0 Up votes0 Down votes

24 views14 pagesA short tutorial on linear motion ,motion in one dimension, using basic equations .Derivation of basic equations given in simple language and illustrated with several numerical examples of practical value. Includes a brief notes on units,problem solving and several reference books and af ew practice problems...intended for high school students ,9th or 10 the grade and for teachers who wish to simplify physics for their students.
A nice introdcution to acceleration and acceleration due to gravity which is fundamental to understanding Newtonian physics and a list of suggested reading for students.

Jun 12, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

A short tutorial on linear motion ,motion in one dimension, using basic equations .Derivation of basic equations given in simple language and illustrated with several numerical examples of practical value. Includes a brief notes on units,problem solving and several reference books and af ew practice problems...intended for high school students ,9th or 10 the grade and for teachers who wish to simplify physics for their students.
A nice introdcution to acceleration and acceleration due to gravity which is fundamental to understanding Newtonian physics and a list of suggested reading for students.

© All Rights Reserved

24 views

A short tutorial on linear motion ,motion in one dimension, using basic equations .Derivation of basic equations given in simple language and illustrated with several numerical examples of practical value. Includes a brief notes on units,problem solving and several reference books and af ew practice problems...intended for high school students ,9th or 10 the grade and for teachers who wish to simplify physics for their students.
A nice introdcution to acceleration and acceleration due to gravity which is fundamental to understanding Newtonian physics and a list of suggested reading for students.

© All Rights Reserved

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions

You are on page 1of 14

Srinivasan Nenmeli Ph D

Linear Motion

Linear motion is movement of an object,such as a

car, along a straight line path---no turns,

looping and so on.

Acceleration: we begin with the definition of

acceleration:

acceleration 'a'

a = (final velocity - initial velocity)/time

a = (v - u)/t ---------(1)

We can rewrite this in another form:

v = u + at -------------(2)

Note that we should always write "final

velocity-initial velocity" in the numerator.do

not reverse this, since the sign of 'a' will

change.

When a car or object loses speed , it has

negative acceleration or a is negative.!----that

is , it decelerates.

Note: Most text books use the notation of a

function for velocity and acceleration: v(t) and

a(t). Then initial velocity at time t=0 is

denoted by v(0). For ease of typing, I use 'u'

for initial velocity and 'v' for final velocity.

Distance traveled.

We can derive an useful formula for the distance

moved; Recall the formula

distance S = speed x time [or in school algebra

fashion: D = R t where R is called rate.]

If a car moves with constant speed;

S = v t

When the car accelerates, we take v as the

average velocity v':

v' = (u + v)/2

Then , s = ( u +v)t/2

Since v = u + at,

we get ;

S = ( u + u + at)t/2

S = ut + (1/2) a t

2

-----(3)

This is one of the most useful equations in

physics.

Note: We will use the unit of velocity as meter

per second or m/s. Do not get mixed up with

other units.

1 m/s = 3.6 km per hour = 2.24 miles per hour.

Acceleration will be expressed as meter per

second squared = m/ss.

Application

1 A jumbo jet Boeing 747 starts from zero

velocity at one end of runway and reaches the

take-off speed of 125 kmph in 42 seconds.

Calculate the distance of ground run before

take-off.

Note that the speed 125 kmph = 125/3.6 = 34.7

meter/second.

[ 1 m/s = 3600sec/1000 m=3.6 kmph]

the initial velocity u =0

final velocity v = 34.7 m/s

a= (34.7 -0)/42 = 0.826 m/ss

S = ut + (1/2)a t.t

= 0 + (1/2)0.826 (42)

2

= 728 meters.

This is a typical 'ground run' for a large

aircraft.

2 An aircraft debris falls from a burning

aircraft from a height of 500 meters. Find its

impact velocity on the ground.

