The Use of Music, Psychology and Bible

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The Use of Music, Psychology and The Bible In My Future Vocations Stephen T. Archer Tennessee Temple University

Interdisciplinary Studies 4713 Dr. Andrew Alexson September 25, 2009

The Use of Music, Psychology and Bible Abstract

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Philippians 2:7 says that Jesus “made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.” As Christians God has called us to serve Him with our lives no matter the cost, but He is not going to give us a command without giving us the tools to serve Him. The greatest tool He has given us is His word, the Bible. In it we are condemned for our sin, see the light of the gospel and are told how to coming to saving salvation. God has also given other gifts outside the realm of the Bible. He has given me the ability to serve Him by going to school and taking classes in music and Psychology. God has called me to serve Him and I intend on using these two subjects in service to Him towards others that will be God Honoring, Gospel Focused and Cross Centered.

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Outline
1. Introduction (a) Understanding of the Gospel (b) Thesis Statement: I have studied both Music and Psychology for my vocation because I feel this is where God is leading me to serve others and because I have gifts in both of these areas that God has given me. 2. Music (a) Introduction to Music (b) Support of Music in the Bible (c) Music in Worship (d) Music in Vocations i. Music Minister ii. Musician in Church iii. Secular Vocation A. Musician B. School Teacher 3. Psychology (a) Introduction to Psychology (b) Example of Sin and Psychology (c) Psychology in Vocations i. Personal Psychology Practice ii. Counseling A. Death B. Divorce C. Marriage 4. Bible (a) Synopsis of Bible (b) Synopsis of the Trinity i. Pastoral Ministry A. Four Relationships • Relationship to God • Relationship to my Wife • Relationship to my Children • Relationship to my Congregation B. Nine Marks of a Healthy Church • Essential Marks • Expository Preaching • Biblical Theology • A Biblical understanding of the Good News • Important Marks • A Biblical Understanding of Conversion • A Biblical Understanding of Evangelism • A Biblical Understanding of Membership • Biblical Church Discipline • Biblical Discipleship and Growth • Biblical Leadership. • Pastors and Elders and Deacons? 5. Conclusion

The Use of Music, Psychology and Bible 6. Appendices (a) Appendix 1 (b) Appendix 2 (c) Appendix 3

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The Use of Music, Psychology and Bible The Use of Music, Psychology and The Bible In My Future Vocations

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“...but made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.” -Philippians 2:7

Philippians 2:5-11 shows the humility of Christ to come to this earth and die. In the middle of these verses we read that Jesus took on the form of a “servant.” The word servant is from the Greek word δουλος (doo'-los) which literally means “slave.” Paul isn't pointing this out so that we can take ͂
pride in our actions for others to look at us. A few verses earlier Paul says that we should “... count others

as more significant than ourselves.”1 We are to strive to serve one another because of Christ and His sacrifice on the cross. We are all called to be ministers of the gospel no matter what our role in life is. The word minister comes from the Greek word διακονος (dee-ak'-on-os). This is the same word that we get our English word “deacon” or “servant” from.

God gives Christians spiritual gifts in order to serve others for the kingdom. There are other gifts that he gives people that aren't “Spiritual Gifts,” but can still be used to bring people to Christ. For instance, there are some people that are naturally smart. Being smart isn't a spiritual gift because both Christians and non-Christians are able to excel in intelligence.2

Before I begin with the vocations I intend on pursuing I need to give a foundation for
1 Philippians 2:3 2 There are also people, both Christian and non-Christians, that excel in non-intelligence.

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everything I have said and plan on saying in this paper. To begin with I am going to share my view of the gospel and what it means not only to me, but for the rest of the world. The word “Gospel” comes from the Greek word ευαγγελιον “euaggelion” which literally means “Good News.” My understanding ̓ of the gospel is that God created everything in the universe in six days. The last thing God created was man.3 Man sinned against God and could no longer have fellowship with God because of his

sinfulness. In fact, man is so sinful that he does not even seek after God.4 But God, who is rich in mercy and grace sent His son, Jesus, who humbled himself to His Father's will, to this earth to die for our sins. God then raised Jesus from the dead to show that the penalty for out sins had been paid for. Now, we are able to live a life free of sin. Free to forgive and show grace because of the forgiveness and grace that we have been shown.

After we come to Christ we can echo this, “My only comfort in life is that I am not my own, but belong – Body and Soul, in life and in death – to my faithful Savior Jesus Christ. He has fully paid for all my sins with His precious blood and has set me free from the tyranny of the devil. He also watches over me in such a way that not a hair can fall from my head without the will of my Father in heaven: in fact all things must work together for my salvation. Because I belong to Him, Christ, by His Holy Spirit, assure me of eternal life and makes me wholeheartedly willing and ready from now on to live for Him.”5 With this being said, I have studied both Music and Psychology for my vocation because I feel this is where God is leading me to serve others and because I have gifts in both of these areas that God has given me.

The best definitions of music is the one I found on “dictionary.com:” Music is “an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color.”5 To begin with music is one of the great gifts God has given us. Music
3 By man I mean man and woman. 4 Romans 3:10-11 5 cf. Heidelberg Catechism: Lords Day 1

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was made to glorify him and that it does. In the beginning we see music starting with Jubal in Genesis 4:21who was the father of all who play the lyre and the harp. We see that music is in Heaven from what we read in Revelation 5:8-9; 14:2-3; and 15:2-3. The book of Psalms is one great songbook. The songs written in it range from those of mourning to those of praise and adoration. The Songs of Solomon is another great songbook about love and romance. Lamentations is another song mourning the destruction of Israel. Mary sang a song in Luke 1:46-55. Those were some of the solo's sung. There were a few duet's sung as well. Moses and Miriam have a semi-duet in Exodus 15:1-21 and Deborah and Barak sang a duet in Judges 5:1-31. Even larger there are choirs of innumerable amounts of angles in the Bible singing on special occasions. The three I mentioned earlier from the book of Revelation and also at Jesus' birth angels came out and sang a song to the shepherds.

