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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT

LEGAL TERM
LEGAL TERM DEFINITION TRANSLATE
A
Albeit example :
Ex.1. She appeared on the
show, albeit briefly.
Ex.2. he was making progress,
albeit rather slowly
Definition :
: conceding the fact that : even
thogh : A!"#$%&#
Origin of ALBEIT
'iddle English, literally, all thogh it be
(irst )nown %se: 1*th centry
Synonyms
althogh, as, howbeit, mch
as, notwithstanding, thogh,when, whereas
, while, whilst +chiefly British,
"ranslate:
Ex.1. Dia mncl di acara it
walapn hanya hanya sesaat-
Ex.2. Dia membat .ema/an
walapn sedi.it lamban-
Agitate Example :
Ex. the thought of questioning
Toby agitated him extremely
Definition :
: to distrb, excite, or anger 0someone1
: to try to get people to spport or
oppose something
: to move or stir p 0a li2id1
$rigin
late 'iddle English 0in the sense 3drive
away31: from !atin agitat- 3agitated,
"ranslate :
Ex. 4emi.iran nt.
mempertanya.an "oby telah
membatnnya sangat gelisah.
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
driven3, from agitare, fre2entative
of agere 3do, drive3.
Synonim :
upset, pertrb, flster, rffle, disconcert,
nnerve, dis2iet, distrb, distress, nsettle,
bother,concern, troble, case anxiety to,
ma.e anxios, alarm, wor. p,
flrry, worry- inflame, incite, provo.e, stir
p
Affidavit Example :
Ex. 5e have a
signed affidavit stating that the
two men were seen entering the
bilding.
Definition :
Any written docment in which the signer
swears nder oath before a notary pblic or
someone athori6ed to ta.e oaths 0li.e a
conty cler.1 that the statements in the
docment are tre. 7n many states, a
declaration nder penalty of per/ry, which
does not re2ire ta.ing an oath, is the
e2ivalent of an affidavit.
5ritten statement made volntarily,
confirmed by the oath or affirmation of the
party ma.ing it, and signed before an
officer empowered to administer sch
oaths. 7t sally names the place of
exection and certifies that the person
ma.ing it states certain facts and appeared
before the officer on a certain date and
8sbscribed and swore9 to the statement.
Origin of AFFIDAVIT
"ranslate :
Ex. )ita telah menandatangani
do.men affidavit :do.men
disertai dengan smpah, bahwa 2
orang yang .ita lihat .emarin
memang benar telah memas.i
gedng tersebt.
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
'edieval !atin, he has made an oath,
from affidare
(irst )nown %se: 1;<=
Other Legal Ters
actionable, alienable, carceral, chattel, com
plicity,decedent, larceny, malfeasance, mo
ds operandi
Atocratic Example :
Ex. democracy is spposed to
protect the people against the rise
of autocratic rlers
Definition :
>elating to a rler who has absolte power:
!: of, relating to, or being
an atocracy : A?S$!%"E @anautocratic go
vernmentA
": characteristic of or resembling
an atocrat : DES4$"7B @anautocratic rler
A
First #no$n %se of A%TO&RATI&
1C2=
Relate' to A%TO&RATI&
Synonyms
arbitrary, absolte 0also atocratical1, c6ari
st 0also tsaristor t6arist1, despotic, dictatori
al, monocratic, tyrannical0also tyrannic1, ty
rannos
"ranslate :
Ex.Seharsnya Demo.rasi
melindngi dari orangDorang
terhadap mnclnya pengasa
oto.ratis
Amics Briae Example : Definition : "ranslate :
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
Ex. According the federal
rle of appellate cort rle 22
0*1 "he cort of appeals may
invite or order the trialDcort
/dge to address the petition
or may invite an amics
criae to do so.
: one 0as a professional person or
organi6ation1 that is not a party to a
particlar litigation bt that is permitted by
the cort to advise it in respect to some
matter of law that directly affects the case
in 2estion
0!atin: 8friend of the cort91 $ne who
assists a cort by frnishing information or
advice regarding 2estions of law or fact.
A person 0or other entity, sch as a state
government1 who is not a party to a
particlar lawsit bt nevertheless has a
strong interest in it may be allowed, by
leave of the cort, to file an amics criae
brief, a statement of particlar views on the
sb/ect matter of the lawsit. Sch briefs
are often filed in cases involving pblicD
interest matters 0e.g., entitlement programs,
consmer protection, civil rights1.
Origin of AMI&%S &%RIAE
Eew !atin, literally, friend of the cort
(irst )nown %se: 1F12
Rh(es $ith AMI&%S &%RIAE
crriclm vitae, in the blin. of an
eye, mods operandi
Ex. 'enrt peratran pengadilan
ting.at banding di federal atran 22
ayat 0*1 Gpengadilan banding boleh
mengndang ata memerintah.an
ha.im di pengadilan nt.
menyampai.an petisi ata nt.
mengndang GA'7B%S B%>7AEH
nt. mela.sana.an hal tersebt.
Ailments Example :
Ex.the doctor diagnosed a
common stomach ailment
Definition :
A sic.ness or illness
"ranslate :
Ex. Do.ter telah men diagnose
penya.it pert mm.
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First #no$n %se of AILMENT
1F;I
Relate' to AILMENT
Synonyms
affection, ail, disease, bg, complaint, com
plication,condition, disorder, distemper, dis
temperatre, fever, ill,illness, infirmity, ma
lady, sic.ness, troble
Amelioration
Ex. progress brings with it
the amelioration of the
human condition
Definition :
"he act of ma.ing something better-
improvement:
"ranslate:
Ex. .ema/an membawa serta
perbai.an dari .ondisi mansia.
Affidavit Example:
Ex.1. ould you read onto the
record the affidavits that
contain the evidentiary material
that is before us!
Ex.2. hen carrying out the
enquiry the "ourt acts upon
affidavits rather than oral
evidence.
Definition :
Any written docment in which the signer
swears nder oath before a notary pblic or
someone athori6ed to ta.e oaths 0li.e a
conty cler.1 that the statements in the
docment are tre. 7n many states, a
declaration nder penalty of per/ry, which
does not re2ire ta.ing an oath, is the
e2ivalent of an affidavit.