For such free-fall problems, take acceleration

to be a= g due to gravity = 9.8 m/s.s

Note that the object coming down acclelerates

and 'a' is taken as positive. If an object is

thrown upwards, it decelerates and a = -g=-9.8

m/s.s

Using the relation:

s= ut + (1/2) g tt

500 = 0 + (1/2)9.8 t.t

time taken for the fall: t = 10.1 sec

v = u + at = 0 + 9.8 t = 98.9 m/s = 356 kmph

Note that the impact velocity is very high!

-------------------------------------------

Distance formula with out time

We can derive one more useful formula for

distance:

S = average velocity x time

= [(u + v)/2] [ (v-u)/a]

= (1/2 ) (v

2

-u

2

)/a

Rewriting , we get:

v

2

= u

2

+ 2 a S ------------- (4)

Application

A sprinter runs for 1000 m with acceleration of

2 m/s.

Find his speed at finish line:

v

2

= 0 + 2 x 2 x 1000 = 4000 m.m/ss

v = 63 m/s.

The time he takes for his run: t = (v-u)/a =

63/2 = 31.5 seconds.

-------------------------------------------

Free fall problems

1 John throws a ball vertically with a velocity

of 15 m/s.Find the maximum height the ball will

reach and the time it takes to reach that

height.

The ball reaches max height when its velocity

becomes zero.

Therefore v=0; u= 15 m/s

The acceleration a = -g = - 9.8 m/s.s

time taken for the ball to reach max height:

t = (v-u)/a = -15/-9.8 = 1.53 sec

s = ut + (1/2)g t.t

= 15 x 1.53 + 0.5 (-9.8) 1.53

2

= 22.95 - 11.47 = 11.48 meters

We can calculate the max height using equation

(4):

v

2

= u

2

+ 2 (-9.8) s

0 = 225 -19.6 s

or s = 11.48 m.

[We neglect air resistance over the object in

these free-fall problems.]

2 If an astronaut throws a ball up on the

surface of moon with an initial velocity of 15

m/s, calculate the max height the ball will

reach and the time it takes to reach the max

height.

The acceleration due to gravity g' on the moon

is one sixth of g on Earth.

g' = 9.8/6 = 1.63

The time for max height:

t = (v-u)/g' = (0 - 15)/(-1.63)= 9.2 sec

The max height:

S = ut + (1/2) g't.t

= 15 x 9.2 + 0.5 x (-1.63)(9.2)

2

= 138 - 68.98 = 69 meters.

Note that the ball goes to great heights on the

moon. This also explains why astronauts hop

about on the surface of the moon.!

Additional Problems

1 A cheetah spots a deer at a distance of 400

meters. The max acceleration a cheetah can

attain is 25 m/s or 90 mph. Can this cheetah

catch the deer, if a cheetah can sprint only for

15 seconds.

Assume u=0

S = 400 = ut + (1/2)a t.t

400 = 0.5 x 25 x t.t

t = 5.65 seconds

The cheetah can easily catch its prey.

2 A kingfisher swoops down on a fish from a

cliff. The height of the cliff is 1000 feet. The

acceleration of the kingfisher is 6ft/sec. The

fish is moving away from the cliff at the rate

of 10 feet per sec. How much time the bird will

take to catch the fish.?

[Hint: Use Pythagorian theorem to calculate the

distance from the bird to fish at various times,

in steps of 10 seconds.You can use a spreadsheet

calculation for 'simulating' the bird's path.]

3 A fast train accelerates from a station at 2

m/s to reach a speed of 90 kmph and then runs at

constant speed of 90 kmph for 10 minutes and

then slows down at a rate of 1 m/s to come to a

stop at the next station. Find the total time

and average speed of the train.

Instantaneous velocity and average velocity:

velocity measured over a small interval of time

would be 'instantaneous velocity'. Average

velocity is measured over a long time.

For instance the instantaneous velocity of a

truck can be 80 miles per hour.But over 8 hour

period, its velocity averaged would be much

lower. This duration may even include when the

truck was not moving and the truck driver takes

a lunch.

