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Receive in multiple

ways but primarily


from pedigree
Some are lethal
while others are not
Many do not allow
animal to live
properly so they
ultimately die
We will only be
going over 7 today

Mess ups in the
genes that causes
animal to have
issues
Some are breed,
species, and or
gender based
Multiple different
ones
Can be from
recessive or
dominant genes

Gene
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is
held to determine some characteristic of the offspring
Allele
an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a
specific position on a specific chromosome
Heterozygous
Dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Homozygous
Identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Recessive
Expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents and when
not masked by dominant gene
Dominant
Expressed in offspring if inherited by at least one parent
Genome
All DNA in an animal

Mess ups in DNA that causes Mutations
Replication doesnt exactly copy the original
Radiation
Ultraviolent light
Viruses




DNA RNA Proteins *

Cattle have 60 chromosomes
29 autosomal chromosomes and 1 pair of sex
chromosomes
All Autosomal Chromosomes are tear dropped
shape with centromere on the end; while the
sex chromosomes centromere is located in
the middle.


Calves are:
Lethal nervous disorder
Fail to reach potential coordination
Aggression Issues
Head tremors
Normally die before reaching sexual maturity
Belted Galloway, Angus,
and Murray Grey breeds
affected.
Only physical
characteristics
is inability to
walk correctly,
anger issues,
and head
tremors
occasionally.
All other is a
normally
functioning
calf.
Calves are:
Nervous disorder with beta
mannosidase in body
Tremors
Hide bound skin



**Similar to Alpha
Mannosidosis just a
different sugar that is
affected**

Seen primarily in
Salers and European
cattle.
Calves are born with:
Bent or twisted spines
Small and thin muscle
Legs ridged and hyper-
extended
LETHAL

** Angus Breed **

** All has been
linked back to
Angus Bull GAR
Precision 1680 **
Cattle are:
Normally born alive
Reduced elasticity of connective muscle tissue
Predominately in Angus Cattle
Animal can live to adulthood

Calves are:
Normally aborted early term
When Carried near to term are
25-30 lbs when born
Spinal Cavity is empty no cord
Cranial Cavity is fluid full
No brain tissue visible
Cranium enlarged
(volleyball to basketball)

** Angus cattle or angus
cross bred cattle **
Calves are:
Missing hair either in
spots or all over
Skin lesions
Breed dependent
Calves:
Start of seizures varies
At birth or months after
Lay on their side with legs
straight out. Can convulse
for minuets or hours.
Can onset seizures:
Stress
Temperature
Physical Activity
Calves are born with:
Short lower jaw
Brittle bones, easily broke
Impacted molars
Normally born premature
Born dead or die within 24 hours
LETHAL
** There is no bone definition **
Calves have:
Deficiency of ferrochelatase
enzyme
Skin Disorder
Red/brown coloring of teeth,
bone, and urine
Sensitivity to light: can get
sores from overexposure

Calves are born with:
Underdeveloped lungs
Fluid retainment throughout body
LETHAL
** Now a test that can
determine if animal is carry
PHA gene **
Calves are born with:
Twisted rear legs
Large abdominal hernias
Fused joints
Skull deformities
LETHAL

** Most do not live
through birth but if they
do they cannot stand to
nurse or walk properly so
will be disposed of **

** Predominantly seen in
Shorthorn Cattle **

** Can be tested for **


Cattle have:
Deletion in myostatin gene causes
defect
Muscle is doubled by stacking
on top of each other causing
deformity
Can live fully functional life
Breed created is Belgian Blue
** This is a neater of the
genetic deformities
because it change
complete look of animal
without harm **
Calves can have:
Short heads
Long necks
Or a mix between making them look compact
Shorter than normal breeds
Calves hormonally influenced:
Male
Develop normally, fully functional
Female
Testosterone inhibits proper growth
and development of reproductive organs
Normally sterile, infertile
Physical placement of outside
reproductive organs

Due to stresses in the animals life
whether is be physical or
environmental it can cause the break
down of glycogen in the muscle taking
oxygen out of the meat giving it a
darker color.
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"Genetic Defects." American Simmential Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Luc, Grobet. "A Deletion in the Bovine Myostatin Gene Causes the Doublemuscled
Phenotype in Cattle." Nature Genetics. N.p., 1997. Web. 17 Jan. 2014.

Lyon, Laurie. "What Is A Freemartin - The Cattle Site." The Cattle Site. N.p., 10 Mar.
2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014.

"Protoporphyria." Vet Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Spangler, Matthew L., and Douglas L. Anderson. "Genetic Defects in Beef Cattle."
Publication:. Beef Miscellaneous, Mar. 2011. Web. 01 Feb. 2014.

Van Arsdall, Dan. "Calfology." Hypotrichosis. Calfology, 22 Mar. 2013. Web. 25 Feb.
2014.