Origin of AFFIDAVIT
'edieval !atin, he has made an oath,
from affidare
"ranslate:
Ex.1.
Apa.ah .am membaca tentang
do.men tertlis yang didalamnya
ada affidavit dari b.tiDb.ti yang
sebelm .ita-
Ex.2. 5a.t membawa daftar
affidavit tersebt, pengadilan
berea.si berdasar.an affidavit dari
pada b.tiDb.ti pernyataan secara
lisan-
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(irst )nown %se: 1;<=
Allege Example :
Ex. he ##"(") tht he had
been assaulted by his
neighbor
Definition :
Blaim or assert that someone has done
something illegal or wrong, typically
withot proof:
"ranslate:
Ex. Dia meng.laim bahwa dia telah
diserang oleh tetangganya.
Analogos Example :
Ex. 7 cold not thin. of
an analogous sitation.
Definition :
similar in some way
Bomparable in certain respects, typically in
a way which ma.es clearer the natre of
the things compared
Origin of ANALOGO%S
!atin analogus, from
&ree. analogos, literally, proportionate,
from ana- J logos reason, ratio,
from legeinto gather, spea. K more
at !E&EED
(irst )nown %se: 1F*F
Relate' to ANALOGO%S
Synonyms
a.in, ali.e, cognate, comparable, connate, c
orrespondent,corresponding, ditto, li.e, ma
tching, parallel, resemblant,resembling, si
milar, sch, schli.e
"ranslate:
Ex. Saya tida. bisa memi.ir.an
sitasi analog.
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?
?atter Example :
Ex. outrage at wife-battering
and child abuse
Definition :
1: to beat with sccessive blows so as to
brise, shatter, or demolish-
2:Stri.e repeatedly with hard blows-
=: to wear or damage by hard sage or
blows @a batteredold hatA
Synonym :
puel, pond, rain blows
on, bffet, belabor, thrash, beat p,
abse- hit, stri.e, beat,smac., assalt, attac
., thmp, lash, aim blows at
L informal whac., clot, wallop, bash, clob
ber, bop, biff, soc., dec., plg, .noc.
abot:arond,.noc. into the middle of next
wee., beat the living daylights ot of, give
someone a good hiding, lay into, lace
into, do over, rogh p
Miew synonyms
'aage, in/re, hrt, harm,
impair, mar, spoil- destroy, demolish,
crsh, shatter, smash, rin
"ranslate :
Ex. 7steri di.asai oleh amarah
mem.li dan menya.iti ana.nya.
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L informal total, trash
Origin of BATTER
'iddle English bateren, probably
fre2entative of batten to bat, from bat
(irst )nown %se: 1*th centry
?yword Example :
Ex. the city reaches gridlock
during peak hours.
Definition :
1: someone or something that is closely
connected with a particlar 2ality-
2: another term for deadloc.-
First #no$n %se of B)*ORD
before 12th centry
Relate' to B)*ORD
Synonyms
adage, aphorism, apothegm, saying, epigra
m, maxim,proverb, saw, sententia, word
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
Ex. )ota mencapai .esb.an saat
/am sib..
&
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Bhevron Doctrine Example :
Ex. "he Bhevron doctrine
re2ires that a cort phold
an agency constrction of a
statte it is charged with
administering as long as the
agencyHs constrction of that
statte is GreasonableH and
not inconsistent with the
langage of the act.
Definition :
"he 1<C* Spreme Bort decision in "hevron
#.$.%., &nc v. '()", *FI %.S. C=I established rles
for /dicial review of agency interpretations of
stattes. An agency3s rlema.ing athority is derived
throgh statte. "herefore, when an agency
rlema.ing is challenged in cort, an agency3s
interpretation of their stattory athority is central to
determining the legitimacy of the reglation.
"he 1<C* Spreme Bort decision in "hevron
#.$.%., &nc v. '()", *FI %.S. C=I established rles
for/dicial review of agency interpretations of
stattes. An agency3s rlema.ing athority is derived
throgh statte. "herefore, when an agency
rlema.ing is challenged in cort, an agency3s
interpretation of their stattory athority is central to
determining the legitimacy of the reglation.
"he "hevron decision created a two part test to
determine reglatory athority. (irst, the cort mst
determine whether Bongress spo.e directly to the
2estion at isse. 7f so, then the cort defers to the
statte. 7f Bongress did not address the isse in
2estion in the statte itself, then the cort mst
determine if the agency3s response to the statte is
based on a NpermissibleN interpretation of the statte.
7f so, then the cort mst defer to the agency.
"he "hevron case applies only to agency
interpretations made in noticeDandDcomment
rlema.ings.
"ranslate :
Ex. Do.trine Bhevron
mensyarat.an bahwa pengadilan
dapat menega..an .mplan
peratran yang di.onstr.si.an oleh
sebah lembaga yang dida.wa
mela..an pemberian, selama
.mplan peratran yang
di.onstr.s.an lembaga tersebt
mas. dia.al dan tida. .onsisten
dengan bahasa sebah ndangD
ndang.
Bort of Appeal Example :
Ex. Defendant didnHt
satisfied with the final
decision of the cort so the
defendant ta.e this matter to
cort of appeal.
Definition :
%S A cort to which appeals are ta.en in a
federal circit or a state.
a cort hearing appeals from the decisions
of lower corts Kcalled also court of
"ranslate :
Ex. "erggat tida. pas dengan
.eptsan pengadilan sehingga
terggat membawa masalah ini .e
pengadilan ting.at ?anding.
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
appeal
Bircit Bort Example :
Ex. Bircit Borts are where
/ry trials are held
Definition :
11 "he name sed for the principal trial
cort in many states. 21 7n the federal
system, the term may refer to corts within
the 1= circits. Eleven of these circits
cover different geographic areas of the
contry DD for example, the %nited States
Bort of Appeal for the Einth Bircit
covers Alas.a, Ari6ona, Balifornia,
#awaii, 7daho, 'ontana, Eevada, $regon,
and 5ashington. "he remaining circits
are the District of Bolmbia, and the
(ederal Bircit, 0which hears patent,
cstoms, and other speciali6ed cases based
on sb/ect matter1. "he term derives from
an age before mechani6ed transit, when
/dges and lawyers rode the circit of their
territory to hold cort in varios places.