Both types of calculations have their uses.

-------------------------------------------

Summary

We have derived and used three equations or

formulae for the linear motion :

1 v = u +at

2 S = ut + (1/2) a t

2

3 v

2

= u

2

+ 2as

You should be able to derive these relations at

any time from basic concepts and use them.

Units used: velocity --- meters per second

acceleration--- meters per second

squared.

I have emphasized the concept of acceleration in

this tutorial ; the main reason is that much of

Newtonian physics is based on force and

Force = mass x acceleration, by Newton's second

law of motion.

We have used the acceleration due to gravity 'g'

in free-fall problems. g= 9.8 m/ss.

'g' varies with latitude and also decreases as

we climb to greater heights in space...but for

most calculations, 'g' is a constant.

We can create large 'g' forces as in centrifuges

.[Centrifuges are routinely used in

medical/chemical laboratories to separate

molecules floating in liquid samples.Learn how a

centrifuge operates in a laboratory and its

application.]

General Reading in Physics

[ There are plenty of books on popular physics .

Here is a short list , as a starter, to whet

your interests.]

1 Isaac Asimov --- 'understanding physics'

2 George Gamow --- a) Matter, Earth and Sky

b) One ,two, three---infinity

c) Thirty years that shook

physics

d) The great physicists from

Galileo to Einstein.

3 Walter Lewin---For the love of physics---Free

Press, New York

4 Joy Hakim The story of science , Smithsonian.

[ a set of three volumes; more historical than

technical; but the pictures and photos form a

large collection from science literature.]

[ About the author: The author obtained his

doctorate in 'Engineering Science' from Columbia

University, New York [School of Engineering and

Applied Sciences] in 1972.He had his early

training in chemistry and metal physics from

Indian Institute of Science ,Bangalore. He had

worked on numerous projects relating to nuclear

materials in the US and elsewhere. He loves

teaching and writing on basic sciences and

mathematics .]

- JASON Velocity LabUploaded byklblack
- Resonance KinematicsUploaded byrahuljain1
- IGCSE Physics Lesson PlanUploaded bygdsuta
- velocity accelerationUploaded byapi-325864985
- Physics I : Tipler - Chapter 2Uploaded bysweetandwild
- Motion ExercisesUploaded bysiddu83
- Math 8 Kawit 2017Uploaded byHELMA B. JABELLO
- class_11_physics_201-15_cbse_study_material_.pdfUploaded byRanjit Singh
- motionUploaded byM.F.X. VALENTINA
- AccelerationUploaded bycrisel
- 11_physics_notes_02_kinematics.pdfUploaded byabhishekaks97
- Motion COT1 FinalUploaded byEvan Jane Jumamil
- key concepts motion.docxUploaded byNina Famoso
- chapter 1.pdfUploaded byRAHUL SHARMA
- solving acceleration word problemsUploaded byapi-384573041
- Physics_Random_HandoutsUploaded byapi-19731726
- M3 - Physics 02b - AccelerationUploaded byDean Jezer
- Calc14.4Uploaded byJeoff Libo-on
- 2c - 2ndphy10l Exp.2Uploaded byCarlAngeloSolee
- phys 90255 equation testUploaded byapi-276915681
- 201 Free FallUploaded byவிக்னேஷ் ஆறுமுகம்
- Chapter 2and 3 FinalUploaded bytmya06
- Chapter 2 Force and Motion STUDENTS MODULEUploaded byAfiqah Roshidi
- Big50_M1Uploaded byJames Polansky
- Big50_M1Uploaded bymallika29
- BAB 2 MOTION Ok.pdfUploaded byPoedjoko Rebijantoro
- Chapter4pp031-042.pdfUploaded byInderMahesh
- Big50_M1Uploaded byStuu
- 50 Revision GuidelinesUploaded byRahique Shuaib
- Time and MotionUploaded byluckyfromindia2002

