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AP Human Geography Notes

General Geography:
US road map is not a thematic map
Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end
According to environmental determinism, the physical environment causes social development
Highest density: most in numbers
Highest concentration: closest together
Cloropleth map uses shading
Five Themes of Geography:
Relative location
Absolute location
Human Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
HumanEnvironmental !nteraction:
Humans adapt to the environment
Humans modi"y the environment
Humans depend on the environment
%ormal &uni"orm'
%unctional &nodal'
(ernacular &perceptual'
Customary belie"s, social "orms, and material traits o" a group o" people in tradition
)here an idea originates
*he spread o" cultural traits "rom one society to another
Globalization of Culture:
$lobali+ation due to interchanging belie"s and customs
Globalization of Economy:
$lobali+ation due to business
eference !aps:
Regular maps sho,ing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads
Thematic !aps:
#aps highlighting a particular "eature or a single variable such as temperature, city, si+e, or acreage in
potatoes &$ives e-tra in"ormation'
"soline !aps:
Sho, lines that connect points o" e.ual value
!solines are on topographic maps

Choropleth !aps:
Sho, the level o" some variable ,ithin prede"ined regions, such as counties, states, or countries
#ot !aps:
Use a dot to represent the occurrence o" some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a
given area
#aps that have distorted population

*he amount o" details or depth o" a map
$enerally, the relationship bet,een the portion o" Earth being studied and Earth as a ,hole, speci"ically
the relationship bet,een the si+e o" an ob/ect on a map and the si+e o" the actual "eature on Earth0s
*he three main types o" scales are ratio &"raction' scales, bar scales, and ,ritten scales
$mall $cale:
1epicts a large area &such as the state o" Ari+ona' but ,ith less detail
%arge $cale:
1epicts a small area &such as do,nto,n Phoeni-' ,ith great detail
*he science o" ma2ing maps
*he system used to trans"er locations "rom Earth0s sur"ace to a "lat map
*he most common type is the Robinson Pro/ection
Ho,ever, maps depicting the entire ,orld can distort shape, distance, relative si+e, and direction
*he name given to a portion o" Earth0s sur"ace
Has to be a natural "eature

*he physical character o" a place
*he location o" a place relative to other places &relative location'
An arc dra,n on a map bet,een the 3orth and South poles &longitude'
*he t,o main meridians are the Prime #eridian and the !nternational 1ate Line
A circle dra,n around the globe parallel to the e.uator and at right angles to the meridians &latitude'

Time (ones:
*here are "our ma/or time +ones in the United States &Eastern, Central, #ountain, and Paci"ic'4 *he time
+ones are based on $reen,ich, England because at the time England ,as the most po,er"ul country4
*here is a ne, time +one ever 56 degrees longitude4 7ne degree longitude is 89 miles, so there is a ne,
time +one every 5,:;6 miles4 !" you go east you go "or,ards in time4 !" you go ,est you go bac2 in time4
Green)ich !ean Time:
*he time in that time +one encompassing the prime meridian, or +ero degrees longitude4
"nternational #ate %ine:
An arc that "or the most part "ollo,s 5<: degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid
dividing land areas4 )hen you cross the !nternational 1ate Line heading east &to,ard America', the cloc2
moves bac2 => hours, or one entire day4 )hen you go ,est &to,ard Asia', the calendar moves ahead one
$patial Association:
*he distribution o" one phenomenon that is related to another phenomenon4 &*he reason t,o things are
placed ,here they are ? i" they0re related they ,ill probably be close'
$patial #istribution:
*he arrangement o" phenomenon across the Earth0s sur"ace
Environmental #eterminism:
A nineteenth and early t,entieth century approach to the study o" geography that argued that the general
la,s sought by human geographers could be "ound in the physical sciences4 $eography ,as there"ore the
study o" ho, the physical environment caused human activities4 &States the physical terrain o" the ,orld
dictates ho, the humans survive'4
*he theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to
ad/ust to the physical environment and choose a course o" action "rom many alternatives4 &States people
can overcome the physical problems@"eatures ? humans con.uer land instead o" land con.uering humans'4
*he arrangement o" something across Earth0s sur"ace
*he "re.uency ,ith ,hich something e-ists ,ithin a given unit o" area4 1ensity does not tell you ,here
something is, /ust strictly numbers
Arithmetic #ensity:
*he total number o" people divided by the total land area

Physiological #ensity:
*he total number o" people divided by all arable land &"armland'
Agricultural #ensity:
*he total number o" "armers &and "amily' divided by all arable land

*he spread o" something over a given area
Concentration tells you ,here something is
Can be clustered or dispersed
*he geometric or regular arrangement o" something in a study area

*he spreading o" a "eature or trend "rom one place to another over time
elocation #iffusion:
*he spread o" a "eature or trend through physical movement o" people "rom one place to another4 1oes
not have to gro, in numbers4 A!1S is an e-ample o" relocation di""usion4
E*pansion #iffusion:
*he spread o" a "eature or trend among people "rom one area to another in a sno,balling process4
!nvolves gro,ing numbers4
Hierarchical #iffusion ? *he spread o" a "eature or trend "rom one 2ey person or node o"
authority or po,er to other people or places4 E-ample grunge music4
Contagious #iffusion ? *he rapid, ,idespread di""usion o" a "eature or trend throughout a
population4 E-ample in"luen+a &"lu'4
$timulus #iffusion ? *he spread o" an underlying principle or thought process, even though a
speci"ic characteristic is re/ected4 E-amples Apple computers@#artin Luther Aing Br4 &he is dead
but his thought process still lives on'4
*he science o" map ma2ing
A name given to a place on earth4
*he relationship to a "eature0s si+e on a map to its actual si+e on earth4
Fractional $cale ? numerical ratio 5:=>,:::
+ritten $cale ? description in ,ords C5 inch e.uals 5 mileD
Graphic $cale ? bar line sho,ing distance
: 6 5: #!LES
*he physical characteristic o" a place
$ituation :
*he relative location o" a place
Lines o" longitude running in the northsouth direction ending at the poles
Lines o" latitude parallel to the e.uator
Time (one:
$reen,ich #ean *ime ? *he time at the prime meridian
!nternational 1ate Line ? 5<: degrees "rom Prime #eridian ? => hours
*elling time "rom longitude ? every 56 degrees4 %rom Prime #eridian going ,est loose 5 hour@56
degrees ? east gain 5 hour@56 degrees
%ormal &Uni"orm' ? Everyone shared distinct characteristics
%unctional &3odal' ? Area organi+ed around a "ocal point
(ernacular ? A perceptual region ? belie"s and cultural identity
$patial Association:
*he distribution o" one phenomenon that is scienti"ically related to the location o" another phenomenon
$patial #istribution:
*he arrangement o" phenomenon across the earth0s sur"ace
*he arrangement o" a "eature in a space
*hree types ? density, concentration, pattern
*he "re.uency o" ,hich something occurs4
Arithmetic ? the total number o" ob/ects in an area
Physiological ? the number o" persons per unit area o" suitable agricultural land
Agricultural ? number o" "armers per area o" "armland
*he spread o" something over a given area
Clustered ? close together
1ispersed ? "ar apart
*he arrangement o" ob/ects in space
Customary belie"s, social "orms, and material traits o" a group o" people in tradition
)here an idea originates
*he spread o" cultural traits "rom one society to another
*he spreading o" a "eature or trend "rom one place to another4
elocation ? spreading through physical movement4
E*pansion ? Spreading in a sno,balling process
Contagious? rapid ,idespread di""usion o" a characteristic throughout the population ? e-ample
Hierarchical *he spread "rom authority or po,er to other people ? e-ample ? political leaders
or hip hop music
$timulus? the spread o" an underlying principal though the characteristic itsel" might di""use ?
