You are on page 1of 12

UNIT 25

%
t5
m
The indefinite article
Have
you ever been to St Albans?
f 've ben there many a time.
1
rt\
2'
I
I think that
you
ought to become
a novelist or a detective-story
writer, old man !
2
-.u,1:rririr
.5$$r-ft
t ff'
)g
Uo c a balar y
nor',ij'u',1,,,r
1. many a time
=
pi di una volta. 2.
438
romanztere a great deal una grande
ldi:ll
quantit
old man
=
vecchio mio.
l/ocabulary
ruin
lruinl
excavation
[akske'veiJen]
terrier
['teria*]
rat
[rret]
fragment
['fragmantJ
surface ['sa:fisl
flair
[flee*J
detective-story
[di'tektiv'stc:ril
upon
[a'pcn]
rovina
SCAVO
cane terrier
ratto
f rammento
superf icie
inclinazione
racconto
poliziesco
SU
to carve
[ka:v]
incidere
to beware
(of) guardarsi (da)
[bi'uea*]
to spy
[spai]
sPiare
archaeological archeologico
[a:kia'lcikal]
age-old vecchio di secoli
['eig-euld]
curlous
[kjuerias]
curioso
faint
lfeint]
debole, indistinto
readable leggibile
['ri:dab[
Ouestions
1. Who did Simon meet yesterday in the street?
2. What does Douglas do, whenever he runs across Simon?
3. Where had Douglas
just
come back from?
4. What did he have to tell Simon?
5. What kind of place is St Albans, in Douglas's opinion?
6. How long ae the remains sometimes?
7. What was Douglas watching?
8. What Aia Duke, Douglas's terrier, begin to do?
9. What did Douglas think at first?
10. What did he realize then?
11. What did he do then?
12. What words were carved on the surface of the wall?
qSEFqL
NOTES
n
Si osservino le seguenti espressioni verbali:
%
to have a car avere l'automobile
ry,
to have an appetite avere appetito
7
to have a headache avere mal di capo
7,
to have a cough avere la tosse
'4
to have t cold
t
avere it raffreddore
7,
to have s fever avere la febbre
m
to have a sore throat avere il mal di gola
%
to be in a huny aver fretta
'n
to be at a loss essere in imbarazzo
m to take a seat
prendere posto (a
sedere)
%
to smoke a
pipe fumare la
PiPa
%
ry
1.
prcndere
un raflreddore to catch a cold. To catch caught caught
=
prendere, acchiappare.
440
Jaguar. The car that whispers luxury.
CO\TVER,SATION
Mrs Bates
Mr Johnson
Mr Bates
Mr Johnson
Mrs Bqtes
Mr fohnson
Mr Bates
Mr Johnson
Mrs Bates
Mr Johnson
Mr Bates
Hello. How are
you? Please come in. I've heard a lot about
you
I
from my
husband.
I am always
pleased to see Paul in Glasgow. Ah, here he is. Hello, Paul.
Nice to see
you.
2
,
Nice to see
you, too. Have
you just
arrived, Bob?
ir;l,;lt"lix come down to London, Mr Johnson
No, not very often, I'm afraid. It's rather a long
journey
from Glasgow,
and there is such a lot of traffic on the roads nowadays.
You should take a train or fly here, then we could see more of
you, Bob.
3
I know that trains and planes are quite comfortable and safe, but I hate
travelling in them. I prefer driving my own car, you see.
How long are you staying, Mr Johnson?
Oh,
just-a
few-hours,-and then I'll drive back.
a
Bob is always in a
great hurry. Now let me get you a drink... Sherry,
whisky, gin?
1. I've heard a lot about
you
=
Ho sentito molto parlare di Lei.2. Nice to see you
-
Mi fa piacere
vederti. 3. we could see mone of you, Bob
-
potremmo vederti di pi, Bob. 4. I'll drive back
=
me ne
torno in macchina.
441
A IEGAL DISCUSSION
Mr Smith A lot of
people have a very low opinion of lawyers.
Mr Bll There's an element of truth in this statement, but I think it is a difficult one
to support with evidence.
I
Mr Smth I don't know. I think you will find many a quotation in literature to support
it. Isn't there a line from Hamlet.which complains about
"the
law's delay"?
And there is hardly a book by Dickens without a scheming lawyer somewhere
at the heart of a person's misery.
2
Mr Btt You have to consider what might be called
poetic licence.
3
Mr Snth I'm sure that lawyers would like all of us to have a licence to breathe the air,
which they would supply.
Mr Bll If that was a
joke,
it was rather a humourless one.