- Velan --A short short storyUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- The Bad SeedsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- volume of a cone --derivation without using calculusUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Newer Watch Brands-cost-quality disconnectUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Harmful Chemicals in Processes FoodUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Yoga Notes for serious studentsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Nath Traditions in IndiaUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Yoga Practice-- Back to BasicsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Composers of Indian Carnatic Music after the TrinityUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- The Eagle Has Landed!-Life's meaning!!Uploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Watches-A Buyer's Guide-$30-$100 rangeUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Challenge problems: theorems on triangles and quadrilaterals and Napoleon's theoremUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Conversations With Swami VirajeshwaraUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Pingala--Inventor of Binary number system and Pascal triangleUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- The Golden ratio, Fibonacci series and Continued fractionsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Purpose of Life? --Yea!Uploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Math- Optimization for Middle School studentsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- The Gem--Euler Equation (for high School students)Uploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- You Celebrate Life!Uploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- After the Rain!- some splashes and small boats!!Uploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Why Me ? - Denying the situation and coping mechanismsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Glory of Shirdi Sai BabaUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Right Triangle --beyond Pythagorean Theorem and interesting resultsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Area of a regular Pentagon- a simple derivation without using trigonometry and the Golden RatioUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- The Romantic Life of a Rajput PrinceUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- How to Construct Rhombuses in PentagonUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- How to estimate square root --for school studentsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- First ExperiencesUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Ingredients of LifeUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- India- A Spiritual MallUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K

- Tugas 2 Geo Analitik Bidang Dan RuangUploaded byPHELIPUS MERE
- Conservation of Momentum Lab Momentum 5Uploaded byAlcazar Renz Justine
- Chapter 9 - Linear Momentum & CollisionsUploaded byjlin77
- Motion Along a Straight Line Spm 2003 - 2009Uploaded bynatrix029
- bab-8-gaya-impulsif1.pdfUploaded byesadisa
- Affine GeometryUploaded bybadrun_bbest7130
- Linda Dalrymple Henderson - The Image and Imagination of the Fourth Dimension in Twentieth Century Art and CultureUploaded byConstantinos Miltiadis
- PHY10L - E102Uploaded byIdate Patrick
- Dynamics_-Kinematics-1.pdfUploaded byChuck Dave Diaz
- Pinna 2015Uploaded byNatan Oliveira
- Time is a Dimension in Which Events Can Be Ordered From the Past Through the Present Into the FutureUploaded byNirmel Ranjanendran
- Review Notes in Physics 1Uploaded byAnonymous cuVSFi
- Phys111_lecture05.pptUploaded byAnonymous v9aCJ5l
- Doc 1161 XI Physics Support Material Study Notes and VBQ 2014 15Uploaded bysonuhd1995
- PresfsUploaded byandrea
- Phy305 InfUploaded byshubham
- pptUploaded byMika De Chavez
- God Particle: Avatar Higgs BosonUploaded bydao einsnewt
- Frank Y. Wang- The Image of a WormholeUploaded byKunma050
- Einstein and Poincare_ the Phys - Valeri v. Dvoeglazov (Editor)Uploaded bymayra_patiño
- ME231_lecture_35.pdfUploaded byalp_alp
- Physics Circular MotionUploaded byFarhan Hazeeq
- GIS CritiqueUploaded byJohn Studley
- Physics I Problems (11).pdfUploaded bybosschellen
- Chapter 15 Kinetics of Particle--Impulse & MomentumUploaded byZeeshan Haider
- 11th Physics - Unit 1,2 Model Question Paper - TamilNadu TN State Board English Medium - Brainkart.comUploaded byBrainKart Com
- Quiz on ProjectileUploaded byMary Ann Teodoro
- Classical MechanicsUploaded byandhracolleges
- WORK POWER ASNUploaded byAdarsh Dhawan
- Projectile Motion CPUploaded byPankaj Kumar

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.