e-ample ? principals "rom Apple computer though the company di""used4
Globalization of Culture:
$lobali+ation due to interchanging belie"s and customs
Globalization of Economy:
$lobali+ation due to business
Environmental #eterminism:
Physical environment dictates the social environment
Humans have the ability to ad/ust to the environment
*he study o" human populations
,ver Population:
*he de"inition o" over population is having too many people and to little resources
Carrying Capacity:
*he largest number o" people that the environment o" a particular area can support
#oubling Time:
*he time it ta2es "or a population to double
Four most over populate' regions-$parsely populate' regions in the )orl' .,ver populate'/:
East Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
)estern Europe
East Asia:
7ne "i"th o" the ,orld0s people live in east Asia4
*he region borders the paci"ic ocean4
East Asia includes: eastern China, Bapan, the Aorean Peninsula, and *ai,an4
$outh Asia:
Another one "i"th o" the ,orld0s population lives in south Asia4
South Asia includes: !ndia, Pa2istan, Eangladesh, and Sri Lan2a4
$outheast Asia:
*he ,orld0s third largest population cluster is in southeast Asia4
A hal" billion people live in southeast Asia4
*he islands are: !ndonesia &Bava, Sumatra, Eorneo', Papua 3e, $uinea, and the Philippines4

+estern Europe:
)orld0s "ourth largest population cluster4
Contains one ninth o" the ,orld0s population4
#ost o" Europe0s people live in cities4
*his region ranges "rom #onaco to Russia4
$parsely Populate' egions:
#ry %an's0
)hen an area is dry "or "arming not many people ,ant to live there4
*hese areas cover about =:F o" the earth0s land sur"ace4
*he largest desert region is the Sahara4
1eserts lac2 su""icient ,ater to gro, crops to "eed many people4
+et %an's0
)et lands are lands that receive high levels o" precipitation4
*hese areas are un"avorable "or human li"e4
A combination o" rain and heat depletes nutrients "rom the soil ,hich prevents gro,ing crops4
Col' lan's0
Cold lands are areas that are covered ,ith ice or have permanently "ro+en ground4
*hese regions have less precipitation than some deserts4
*hese polar regions are unsuitable "or crops and animals4
High lan's0
%e, people live at high elevations4
*he highest mountains in the ,orld are steep, sno,y, and sparsely settled4
Some people pre"er to live at higher elevations i" the temperature and precipitation are uncom"ortable at
lo,er elevations4
Population "ncrease:
#oubling time0 *he number o" years needed to double a population4
Total fertility rate0 *he average number o" children a ,oman ,ill have during her childbearing years4
"nfant mortality rate0 *he annual number o" deaths o" in"ants under one year old4
%ife e*pectancy measures the number o" years a ne,born ,ill be e-pected to live4
*he current estimated ,orld human population is 8,;G9,56G,;854 *his "igure is e-tremely precise,
ho,ever, since there is no complete database on the ,orldHs population, and humans are constantly being
born &at the rate o" about ; per second' and dying4 Ho,ever, it is clear that the ,orldHs population
continues to gro,, in other ,ords, more people are being born than people dying4
Causes of Population "ncrease:
Cru'e birth rate .C1/0 *he total number o" live births in a year "or every 5,::: people alive in the
E-: a &CER' o" =: means that "or every 5,::: people in a country, =: babies are born over a one year
Cru'e 'eath rate .C#/0 total number o" deaths in a year "or every 5,::: people alive in the society4
*he annual number o" deaths per 5,::: population4
Natural increase rate .N"/0 the percentage by ,hich a population gro,s in a year4 *o compute you
subtract CER "rom C1R4
Natural "ncrease:
3atural means a country0s gro,th rate e-cludes migration4
About <: million people are added to the ,orld0s population each year4
*he historic high ,as in 59<9 ,ith <G million4
*he number o" people added each year has dropped slo,er than the 3!R because the population base is
much higher no, than in the past4
*%R total "ertility rate the average number o" children a ,oman ,ill have throughout her childbearing
years &56>9'4
*,o use"ul measures o" mortality in addition to the crude death rate already discussed are the in"ant
mortality rate and li"e e-pectancy4
"nfant mortality rate ."!/0the annual number o" deaths o" in"ants under one year o" age, compared
,ith total live births4
%ife e*pectancy0 the average number o" years a ne,born in"ant can e-pect to live at current mortality
Population Pyrami':
A bar graph representing the distribution o" population by age and se-
Population pyramids can be used to demonstrate the demographics o" a certain area, and can be used as an
indication o" the development o" a certain area
The #emographic Transition:
*he Easics
*here are "our stages to the demographic transition:
Stage 5: Lo, $ro,th
Stage =: High $ro,th
Stage ;: #oderate $ro,th
Stage >: Lo, $ro,th
All countries are in one stage or another o" the demographic transition4
7nce a country has entered a stage, it cannot go bac2 do,n to a previous stage4
$tage 2:
3o countries are still in stage 54
#ost o" humanity0s severalhundredthousandyear occupancy o" Earth ,as characteri+ed by stage 5 o"
the demographic transition4
Crude birth and death rates vary yearly but over time they ,ere comparable4
3ational increase rate ,as essentially +ero, and ,orld population ,as constant at about hal" a million4
1uring this period primary "ood relied on hunting and gathering4
As "ood became easier to obtain, population increased, but ,hen "ood became more di""icult to obtain, the
population decreased4
About <::: EC the population became to gro, by several thousand per year4
Eet,een <::: EC and 5G6: A1 the population "rom 6 million to about <:: million4 *his ,as caused by
the agricultural revolution4
*his ,as the "irst time humans domesticated plants and animals4
$tage 3:
%rom about 5:,::: years a"ter the agricultural revolution, ,orld population gre, at a modest pace4
Around 5G6: A1 the population began to gro, ten times as "ast4
*he natural increase rate rose "rom :4:6 to :46
Some demographers divide stage = o" the demographic transition into = parts4
*he "irst part is the accelerating population gro,th4
1uring the second part the population begins to slo,, although birth and death rates remain very
*he sudden population boom ,as caused by the industrial revolution ,hich began in England in the late
5<th century4
*he industrial revolution brought about rapid improvements in industrial technology4 *his brought about
a lot o" ,ealth ,hich ,as used to ma2e communities healthier4
3e, machines helped "armers increase agricultural production4 *he improved agricultural e""iciency
allo,ed more people to ,or2 in "actories4 *his caused industriali+ation in communities4
European and 3orth American countries entered stage = around 5G6: or 5<::4 Countries else,here didn0t