"ranslate
:
Ex. 4engadilan Bircit dimana
diadili oleh para Ory.
Boherent Example :
Ex. #e proposed the
most coherent plan to improve
the schools.
Definition :
logical and wellDorgani6ed : easy to
nderstand
: able to tal. or express yorself in a
clear way that can be easily nderstood
: wor.ing closely and well together
Origin of &O+ERENT
'iddle (rench or !atin- 'iddle
(rench coh*rent, from !atincohaerent-,
cohaerens, present participle
of cohaer+re 0seeB$#E>E 1
"ranslate :
Ex. Dia menga/.an rencana yang
paling mas. a.al .epada
se.olahanya.
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(irst )nown %se: circa 1;;;
Relate' to &O+ERENT
Synonyms
analytic 0or analytical1, logical, conse2ent
, good,rational, reasonable, sensible, sond,
valid, wellDfonded,wellDgronded
Blosing Argment Example :
Ex. All the witness and
evidence had been presented
so the prosector and
Attorney will present the
closing argment tomorrow.
Definition :
A speech made at trial after all the
evidence has been presented by each party.
"he closing argment reviews and
smmari6es the evidence, and forceflly
explains why the verdict shold be granted
in favor of the arging party. 7n trials
before a /dge 0withot a /ry1, it is
common for both parties to waive closing
argment on the theory that the /dge has
almost srely already arrived at a decision.
"ranslate :
Ex. Sema sa.si dan b.ti sdah
dia/.an didepan persidangan ma.a
beso. /a.sa penntt dan pengacara
pembela a.an menga/.an
argmentasi nt. penntp.
Bross Examination
Example :
Ex. After the prosector
2estioning his witness, the
defense attorney cold cross
examination the witness
Definition :
the examination of a witness who has
already testified in order to chec. or
discredit the witness3s testimony,
.nowledge, or credibility-
At trial, the opportnity to 2estion any
witness who testifies on behalf of any other
party to the lawsit 0in civil cases1 or for
the prosection or other codefendants 0in
criminal cases1. "he opportnity to crossD
examine sally occrs as soon as a
witness completes his or her initial
"ranslate :
Ex. Setelah /a.sa penntt mm
menanya.an sa.si yana bawa, ma.a
pengacara pembela bisa mela..an
pemeri.saan .embali.
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
testimony, called direct testimony. BrossD
examiners attempt to get the witness to say
something helpfl to their side, or to cast
dobt on the witness3s testimony by
eliciting something that redces the
witness3s credibility DD for example, that the
witness3s eyesight is so poor that she may
not have seen an event clearly. 5hen a
witness3s direct testimony ends p being
hostile to the party that called the witness,
sometimes that party3s lawyer is allowed to
crossDexamine his own witness.
First #no$n %se of &ROSS,
E-AMINATION
circa 1IPI
Bombatant example :
Ex. ?ritain was a
main combatant in 5orld 5ar 77..
Definition :
a person, grop, or contry that fights in a war
or battle
"ranslate:
Ex. 7nggris adalah pe/ang tama
dalam 4erang Dnia 77.
D
Discovery Example :
Ex. "he attorney find important
testimony from the eye witness that
can be se to win the case.
Definition :
A formal investigation DD governed by
cort rles DD that is condcted before trial
by both parties. Discovery allows each
party to 2estion the other parties, and
sometimes witnesses. "he most common
types of discovery are interrogatories,
consisting of written 2estions the other
party mst answer nder penalty of
"ranslate :
Ex. 4engacara menem.an
.eterangan penting dari sa.si yang
dapat digna.an nt.
memenag.an per.ara ini.
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ADVOCATES & LEGAL CONSULTANT
per/ry- depositions, at which one party to
a lawsit has the opportnity to as. oral
2estions of the other party or witnesses
nder oath while a written transcript is
made by a cort reporter- and re2ests to
prodce docments, by which one party
can force the other to prodce physical
evidence. 4arties may also as. each other
to admit or deny .ey facts in the case.
Discovery allows parties to assess the
strength or wea.ness of an opponent3s case,
in order to spport settlement tal.s and also
to be sre that the parties have as mch
.nowledge as possible for trial. Discovery
is also present in criminal cases, in which
by law the prosector mst trn over to the
defense any witness statements and any
evidence that might tend to exonerate the
defendant. Depending on the rles of the
cort, the defendant may also be obliged to
share evidence with the prosector.
First #no$n %se of DIS&OVER)
1;2<
Relate' to DIS&OVER)
Synonyms
detection, finding, spotting, nearthing
Disparity example :
Ex. &ncome and standards of
Definition :
!:containing or made p of fndamentally
different and oftenincongros elements
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
Ex. "erdapat perbedaan pemas.an
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living disparities in different
regions of the country have
become a growing problem
": mar.edly distinct in 2ality or character
Origin
mid 1Fth centry: from
(rench disparit*, from late
!atin disparitas, based on
!atin paritas 3parity3.
dan standart .ehidpan di berbagai
wilayah hal tersebt men/adi sebah
masalah.
Direct Examination
Example :
Ex. "he 5itness will be
2estioning tomorrow on
direct examination process.
Definition :
At trial, the initial 2estioning of a party or
witness by the side that called him or her to
testify. "he ma/or prpose of direct
examination is to explain yor version of
events to the /dge or /ry and to nderct
yor opponant3s version. &ood direct
examination see.s to prove all facts
necessary to satisfy the plaintiff3s legal
claims or cases of action DD for example,
that the defendant breached a valid contract
and, as a reslt, the plaintiff sffered a loss.
First #no$n %se of DIRE&T
E-AMINATION
circa 1C;<
"ranslate :
Ex. Sa.si beso. a.an diperi.sa
dalam proses pemeri.saan langsng
dipengadilan.