Mr Smth Possibly, but at least you must agree that it isn't unusual for a lawyer to
spend as much time as possible over a case so that he can charge a very high
fee.
Mr Bll This is an unfair
picture
that an'ignorant
public likes to imagine about a
lawyer's behaviour.
Mr Smth I don't think that it is such an inaccurate view.
Mr Bll A lawyer is usually a dedicated
professional
that does his work properly.
Mr Smth Is that a reason for charging ten
pounds
to read a letter from another lawyer?
Mr Bill A legal representative must read everything with a lot of care and a great deal
of attention.
Mr Smith That sounds like
quite
a silly excuse to me.
Mr Blt I think I have taken a dislike
a
to this conversation. May I remind you that
this is a legal consultation? Your idte talk
5
has already added a
good
ten
pounds
to
your eventual bill.
Uocabulary
lawyer
['lc:ja*]
awocato to breathe respirare
quotatlon citazione
[bri:]
[kuou'teirfen]
to supply fornire
case
lkeis]
causa (legale)
Ise'plail
fee
[fi:]
parcella
to charge
[ca:]
fare pagare
behaviour comportamento to remind ricordare
[bi'heivje*] tri'maindl
professional professionista
to add
lred]
aggiungere
[pre'feJen[
representative rappresentante scheming intrigante
[repri'zentativl I'ski:miq]
unfair
['ln'fm*1
sleale
hardly
['ha:dli]
a stento dedicated impegnato
properly correttamente
['dedikeitid]
['prcpeli]
eventual finale, conclusivo
[i'vencual]
1. to support with evldence
['evidans] =
sostenere con prove.2, al lhe heart of a person's mlsery
['mizeri]
=
alla base dell'infelicita di una persona. 3. potlc llcenc
['laisensl
=
licenza poetica. 4. I haye
taken a dlsllke
ldis'laik]
=
mi venuta in uggia. 5. ldle
l'aid[
talk
=
chiacchiere vane.
442
ORRL DRILS
Fifty-one btank spaces appear in the following
passage. Fill them n with eithet lhe or a
(an).
A I,IIN AT TTM POOffi
ln ..... noisy darkness of ..... bath-plug factory
I
it was ..... very common thing to-hear ..... men
talking about how they would spend their money if they won ..... football
pools.' Life was .....
boring affair for them, every day ..... replica of every other day.
It was quite ..... well-paid
job,
but all ..... men dreamt of ..... time when they would rudely tell .....
boss thal they did not need .....
job
any more.
3
Every week they tried to pre.dict ..... results of
..... selection of ..... English League football matches.
a
George and Robert dreamt of winning lots of money all ..... time.
"lf I won .....
pools",
George said many ..... time, "l would buy ..... Rolls Royce, ..... big house
with ..... swimming-pool and ..... villa in Spain".
And Robert used tb say: "lf I had ..... piece
of luck
5
like that, I would buy ..... Ferrari, it's faster
than..... Rolls, it does 160 miles..... hour. After that lwould have..... servant or two and.....
television in every room".
And they kept talking while ..... factory machines w_ere clattering on.

They spent ..... pound .....
week on their coupons, but not ..... spark of luck' brightened their lives.
Herbert had
quite ..... different view of how he would spend his winnings on ..... pools if he ever
had ..... opportunity to do so. "l would stay at ..... factory even if I won ,..,. awful lot of money. lt
would be ..... pity to lose all my friends. I've built such ..... nice life here, so I would put all that
money in ..... bank. "lt would be too easy ..... solution to
go
to ..... Bahamas or to Spain. I prefer
it here among ..... people
I know". ..... day came when Herbert's words proved
8
to be .-....
pro-
phecy.
He won on ..... pools.
But he could not prove his loyalty to his friends.
It was only ..... few hundreds of
pounds
that he won and he
ut
ihem in ..... bank. He kept work-
ing at ..... factory. At least nobody could say that Lady Luck had made ..... liar of him.
Uocabulary
win
[uin]
darkness
['da:knis]
swimming-pool
['suimi13pu:U
servant
['se:vant]
CoupOn
['ku:pcn]
prophecy
['prcfisi]
loyalty
['lcialti]
llar
['laia*J
vincita
oscurit
piscina
servitore
schedina
profezia
lealt
bugiardo
to dream
dreamt
dreamt
[dri:m
dremtJ
to predict
[pri'dikt]
to brighten
['braitn]
noisy
['nciziJ
rudely
['ru:dli]
sognare
predire
rawivare
rumoroso
scortesemente
1.