enter stage = till much later4 #any A"rican countries didn0t enter stage = until the late 596:0s due to the
medical revolution4
*he naturalI increase rate "or stage = countries ,as about 54G at the time4
*he population increased by about <: million in =::: compared to < million in 59::4
Several medical advances ,ere made during this time as ,ell4
$tage 4:
A country enters stage ; ,hen the crude birth rate begins to drop sharply4 *he death rate continues to "all
but not as much as in stage =4
3atural increase is more moderate than stage = as ,ell4
European and 3orth American nations entered stage ; in the early t,entieth century4 Latin American and
Asian countries have entered rather recently, ,hile most A"rican countries still have not entered stage ;4
*he decrease in death rates in stage = is caused by technological advances, ,hile the decrease in births
during stage ; is a result o" changes in social customs4
People in stage ; countries are more li2ely to live in cities than in rural areas4
$tage 5:
A country achieves stage > ,hen birth and death rates are nearly e.ual and natural increase is almost +ero4
*his is 2no,n as JP$ or Jero Population $ro,th4 *his term is usually applied to stage > countries4
Social changes again dictate the change bet,een stages ; and >4 Here the primary "actor is ,omen ,ho
enter the labor "orce4
Li"e style changes also tend to lead to smaller "amilies in stage >, and people ,ith more birth control
options tend to use them more in stage > countries4
1ue to discrepancies, JP$ is not al,ays accurate4 Scientists use the more accurate term *%R or *otal
%ertility Rate4 *ypically a *PR o" =45 is e.ual to the JP$4
*here are > stages in the 1emographic *ransition4
Lo, gro,th, high gro,th, moderate gro,th, and lo, gro,th4
)hen a country enters stage >, it has in a sense completed a cycle4 !t began ,ith lo, natural increase in
stage 5, in stage = there is a huge increase in technology and population4 1uring stage ; it begins to slo,
do,n, though advances continue4 !n stage > the gro,th is minimal4 *he only di""erence is that at the end
o" stage > the country has a vast amount o" technology and the population is much higher4
$tage 6:
Currently no Stage 6
E-perts suggesting that there ,ill be in the near "uture
Characteri+ed by a negative population gro,th
*his ,ill "irst occur in )estern Europe and ma2e its ,ay through most #1Cs4
!althus Theory:
States that the ,orld ,ill get ,iped out by over population, starvation, and disease &mainly the ratio o"
people to "ood'4
*homas #althus stated this in 5G9< in his boo2 An Essay on the Principle o" Population4
*oday: 5 person, 5 unit o" "ood
=6 years "rom no,: = people, = units o" "ood
6: years "rom no,: > persons, ; units o" "ood
G6 years "rom no,: < people, > units o" "ood
5:: years "rom no,: 58 people, 6 units o" "ood
Eac2 in the 5G K 5<::s, they didn0t have the same "arming technology and methods ,e have today4
*here ,asn0t as much medicine to cure diseases4
Lester Ero,n a Stan"ord University biologist, said #althus made critical points but missed a couple
important points, gains in land productivity, and the pre"erence "or eating Chigher up the "ood chainD4
!n SubSaharan A"rica, drought, poverty, and disease &mainly A!1S' are reducing li"e e-pectancy4
*he population is bigger than the amount o" arable land,hich causes more than hal" o" the children to be
undernourished or malnourished4
Study #althus0 theory
*hey point out that the amount o" "armland is decreasing ,hile the population is increasing4
$lobal )arming could inter"ere ,ith "ood production4
Eoth e-tensi"ication and intensi"ication o" agriculture ,ill lead to land degradation4
!althus7s Critics:
#any geographers believe #althus0 theory is very pessimistic because they based on a belie" that the
,orld0s supply is "i-ed not e-panding4
#althus did not "oresee the advancement in technology that ,ould help man2ind survive4
Census0 A complete enumeration o" a population4
Cru'e 1irth ate0 *he total number o" live births in a year "or every 5,::: people alive in the society4
Cru'e #eath ate0 *he total number o" deaths in a year "ro every 5,::: people alive in the society4
#emographic Transition0 *he process o" change in a society0s population "rom a condition o" high
crude birth and death rates and lo, rate o" natural increase to a condition o" lo, crude birth and death
rates, lo, rate o" natural increase, and a higher total population4
#emography0 *he scienti"ic study o" population characteristics4
#epen'ency atio0 *he number o" people under the age o" 56 and over age 8>, compared to the number
o" people active in the labor "orce4
#oubling Time0 *he number o" years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate o" natural
Epi'emiologic Transition0 1istinctive causes o" death in each stage o" the demographic transition4
Epi'emiology0 Eranch o" medical science concerned ,ith the incidence, distribution, and control o"
diseases that a""ect large numbers o" people4
Ecumene0 *he portion o" Earth0s sur"ace occupied by permanent human settlement4
"n'ustrial evolution0 A series o" improvements in industrial technology that trans"ormed the process o"
manu"acturing goods4
"nfant !ortality ate0 *he total number o" deaths in a year among in"ants under one year old "or every
5,::: live births in a society4
%ife E*pectancy0 *he average number o" years an individual can be e-pected to live, given current
social, economic, and medical conditions4 Li"e e-pectancy at birth is the average number o" years a
ne,born in"ant can e-pect to live4
!e'ical evolution0 #edical technology invented in Europe and 3orth America that is di""used to the
poorer countries o" Latin America, Asia, and A"rica4 !mproved medical practices have eliminated many o"
the traditional causes o" death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier
Natural "ncrease ate0 *he percentage gro,th o" a population in a year, computed as the crude birth
rate minus the crude death rate4
,verpopulation0 *he number o" people in an area e-ceeds the capacity o" the environment to support
li"e at a decent standard o" living4
Pan'emic0 1isease that occurs over a ,ide geographic area and a""ects a very high proportion o" the
Population Pyrami'0 A bar graph representing the distribution o" population by age and se-4
$e* atio0 *he number o" males per 5:: "emales in the population4
Total Fertility ate0 *he average number o" children a ,oman ,ill have throughout her childbearing
(ero Population Gro)th0 A decline o" the total "ertility rate to the point ,here the natural increase rate
e.uals +ero4
%orm o" relocation di""usion involving permanent move to a ne, location
All types o" movement "rom one location to another
Constant, short term, repetitive movements by an individual
#igration a,ay "rom country
#igration into a country
Net !igration:
*he di""erence bet,een the number o" immigrants and the number o" emigrants