Deposition Example :
Ex. She gave a
videotaped deposition abot
what she saw that night.
Definition :
law : a formal statement that someone who
has promised to tell the trth ma.es so that
the statement can be sed in
cort- especially : a formal statement that is
"ranslate :
Ex. Dia memberi.an re.aman video
mengenai .esa.siannya GdepositionH
mengenai apa yang dia lihat malam
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made before a trial by a witness who will
not be present at the trial
: the action of depositing something 0sch
as sand, snow, or md1 on a srface or area
especially over a period of time
: the act removing someone from a
powerfl position : the act of deposing
someone
it.
E
Expenditre :
Ex. "he pro/ect will re2ire
an expenditure of effort on
everyone3s part
Definition :
an amont of money that is spent on
something
: an amont of time, energy, effort, etc.,
that is sed to do something
: the act of spending money
Origin of E-.ENDIT%RE
irreglar from expend
(irst )nown %se: 1IF<
Relate' to E-.ENDIT%RE
Synonyms
charge, cost, disbrsement, expense, otgo,
otlay
"ranslat:
4roye. ini a.an memerl.an
pengelaran saha di piha. sema
orang
En ?anc Example :
Ex. "he
Definition :
(rench for Non the bench,N sed to indicate that all of
the /dges on an appeals cort panel are participating
in a case. Borts generally hear cases en banc when
"ranslate :
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a significant isse is at sta.e or at the re2est of the
parties.
(rench for Nin the bench,N it signifies a
decision by the fll cort of all the appeals
/dges in /risdictions where there is more than
one threeD or forD/dge panel. "he larger
nmber sit in /dgment when the cort feels
there is a particlarly significant isse at sta.e
or when re2ested by one or both parties to the
case and agreed to by the cort
(
(ederalism Example :
Ex.1. "he American !egal
System is based on
federalism, which basically
thereHs a shared of power
between state and federal
governments.
Ex.2. (ederalism reslt is
dal cort system, 1. (ederal
cort system- 2. State cort
system.
Definition :
4olitical system that binds a grop of states
into a larger, noncentrali6ed, sperior state
while allowing them to maintain their own
political identities. Bertain characteristics
and principles are common to all sccessfl
federal systems: a written B$ES"7"%"7$E or
basic law stiplating the distribtion of
powers- diffsion of power among the
constitent elements, which are
sbstantially selfDsstaining- and territorial
divisions to ensre netrality and e2ality
in the representation of varios grops and
interests. Bhanges re2ire the consent of
those affected. Sccessfl federal systems
also have a sense of common nationality
and direct lines of commnication between
the citi6ens and all the governments that
serve them. Examples of modern federal
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1.
Sistem h.m Ameri.a berdasar.an
(ederalism dimana berdasar.an
pembagian .e.asaan antara antara
pemerintahan Eegara bagian dan
pemerintahan psat.
Ex.2 (ederalism terbagi ada 2
sistem yait sistem pengadilan
federal dan Sisem dan Sistem
pengadilan psat.
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systems inclde the %.S., ?ra6il, &ermany,
and Eigeria.
(ederal Bort Example:
Ex. ?an.rptcy case can be
filed in federal cort.
Definition :
a cort established by a federal
government- especially : one established
nder the constittion and laws of the
%nited States
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex. )ass .epailitan dapat di
mas..an .e 4engadilan (ederal.
(ederal District Bort
Example :
Ex. (ederal district cort is
trial level of cort before
appellate cort.
Definition
a district trial cort of law and e2ity that
hears cases nder federal /risdiction
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex. 4engadilan distri. federal
adalah pengadilan ting.at pertama
sebelm banding.
(elony example :
Ex. ,e pleaded guilty to six
felonies
Definition :
A crime regarded in the %S and many other
/dicial systems as more serios than a
misdemeanor:
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
Ex. Dia menga.i .esalahannya
sampai F tinda. .e/ahatan.
&
#
#i/ab Example :
Ex.1.
"he 7slamic Benter of 'iami,
does not specifically re2ire
that the hi/ab be worn-
Definition :
the traditional covering for the hair and
nec. bt not their face, hi/ab is worn by
'slim women 07slamic #eadscarf1
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1.
4sat 7slam di 'iami, tida.
mema.sa bahwa hi/ab hars
digna.an-
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Ex.2.
7n Sadi Arabia women mst
wear hi/ab that a dress code
for women, bt in 7ndonesia
thereHs no obligation that
#i/ab mst be wear to all
mst be wear.
$rigin of #i/ab
Arabic h-i./b cover, screen, veil
(irst )nown %se: 1<CP
Ex. Di Sadi Arabia perempan
wa/ib menggna.an #7OA? .arena
it merpa.an peratran tertlis
cara wanita berpa.aian sedang.an
di 7ndonesia tida. ada peratran
yang mewa/ib.an bahwa wanita
wa/ib ber #7OA?-
+ABEAS &OR.%S
!atin for Nthat yo have the body.N A writ of
habeas corps is sed to bring a prisoner or
other detainee 0e.g. instittionali6ed mental
patient1 before the cort to determine if the
person3s imprisonment or detention is lawfl.
7n the %S system, federal corts can se the
writ of habeas corps to determine if a state3s
detention of a prisoner is valid.
A habeaspetition proceeds as a civil action
against the State agent 0sally a warden1
who holds the defendant in cstody. 7t can
also be sed to examine
any extradition processes sed, amont
of bail, and the /risdiction of the cort.
See, e.g. 0nowles v. 1ir2ayance ;;F
%.S.QQQ02PP<1, 3elker v. Turpin ;1C %S
1P;1 01<<F1 and 1c"leskey v. 4ant *<< %S
*FI 01<<11.

O/er/ie$
#abeas corps is a writ that is sed to
bring a party who has been criminally
convicted in state cort into federal cort.
%sally, writs of habeas corps are sed to
review the legality of the partyHs arrest,
imprisonment, or detention. "he federal
cortHs review of a habeas corps petition is
considered to be collateral relief of a state
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cort decision rather than direct review.