=
8.
bath.plug factory
=
fabbrica di tamponi da bagno. 2. football pools
=
totocalcio. 3. not ..... snymore
non ..... pi. 4. Engllsh League lootball malchos
=
incontri di calcio di campionato. 5. plece of luck
colpo di fortuna. 6. to clatter on
=
continuare a sferragliare. 7. spark of luck
=
sprazzo di fortuna.
To
prove
lpru:v]
significa qui dar
prova, ilsultare. Pi avanti significa
provarc, lornire una
prova.
443
GRRft,IfVIRR
ARTICOLO IN DETERMINATIVO
u book
a week
u year
r house
a hat
u union
u European
un libro
una settimana
un anno
una casa
un cappello
una unione
un Europeo
egg
uncle
hour
honour
heir
heiress
honest man
un uovo
uno zio
un'ora
un onore
un erede
un'ereditiera
un onest'uomo
an
an
an
an
an
an
an
1. L'articolo indeterminativo a si impiega dinanzi a consonante, ad h aspirata, ed a
vocale (o dittongo) il cui suono
iu
(a
eu od ew).
We bought a house Comprammo una casa
They formed a union Formarono una unione
He has a European reputation Ha una reputazione europea
He poured
some water from a ewer Vers dell'acqua da una brocca
OSSERYAZIONE
Anche le vocali il cui suono urr richiedono l'articolo indeterminativo a.
A one-legged man Un uomo con una gamba
sola
A once-popular song Una canzone una volta popolare
2. L'articolo indeterminativo an si impiega dinanzi a vocale ed, h muta. Le parole
che in
inglese hanno lt h muta sono le seguenti:
hour ora hourly orario (agg.)
honour onore honourable onorevole
heir erede heiress ereditiera
honest onesto honesty onest
3. Oltre ad essere impiegato in inglese nei casi equivalenti all'uso italiano, l'articolo in-
determinativo viene inoltre usato:
a) davanti a termini di tempo, misura e peso, nel senso di ogni o per.
These apples cost thirty pence a pound
Queste
mele costano 30 pence
alla libbra
We
go
to the
pictures
once a week Andiamo al cinema una volta alla
settimana
OSSERVAZIONE
L'articolo indeterminafivo
pu in questo caso essere sostituito da per
[pe:*]
o every.
He works seven hours per (every)
day Lavora sette ore al giorno
We spent ten
pounds per head Spendemmo dieci sterline a testa
444
b) davanti a nomi indicanti professione o condizione sociale.
Are
you a doctor? Lei dottore?
She is a countess contessa
He is a bachelor scapolo
He became a writer Divenne scrittore
c) davanti alle apposizioni.
"As
You Like It," a comedy by "Come
vi
piace",
commedia di
Shakespeare Shakespeare
Loch Lomond, a Scottish lake Loch Lomond, lago scozzese
d) nel caso delle seguenti espressioni
quantitative:
e little un poco (po') a good many moltissimi (-e)
r few alcuni, alcune a good deal
(of)
.
molto, una grande
I lot
(of) molto tquantit (di)
e great many moltissimi (-e) a great deal
(of) (idem)
He smokes a lot Fuma molto
We've got a few friends Abbiamo qualche amico
She's got a good (great)
many friends Ha moltissimi amici
We spent a great
Good)
deal of money Spendemmo molto danaro
e) dopo alcuni termini, a cui viene posposto:
helf a mezzo (-a) quite
a proprio
un (una)
such a un tale (una
tale) rather a piuttosto
un (una)
what a c}l'e (esclamativo)
many a pi
d'un (pi d'una)
It was quite a good
film Fu proprio
un buon film
It was rather a boring play
Fu piuttosto
una commdia noiosa
It was such a boring film! Fu un film talmente noioso (cos noioso)!
What a boring film! Che film noioso!
I waited half an hour Aspettai mezz'ota
I went there many a time Vi andai pi di una volta
f) nel caso di a hundred (one
hundred) e a thousand (one
thousand).
He won a thousand pounds
on the
pools Vinse mille sterline al Totocalcio
I've told him a hundred times Gliel'ho detto cento volte
g) dopo to have seguito da parte
del corpo singolare.
She has a small head Ha la testa piccola
He has a red nose Ha il naso rosso
h) per tradurre un certo dinanzi a nome proprio.
A Mr Smth phoned at five o'clock Un certo Signor Smith ha telefonato alle
cinque
OSSERVAZIONE
L'articolo indeterminativo pu essere usato davanti a nome
proprio
con volore
colloquiale.
That rascal of e Bob did not turn up
Quel
furfante di Bob non si fece vivo
445
ORRL RND URITTN DRILS
Provide an indefinite article for each of
tr
the following nouns.'
1.
E2.
apple, apricot, egg, hat, home,
job,
ioy,
year,
g.
word, work, window, university, union,
4.