3et !n#igration K 3et 7ut#igration
3et migration "rom urban to rural areas in #1Cs
easons For !igration:
Usually people migrate "or economic reasons
Although not as "re.uently, cultural and environmental reasons also induce migration
Push "actor: ,hen people are "orced out o" an area
E-: Hurricane Aatrina destroyed many peoples0 houses, so they ,ere "orced to move some,here else4
Pull "actor: ,hen people desire to move into a ne, location
E-: Eetter /ob opening in a ne, area, a good place to retire4 Usually promises a better situation than the
present one4
Economic Push an' Pull Factors:
Pull People emigrate to places ,ith better /ob opportunities4 *hey ,ill also emigrate because o" better
natural resources4 #etal and coal deposits might attract miners4 A brand ne, industry or store could
attract technicians, scientists, engineers, or other ,or2ers4
Push )hen a industry goes ban2rupt, ,or2ers ,ill lose their /obs and might be "orced to move to a
di""erent area because o" a /ob opportunity4
Environmental Push an' Pull Factors:
Pull people are attracted to areas ,ith ,arm climates, mountainsides, and seasides4
Push certain physical conditions cause people to move to di""erent areas li2e too much or too little ,ater
in an area can "orce people to move4 Also an area that is storm prone can "orce people to migrate4
Cultural Push an' Pull Factors:
*he = main push "actors are slavery and political instability4 #illions o" people ,ere captured and
shipped to many di""erent countries as prisoners or slaves4
People called re"ugees are "orced to migrate "orm their countries because o" "ear o" persecution because
o" their race, nationality, religion, or political opinion4
Pull people migrate "or especially the lure o" "reedom4 People are attracted to democratic countries that
encourage individual choice in education, career, and a place o" residence4
1rain #rain:
Largescale emigration by talented people
"nternational 8 "nternal !igration:
!nternational #igration *he permanent movement "rom one country to another4
!nternal #igration Permanent movement ,ithin a particular country4
!nternational #igration #oving to Russia "rom the United States, or "rom A"rica to Australia4
!nternal #igration #oving to Ar2ansas "rom #ichigan, or "rom $eorgia to Cali"ornia4
!nternal #igration People living in !ndia must migrate to a di""erent part o" !ndia to escape the "looding
that occurs near them4
!nternational #igration Some Be,ish people ,ere able to escape the 3a+is by migrating to the di""erent
countries a,ay "rom them4
"nternal !igration:
Permanent movement ,ithin a country4
1ivided into t,o types
"nterregional migration movement "rom one region o" a country to another4
Rust Eelt and Sun Eelt
"ntraregional migration movement ,ithin on region
"nternational !igration:
1ivided into t,o types
9oluntary migration implies that migrant has chosen to move "or economic improvements4
Force' migration the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural "actors4
Economic push and pull "actors usually induce voluntary migration4 )hereas cultural "actors usually
compel "orced migration
Net !igration:
*he di""erence bet,een the level o" immigration and the level o" emigration4
!n#igration: synonym o" immigration, moving into a country
7utmigration: leaving a country
Countries ,ith net outmigrations include Asia, A"rica, and Latin America4
Countries ,ith net inmigrations include 3orth America, Europe, and 7ceania4
Guest +or:ers:
)or2ers ,ho migrate to the #1Cs o" 3orthern and )estern Europe, usually "rom Southern and Eastern
Europe or "rom 3orth A"rica, in search o" higherpaying /obs
Temporary !igration for +or::
54 $uest )or2ers ? Citi+ens o" poor communities ,ho obtain /obs in )estern Europe and the #iddle
=4 *ime ? Contract )or2ers Recruited "or a "i-ed period o" time to ,or2 in mines or on plantations4
European $uest )or2ers
L !n Europe, these ,or2ers are protected by #inimum )age la,s and union contracts
L About G::,::: o" these ,or2ers enter Europe legally
L 6::,::: ,or2ers enter illegally
L *he United Aingdom restricts the ability "or "oreigners to get ,or2 permits4
L !" you are allo,ed to ,or2 in another country there is usually a time limit "or ho, long you can
stay "or your desired assignment4
1istinguishing Eet,een Economic #igrants and Re"ugees
L (ery di""icult to distinguish bet,een those see2ing economic opportunities and re"ugees "leeing
"rom persecution etc4
L !n )estern Europe, Canada, and the US economic migrants are not usually admitted ho,ever
re"ugees receive priority in admission4
!ntervening 7bstacles
L !mmigrants may not al,ays get to there destination because o" an environmental or cultural
L Also, transportation is a problem ,ith immigration4 !t is di""icult to meet all the re.uirements to
be able to travel in any ,ay to a ne, country4
L 7ceans and la2es are an obstacle in migration because people are unable to cross the bodies o"
L #otor vehicles and airplanes are the easiest ,ay to go "rom one place to another, but it is also the
hardest re.uirements to meet ,hen traveling4
Countries Attitudes *o,ards 3e, !mmigrants
L #a2ing it to the desired country isn0t al,ays the end o" the complications, once the immigrants
reach the country, the citi+ens may disli2e the ne, people because o" cultural di""erences4
L *he guest ,or2ers are not al,ays e-cepted and can be treated un"airly4
*he long (ietnam )ar ended in 59G6 ,hen Communistcontrolled 3orth (ietnam captured South
(ietnam0s capital city o" Saigon4 *he US evacuated "rom Saigon several thousand people ,ho had been
closely identi"ied ,ith the American position during the ,ar and ,ho ,ere there"ore vulnerable to
persecution a"ter the Communist victory4 A second surge o" (ietnamese boat people began in the late
59<:s4 *heir most popular destinations ,ere #alaysia, Hong Aong, and *hailand4 <::,::: (ietnamese
have reached the US since the end o" the (ietnam )ar, another 5 million in other countries4
Pop 8 Fol: Culture:
Popular Culture:
Culture "ound in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite di""erences in other
personal characteristics
Fol: Culture:
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation "rom other
,rigin of Fol: Cultures:
%ol2 customs o"ten have anonymous hearths, originating "rom anonymous sources, at un2no,n dates,
through unidenti"ied originators
,rigin of Pop Cultures:
Popular culture is most o"ten a product o" the economically more developed countries, especially in 3orth
America, )estern Europe, and Bapan
Transition from Fol: to Pop Culture:
#ost o" the ,orld turns "rom "ol2 to pop culture4
%ol2 culture di""uses slo,ly to other locations through the process o" migration4 Popular culture di""uses
rapidly across Earth to locations ,ith a variety o" physical conditions4
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
#iffusion Associate' +ith Pop Culture:
Rapid di""usion depends on a group o" people having a su""iciently high level o" economic development
to ac.uire the material possessions associated ,ith popular culture
%anguage Family:
A collection o" languages related to each other through a common ancestor long be"ore recorded history
%anguage 1ranch:
A collection o" languages related through a common ancestor that e-isted several thousand years ago4
1i""erences are not as e-tensive or as old as ,ith language "amilies, and archaeological evidence can
con"irm that the branches derived "rom the same "amily4
%anguage Group:
A collection o" languages ,ithin a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and
display relatively "e, di""erences in grammar and vocabulary
A regional variety o" a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
,l' English $pea:ers:
)est $ermanic invaders "rom Butland &1enmar2' 2no,n as the Anglos, Sa-ons, and Butes began
populating the Eritish !sles in the 6
and 8
centuries A1
Pushed the native Celtic spea2ing people into Scotland, )hales, and !reland
Creolize' %anguage:
A language that results "rom the mi-ing o" a coloni+er0s language ,ith the indigenous language o" the
people being dominated
%rench Creole in Haiti
Papiamento &Creoli+ed Spanish' in 3etherlands Antilles &)est !ndies'
Portuguese Creole in the Cape (erde !slands o"" the A"rican Coast
"n'o0European %anguage Family:
*he ,orld0s most e-tensively spo2en language "amily by a ,ide margin
3early ; billion people spea2 an !ndoEuropean language as their "irst language
Eight Eranches:
2; most $po:en %anguages in the +orl':
Position Language %amily Script Used Spea2ers
5 #andarin Sino*ibetan Chinese
<<6 China,
= English !ndo
Latin ;;= USA, UA,
Canada, 3e,
; Spanish !ndo
Latin ;== South
> Arabic A"roAsiatic Arabic =;6 #E, Arabia,
3orth A"rica
6 Eengali !ndo
Eengali 5<9 Eangladesh,
Eastern !ndia
8 Hindi !ndo
1evanagari 5<= 3orth and
Central !ndia
G Portuguese !ndo
Latin 5G: Era+il,
< Russian !ndo
Cyrillic 5G: Russia,
Central Asia
9 Bapanese Altaic Chinese
and =
5=6 Bapan
5: $erman !ndo
Latin 9< $ermany,
*he system o" ,riting used in China and other East Asian countries in ,hich each symbol represents an
idea or a concept rather than a speci"ic sound, as is the case ,ith letters in English
eligion< Culture< an' Physical Environment
People care deeply about their religion and dra, "rom religion their core values and belie"s, an essential
element o" the de"inition o" culture4 Religious values are important in understanding not only ho, people
identi"y themselves, as ,as the case ,ith language, but also the meaning"ul ,ays that they organi+e the
landscape4 Li2e language, migrants ta2e their religion ,ith them to ne, locations, but although migrants
typically learn the language o" the ne, location, they retain their religion4
eligion Hierarchy:
A hierarchical religion has a ,ellde"ined geographic structure and organi+es territory into local
administrative units &has Cran2ingsD amongst the religion'4 A good e-ample is Roman Catholicism &Pope,
Cardinals, Eishops'4
=niversalizing eligion:
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not /ust those living in a particular location
; Eiggs ? Christianity, !slam, Euddhism
7rigin ? !srael
= billion adherents
Ano,n as Christians
#ainly in )estern Hemisphere and Europe
%oundation based on the *en Commandments
#a/or branches Catholics &6:F'4 Protestants &=6F', Eastern 7rthodo- &5:F'
7rigin ? Saudi Arabia
54; billion adherents
Ano,n as #uslims
%oundation based on the %ive Pillars
#a/or branches Sunnis &<;F', Shiites &58F', Aurds &5F'
7rigin ? 3E !ndia@3epal
;G: million adherents
Ano,n as Euddhists
#ainly in China and SE Asia
%oundation based on the %our 3oble *ruths
#a/or branches #ahayanists &68F', *heravadistis &;<F', *antrayanists &<F'
1i""erent "rom Christianity and !slam you may also participate in another e-isting religion
Ethnic eligion:
A religion ,ith a relatively concentrated spatial distribution ,hose principles are li2ely to be based on the
physical characteristics o" the particular location in ,hich its adherents are concentrated
= Eiggs ? Hinduism and Budaism
7rigin ? !ndia@Pa2istan
<:: million adherents &;
largest overall'
9GF live in !ndia &<:F o" !ndia0s pop4'
Eelieve in several gods ? Erahma being the main one
%ollo, the Caste System
Eelieve in Aarma and Reincarnation
7rigin ? !srael
5> million adherents
#ainly clustered in !srael and the US
Also prevent in "ormer USSR &Russia, U2raine, Eelarus, Lithuania'
Have similar roots as Christianity and !slam
*he most troublesome religious boundary in )estern Europe lies on !reland4 #ost o" !reland is Roman
Catholic, but 3orthern !reland is 6<F Protestant and >=F Roman Catholic4
A"ter the 59G; ,ar, the Palestinians emerged as !srael0s principle opponent4 !sraelis have no intention o"
giving up control o" the 7ld City o" Berusalem, and Palestinians have no intention o" giving up their claim
to it4
eligious Architectures:
Christians ? Churches
#uslims ? #os.ues
Hindus ? *emples
Euddhism ? Pagodas
Be,s ? Synagogues
eligion 9ersus Communism:
7rgani+ed religion ,as challenged in the =:
century by the rise o" communism in Eastern Europe and
Asia4 *he three religions most a""ected ,ere Eastern 7rthodo- Christianity, !slam, and Euddhism4
=$ #istribution of Ethnicities:
A"rican American ? &5;F' Southeast
Hispanic American ? &5;F' South,est
Asian American ? &>F' )est
American !ndian &3ative American' ? &5F' South,est and Plains States
Clustering of Ethnicities:
)ithin a country, clustering o" ethnicities can occur on t,o scales4 Ethnic groups may live in particular
regions o" the country, and they may live in particular neighborhoods ,ithin cities4
A person ,ho ,or2s "ields rented "rom a lando,ner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to
the lando,ner a share o" the crops
)hen the A"rican American immigrants reached the big cities, they clustered in the one or t,o
neighborhoods ,here the small numbers ,ho had arrived in the 59
century ,ere already living4 *hese
areas became 2no,n as ghettos4 *he ghettos today have been through e-pansion4
Ethnicity an' ace:
Race is biological4 An e-ample ,ould be s2in color, but its not /ust s2in color4 Ethnicity is the cultural
aspect@category4 An e-ample ,ould be a hearth4
$eparate 1ut E?ual #octrine:
*he Separate Eut E.ual 1octrine occurred in 5<984 !t allo,ed segregation o" Elac2s, Be,s, and Roman
@+hite FlightA:
C)hite %lightD comes "rom the Ero,n vs4 Ero,n o" Education doctrine in 596>, ,hich eliminated
segregation4 M)hite %lightD is ,hen ,hites le"t their homes to ,here they 2ne, ,ould be a dominate
,hite area because they ,ere scared o" the blac2s4
$outh Africa Aparthei':
Apartheid is the physical separation o" di""erent races into di""erent areas4 *he ,hitedominated
government o" South A"rica repealed the apartheid la,s in 59954 !n 599>, 3elson #andela became
president o" South A"rica4