Music is one of the greatest ways we can worship God. Mark Driscoll, pastor of Mars Hill Church in Seattle, Washington, says when we do not feel like worshiping. “Here’s how you get yourself into worship – I’ll let you know a little secret – you worship your way into worship. You sing until you feel it. You don’t sing because you feel it. You sing until you feel it.” 6 Wayne Grudem, author of one of the versions of Systematic Theology, says that “churches need to talk and plan openly and honestly in order to find a mix of songs that can be sung well by the whole congregation... Songs that address God in the second person (that is, speaking to God as 'You' rather than 'He.'”7 The reason we sing to God like this is that God is not just an impersonal being He is personal. Psalms shows that both styles are acceptable to God, so we should not reject one or the other because we prefer one style over the other. There are times that either one or the other is more necessary. In light of this I would like to show three ways in which I plan to use music in my future. My first choice would be to use it for a full-time ministry in a church and be paid to lead the music in a church setting. If I am not called as a music

6 Driscoll, M. (25 October, 2009) [Lecture] Sermon about Mary's Song at Mars Hill Church, Seattle, Washington. [Transcript] Retrieved October 29, 2009, from http://cdn.marshillchurch.org/media/2009/10/25/20091025_maryssong_english_transcript.pdf 7 Grudem, Wayne. (1994). Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids, Mi. Zondervan.

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minister I will still attend church and I would use the gifts God has given me to grow the church. If I am in a church, but no doors open for me to help lead in other areas I would use my gifts in a secular job.

As I stated previously my first choice is to be a music minister in a local church. One would think that the music minister sits back and chooses music for each Sunday service and the music for special events. While this is true it is only partly true. Music ministers are leaders in the church. Inasmuch, they are called to lead. I would serve in the same capacity as the Senior Pastor of the church just in a different vocation and as such I would have to meet the qualifications as a pastor of a church.8 Paul has two lists on these qualifications found in 1 Timothy 3:2-7 and Titus 1:6-9.

Before Paul gives this list of qualifications he prefaces it with a verse in chapter one about our duties. In verse five he says “The aim of our charge is love that issues from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.” When he says “our” it is speaking of leaders in the church. Paul is saying that our commands or instructions, as leaders in the church, is that “from a pure heart,” giving all the glory to God and doing nothing from vain conceit, “a good conscience,” making sure that we are being guided from the Holy Spirit in our actions and not to repress Him in anything we do, and “sincere faith,” we are to be open and genuine about our faith and not deceiving others to a false gospel. This false gospel could be anything from the “Prosperity Gospel” to not preaching on sin. Anything that would make more of me and less of God would also be a false gospel.

After considering this verse we move on to the list of qualifications. I will only be looking at a
8 Before I continue I must explain first and foremost the language I have and will continue to use. As I write this paper I will use the word pastor. When using the term pastor I mean the office of Elder/Overseer/Pastor this is because the Bible does not differentiate between the difference in the three terms. They are all intertwined and replaced with one another. If I was being scripturally correct I would use the term “elder” to describe the position in which I would acquire, but for reasons of clarification and the readers understanding I will use the term “pastor” with the knowledge that by “pastor” I mean elder/overseer/pastor. I will explain this in more detail in the section of Biblical Church Leadership.

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few of the qualifications for it would take more than nine thousand words to even briefly look at all of the qualifications.9 The first in both lists is that I must be is above reproach. This means that I

cannot even “have the appearance of evil.”10 People must not even be able to point an accusing finger at me. A second qualification is that I am self-controlled. That I have to be able to control myself to let God minister to others through me. I cannot do that if I am continually putting my own personal agenda in the music I choose for the service. Finally I have to be able to teach. Rather than letting others do things their way I have to teach them how to sing specific songs. This list is not a set of respectability if followed. Rather these lists are required and as such I have to be growing myself in Christ, now, so that I would be ready for a church to consider me. Not because of worldly

achievements, but because of gifts God has given me and that I meet the qualifications of a pastor.

When a church feels as though I am prepared for the music ministry and choose me as their Music Pastor I will then take on other responsibilities. As mentioned previously one of my major duties would be to arrange music for the services. The only way to choose one's music for the service is to study the pastor's sermon as much as the pastor does. As a lay member now we need to be thinking about our pastor's sermon days before it is even preached. Thabiti Anyabwile say that the way we pursue this is “Several days before the sermon is preached, ask the pastor what passage of scripture he plans to preach the following Sunday.”11 Most pastor's have their sermons picked out a few weeks if not months ahead of time. As the music director I will be meeting with the pastor to understand what he is going to be portraying in his sermon a few weeks ahead of time so that I can already be studying for the sermon and choosing music that would fit the service the best possible way so that God is glorified and people would not be wondering why certain songs were chosen over others that could be more appropriate.

9 See Appendix 1 for full list and comparison of these two sections side by side. 10 1 Thessalonians 5:22 11 Anyabwile, Thabiti. (2008) What is a Healthy Church Member?. Wheaton. Crossway.

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As I study and figure out which songs should be sung by the congregation, I will also be teaching the choir new pieces of music. While leading a congregation in music I am not worried about Mrs. Frugal in the third row that is singing a B flat when she should be singing a B natural. In a choir setting I will need to make sure that people are singing the correct pitch in the correct time. In the average church choir, there could be between one and eight tones being sung simultaneously. My job as a choir director would be to listen to each part and make sure that what is being sung is what should be sung. I have to study the piece of music so that when the F a diminished chord is sung to add dissonance and that it is not because my choir is not doing their job.