European, house, head, half, hour, heir,
S.
honour, heiress, honest boy, one-legged man,
6.
once-popular song, ewot;
T.
8.
9.
10.
Can you lend me half a pound of sugar,
John?
We bought half a dozen eggs.
I had never heard such a word.
Lizzie is such a dear girl.
What a funny boy you are !
What a
pity you weren't here!
We talked about that many a time.
She is quite a beauty.
He is quite a good player at tennis!
Fifty pounds is rather a lot for a pair of
shoes.
Read aloud:
tr
A
1. Have
you got
a car?
1.
lVe
so
to rhe pictures
rwice a week.
3: 5l3Jlx%y:'!:iR:!l"a0oetite'
2. That material cost me ten pounds a
4. Have you got a cough, John?
-
ygrd.
5. Yes, ano l-atso hav a cold.
9. I!''e
speed limit is fify miles an hour.
. fn'OOV ns a tever and a sore throat.
4. These cigarette.s cost a pound a
packet.
7. Are you'in a hurry, madam?
3: ,',:.1;J,J,i"l"i"'ii"i"
!.
yee,'r'm
in a
srei
hurrv.
z. n is sril a bacheror. ',3:
Wll'i:Y.tlT"1#e
a seat' sir?
8. That gentleman is a count.
9. I want to be a lawyer.
Answer the following questions:
10. He became a detective-story wriler.
Et
o" you smoke a pipe?
1. I'm a little tired today.
2. Does any member of your family smoke
2. Do you want a little coffee, sir?
a pipe?
3. We ate and drank a lot last night.
3. Have you got an appetite now?
4. She's got a lot of troubles, poor girl !
4. Are you usually in a hurry when you
5. Thank you a lot for your help, madam. leave school?
6. There were a great many children in the
5. Do you know somebody who is always
park.
in a hurry?
7. A good many people were waiting for
6. Do you sometimes have a headache?
the train. 7. What do
you
do when
yor;
have a
8. They talked a
good
deal. headache?
9. They spent a good deal of money on
8. Have you had a cold this month?
jewels.
9. Do you go
to school when you
have a
10. We spent a great deal of time over this
sore throat?
translation.
10. What do you do when you have a fever?
Fitt in the blank spaces with either lhe or a (an):
l
Some people pay constant visits
I
to
week and receive medical treatment
2
free.
1. to
pay
constant vlslls
=
visitare costantemente.2. medlcal tratmont
['tri:tm3nt]
=
cure mediche.
447
..... great many people therefore
go to ..... doctor's for medical advice when they are not ill at
all.
..... Mr Smith I know sees his doctor as soon as he has ..... sore throat or ..... cough, while he
would do beiter to buy ..... woollen scarf and
go to bed early. I find such ..... attitude silly and
rather selfish.
..... doctor of my acquaintance, ..... general practitioner,
I
has ..... special mixture he calls "ac-
qua tinta" for this sort of
patient, and they feel cured after ..... few teaspoonfuls of the stuff.
Translate into English:
E
1. Mi scusi, signore, Lei dottore?
2. No, sono farmacista.
3. Ho uno zio che awocato.
4. Ha sposato un'ereditiera.
5. Lei ancora scapolo,
giovanotto?
2
6. lo sono
pacifista, signore.
7. Mio f ratello vuole diventare scrittore.
8. Legge dieci libri al mese.
9. Andiamo a teatro una volta alla
settimana.
10. Mi scrive due volte al mese.
E
1. Rimasi mezz'ora con lei.
2. Camminammo mezzo miglio.
3. Non mi aspettavo un tale guaio.
4. Non avevo mai letto un libro cos noioso.
5. Che bella serata!
6. Che bel ragazzol
7. Lo incontrai pi d'una volta al club.
8. stata proprio una bella giornata.
9. Sei
proprio un noioso ! '
10. Vedemmo un film piuttosto brutto.
E
Molta
gente ha un'opinione molto bassa degli
parlando con Mr Bill, awocato. Quest'ultimo '
mazione, ma difficile sostenerla con prove.
C' un verso nell'Am/efo che lamenta il ritardo della legge, dice Mr Smith, ed anche Dickens
parla di awocati intriganti. Licenza
poetica, dice l'awocato. Mr Smith insiste. Dice che non in-
solito
per un awocato spendere il maggior tempo
possibile-su una causa cosicch pu far
pagare una
parcella moHo aHa. E un
quadro sleale, si affretta
o
a dire I'awocato. Un awocato
solitamente un impegnato
professionista che fa il suo lavoro correttamente. Ma questa non
una ragione per far pagare dieci sterline
per leggere una lettera di (from) un altro awocato, coR-
tinua Mr Smith.