South A"rica the country
Elac2 G8F
)hite 5;F
Asian ;F
#i-ed 5;F
Each ,ith di""erent legal status
3ationality is identity ,ith a group o" people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a
particular place as a result o" being born there4
3ationalism is loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality4
A state ,hose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been trans"ormed
into a nationality
Have by "ar one dominate ethnicity@nationality ? 5 country, 5 ethnicity
$elf #eterminism .$eparatism/:
*he concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Nuebec &Province in Canada' ? early 59<:s strong %rench
3ative Americans
!ulti0Ethnic $tates-!ulti0National $tates:
#ultiEthnic state ? state that contains more than one ethnicity
1on0t necessarily try to appeal to every ethnicity ? sometimes happy, sometimes not
Eelgium O &1utch O %lemish O 3orth P %rench O )alloons O South'
#ulti3ational state ? state that contains t,o or more ethnic groups ,ith traditions o" sel"determination
that agree to coe-ist peace"ully by recogni+ing each other as distinct nationalities
*ry to appeal to every nationality@ethnicity &by giving them /obs' ? get along /ust "ine
United Aingdom O England P Scotland P )hales P 34 !reland
1loc: 1usting:
Real estate agents telling people that blac2s or !ndians ,ere going to move ne-t door to them so they
could buy the peoples0 house "or very cheap and sell it "or double4
States@countries brea2ing do,n through ethnic con"lict ? constant con"lict
A geographic area that can0t be stable@happy because there are too many ethnicities and too much ugly
history bet,een them4
Eal2an Peninsula
Political Geography:
Colonies< Early European $tates< an' Ancient an' !e'ieval $tates:
A colony is a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent4

*he modern movement to divide the ,orld into states originated in Europe4
Political unity in the ancient ,orld reached its height ,ith the establishment o" the Roman Empire, ,hich
controlled most o" Europe, 3orth A"rica, and South,est Asia4 *he European portion o" the Roman
Empire ,as "ragmented into a large number o" estates o,ned by competing 2ings, du2es, barons, and
other nobles4
*he development o" states can be traced to the ancient #iddle East, in an area 2no,n as the %ertile
crescent4 *he "irst states to evolve in #esopotamia ,ere 2no,n as citystates ? sovereign states that
comprise a to,n and the surrounding countryside4
!o'ern Colonies:
*oday only a hand"ul o" colonies remain4 3early all are islands in the Paci"ic 7cean or Caribbean Sea
$tate $hapes:
Compact State a state in ,hich the distance "orm the center to any boundary does not vary signi"icantly
%ragmented State a state that includes several discontinuous pieces o" territory
Elongated State a state ,ith a long, narro, shape
Prorupted State an other,ise compact state ,ith a large pro/ecting e-tension
Per"orated State a state that completely surrounds another one
Can see on a map:
Physical natural boundaries &oceans, rivers, mountains'
$eometric main o""icial lines
Can0t see on a map:
Fe'eral $tate:
An internal organi+ation o" a state that allocates most po,ers to units o" local government &have a say so'
Centripetal "orces
E-ample US
=nitary $tate:
An internal organi+ation o" a state that places most po,er in the hands o" central government o""icials
&not necessarily bad, but no say so only government'
Centri"ugal "orces
E-ample UA
=nite' Nations:
A cooperation under the political category
1eals ,ith military, economic, agricultural, etc4
European =nion:
A cooperation under the economic category
Promotes development through economic cooperation &"ree trade, Euro, subsidi+ing'
Ability o" a state to govern its territory "ree "rom control o" its internal a""airs by other states
Gross #omestic Pro'uct .G#P/:
*he value o" the total output o" goods and services produced in a country in a given time period &normally
one year'
Gross National Pro'uct .GNP/:
Similar to $1P, e-cept that it includes income that people earn abroad, such as a Canadian ,or2ing in the
United States
Human #evelopment "n'e* .H#"/:
!ndicator o" level o" development "or each country, constructed by United 3ations, combining income,
literacy, education, and li"e e-pectancy
>ob Types .$ectors/:
Primary e-tracting "rom Earth &agriculture, mining, "ishing, "orestry'
Secondary manu"acturing ra, materials ta2ing something "rom the land and ma2ing it a product
*ertiary Services, Ean2ing, Retailing, Education
osto)7s $tages of #evelopment !o'el:
Rosto,, in the 596:0s, made a 6 stage model o" the international trade development approach4
54 *he traditional society: the country has not yet started process o" development
=4 *he preconditions "or ta2eo"": the country initiates innovative economic activities
;4 *he ta2eo"": there is rapid gro,th in economic activities
>4 *he drive to maturity: modern technology di""uses
64 *he age o" mass consumption: the economy shi"ts to consumer goods
*he model assumes that L1Cs ,ill achieve development by moving to a higher stage in the model4
The Four #ragons:
Some o" the "irst countries to adopt the international trade alternatives ,ere South Aorea, Singapore,
*ai,an, and the thenEritish colony o" Hong Aong &2no,n as the "our dragons'4 *hey promoted
development by concentrating on producing manu"actured goods, especially clothing and electronics4
$elf $ufficiency:
*he more popular development alternative "or L1Cs "or most o" the =:
!ncomes in the countryside 2eep up ,ith those in the city
Reducing poverty is more important than creating ,ealthy consumers
%ragile businesses can be independent and protected "rom businesses and governments in #1Cs
Set barriers limiting goods being imported
"nternational Tra'e:
A country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on e-pansion o" its distinctive
local industries
Transnational Corporation:
A company that conducts research, operates "actories, and sells products in many countries, not /ust
,here its head.uarters or shareholders are located
Centripetal Force:
An attitude that tends to uni"y people and enhance support "or a state
Centrifugal Force:
An attitude that tends to brea2 or ma2e people "all apart "ight
Ee"ore 5=,::: EC hunting and gathering no agriculture
Agricultural Hearths:
%ertile Crescent historical region ,atered by the 3ile, Bordan, Euphrates, and *igris Rivers4 !t is here
that agricultural is thought to be "irst developed4 )ild ,heat and barley gre, in abundance and tribes o"
nomad hunters and herders settled do,n along the ban2s o" the rivers and became the ,orldHs "irst
"armers4 As population increased irrigation ,as developed4 Around 6,::: E4C4 the "irst cities ,ere
constructed in the southern part o" the crescent valley, near the Persian $ul", by people ,ho became
2no,n as the Sumerians4
Ethiopia &horn o" A"rica' Ee"ore embracing "ull scale "arming Ethiopians ,ere mainly hunters and