#abeas corps originated in English
common law as a means to protect
individals from illegal detention. An
individal who had been held in cstody
cold file a petition see.ing a writ which
wold re2ire the cstodian to provide
ade2ate legal /stification for the detention.
7f the cstodian failed to do so, the cort
cold order the petitionerHs release.
"oday, habeas corps is mainly sed as a
postDconviction remedy for state or federal
prisoners who challenge the legality of the
application of federal laws that were sed in
the /dicial proceedings that reslted in their
detention. $ther ses of habeas corps
inclde immigration or deportation cases and
matters concerning military detentions, cort
proceedings before military commissions,
and convictions in military cort. (inally,
habeas corps is sed to determine
preliminary matters in criminal cases, sch
as: 0i1 an ade2ate basis for detention- 0ii1
removal to another federal district cort- 0iii1
the denial of bail or parole- 0iv1 a claim of
doble /eopardy- 0v1 the failre to provide for
a speedy trial or hearing- or 0vi1 the legality
of extradition to a foreign contry.
"he sorces of habeas corps can be
fond in the Bonstittion, stattory law, and
case law. "he Sspension Blase of the
Bonstittion 0Article 7, Section <, Blase 21,
states: 8"he 4rivileges of the 5rit of #abeas
Borps shall not be sspended nless when
in Bases of >ebellion of 7nvasion the pblic
Safety may re2ire it.9 Althogh the
Bonstittion does not specifically create the
right to habeas corps relief, federal stattes
provide federal corts with the athority to
grant habeas relief to state prisoners. $nly
Bongress has the power to sspend the writ
of habeas corps, either by its own
affirmative actions or throgh an express
delegation to the Exective. "he Exective
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does not have the independent athority to
sspend the writ.
7n the (irst Odiciary Act of 1IC<,
Bongress explicitly athori6ed the federal
corts to grant habeas relief to federal
prisoners. Bongress expanded the writ
following the Bivil 5ar, allowing for habeas
relief to state prisoners if they were held in
cstody in violation of federal law. (ederal
corts granted habeas relief to state prisoners
by finding that the state cort lac.ed the
proper /risdiction. 4ostD5orld 5ar 77
reforms frther expanded the writ: throgh
the incorporation process by which the ?ill
of >ights was applied to the states, habeas
corps became a tool by which criminal
defendants soght to phold their civil rights
against illegal state action. "he 5arren Bort
frther paved the way for broader habeas
corps rights.
7n 1<<F, Bongress narrowed the writ of
habeas corps throgh the passage of the
Antiterrorism and Effective Death 4enalty
Act 0AED4A1. AED4A has three important
aspects: first, it imposes a oneDyear statte of
limitations on habeas petitions. Second,
nless a %nited States Bort of Appeals gave
its approval, a petitioner may not file
sccessive habeas corps petitions. "hird,
habeas relief is only available when the state
cortHs determination was 8contrary to, or
involved an nreasonable application of
clearly established federal law as determined
by the Spreme Bort of the %nited States.9
"he Detainee "reatment Act of 2PP;
0D"A1 and the 'ilitary Bommissions Act of
2PPF 0'BA1 frther narrowed the scope of
habeas relief, providing that prisoners held in
&antanamo ?ay may not access the federal
corts throgh habeas corps- instead, they
mst go throgh the military commissions
and then see. appeal in the D.B. Bircit
Bort. #owever, the Spreme Bort
in Boumediene v. Bush 02PPC1 expanded the
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territorial reach of habeas corps, rling that
the Sspension Blase affirmatively
garanteed the right to habeas review. "hs,
alien detainees designated as enemy
combatants who were held otside the %nited
States had the constittional right to habeas
corps.
(ederal stattes 02C %.S.B. RR 22*1S
22;F1 otline the procedral aspects of
federal habeas proceedings. "here are two
prere2isites for habeas review: the petitioner
mst be in cstody when the petition is filed,
and a prisoner who is held in state
government cstody mst have exhasted all
state remedies, inclding state appellate
review. Any federal cort may grant a writ of
habeas corps to a petitioner who is within its
/risdiction. "he habeas petition mst be in
writing and signed and verified either by the
petitioner see.ing relief or by someone acting
on his or her behalf. "he petition mst name
the cstodian as the respondent and state the
facts concerning the applicantHs cstody and
inclde the legal basis for the re2est.
(ederal corts are not re2ired to hear the
petition if a previos petition presented the
same isses and no new gronds were
broght p. (inally, a federal /dge may
dismiss the petition for the writ of habeas
corps if it is clear from the face of the
petition that there are no possible gronds for
relief.
#egemony Example :
Ex."hey discssed the national
government3s hegemony over
their tribal commnity.
Definition :
inflence or control over another contry,
a grop of people, etc.
Origin of +EGEMON)
&ree. h+gemonia, from h+gem5n leader,
from h+geisthai to lead K more at SEE)
"ranslate :
Ex. 'ere.a mendis.si.an
pemerintahan nasional daripada
.omnitas .ese.tan mere.a.
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(irst )nown %se: 1;FI
Relate' to +EGEMON)
Synonyms
ascendance 0also ascendence1, ascendancy
0alsoascendency1, dominance, domination,
dominion,spremacy, imperim, predomin
ance, predominancy,preeminence, reign, so
vereignty 0also sovranty1
#eartland Example :
Ex. 5e drove into
Scotland3s heartland.
Definition :
: a central area of land
: the central area of the %.S. which is
.nown for traditional vales
: an area that is the center of an indstry
or activity
First #no$n %se of +EARTLAND
1<P*
Rh(es $ith +EARTLAND
armband, at
hand, bac.hand, bac.land, badland, bandst
and,barehand, benchland, blac.land, brass
band, broadband,brshland, bshland, cabs
tand, clodland, coastland, coDbrand, comm
and, cowhand, crashDland, cropland, crown
land, dead
hand, dec.hand, demand, disband, doc.han
d,doc.land, downland, dreamland, dryland,
dneland, expand,farmhand, farmland, fenl
and, field
"ranslate :
Ex. )ami mela/ .e /antng
S.otlandia
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hand, filmland,firebrand, firsthand, flatland
, forehand, forDhand, free
hand, freehand, gangland, gladDhand, &otla
nd,
Example :
Ex. let us take a hypothetical
case
#ypotheticals :
11. of, based on, or serving as a hypothesis.