As a music minister it would also be my duty to set up musical's for the children's choir. There are many different musicals for children and it would be my job to study each one and figure out which would be the best for those specific times. I would also have to choose a team of people to teach all the children their music and lines and I would be the one to delegate a leader to teach the children. There would be more than one person, so I would be asking people to help and giving them their responsibilities. I would also be in charge of the sound system in the church and training people to be able to run the sound and video for our services and also make sure that the sound and video runs smoothly for the services. All that being said, I have to know how everything works so that if something does not work I can fix, rewire, or buy that which I am needing for that specific problem.

Outside of the regular church functions my job would be to create a healthy environment of worship in other occasions such as weddings, funerals and parties. It would be up to me to see what the Bible says about issues like dancing and when it is appropriate and what type of dancing is appropriate. Or if secular music should be allowed and where the line is drawn on secular music. While in church services the music would be completely holistic outside of church on these special occasions the music choice could be more lenient, but it would be my job to understand what the

The Use of Music, Psychology and Bible Bible says about what is and is not glorifying.

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As mentioned previously one of the qualifications for this position is to be able to teach. Yes, music is something I am going to need to teach, but even greater is I am going to need to teach church services. Music can be a great way to connect ideas for application from the Bible. For instance, when speaking about reconciliation and forgiveness one could use the chorus to the song “East to West” 12 by Casting Crowns. In which one cannot help but to see what true forgiveness and reconciliation looks like.

If God does not open the door for me to be a Music Pastor in a local church I would still continue going to a church and I would continue to minister, but it would be in a much different vocation than the music pastor. I would be one that would immediately be answering to the music pastor. There are a few ways I can use music as being a lay member in a local church. The first would be singing in the choir. My job in singing in the choir would be to make sure that I am singing the correct pitches in the correct timing. I would also need to make sure my fellow choir members, specifically those in the same section as I, sang the correct pitches in the correct timing.

Another area that I could assist the church in music as a lay member is by playing the piano. Pianists in the church are needed in that without a musician there would be no music. While some churches decide not to use musical instruments13 the church I would be involved with would be a
12 Jesus, can You show me just how far the east is from the west 'cause I can't bear to see the man I've been come rising up in me again In the arms of Your mercy I find rest 'cause You know just how far the east is from the west From one scarred hand to the other 13 The Church of Christ denomination is one of the major denominations that does not believe having “mechanical instruments.” “As a result of the distinctive plea of the church - a return to New Testament Faith and practice acappella singing is the only music used in the worship. This singing, unaccompanied by mechanical instruments of music, conforms to the music used in the apostolic church and for several centuries thereafter (Ephesians 5:19). It is felt that there is no authority for engaging in acts of worship not found in the New Testament. This principle eliminates the use of instrumental music, along with the use of candles, incense, and other similar elements.” (http://church-ofchrist.org/who.html#music)

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church that would see no doctrinal issue with using a piano. Most pianists for churches play the music on Sunday Morning, Sunday Evening and Wednesday Evening and sometimes for special occasions (depending on if they were free or). As a pianist I would have to practice the music daily for the services I would be playing.

A second area of helping in the church outside of paid staff would be to help the Music Pastor in musicals. As previously mentioned the Music Pastor sets up times for the children to act out musicals with a Biblical theme. I would assist him in leading the musical practices, helping the kids learn their music, helping the kids learn their lines and ultimately directing the musical. This is an important role. While the pastor teaches the congregation about Christ and answers their questions the adults can compare what they know to what the Bible says and what the pastor is saying. Children, on the other hand, do think for themselves, but they do not think critically like adults. When going through the musical practices kids will ask questions and I must know how to answer the questions biblically. Matthew 17:6 makes it perfectly clear that Jesus does not put up with people leading children astray when He says “but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened around his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.” Leading children in the wrong direction is one of the worst things a person could ever do because it could have eternal consequences.

If neither of these doors open for me to use my talents for Christ in the Church I would use them to bring people to the church. I have always loved playing for people and would one day love to be a professional musician in the context of creating my own music, recording CD's and traveling to different places for concerts. Much of the music played on the radio is “Jesus is my Boyfriend” music in that “the church has been under fathered and over mothered.”14 Because of this “blokey blokes
14 Buckeridge, John (Interviewer). (December 2006.) The Premier Interview with Matt Redman. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.premiertv.twofourdigital.net//Premiertv.aspx?AssetId=6150f5cb-cd4d-4c69-9831262ddbad4e6a

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(manly men) don't want to sing these songs.”15 (Parenthesis Mine)As a musician I would have to make sure that all of my songs are scripturally correct, doctrinally sound and cross-centered. The words I sing cannot be something that I make money off of, instead they must be words that bring others to Christ. The show us Jesus as he really is and not our boyfriend/girlfriend that we are singing love songs to. Yes, we love Jesus, but not in a romantic kind of way.

If God did not open the door for me to be a musician I would still desire to lead in a secular vocation with music. I have always enjoyed teaching and would love to, at some point, be a teacher. I would prefer to teach in a University, but I could teach part-time in a public or private school. Whether it be High, Middle or Elementary school, to be able to use music to help people use music to glorify God would be great. In being a school teacher it would give me a chance to reach children, if public or private schools, or adults, if in a university, for Christ. Yes, it would be more difficult in a public school setting, but Paul tells us “whatever we do, do to the glory of God.” As long as I am teaching these children to the glory of God it will show, and I could talk to them about God, if the circumstances are right.

Now that I have discussed the ramifications of using music for my future vocation I will now discuss the implications of using psychology in my future vocation. I am not a clinical psychologist and therefore this section will be from what I have studied about Psychology and the applications thereof. Psychology is “the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.”16 Throughout the years, beginning with Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.)17, people have studied the mind to understand mental functions and behaviors, whether normal or abnormal. Psychology is never mentioned in the Bible, but I do not believe that we, as Christians, should not study it. While researching for this paper
15 Ibid 16 psychology. (n.d.).Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from Dictionary.com website:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/psychology 17 Nevid, J., Rathus, S., a., S., & Greene, B. (2005). Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World. (Pg. 12) Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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I have come across dozens of websites that peg Christianity against Psychology and I do not think this should be the case. Instead, we should see that because humans are built a certain way we have tendencies to repeat behaviors. The two major vocations in which I would use psychology with my future vocation are clinical psychologist and counseling.

