracy of
students during the performance of the task.

Develop Assessment Instruments. Keep records of students development during tasks;
some educators use rubrics to do do that.

Develop Instructional Strategy. Is the approach that both, teachers and students have to

Develop and Select Instructional Materials. All the tools and resources needed for the
task, or useful in order to finish the assignment.

Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction. teacher should be able to
notice if the learner as individual reach the goals set at the beginning of the task.

Revise Instruction. take some time and revise the whole process in order to fix
something that is not working during the assignment.
Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation. the final step in which teacher gives a
score to each student based on the performance and development of the task, and the
achievement of the goals establish at the beginning.

Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS)

Peter J. Esseff, PhD and Mary Sullivan Esseff.

The components of the IDLS Model are:

Design a Task Analysis: for the students right performance and development of tasks.

Develop Criterion Tests and Performance Measures: such as features, that students
can achieve or must achieve in order to develop the abilities needed.
Develop Interactive Instructional Materials: teachers use those materials that allow their
students to interact with the information.

Validate the Interactive Instructional Materials: if the students made a correct use of
those materials teacher should score them high because the domain of the materials.

Other Models

Some other useful models of instructional design include: the Smith/Ragan Model, the
Morrison/Ross/Kemp Model and the OAR model, as well as, Wiggins theory of
backward design.

Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials.
Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivist help shape
and define the outcome of instructional materials.