A Mr Bill, I'awocato, venuta in uggia
questa conversazione. Si affretta a ricordare a Mr Smith
che l per una consultazione legale. Le sue chiacchiere vane hanno gia
aggiunto un buon dieci
sterline al conto finale.
generaf practitionor
=
medico
generico. 2. giovanotto
__=
you.ng mal. 3. noloso
=
bore
[bc:r].
poverina
=
poor thing. 5. Quest'ultimo
=
The latter. 6. affrcttarsi
=
to hasten
['heisn].
Itr
1. Hai un po' di tempo per me?
2. Sono un
poco
stanca, caro.
3. Ti ho portato alcuni libri inglesi.
4. Leggi sempre molto?
5. Quell'uomo ha un sacco di guai.
6. Abbiamo moltissimi amici in quella citt.
7. C'erano moltissime ragazze che
aspettavano il cantante.
8. Spendemmo molto danaro.
9. Passammo molto tempo con loro.
10. Parlammo moltissimo di voi.
Itr
1. Avete la macchina?
2. Siete in (in a) macchina?
3. Susan ha il mal di capo, poverina.
4
4. John aveva la tosse.
5. Prese un brutto raffreddore al parco.
6. Se hai [a febbre, perch non vai a letto?
7. Ho anche il mal di gola.
8. Avete molta fretta?
9. Si metta a sedere, prego.
10. Lei furma sempre la pipa?
avvocati. Questa I'opinione di Mr Smith che sta
dice che c' un elemento di verit in questa affer-
1.
4.
448
The loltowlng
passage is for dictation and comprehension. P/ease notice the use of the
lndefinlte artlcle.
E
TTIE BRITISH MONARC}IY
Britain has a monarch. The monarch is the head of state in the same way that an ltalian or an
Arnerican president is the head of state. A British mcinarch's function is, however, a more
ceremonial than a political
one.
The British monarch has an heir, a son or a daughter. Their appointment
I
as a king or a queen
b an apolitical one. Republican presidents have, normally, no hereditary heirs; their successors
are appointed by political parties.
The British monarchy is noi fixed to a time-table.
2
As monarchs die, their successors inherit the
litle. There has been only one abdication from the British monarchy. On the death of a king, the
people shout
aThe
King is dead. Long live the King!r, Political presidents rule for a few years. ln
some cases, however
-
in the
rbanana republicsr (where the economy is based on one pro-
drct)
-
there may be three or four presidents a year. ln more dictatorial regimes there may be
drly one or two presidents
each half-century!
Nearly a thousand years
have passed since Britain was invaded for the last time. A number of
dynasties have come and gone,
Many a king lived to die a brutal death, and a good many
monarchs spent their lives in prison. A few are remembered for their good or evil ways.
'
A king
such as Henry Vlll or a queen
such as Victoria (upon whose empire
(the
sun never set>)
a
can-
not be forgotten. There was a period when Britain became a republican Protectorate when
Oliver Cromwell ruled, complete with a wart on his nose. Scandals have touched the monarchy.
The most recent was when a British king, Edward Vlll, wished to marry an American divorcee,
a certain Mrs Simpson, He did so, and abdicated.
The British monarchy has an atmosphere of timeless ritual;
5
it is never in a hurry, never at a
loss. The British
people
have a respect for an institution which is above the battlefield of
politics,
a respqct shared by members of the Commonwealth and by people all around the fast-changing
world.
6
Ouestions
l. What is a British monarch's function?
2. What happens when monarchs die?
3. How many abdications have there been in the British monarchy?
4. Virhat do the
people
shout on the death of a king?
5. How many
presidents
a
year may there be in the <<banana republics>>?
6. How many
years
have passed since Britain was invaded for the last time?
7. When did Britain become a republican Protectorate?
8. Who did Edward VIII wish to marry?
9. What is the British monarchy above?
l/ocabulary
title
['taitil
rgime
[rei'gi:m]
wart
[uc:t]
divorcee
ldivc:'si:]
titolo
regime
bitorzolo
divorziato
(-a)
to appoint
[a'pcint]
to inherit
[in'herit]
nomlnare
ereditare
governare
condividere
to
to
rule
[ru:l]
share
Uee*J
1. appolntment
=
nomina. 2. tlme.table
=
scadenza di tempo. 3.
inique.4.
ath sun ngver sgtu
=
ail
sole non tramontava mair. 5.
po. 6. fast.changlng world
=
mondo in rapido mutamento.
good or evll ways
=
qualit buone o
timeless rltual
=
rituale fuori dal tem'
449