As the wisest man in the world said “What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun.”18 If there is nothing new under the sun people act certain ways for specific reasons. Sometimes these reasons are because of a psychological disorder and they need treatment. I have seen and talked to plenty of people that have either had serious psychological disorders or been a diagnostician and talked to those with the disorders. I have studied enough to know that there are some people that have a disorder that only God can cure. On the other hand, I do believe that some diagnosis are cops outs for underlying issues.

Psychodynamics is “the aggregate of motivational forces, both conscious and unconscious, that determine human behavior and attitudes.”19 Psychodynamics is the working of Sigmund Freud. In my opinion Freud took most issues involved with psychodynamics too far, but I think within the context of sin and psychodynamics Freud's theory makes perfect sense. Outside the context of sin one is left to blame others, or something medically speaking for their indecent, or leery, or problematic behavior. Some things that one would not call sinful in our eyes could potentially be sinful in God's.

For instance, the average clinical psychologist would see a person called a “checker.” This checker checks everything. They check the mailbox for mail a few dozen times to make sure they haven't missed anything. They check the light dozens of times to make sure it will come back on. They check the locks on their door to make sure it will lock and re-lock. These processes may take
18 Ecclesiastes 1:9 19 psychodynamics. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/psychodynamics

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upwards of hours to complete so the clinical psychologist would diagnose them with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder comes from two words. Obsession which is “an intrusive and recurrent thought, idea or urge that seems beyond a person's ability to control” 20 and Compulsions which is “a repetitive behavior... or mental act the person feels compelled or driven to preform.”21 Most people have obsessions and compulsions, but the disorder causes these obsessions and compulsions to rule a person's life.

A clinical psychologist after diagnosing the patient would begin treatment with the patient. The most common way of treating these patients is “exposure with response prevention”22 in which the patient is exposed to whatever element they are fearful of and then exposing their fear and showing them that they are afraid for no reason. In a recorded interview with a clinical psychologist a patient with OCD, Dave, speak out on his disorder. He uses words like “fear”, “anxious” and “trust” (I will return to this later). Which leads me to see that OCD is not as much a mental defect as it is disbelief. Ultimately, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a sin issue in that the patient does not trust that God is good. There are many other examples like this in which sin is the underlying issue and causes one's behavior to then be effected. This is one of the many ways that Psychology and the Bible coincide with one another.

In the previous section I worked my way from top of the list to the bottom of the list on what I would like to do with music, but with this section I am going to work my way up from the least likable vocation I would enjoy to the vocation I would enjoy the most. To begin with getting my Masters or ever PhD in Psychology would be an area I would pursue as a secular vocation. I have always enjoyed psychology and if the occasion arose that I felt confident in pursuing this degree and gaining my own

20 Nevid, J., Rathus, S., a., S., & Greene, B. (2005). Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World. (Pg. 192-195) Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. 21 Ibid 22 Ibid

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practice I would pursue it without a second thought. It would be a dream of mine to be part of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies and practicing psychology with a biblical background. Most psychologists use a more agnostic approach to psychology. They would say there is no God and that one cannot relate to Him if there were. Many say that “”There is a very tangible and very present hell on this earth. It is this—the hell of neurosis and psychosis—to which sin and unexpiated guilt lead us”23 if they even claimed that Hell or sin existed. My goal as a clinical psychologist would be to have personal sessions with people, to see patterns in peoples lives and be able to diagnose them as a psychologist, but treat them as a Christian. For instance, in the example earlier with Dave, I would be able to diagnose that he had OCD, but on top of exposure with response prevention I would be able to encourage them with the Bible and encourage them to rely on God.

As I mentioned in the example the key words were “fear”, “anxious” and “trust”. These are all biblical ideas. For “fear” I might encourage Dave to read Psalm 56 and specifically on verses 3 and 4 when David says “When I am afraid, I put my trust in you. In God, whose word I praise, in God I trust; I shall not be afraid. What can flesh do to me?” I would then talk through the implications of these verses with the patient. For “anxiety” we could talk through the implications of Matthew 6:25-34 and specifically 34 when Jesus says “Therefore do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient for the day is its own trouble.” Or for “trust” talk through what Proverbs 3:5-6 means when the author says “Trust in the LORD with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.” There is plenty of room for growth in the psychological realm and these are just a few verses for one diagnosis.

Another option for me to think about would be a clinical counselor. “What is the difference between a clinical psychologist and a counselor?” You might be asking. Well, I will tell you. Clinical Psychology is “the branch of psychology dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of personality and
23 (Sept. 14, 1959) Medicine: Sin & Psychology. [Electronic Version]

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behavioral disorders”24 while Counseling is “professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems.”25 They look similar, but clinical psychology deals with people that have

abnormal thinking processes to come to their conclusions and would be diagnosed on the multiaxial assessment.26 While being a counselor I would talk to rather normal (maybe a little quirky) people that need help through a situation. There would be no regular sessions for long periods of time in that it would take years to get through some areas. Three major areas in which professional counselors help are deaths, marriages and divorces.

When people lose someone they love without warning to either them or their spouse it can be traumatizing. From these situations many people hold in their emotions and do not talk to another about what they are feeling. These normal feelings turn into regret and even more pain and could cause a person to need to go to a clinical psychologist if their feelings get out of hand. My job as a counselor would be to help the family cope with their loss by talking with them, giving them advice about how to cope and relating them to the Bible. In doing so they will see what they are feeling is normal and that there are ways to deal with the pain and anguish that they are feeling.