gatherers4 *hey began to cultivate crops ,hich eventually led to "arming4 )hen "arming became more
dependable and common irrigation ,as e-ploited4
3ile (alley the 3ile (alley civili+ation developed along the ban2s o" the 3ile River in Egypt4 !ts long
narro, "loodplain provided ideal conditions "or settlement and development o" stable communities4 *he
annual "looding o" the river &,hich ,as vie,ed as a gi"t "rom the gods' deposited nutrient rich silt over
the land4 *he silt made the soil e-cellent "or gro,ing ,heat "la- and other crops4 !t is believed that many
nomadic hunters settled the land4 Around 66::EC hunting ,as mostly replaced by domesticating animals
such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, as ,ell as gro,ing cereal grains4
China Ey 6::: EC there ,ere many agricultural communities spread throughout ,hat is no, China4
*here ,ere many villages along rivers such as the $reat Qello, River &Huang He'4 *hey hunted deer
and other game, "ished, and gathered "ood4 *hey also raised domestic dogs, pigs, and chic2ens4 )ith the
"looding o" rivers irrigation ,as an important thing to master4 *he Chinese also "armed rice4
Southeast Asia Prior to agriculture, hunting and gathering su""iced to proved "ood in Southeast Asia4 !t
,as here that the chic2en and pig ,ere domesticated and rice ,as "armed4 Agricultural technology ,as
e-ploited ,hen population increased to the point that systematic intensive "arming ,as necessary "or
survival4 River plains and delta regions helped the process o" agriculture and trade4
#esoamerica %rom <::: ? =::: the hunter gatherers in the region began to cultivate ,ild plants4 *his
probably began so they ,ould have "ood to rely on i" hunting became bad or in the event o" a drought4 As
time ,ent on the cultivated plant "oods became increasingly important to the people o" #esoamerica4
*he plants they gre, ,ere more reliable4 #esoamerica eventually ,ent into a subsistence pattern based
on the cultivation o" plants4 Probably the most important #esoamerican agriculture is mai+e4
$ubsistence Agriculture:
Sel"su""icient, small in scale, lo, technology,
%ood production "or local consumption not "or trade or sale
Some are con"ined to small "ields very li2ely they do not o,n the soil they till
Small "ieldsshare cropper, lo, end money pull "or agriculture
Can promote cohesiveness ,ithin society, share land, "ood surpluses, personal ,ealth is restricted
Cultivators are poor but "ree
Subsistence "arming is gro,ing enough "ood "or one person and their "amily4 3ot to ma2e a pro"it or sell4
Lots o" subsistence "arms gro, things li2e tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, and spinach4 Some
subsistence "arms also have livestoc24
Plantation Farming:
Regional, bigger scale, but not yet commercial
Plantation "arming is on a bigger scale than subsistence, but not yet commercial4 *hese "arms are "or
pro"it4 #any plantations "arm rubber, pine, spruce, and eucalyptus trees, oil palm, cotton, tea, and
tobacco4 Some are orchards, in ,hich they ,ould gro, "ruit, &that gro, on trees'4
$hifting Cultivation:
A "orm o" subsistence agriculture in ,hich people shi"t activity "rom one "ield to anotherI each "ield is
used "or crops "or a relatively "e, years and le"t "allo, "or a relatively long period
Cultivation ,here tropical "orests are removed by cutting and burning, ash contributes to soil "ertility
Clearings are usually abandoned a"ter a "e, years "or ne,ly cleared land &56:=:: million people'
"ntensive $ubsistence Agriculture:
A "orm o" subsistence agriculture in ,hich "armers must e-pend a relatively large amount o" e""ort to
produce the ma-imum "easible yield "rom a parcel o" land
Pastoral Noma'ism:
A "orm o" subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
*hey live in dry climates
A "orm o" commercial agriculture in ,hich livestoc2 gra+e over an e-tensive area
Semiarid or arid land
*he seasonal migration o" livestoc2 bet,een mountains and lo,land pastures
Commercial Farming:
A2a agribusiness a system o" economic and political relationships that organi+e "ood production "rom the
development o" the genetic ma2eup o" the seeds to the retailing and consumption o" the agricultural
product not /ust "arming also development, harvesting, canning, and selling o" crops is an e-ample o" a
company that incorporates primary, secondary, and tertiary /ob sectors
#ass pro"it, almost all diary products are "rom commercial "arming
E-4 #ay"ield
*hese "arms are made "or mass pro"it4 *hey use genetically modi"ied plants, and sometimes animals4
*hey gro, the ,orlds largest crops li2e ,heat, rice , corn, and pretty much everything you "ind in
Aroger4 *hey also raise animals li2e co,s, pigs, and chic2ens4 Almost all dairy products come "rom a
commercial "arm4
The 9on Thunen !o'el:
Agricultural land use
*he blac2 dot represents a city
5 &,hite' dairy and mar2et gardening
= &green' "orest "or "uel
; &yello,' grains and "ield crops
> &red' ranching
1ar2 greenO,ilderness ,here agriculture is not pro"itable
Crop otation:
*he practice o" rotating use o" di""erent "ields "rom crop to crop each year, to avoid e-hausting the soil
$lash0an'0burn Agriculture:
Another name "or shi"ting cultivation, so named because "ields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and
burning the debris
1egradation o" land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because o" human actions li2e e-cessive crop
planting, animal gra+ing, and tree cutting
Agricultural evolution:
5=,::: yrs ago, 3eolithic era
%ertile Crescent, China, 3orth A"rica, Southeast Asia, and Latin America
Accompanied by a modest population e-plosion
1omestication animals &about >: species today' occurred a"ter people became more sedentary
Agricultural evolution:
Resulted "rom the !ndustrial Revolution produced ne, technology that helped ,ith the agricultural
progress a lot
E-4 tractor, cotton gin
Agricultural evolution:
A2a $reen Revolution bene"iting L1C0s by introduction and production o" "ertili+ers and pesticides into
598: to present
Eased on higher yielding strains using genetic engineering
#ouble Cropping:
Harvesting t,ice a year "rom the same "ield
The "n'ustrial evolution:
Started in the north o" the UA around 5G6:
A series o" improvements in industrial technology that trans"ormed the process o" manu"acturing goods
*rans"ormed ho, goods are produced "or society and the ,ay people obtain "ood, clothing, and shelter
+orl'7s %argest "n'ustrial Pro'uction egions:
Appro-imately R o" the ,orld0s industrial production is concentrated in "our regions: eastern 3orth
America, north,estern Europe, Eastern Europe, and East Asia4
"n'ustries in =$:
3e, England, #iddle Atlantic, #oha,2 (alley, PittsburghLa2e Erie, )estern $reat La2es
1ul:0e'ucing "n'ustry:
An industry in ,hich the "inal product ,eighs less or comprises a lo,er volume than the inputs
E-ample Copper concentration &pennies'