21. a hypothetical proposition or statement.
?ased on or serving as a hypothesis:
theoreti0al, speclative,
con/ectred, con/ectral, notional, spposit
ional, spposed, ptative,
assmed- academic
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
'ario .ita apli.asi.an pada
semacam .ass.
7
7n/nction Example :

Ex. This is not simply a case
about an in.unction to restrain
threatened future conduct.
7n/nction :
A 0ourt 'e0ision 0oan'ing or
pre/enting a spe0ifi0 a0t, sch as an order
that an absive spose stay away from the
other spose or that a logging company not
ct down firstDgrowth trees. Borts grant
in/nctions to prevent harmDDoften
irreparable harmDDas distingished from
most cort decisions, which are designed to
provide a remedy for harm that has already
occrred. 7n/nctions can be temporary,
"ranslate into 7ndonesian :
&ni bukanlah kasus sederhana
mengenai hal yang berhubungan
dengan perintah penahanan yang akan
datang.
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pending a consideration of the isse later at
trial 0these are called interloctory decrees
or preliminary in/nctions1. Odges can
also isse permanent in/nctions at the end
of trials.
7nterrogatories Example :
Ex. "he attorney already
prepare certain 2estion for
interrogatories process
tomorrow.
Definition :
5ritten 2estions sent by one party to
another as part of the pretrial investigation
process, called Ndiscovery.N 7nterrogatories
mst be answered in writing nder oath or
nder penalty of per/ry within a specified
time 0sch as =P days1. !awyers can write
their own sets of 2estions, or can se form
interrogatories designed for the most
common types of lawsits.
First #no$n %se of INTERROGATOR)
1;1;
"ranslate :
Ex. 4engacara telah mempersiap.an
beberapa pertanyaan nt. proses
interrogatories beso..
7mminent :
Ex. "he (?7, the Department of
#omeland Secrity, and the
local athorities were
momentarily stnned, and
began frantically trying to
prepare for what they feared
were frther imminent attac.s.
K>ichard A. Blar.e, %tlantic,
Definition :
ready to ta.e place- especially : hanging
threateningly over one3s head @was
in imminent danger of being rn overA.
Origin of IMMINENT
!atin imminent-, imminens, present
Translate into &ndonesia 6
Ex. 3B&, )epartemen 0eamanan
)alam 'egeri, dan pihak berwenang
setempat se.enak tertegun, dan mulai
panik mencoba untuk mempersiapkan
apa yang mereka takut adalah
serangan lebih lan.ut akan segera
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Oanary:(ebrary 2PP; participle of immin+reto pro/ect, threaten,
from in- J -min+re 0a.in to !atinmont-,
mons montain1 K more at '$%E"
(irst )nown %se: 1;2C
Relate' to IMMINENT
Synonyms
impending, looming, pending, threatening,
arond the corner
ter.adi. -(ichard %. "larke, %tlantic,
7anuari 8 3ebruari 9::;
O
)
!
!essen Example :
Ex.1.
'edication helps lessen the
severity of the symptoms.
Ex.2.
Oones already as.ed polite to
Definition :
!1to redce in si6e, extent, or degree
"1a archaic : to represent as of little vale
2 : to lower in stats or
dignity : DE&>ADE
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1.
4engobatan dapat membant nt.
mengrangi beberapa ge/ala
penya.it-
Ex.2.
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the owners of the racetrac. if
adding the mfflers and tires,
to lessen both the noise and
dirt that they emit bt the
owners re/ected the idea.
Synonyms
abate, deDescalate, dent, deplete, diminish,
downscale,downsi6e, drop, dwindle, ease,
.noc. down, decrease,lower, redce
Oones sdah meminta sopan .epada
pemili. balapan /i.a penambahan
mfflers dan banDbannya, nt.
mengrangi .eda sara dan .otoran
yang mere.a mengelar.an tetapi
pemili. menola. gagasan.
Example :
Ex. it is an offence to carry a
weapon in public without lawful
authority
!awfl :
Bonforming to, permitted by, or recogni6ed
by law or rles:
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
4elanggaran /i.a membawa pistol di
depan mm tanpa i/in dari yang
berwenang.
'
'fflers Example :
Ex.1.
They never need oil changes,
air filters, tune-ups, mufflers,
timing belts, or emission tests.
Ex.9.
$ome of racetrack drivers they
usually add mufflers and tires
Definition :
A part of a motor vehicleHs exhast system,
serving to mffle the sond of the vehicle.
A device sed to deaden the sond of a
drm, bell, piano, or other instrment.
a device that is attached to the engine of a
vehicle to ma.e it 2ieter,
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1.
'ere.a tida. pernah mengganti oli,
filter dara, tne p, .nalpot, timing
belt ata /i emisi.
Ex.2. ?eberapa dari pengendara
balapan nt. membat sara yang
.elar dari mesin /adi hals ma.a
mere.a menambah.an .nalpot dan
ban.
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to make the engine of their
vehicle quieter.
'ddle Example :
Ex.1. hen & made my witness
statement & was muddled in the
accounts which & gave in
paragraph < and paragraph =.
Ex.2."hey were !u))#%&(
u* the cards
Definition :
1. to case confsion in 0someone or
someone3s mind1
2.: to mix p 0something1 in a confsed
way
Origin of M%DDLE
probably from obsolete
Dtch moddelen, from 'iddle Dtch,
from modde md- a.in to 'iddle !ow
&ermanmudde
(irst )nown %se: 1FIF
S(non(s
addle, baffle, bamboo6le, beat, befog, bef
ddle, bemse,bewilder, bffalo, confond,
discomboblate, disorient,flmmox, fox, f
ddle, get, gravel, ma6e, confse, mddy,my
stify, perplex, pose, p66le, vex.