When a father comes home and tells his wife and children he is leaving them with no reason or rhythm wives take it personally, but the kids internalize it. Many kids go through a phase blaming themselves for the divorce and thinking that it was their fault that their dad left. In this situation I would do as I did in the previous example: help the family cope with their loss by talking with them, giving them advice about how to cope and relating them to the Bible.

In the previous two examples my job would be to listen to what others said, process that and
24 clinical psychology. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/clinical psychology 25 counseling. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/counseling 26 This assessment in from The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR).

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say very little. I would let the others come to their conclusions with little or no help from me. It would allow them to learn to cope with their pain, but as a marriage counselor I would be more talkative. When a couple would come to me for marriage counseling I would be able to make observations and assessments and be able to help them learn how to make this transition in their lives. It would be more advice than talking, but as a marriage counselor I would be able to tell if the couple would be ready for marriage or if they were making a mistake. It would be my job as a counselor to make sure that each couple was ready for marriage before they were married.

The previous vocations, including music, I have mentioned come together in this final vocation and the major vocation in which I feel God has called me; the pastoral ministry. Not just a pastor, but a senior pastor in a church.27 I have intertwined the Bible in with the vocations of music and psychology, but in this next section I will tease out even more how I intend to use the Bible alone. I mentioned some details about being a pastor earlier in this paper, but this was in the context of being a music pastor and choosing music based on what the senior pastor is preaching. While I have studied music and psychology in college these two subjects will be helpful, but are not nearly important as the Bible and as such I will not be discussing, in many details, the usefulness of these prior subjects in this section of the paper.

As a senior pastor in the church it is necessary that I validate the characteristics of the Bible, and the trinity (God the Father, Son and Holy spirit). It is necessary that I know that the doctrines of the Bible, the counterarguments of my doctrines and to relate these in such a way as to either bring people to Christ or to grow them in their sanctification. I will not only be a minister in my church, but more importantly a minister to my family. As a pastor I will need to know about the church and the functions thereof. I will be discussing these points and more for the rest of the paper.

27 For reasoning for clarification consult footnote 7

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Before I continue on the application of the Bible to my future vocation I will need to set my foundation on the Bible. To begin with the Bible is the Infallible (absolutely trustworthy) 28, Inerrant (free from error)29, Authoritative (absolute influence)30, Clear (rid of obstruction31), Necessitated (to make essential)32, Sufficient (adequate for the purpose)33, Inspired (God Breathed)34 Word of God. When I use the phrase “word of God” we can take this phrase three ways in one. In the New Testament Jesus is referred to as “the Word,” (John 1:1 and Revelation 19:3) so Jesus is “the Word.” The second way it is taken is that it is that which God has literally spoken. Third, God's word is the book in which we study. In a trichotomic35 kind of way the Bible is Jesus whom we study. What I mean is it is not just about Jesus, but it was also spoken by Jesus years before He came to earth and before the earth was created and because of this we study the Bible.

This is what inspired Paul to write “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.” We study the Bible because of Jesus to be equipped for
28 infallible. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/infallible 29 inerrant. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/inerrant 30 authority. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/authority 31 Clear. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Clear 32 Necessitated. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Necessitated 33 Sufficient. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Sufficient 34 This word is θεόπνευστος (theopneustos) [1] which comes from two Greek words θεός (Theos) [2] and πνέω (pneō) [3] which literally means God Breathed. 1. Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for theopneustos (Strong's 2315)". Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 12 Nov 2009. < http:// www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2315&t=NASB > 2. Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for theos (Strong's 2316)". Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 12 Nov 2009. < http:// www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2316&t=NASB > 3.Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for pneō (Strong's 4154)". Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 12 Nov 2009. < http:// www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G4154&t=NASB > 35 Trichotomic derives from the word “trichotomy” which is division into three parts, classes, categories, etc. [1] The “-ic” ending means “Of, relating to, or characterized by” [2] Trichotomic then means “something relating to or characterized by three parts, classes, categories, ect.” [1] trichotomic. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trichotomic [2] -ic. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/-ic

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every good work. Those good works are teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness. Our lives are to be encircled with the gospel in a way that everything we do we “do all to the glory of God”36 which would include at least one of the previously mentioned actions. As a pastor I would be pursuing all of these actions in my congregation. Whether it is a member of the church that has unrepentant sin in their life or a student of the Bible that needs someone to help them understand how the church works. Which as a pastor I will need to not only do when the time arises, but pursue these actions before and as they arise.

Now that I have given a brief synopsis of the Bible I will give a brief synopsis of the Trinity from whom we get the Bible. The term “trinity” is never mentioned in the Bible, but is a term used to describe the three persons of God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The trinity created the world, God the Father sovereignly reigns over all, Jesus is God incarnate whose work was to die for our sins and is to intercede for us to the Father and the work of the Holy Spirit is to show God's presence in the world, specifically the church. These three persons interact perfectly with one another in order to bring Himself complete and total glory and to carry out His will.

Both of these doctrines, The Bible and God, brings us today to Salvation, Baptism and the Church. A Person is saved when he “confess[es] with his mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe[s] in his heart that God raised him from the dead.”37 After coming to Christ one is then baptized as an outward showing of his faith in Christ. My understanding of Baptism is “the immersion in water of a believer in Jesus Christ preformed once as the initiation of such a believer into a community of believers, the church.”38 There are two major uses of the word church. The first is the catholic church or the universal church. This is “a visible society of baptized Christians professing the same faith under the authority of the invisible head (Christ) and the authority of the visible head.” The only
36 I Corinthians 10:31 37 Romans 10:9 38 J., T., Richard, L., Kolb, R., & D., J. (2007). Understanding 4 Views on Baptism. Grand Rapids, Mi: Zondervan.