1ul:0Gaining "n'ustry:
An industry in ,hich the "inal product ,eighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
E-ample So"tdrin2 bottling
1rea:0of01ul: Point:
A location ,here trans"er is possible "rom one mode o" transportation to another
Filtering B =rban #ecay B "nner0City #ecay:
*he slo, digression o" a city, usually occupied by lo,income people
*he peripheral model helped to promote this because o" the middleclass people moving to the outs2irts
Ean2s purposely not giving loans to a certain lo,income area o" a city
!llegal, but still happens because it0s hard to prove
=rban ene)al:
1one by the government
*o attract businesses
*o clean up the city and help their reputations
Public Housing:
Housing o,ned by the governmentI in the United States, it is rented to lo,income residents, and the
rents are set at ;: percent o" the "amilies0 incomes
1one privately
*he process o" high income people going to lo, income places and 2ic2ing the people out
Usually areas ,here houses are ,orn do,n, loo2s very trashy
*he high income people build houses in edgy areas because they ,ant to cut do,n on their commute
7""icial adding o" land
Can be on national scale or state scale
Peripheral !o'el:
Latest version most up to date
1eveloped in the 599:s &other three developed in early 59::s ? outdated'
Has to contain a belt,ay@ring ,ay@ring road
A ring road is a road that surrounds the core o" the city
*he purpose is to ta2e this road ,ithout going through the city
*he core o" the city ? ma/or part ? is in the ring road
#ust contain an edge city
Promotes greenbelts
*he adding o" land not necessarily o""icial
Adding@spreading to the metropolitan area &the city and surrounding areas'
*a2ing up arable land
Spreads out,ards
Promotes greenbelts
1esignated areas not allo,ed to be touched by development &par2s, nature trails'
Sections o" land that are designated natural areas they cannot be built upon
$mart Gro)th:
!nstead o" building out,ards they build up,ards to save land
!ncreases population density
Saves natural areas
Central 1usiness #istrict .C1#/:
)here all big businesses ta2e place in a city
E'ge City:
Little mini cities on the outs2irts that are li2e the big cities
Lots o" edge cities in Atlanta
E-4 Ros,ell and Alpharetta ? has most o" the services as in big cities
A4A4A4 Csuitcase citiesD
*ypically a place ,ithout a high residence area
Sandy Springs used to be part o" Atlanta, and then became its o,n o""icial city
*o become an edge city, the city has to be ne,ly developed and business oriented more /obs than homes
Started in Europe
Legal restriction o" people to certain areas
Used to be legali+ed but not anymore
$hettos re"er to areas ,here populations o" mi-ed income are con"ined to a certain area even though they
might have the means and desire to move
Can be economic or social CghettosD
"n'ustrialization an' =rbanization:
*he gro,ing o" industry and the gro,ing o" population and population density o" a city
7ne promotes the other
*he !ndustrial Revolution promoted Urbani+ation
A $ree2 ,ord meaning great city
14C4 $eographer Bean $ottmann named the region in the northeastern US large metropolitan areas so
close together that they no, "orm one continuous urban comple-, e-tending "rom north o" Eoston to
south o" )ashington #egalopolis
Primate Cities:
Having more than t,ice the population o" the second largest city
Center o" culture "or country
1ra,s citi+ens because they "eel they have to be apart o" the city to be success"ul
#ost li2ely to become capital &e-4 Paris, %rance'
3ot every country has a primate city
Can have primate cities on large and small scales
Cali"ornia0s primate city is Los Angeles
America lac2s a primate city
an: $ize ule:
largest city is S o" 5
largest city is
o" 5
largest city is T o" 5

+orl' Cities:
Have a large population density because o" technology high rise
*hey are cities that have great in"luence on the ,hole ,orld
*hey become a ,orld city because they are in the center o" the global economic system
Highest *ier o" )orld Cities London, *o2yo, and 3e, Qor2 &,orld0s business capital'
*ier Chicago, )ashington and Los Angeles
7ver 5: million people
E-perience a sudden rise in population ,here the in"rastructure can0t support the population "or a time
%or the most part #egacities are in L1C0s because the people there are "orced to go to urban areas to "ind
Central Place Theory:
)alter Christaller created the central place theory to e-plain the si+e and spacing o" cities that speciali+e
in selling goods and services
*he theory consisted o" t,o basic concepts:
54 *hreshold the minimum mar2et
=4 Range the ma-imum distance the amount o" distance a person is ,illing to drive to the threshold
Concentric (one !o'el:
A general model that cities are based upon that Eurgess developed in 59=6
*he plan o" a city &urban planner' may be based on the concentric +one model
Relates the distance to the city to ho, ,ealthy a "amily is
*he ,ealthier you are the bigger land you have and the "arther a,ay "rom the city you are
8 Concentric Jones:
Jone 5 CE1
Jone = immediately ad/acent to CE1 &"actories and manu"acturing plants ,here things are produced
,ithout much pollution not nasty'
Jone ; contains poorest segments o" the urban population, lo, income housing areas, lo, income people
have "actory /obs and do not use car "or transportation
Jone > ,or2ing class
Jone 6 middle class, not struggling, higher .uality housing
Jone 8 high class, e-pensive housing
*he +ones e-pand build out not up
*he concentric +one model has t,o main problems: outdated and only applies to America
$ector !o'el:
Has arms that e-tend "rom the CE1 instead o" circles
CE1 still in center o" city
Lo,er income still near manu"acturing areas
*ransportation and manu"acturing most li2ely along an CarmD
!ultiple Nuclei !o'el:
1i""erential Accessibility people don0t /ust go to the same CE1 all the time they go to di""erent places
Land Use Compatibility related businesses are close together, centripetal "orces
Land Use !ncompatibly con"licting businesses are sent apart "rom each other, centri"ugal "orces
Location Suitability suitable "or certain activities
>: percent o" all trips made into or out o" a CE1 occur during "our hours o" the day t,o in the morning
and t,o in the a"ternoon
!n larger cities, public transportation is better than motor vehicles cheaper, less polluting, and more
Americans pre"er to commute by car
)hat ma2es a city ,or2 or operate
E-ample electricity, se,ers, road ,ays
*he gro,th o" suburbs ,as constrained by transportation problems
*he invention o" the railroad in the 59
century enabled people to live in suburbs and ,or2 in the central
#any socalled streetcar suburbs built in the 59
century still e-ist and retain uni.ue visual identities
Same as range in the central place theory
Area around the city that the city serves
*he "arthest distance a city is ,illing to serve