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1. Saat saya memberi.an
.esa.sian saya berada dalam
.ebingngan diantara paragraph F
dan C-
Ex.2. 'ere.a mengaca. .artD
.art.
!iability Example : Definition : "ranslate into 7ndonesia :
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Ex. the partners accept
unlimited #%+%#%t, -or any risks
they undertake
11 7n law, the state of being liable DD that is,
legally accontable for an act or omission.
21 7n bsiness, money owed by a bsiness
to others, sch as payroll taxes, a cort
/dgment, an accont payable, or a loan
debt.
4artnernya a.an menerima
tanggng/awab dan resi.o dari yang
mere.a la..an.
E
Eegligence Example :
Ex. e cannot .ust say it was
not negligence without a proper
investigation.
Definition
(ailre to exercise the care toward others
that a reasonable or prdent person wold
se in the same circmstances, or ta.ing
action that sch a reasonable person wold
not, reslting in nintentional harm to
another. Eegligence forms a common basis
for civil litigation, with plaintiffs sing for
damages based on a variety of in/ries,
from physical or property damage to
bsiness errors and miscalclations. "he
in/red party 0plaintiff1 mst prove: 11 that
the allegedly negligent defendant had a
dty to the in/red party or to the general
pblic, 21 that the defendant3s action 0or
failre to act1 was not what a reasonably
prdent person wold have done, and =1
that the damages were directly
0NproximatelyN1 cased by the negligence.
An added factor in the formla for
determining negligence is whether the
damages were Nreasonably foreseeableN at
the time of the alleged carelessness. 0See
also: contribtory negligence, comparative
negligence,foreseeable
ris., damages, negligence per se, gross
negligence, family prpose doctrine, /oint
"ranslate :
)ita tida. bisa mengata.an bahwa
it b.anlah .elalaian tanpa
penyelidi.an terlebih dahl.
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tortfeasors, tortfeasor, tort,liability, res ipsa
lo2itr1
Origin
'iddle English: via $ld (rench from
!atin negligentia, from the
verb negligere 0variant
of neglegere3disregard, slight3:
see neglect1.
$
$verrle Example :
Ex. "hief 7udge 1oran
overruled the government>s
ob.ections

$verrle :
>e/ect or disallow by exercising oneHs
sperior athority:
11 A trial /dge3s decision to re/ect a party3s
ob/ectionDDoften, to a 2estion for a witness
or the admission of evidence. ?y
overrling the ob/ection, the /dge allows
the 2estion or evidence in cort. 21 An
appellate cort3s decision that a prior
appellate decision was incorrect, and is
therefore no longer a valid precedent on the
legal isse in 2estion.
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
#a.im )eta 'oran menola.
.eberatan dari &bernr.
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4
4etition Example :
Ex.1.5e presented a petition to the
legislatre to change the law.
Ex.2.She filed a petition for
divorce.
Definition :
: a written docment that many people sign
to show that they want a person or
organi6ation to do or change something
: a formal written re2est made to an official
person or organi6ation
law : a formal written re2est to have a legal
case decided by a cort
Origin of .ETITION
'iddle English, from AngloD(rench, from
!atin petition-, petitio, from petere to see.,
re2est K more at (EA"#E>
(irst )nown %se: 1*th centry
Relate' to .ETITION
Synonyms
ad/ration, appeal, con/ration, cry, desire,
entreaty,plea, pleading, prayer, solicitation,
sit, sppliance,spplication
"ranslate:
Ex.1. )ami menga/.an petisi .epada
legislatif nt. mengbah h.m.
Ex.2. Dia menga/.an petisi nt.
bercerai.
4etitioner Example :
Ex.7n constittional case
between E'4!$T'EE"
Definition :
11 A person who signs a petition. 21
Sometimes a synonym for plaintiff, sed
almost niversally in some states and in
others for certain types of lawsits, most
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
Ex. Didalam .ass .onstitsi antara
Emploment Division M Smith,
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D7M7S7$E v. S'7"#,
Employment Div. as a
petitioner.
commonly divorce and other family law
cases. =1 Someone who sponsors an
immigrant or nonimmigrant for a green
card or visa.
7n constittional law case a person or a
party that see. for a review is a petitioner-
Emploment Division sebagai petitioner.
4reliminary example :
Ex.1.
?reliminary findings show that
the drg cold help patients
with s.in cancer.
Ex.2.
A lawyer will condct
preliminary investigation before
accepting a case from the client.
Definition :
: something that comes first in order to
prepare for or introdce the main part of
something else
: a game that is played before the main part
of a competition to decide which players or
teams will be allowed to contine playing
Origin of .RELIMINAR)
(rench pr*liminaires, plral, from
'edieval !atinpraeliminaris, ad/ective,
preliminary, from !atin prae- preD
J limin-, limen threshold
(irst )nown %se: 1F;F
Synonyms
crtainDraiser, overtre, preamble, prelde,
prologe0also prolog1, warmDp
"ranslate to 7ndonesia :
Ex.1.
Diawal peneman menn/..an bahwa
obat dapat menyembh.an pasien yang
menderita penya.it .an.er .lit.
Ex.2.
Seorang pengacara a.an mengada.an
menyelidi.i sebah .ass sebelm ia
menerima .ass dari .liennya.
U
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>
>atio decidendi Example :
Ex. 7t is a legal phrase which
refers to the legal, moral,
political, and social principles
sed by a cort to compose the
rationale of a
particlar /dgment.
%nli.e obiter dicta, the ratio
decidendi is, as a general
rle, binding on corts of lower
and later /risdictionKthrogh
the doctrine of stare decisis.
Bertain corts are able to
overrle decisions of a cort of
coordinate /risdictionK
however, ot of interests
of /dicial comity, they
generally try to follow
coordinate rationes.
Definition :
0!atin plral rationes decidendi1 is
a !atin phrase meaning Nthe reasonN or
Nthe rationale for the decisionN.
"he ratio decidendi is Nthe point in a
case which determines the
/dgmentN
+1,
or Nthe principle which the
case establishesN.
+2,
7n other words, ratio decidendi is a
legal rle derived from, and consistent
with, those parts of legal reasoning
within a /dgment on which the
otcome of the case depends.