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universal church is the Body of Christ. The second “church” is “a single worshiping community, permanently gathered in the true sanctuary, the heavenly Jerusalem and the place of God's presence.”39

I would be the leader of a local congregation of believers and as such would have to meet the qualifications for Pastors.40 As I mentioned in my introduction we, as Christians, are called to be ministers of the gospel. The only differences in being a Pastor and a lay member in a church is that the role of an elder/pastor requires the gift of teaching and being a man. Because of this I am called not to be just a leader, but to be a servant leader. Leading in the capacity of serving others first and foremost. As a pastor I will have four major priorities to balance. These priorities are: My

relationship with God, my relationship with my wife, my relationship with my children and my relationship with my church.41

My first priority as a pastor comes in my relationship with Christ. My personal relationship to my Heavenly Father is much more important than that of anything and everything else in this world let alone my vocation as a pastor. It is through the personal time I spend with God that I grow 42 and am blessed.43 It is through personal memorization of the Bible that I “might not sin against [God].”44 Specifically as a pastor God is the one that creates the door for me to walk through and closes doors for me to wait. I am not learning about God to continue my vocation. God is my vocation. God is everyone's vocation, but I cannot grow people in Christ if I am not close to Him. The single most important qualification for a pastor is that of being “a lover of good; upright, holy.” The only way I can be any of those things and learn about those things is in my personal time with God.
39 Sproul, R.C., (2008). Reformation Study Bible: Esv. Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing. 40 See Appendix 1 41 These priorities are not just for those desiring to be pastors. These are for all men in all vocations. I chose to place them in this section because it fit specifically for the qualifications of being a pastor. 42 Psalm 1:3 43 Matthew 5:6 44 Psalm 119:11

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My second priority of service would be to that of my wife.45 The apostle Paul points out in 1 Corinthians 7:33 that those who are married have first obligation to their wives before their church and their ministry.46 Many men make the assumption that their role as pastor comes first because it involves others relationships to Christ that they as pastors are in charge of. 47 Therefore, they will spend more time and effort in their churches than with their wives and their relationship falls to pieces and they can no longer relate to one another. Yes, as a pastor I will be held accountable for what I say because of my leadership, but I will be held even more accountable for the sanctification of my wife because I will be spending much more time with her and seeing her sanctification over the rest of our lives that I will ever see int the church.

Another reason my wife will come before the church is that one of the most important qualification of a pastor is that of “managing his household well.” 1 Timothy 3:4-5 show that if one doesn't manage his household well, how can he be expected to lead the church well. If my marriage is supposed to be a mirror image of what the relationship to Christ to the church, then I cannot forsake my wife because of the church. If my household is not being managed well then I have no reason to be a pastor.

My third priority of service would be to that of my children.48 49This is another top qualification
45 This section is conditional to whether or not God calls me or any man to be married and to continue being a pastor. 46 See Appendix 3 for comparison of Single and Married Pastors 47 By “in charge” I mean that the elder/overseer/pastor will be held accountable for what they say and be judged with “greater strictness.” (James 3:1) 48 The reason I haven't placed this second and just call the second priority family is that my relationship with my wife is greater than that of my relationship with my children. My children will one day grow up and have families of their own. My wife and I will be together for the rest of our lives. I will need to be growing that relationship up until the day she or I die. “I am one flesh with her, not with my children or my job. Pleasing her is a responsibility I assumed when I said 'I do.'” [1] [1] Priolo, L., (1999). Complete Husband. Southern Pines: Calvary Press. 49 Although this section is not conditional on having a wife it is conditional to whether or not God grants that I have children. God has called all Christians to be mindful of widows and orphans. As such I will one day hope to adopt at least one child, but this is conditional on whether God opens or closes that door.

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of being a pastor. I should “train up my child in the way they should go”50 and “provoke them not to anger.”51 It is my job as their father to teach them what the Bible says. That responsibility falls only on the parents. Throughout the Old Testament we read that it is the parents responsibility to teach their children the correct paths. We should not rely on schools to do so. Instead, teach them in our homes, by our word and actions, how to live according to biblical standards. As mentioned previously this is also a major qualification of being a pastor in the church. In 1 Timothy 3:4 and Titus 1:6 it says that my children must be believers, submissive (not insubordinate). A verse later in Timothy Paul says that I have to mange my household well as a sign of how I will care for the church that God has given me to keep in my care.

My role as a husband to my wife is a picture of Christ and His relationship to the church. In the same way my relationship with my children should be that of The Father's relationship to the church. One that is just (guided by truth, reason, justice, and fairness) 52, loving (a profoundly tender, passionate affection for)53, kind (of a good or benevolent nature or disposition)54, disciplinary (punishment inflicted by way of correction and training)55, merciful (compassionate or kindly forbearance shown toward an offender, an enemy, or other person in one's power)56 and the list goes on for eternity.

Now that I have set up my first three priorities I will now focus the on the final priority of being a pastor; that which makes being a pastor an actual vocation and that is my congregation. As
50 Proverbs 22:6 51 Ephesians 6:4 52 just. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/just 53 love. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/love 54 kind. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/kind 55 discipline. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/discipline 56 mercy. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mercy

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mentioned previously the church is a local body of believers.57 As a pastor it will be my job to create an environment of worship, growth and sanctification in Christ. A healthy church is one that has “Expository Preaching, Biblical Theology, A Biblical understanding of the Good News, A Biblical Understanding of Conversion, A Biblical Understanding of Evangelism, A Biblical Understanding of Membership, Biblical Church Discipline, Biblical Discipleship and Growth and Biblical Leadership.”58

My ultimate job as a pastor will mirror that if my job as a husband in that I will need to present my congregation as a “wrinkle free” bride59 and I will do this by having these nine marks for my church. The first three are essential marks for the church. Expository Preaching is the best way to preach a sermon because it allows the Bible to explain itself. In topical preaching one is forced to pick and choose verses that would agree with what he is speaking on. This can be dangerous because one can easily take verses out of context without realizing it. Expository preaching forces the speaker to look at a verse, section, chapter or book as a whole and learn what the passage is saying. Also with Topical preaching one is speaking on what they know as opposed to expository preaching one is speaking about what they are learning and what God is showing them about Himself to show others. As a pastor I must set aside all pride and desires to say what I want to say and allow God to say what He wants to say through the Bible.

