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CROSSHATCHING A

Brenda Hoddinott


L03 INTERMEDIATE: CROSSHATCHING
Before attempting this lesson please complete
L01 Crosshatching Values and L02 Graduations
with Crosshatching.
In this project, you first create a value map by lightly outlining random shapes and
identifying each as a specific value. You then use crosshatching graduations and various
grades of pencils to add shading.
This lesson is divided into the following three sections:
INTRODUCTION: A value map works by first identifying highlights (highlights
usually stay the white of your paper), and then adding shading to light, medium and
dark values.
OUTLINING A MAP: You outline shapes within a drawing space. The drawing in this
project is of nothing in particular. However, it presents several shading challenges
you may encounter when adding shading to a drawing.
CROSSHATCHING VALUES: You add shading to the various shapes with
crosshatching graduations. You begin with the lightest values and graduate them
toward the middle values. Middle values are added and graduated into dark. Finally,
you add medium values to a tiny section of reflected light.
Supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B graphite pencils, erasers, good quality drawing paper,
pencil sharpener, and sandpaper block.
7 PAGES 7 ILLUSTRATIONS
This lesson is recommended for artists with strong crosshatching skills, as well as students of
home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.

Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada 2008

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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INTRODUCTION
A shading map (often called a
value map) takes the guesswork
out of where you have to put
different values in a drawing.
Light and shadows assume various
shapes. For example, a highlight
can be a circle and a shadow can
be a crescent shape.
A value map works by first
identifying, each of the following:
Highlights tend to be easy to
find because they are the
lightest and brightest sections.
Light values are closest to the
light source, often adjacent to
or surrounding highlights.
Dark values are in the shadow
sections of the subject and/or
in various cast shadows.
Medium values tend to fall in
between the light and dark
values.
You then outline the various
shapes of each, and add shading to
the various values.
OUTLINING A MAP
The drawing in this exercise is of
nothing in particular. However, it
presents several shading
challenges you may encounter
when adding shading to a drawing.
1) Set up a vertical drawing
space approximately 4 by 5
inches (Figure 301).
2) Use a curved line to outline
a highlight in the upper
right, and mark it H.


Shading map (also called a value map) is a plan (or
blueprint) for adding shading to a drawing. The locations and
sizes of the shapes of various values are identified and lightly
outlined.
Shading (noun) refers to the various values in a drawing that
make images appear three-dimensional; (verb) the process
of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of
texture, form and/or three-dimensional space.
Values are the different shades of gray created when you
draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the
pressure used in holding various pencils.
Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes
include circles, squares and triangles.
Graduation (also called graduated shading or graduated
values) is a continuous progression of values, from dark to
light or light to dark.
Hatchingis a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely
together to give the illusion of values.
Crosshatching, a classical shading technique, is comprised
of sets of lines drawn closely together, in which one set of
lines crosses over (overlaps) another set.
Shadows are the sections of objects or living beings that
receive little or no light.
Forms are the three-dimensional structures of shapes. In
drawings, shading and perspective are used to transform a
shape into a three-dimensional structure, such as a circle
becoming a sphere or a square becoming a cube.
Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects
appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the
farther away they are from the viewer.
Cast shadow is a dark section on an adjacent surface of an
object that receives little or no light. The values of a cast
shadow are darkest next to the object and become gradually
lighter farther away.
Reflected light is a faint light reflected or bounced back on
an object from those surfaces that are close to and around it.
Highlight identifies the brightest area of a form where light
bounces off its surface; usually the section closest to the light
source.
Light source is the direction from which a dominant light
originates. Some subjects have two or more light sources. A
light source identifies the light and shadow areas of a
drawing subject.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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When developing a shading map from
either life or a photo, remember to keep the shapes
very basic. The more shapes you draw, the more
complicated the shading becomes.
3) Outline two shapes as light values
and mark them L (Figure 302).








4) Outline the dark values and mark them
D (Figure 303).
The unmarked areas that are left over are
middle values. You can mark them M if
you wish.



I dont bother marking medium values; their
shapes and locations automatically become
obvious when all others are identified and
marked.
CROSSHATCHING VALUES
In this section, you add shading to various
shapes with crosshatching graduations.
You begin with the lightest values and
graduate them toward the middle values.
Middle values are added and graduated into
dark. Finally, you add medium values to a
tiny section of reflected light. Most of the
highlight stays the white of your paper.
FIGURE 301
FIGURE 303
FIGURE 302

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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Before you begin shading each
section of the map, remember to
erase the letters and lighten the
outlines until you can barely see
them.
If you wish, you can begin your
shading with hatching lines. Then,
draw a second set of hatching lines
that cross over the first
(crosshatching), to create darker
values.
5) Use a 2H pencil and
crosshatching to add light
graduations from the
highlight into the L shapes.
Refer to Figure 304. Make the
shading lines different
lengths, and extend them
unevenly into the adjourning
spaces.


6) Add graduations to the
sections in your map
needing medium values.
Use an HB pencil and follow
the contours of the
surrounding shapes.
Continuously adjust your
lines so the graduations flow
smoothly into one another.
Make your values gradually
darker as you approach the
dark areas (D).

You can easily fix areas of
shading you don't like. Pat the shading
with your kneaded eraser to make lighter
values. Add more shading lines in
between others to make sections darker.
FIGURE 304
FIGURE 305

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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7) Shade the dark values with HB and 2B pencils.
Refer to Figure 306, which is shown larger than my actual drawing so you can clearly
see the crosshatching lines.
Lighten the dark values as you approach medium or light values. Darken your shading
as you move toward the darkest shadow sections.
8) Shade the darkest value with a freshly sharpened 4B pencil.
Take note of where the darkest shading ends abruptly, at the edge of the left side of
the boomerang shape, marked D.



9) Add
medium
shading to
the small
crescent
shape left
of the
abrupt
stop.
Refer to the
illustration
in Figure
307.
This light
shading
represents
a tiny
section of
reflected
light.

At this point,
you can see a
three-
dimensional
form begin to
emerge from
the shading
map.
FIGURE 306

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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Experiment with different approaches to shading, especially if mapping values doesn't
appeal to you. Eventually you'll discover the method that is perfect for your unique needs.
FIGURE 307

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes
whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY
As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda
Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk
pastel, charcoal, cont crayon, and oil paints.
My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the
enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and
academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the
quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.
>Brenda Hoddinott<
Born in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She
developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed
learning, and the aid of assorted Learn to Draw books. During Brendas twenty-five year
career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation
departments have employed Brendas skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and
municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of
Membership from Forensic Artists International.
Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and
painting classes. As supervisor of her communitys recreational art department, Brenda
hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several childrens art programs. In
1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote
more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.
Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative
approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing
classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages,
levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is
respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational
facilities throughout the world.
LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT
Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is
available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.
The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of
the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360
page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.