"ranslate into 7ndonesia :
Ex. 7ni adalah ng.apan h.m
yang mengac pada prinsipDprinsip
h.m, moral, politi., dan sosial
yang digna.an oleh pengadilan
nt. menysn alasan dari
.eptsan tertent. "ida. seperti
dicta obiter, ratio decidendi adalah,
sebagai atran mm, mengi.at
pengadilan yang lebih rendah dan
.emdian yrisdi.siDmelali do.trin
stare decisis. 4engadilan tertent
mamp nt. menola. .eptsan
pengadilan .oordinat yrisdi.siD
Eamn, dari .epentingan peradilan
si.ap hormat, mere.a biasanya
mencoba nt. mengi.ti .oordinat
rationes.
>espondent Example :
Ex. A ma/ority
of respondents said they
disagreed with the mayor3s plan.
Definition :
!: one who responds: as
a : one who maintains a thesis in reply
2 011 : one who answers in varios legal
proceedings 0as in e2ity cases1 021 : the
prevailing party in the lower cort
0 : a person who responds to a poll
": a reflex that occrs in response to a
specific external stimls K
"ranslate:
Ex. 'ayoritas dari reponden
mengata.an tida. set/ dengan
rencana 5ali.ota-
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compare $4E>AE"
Origin of RES.ONDENT
!atin respondent-, respondens, present
participle ofrespond+re
(irst )nown %se: 1;2C
Other Legal Ters
actionable, alienable, carceral, chattel, com
plicity,decedent, larceny, malfeasance, mo
ds operandi
>ec.ons Example :
Ex.he reckons that the army
should pull out entirely
Definition :
: to thin. or sppose 0something1 : to
believe that 0something1 is tre or
possible
: to calclate or gess 0an amont,
nmber, vale, etc.1 : to have or form a
general idea abot 0something1
: to thin. of 0someone or something1 as
being something specified
Origin of RE&#ON
'iddle English rekenen, from $ld
English -recenian 0as ingerecenian to
narrate1- a.in to $ld English reccan
(irst )nown %se: 1=th centry
Relate' to RE&#ON
Synonyms
"ranslate:
Ex.Dia berpi.ir seharsnya tentara
ditari. sema.
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calclate, call, con/ectre, figre, gage 0al
so gage1,gess, /dge, ma.e, place, pt, esti
mate, sppose
S
Spreme Bort Example :
Ex. %S Spreme Bort
sally hear appeals from
cort of appeals.
Definition :
the highest cort of law in a contry or
%.S. state
"ranslate
Ex. 'ah.amah Agng di Ameri.a
Seri.at biasanya mendengar
banding dari pengadilan ting.at
banding.
Strict Scrtiny Example :
Ex. Strict scrtiny is a form
of /dicial review that corts
se to determine the
constittionality of certain
laws. "o pass strict scrtiny,
the legislatre mst have
passed the law to frther a
Ncompelling governmental
interest,N and mst have
narrowly tailored the law to
achieve that interest. A
famos 2ip asserts that strict
scrtiny is Nstrict in name,
bt fatal in practice
Definition :
A legal standard to determine the
constittionality of a statte, sed when the
statte implicates a fndamental right or
relates to a sspect classification nder the
e2al protection clase 0sch as race1. "o
determine if a statte passes the test, a
cort considers whether the government
has a compelling interest in creating the
law, whether the statte is Nnarrowly
tailoredN to meet the government3s
ob/ectives, and whether there are less
restrictive means of accomplishing the
same thing.
(or a cort to apply strict scrtiny, the
legislatre mst either have
significantly abridged a fndamental
right with the law3s enactment or have
passed a law that involves a sspect
classification. Sspect classifications
have come to inclde race, national
"ranslate :
Ex.4engawasan yang .etat adalah
bent. /dicial review bahwa
pengadilan gna.an nt.
menent.an .onstitsionalitas
ndangDndang tertent. %nt.
lls pengawasan yang .etat,
legislatif hars telah lls h.m
nt. lebih N.epentingan
pemerintah menari.,N dan hars
disesai.an sempit h.m nt.
mencapai t/an it. Sebah
Sindiran ter.enal menegas.an
bahwa pengawasan yang .etat
adalah N.etat dalam nama, tapi fatal
dalam pra.te..N
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origin, religion, alienage, and poverty.
Bompare to intermediate
scrtiny and rational basis.
Synthesi6e Example :
Ex. #e synthesi2ed old and new
ideas to form his theory.
Definition :
: to ma.e 0something1 by combining
different things
: to combine 0things1 in order to ma.e
something new
: to ma.e 0something1 from simpler
sbstances throgh a chemical process
First #no$n %se of S)NT+ESI3E
1C=P
"ranslate:
Ex. Dia menggabng.an ide bar
dengan ide lama nt. membent.
sat teori.
"
"echnocrat Example :
Ex. The economic planning by
technocrats in the 3ourth
(epublic paid off with high
growth rates in 3rance in the
early years of the 3ifth
(epublic.
Definition :
An exponent or advocate of technocracy.
"ranslate :
Ex. 4erencanaan e.onomi oleh
te.no.rat di >epbli. )eempat
terbayar dengan ting.at
pertmbhan yang tinggi di
4erancis di tahnDtahn awal
>epbli. )elima.
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"hreshold Example :
Ex. she was on the threshold of
a da22ling career
Definition :
1: A point of entry or beginning-
2:"he magnitde or intensity that mst be
exceeded for a certain reaction,
phenomenon, reslt, or condition to occr
or be manifested:
=:"he point at which
a physiological or psychological effect
begins to be prodced @has a
high threshold for painA
b : a level, point, or vale above which
something is tre or will ta.e place and
below which it is not or will not.
STE$ET'S
start, starting
point, beginning, brin., verge, edge, dawn,
birth, origin, inception,
conception, opening, lanch, inagration,
instittion, initiation, debt, creation, day
"ranslate :
Ex. Dia diambang .arir yang
gemila.
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one
L informal .ic.Doff
L formal commencement
%
M
5
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V
T
W
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