Biblical Theology is the second mark. Biblical theology is opposed to non-biblical theology. An example of non-biblical theology would be that of the book “The Shack” by William Paul Young. In this he describes God's Holy Spirit as an “Asian woman” that “seemed to shimmer in the light.”60 This seemingly Christian book has other underlying theological issues such as Jesus “being the best way to

57 Cf Page 10, Paragraph 1. 58 Dever, M., (2007). What Is a Healthy Church?. Wheaton: Crossway Books. 59 Ephesians 5:27 60 Young, W., (2007). The Shack. City: Windblown Media.

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relate to Papa61 or Sarayu.62”63 This is just one of many examples of non-biblical theology in that we place our own presuppositions on the text without looking at other places in the Bible and balancing one doctrine off another. As a pastor I must continue to make sure my theology is correct.

The last essential mark is that of understanding the Good News. This is what was explained as the gospel previously.64 As a pastor it is my job to show what the true gospel is and that we need to live according to the gospel and to show this gospel to others in such a way that it will not only change their lives, but also the lives of others around them.

The next are the important marks. The previous three marks were essential in that without them a church cannot be healthy whereas these next six marks are important to cultivate in the church, but are not necessary to be healthy. The forth mark is that it will have a biblical

understanding of conversion. “If we understand conversion as something we have done apart from what God first did in us then we misunderstand it... We need God to convert us”65

The fifth mark is a biblical understanding of evangelism. Evangelism is not converting. As Christians we are not told to “go into all the world and convert people” no we are called to make “disciples.”66 This word for disciples comes from the Greek word μαθητευω (math-ayt-yoo'-o). This verb literally means to become a pupil. When we “evangelize” we are not just telling someone to “pray a prayer” and when they are finished telling them they are saved and leaving them. When we evangelize we are making disciples not converts. Converts easily turn into false converts for they are “tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine.” 67 Two verses earlier
61 Papa is the character of God the Father. In this book Papa is a “large black woman.” 62 Sarayu is the character of God the Holy Spirit. 63 Young, W., (2007). The Shack. City: Windblown Media. 64 Cf Page 2, Paragraph 3. 65 Dever, M., (2007). What Is a Healthy Church?. Wheaton: Crossway Books. 66 Matthew 28:19-20 67 Ephesians 4:14

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Paul says that God gave “apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers” to do this work. As a pastor my understanding of evangelism must be based on the Bible or the people that become disciples are just another false convert.

The sixth mark is a Biblical Understanding of Membership. There are no texts in the Bible stating that there is such a thing as membership, but the Bible does mention that there are lists that people kept for the widows. It's not out of the question to suggest there was also a life of those in actual attendance at a particular meeting place. Biblical membership means that as a pastor I must be sure that all people desiring to join the church meets with myself, another pastor or an elder in the church to be sure that their conversion was a true conversion and that they have a solid foundation of what the gospel is. It also means taking responsibility and ownership of their membership. As a member of my church they should not be coming to church on Sundays and acting like a sinner the six other days of the week. It will be my job as a pastor to make sure this is not the case.

This leads to the seventh mark of a healthy church Biblical Church Discipline. Jesus talked about church discipline in Matthew 18. When someone sins against us, we, as the church body, should make sure that the sin is taken care of. The first step is for there to be a meeting between us and the other person. If they do not think they are in sin or do not care about their sin then we are to take another person with us to talk to them. If they are still unrepentant we are to bring it before the church. If they are still unrepentant after bringing it to the church we are to treat them like an unbeliever (excommunicate them). This may sound harsh and it is, but we are not excommunicating someone for personal sinful reasons. The reason we desire to practice church discipline is for their own sanctification. Most of the time all it takes is the first step for a person to be repentant of their sin. As a pastor I will be held accountable to God for every decision I make and for the wrinkles I do not take out of His bride that I could have. One of the ways of ironing out the wrinkles is through

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The eighth mark of a healthy church is Biblical Discipleship and Growth. This is what I mentioned in the fifth mark. As a church we should desire to see each other grow in Christ and to see each other grow in our sanctification to Christ. This is only done by having conversations with one another. This is not done by just showing up to church to hear a sermon and leaving right after the alter call. This is getting involved with the lives of one another and asking those tough questions like “What is God doing in your life?” And for the same gender “What sins are you struggling with?” We are to “bear one another's burdens and so fulfill the law of Christ.”68 The law that Paul is talking about is “Love the Lord your God and Your neighbor as yourself.” Bearing each others burden's is a way to show our love for each other and helping them grow in their walk with Christ.

The final mark is that of Biblical Leadership. It is my job as a pastor to provide this leadership whether it is through myself, other pastors, or elders in the church. When most evangelicals hear the word “elder” they immediately think of Presbyterians because Presbyterians have multiple elders in a church. I do not think the Baptist denomination has done justice to senior pastors in their own churches. Initially, Elders and Overseers were the leaders in Baptists churches according to the Baptist Faith and Message in 1925.69 By 1963 the language had changed, as it should, but the role of Elder/Overseer had been replaced by Pastor.70 I am not opposed to the term pastor in anyway, but to have a singular pastor making all of the decisions in a church was not the intended hierarchy of the church. My understanding of church government is that there is one senior pastor, but directly under him are the elders of the church alongside the other pastors.71 Nowhere in the Bible does it ever say there was one leader of a church. There were always elders (plural) in a single church, not one elder

68 Galatians 6:2 69 Cf Article XII in the Baptist Faith and Message 1925. 70 CF Article VI in the Baptist Faith and Message 1963. 71 Other pastors being the pastor of discipleship, music, youth, children, ect.

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There might be an argument in saying that the deacons have replaced the office of elder, but I do not see this as a biblical practice. The Bible differentiates between deacons and elders and because of this I cannot accept that deacons have replaced elders. Instead, I understand the role of deacons as “professional servants.” That is their job in the church; to serve.73 The deacons of the church would act as leaders over committees. For instance, there would be a deacon over the audio and video of the church. It would be his responsibility to make sure there were people working on the audio and video committee for the services. He would then recruit people to work with him on his team. This would be the case for all deacons and deacons could serve on multiple teams, but they would be in charge of one committee or team. They would then be held accountable for the decisions they make for their team.

The elders would be making decisions in the church, but they would not be making final decisions. This would be left to the congregation, but it would be the elders that talk over and pray about the decision before it comes before the church. They would also be over the congregation in a way that made sure people were involved with church and still attending. During the elders meetings they would talk about people that haven't been to church for a while and make sure they are contacted. It is also they elders that talk about church discipline. Previously 74, I mentioned church discipline in the context of one sinning against another. In the church, when someone is living in open sin, who takes care of that? It should be the elders, but it normally falls on the pastor. With a team of elders in a church they could discuss the situation and make sure the decision being made is the most God-glorifying decision. Whether it's to approach the person or, if the person has been

72 This is the modern argument against multiple elders in a single church, but that is not the language Paul uses specifically in Titus 1 when referring to elders. 73 This is why I placed them at the bottom of the church hierarchy. See Appendix 2 74 Cf Page 15 Paragraph 3

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approached twice, to bring it before the church. This makes for decisions to be much more Godglorifying and less stressful because there is more than one person making the decision.

As a pastor I will be making all of these decisions as well as preparing a gospel-centered, Christ-focused sermon. This would be me and the elders sitting down and discussing months ahead of time what we need to be focused on in the future. We would talk and pray for a few weeks and come to a final conclusion. I would then prepare at least a week, but hopefully two weeks ahead of time. I would begin by just looking over the text and seeing main themes in the texts. I would then study other passages seeing what the rest of the Bible specifically mentions about this subject. I would start to form which direction this text was leading. If I was stuck on the wording in a specific passage I would consult a commentary and see what another commentator may have said about the passage. This is what I would do throughout the week and on Sunday present to the congregation what God was teaching me through the text.

I would also be in charge of finding others to speak in my place if I was unable to make it on a Sunday. This is another great reasons to have elders in a church. A qualification of an elder is teaching. If I was unable to make it on a Sunday I could rest well knowing that the person I set up to speak was called by God to be a teacher. By setting up the schedule months ahead of time the person I ask to speak would not have to find out at the last minute where the next sermon was coming from.

Ultimately, as a pastor I am called to serve. My job as a pastor is one that will serve everyone and to the uttermost my Father God. God has given me gifts in Music and Psychology to further His kingdom. Moreover God has allowed me to be part of His kingdom and because of this I am able to use His words, the Bible to live according to Him. 1 Corinthians 10:13 says that “whatever we do we should do to the glory of God.” This means that whether or not I am a pastor, musician or a clinical

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psychologist if I'm not doing it for God's glory I have missed the point of being a Christian. I am to serve God with my “heart, soul, mind and strength and my neighbor as myself.”75 This all comes before I even leave college. In fact, this begins every morning when I wake up. If God is not my all satisfying joy when I wake. And if Christ is not at the forefront of my mind throughout the day. And if I am not accepting my sleep from God when I go to bed at night I have missed the point of the Gospel. “Christ became sin, who knew no sin, that we might become the righteousness of God.” 76 It was because of me Christ died and if I let this leave my mind my life is vain.

God has given everyone one of us gifts to use for His glory and your passion. Oh what a waste it would be to live for God with something that is not desired or on the other hand to do what we love to do, but not for the glory of God. God has given us all gifts and talents to use for His glory and the gifts he gives are gifts we enjoy using. My gifts are those in music and Psychology. Another person's may be that of photography and plumbing, but as long as we are using our gifts for God's glory we are both in the same boat. My final words will be from a favorite book of mine “Don't Waste Your Life” by John Piper.

“Only one life, 'Twill soon be past; Only what's done for Christ will last.”77

75 Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30-31; Luke 10:27 76 2 Corinthians 5:21 77 Piper, J., (2004). Don't Waste Your Life. Wheaton: Crossway Books.

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Appendix 1
List of Qualifications for Elders/Overseers/Pastors 1 Timothy 3:2 3:2 3:2 3:2 3:2 3:2 3:2 3:3 3:3 3:3 3:3 3:4-5 3:4 3:6 3:7 above reproach husband of one wife sober-minded self-controlled respectable hospitable able to teach not a drunkard not violent but gentle not quarrelsome not a lover of money manage his household well, care for God's church keeping his children submissive not a recent convert well thought of by outsiders 1:8 a lover of good; upright, holy 1:8 1:9 1:7 1:7 1:7 1:7 1:7 1:6 hospitable able to give instruction not... a drunkard not... violent not be arrogant or quick tempered not... greedy for gain God's steward children are believers (of “faithful”), not insubordinate 1:6,7 1:6 1:8 1:8 Titus above reproach husband of one wife disciplined self-controlled

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Appendix 2
Church Government Trinity | Senior Pastor(s)78 | Elders and Other Pastors79 | Congregation | Deacons

78 The senior pastor is the one leading the church. This implied pluralization is my understanding of what church government looks like. I know there is a senior pastor because of the book of Titus, but as for leadership in the church elders lead as much as the pastor. 79 Under the senior pastor in the hierarchy of Church, but has the same qualifications. See Appendix 1 for these qualifications.

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Appendix 3
Single Pastors compared to Married Pastors in 1 Corinthians 7:32-33 Single 7:32a 7:32b 7:32c Free from (worldly) anxieties Anxious about things of the Lord Pleasing the Lord 7:33b Pleasing his Wife 7:33a Married Anxious about Worldly things