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Released Test Questions

English–Language Arts

11

Introduction - Grade 11 English–Language Arts

The following released test questions are taken from the Grade 11 English–Language Arts Standards Test. This test is one of the California Standards Tests administered as part of the Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program under policies set by the State Board of Education. All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content standards in Grade 11 English–Language Arts. In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, and language. This document contains released test questions from the California Standards Test forms in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. First on the pages that follow are lists of the standards assessed on the Grade 11 English– Language Arts Test. Next are released passages and test questions. Following the questions is a table that gives the correct answer for each question, the content standard that each question is measuring, and the year each question last appeared on the test. The following table lists each strand/reporting cluster, the number of items that appear on the exam, and the number of released test questions that appear in this document. STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER • Word Analysis • Reading Comprehension • Literary Response and Analysis • Writing Strategies • Written Conventions TOTAL NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ON EXAM 8 19 17 22 9 75 NUMBER OF RELEASED TEST QUESTIONS 10 24 21 27 13
95

In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 11 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions demonstrate a range of difficulty; and (3) the questions present a variety of ways standards can be assessed. These released test questions do not reflect all of the ways the standards may be assessed. Released test questions will not appear on future tests. For more information about the California Standards Tests, visit the California Department of Education’s Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/resources.asp.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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READING

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The Reading portion of the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test has three strands/ reporting clusters: Word Analysis, Reading Comprehension, and Literary Response and Analysis. Each of these strands/clusters is described below.

The Word Analysis Strand/Cluster
The following three California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Word Analysis strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 10 test questions for grade 11. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the Grade 11 California English– Language Arts Standards Test.
11RW1.0 WORD ANALYSIS, FLUENCY, AND SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately. 11RW1.1 Vocabulary and Concept Development: Trace the etymology of significant terms used in political science and history.

11RW1.2 Vocabulary and Concept Development: Apply knowledge of Greek, Latin, and AngloSaxon roots and affixes to draw inferences concerning the meaning of scientific and mathematical terminology. 11RW1.3 Vocabulary and Concept Development: Discern the meaning of analogies encountered, analyzing specific comparisons as well as relationships and inferences.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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Released Test Questions
The Reading Comprehension Strand/Cluster

English–Language Arts

11

The following six California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Reading Comprehension strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 24 test questions for grade 11. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test.
11RC2.0 READING COMPREHENSION (FOCUS ON INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS): Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade twelve, students read two million words annually on their own, including a wide variety of classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online information. 11RC2.1 Structural Features of Informational Materials: Analyze both the features and the rhetorical devices of different types of public documents (e.g., policy statements, speeches, debates, platforms) and the way in which authors use those features and devices. 11RC2.2 Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze the way in which clarity of meaning is affected by the patterns of organization, hierarchical structures, repetition of the main ideas, syntax, and word choice in the text. 11RC2.3 Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Verify and clarify facts presented in other types of expository texts by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents. 11RC2.4 Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Make warranted and reasonable assertions about the author’s arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations. 11RC2.5 Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze an author’s implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

11RC2.6 Expository Critique: Critique the power, validity, and truthfulness of arguments set forth in public documents; their appeal to both friendly and hostile audiences; and the extent to which the arguments anticipate and address reader concerns and counterclaims (e.g., appeal to reason, to authority, to pathos and emotion).

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The Literary Response and Analysis Strand/Cluster
The following eight California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Literary Response and Analysis strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 21 test questions for grade 11. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test.
11RL3.0 LITERARY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS: Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct in-depth analyses of recurrent themes. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. 11RL3.1 Structural Features of Literature: Analyze characteristics of subgenres (e.g., satire, parody, allegory, pastoral) that are used in poetry, prose, plays, novels, short stories, essays, and other basic genres. 11RL3.2 Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on life, using textual evidence to support the claim. 11RL3.3 Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze the ways in which irony, tone, mood, the author’s style, and the “sound” of language achieve specific rhetorical or aesthetic purposes or both. 11RL3.4 Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze ways in which poets use imagery, personification, figures of speech, and sounds to evoke readers’ emotions.

11RL3.5 Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze recognized works of American literature representing a variety of genres and traditions: 1) Trace the development of American literature from the colonial period forward. 2) Contrast the major periods, themes, styles, and trends and describe how works by members of different cultures relate to one another in each period. 3) Evaluate the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences of the historical period that shaped the characters, plots, and settings. 11RL3.6 Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text: Analyze the way in which authors through the centuries have used archetypes drawn from myth and tradition in literature, film, political speeches, and religious writings (e.g., how the archetypes of banishment from an ideal world may be used to interpret Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth). 11RL3.8 Literary Criticism: Analyze the clarity and consistency of political assumptions in a selection of literary works or essays on a topic (e.g., suffrage, women’s role in organized labor) (Political approach). 11RL3.9 Literary Criticism: Analyze the philosophical arguments presented in literary works to determine whether the authors’ positions have contributed to the quality of each work and the credibility of the characters (Philosophical approach).

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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WRITING

English–Language Arts

11

The Writing portion of the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test has two strands/ reporting clusters: Writing Strategies and Written Conventions. Each of these strands/clusters is described below.

The Writing Strategies Strand/Cluster
The following seven California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Writing Strategies strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 27 test questions for grade 11. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test.

11WS1.0 WRITING STRATEGIES: Students write coherent and focused texts that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students’ awareness of the audience and purpose and progression through the stages of the writing process. 11WS1.1 Organization and Focus: Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments. 11WS1.2 11WS1.3 Organization and Focus: Use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. Organization and Focus: Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

11WS1.4 Organization and Focus: Enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and analogy; the incorporation of visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures); and the issuance of a call for action. 11WS1.5 11WS1.7 Organization and Focus: Use language in natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone. Research and Technology: Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies).

11WS1.9 Evaluation and Revision: Revise text to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The Written Conventions Strand/Cluster
The following two California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Written Conventions strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 13 test questions for grade 11. These questions represent only some ways in which these standards may be assessed on the Grade 11 California English–Language Arts Standards Test.
11WC1.0 11WC1.1 11WC1.2 WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS: Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions. Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure, and an understanding of English usage. Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts
excerpt from Young Goodman Brown
by Nathaniel Hawthorne

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1

Young Goodman1 Brown came forth at sunset into the street at Salem village; but put his head back, after crossing the threshold, to exchange a parting kiss with his young wife. And Faith, as the wife was aptly named, thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons on her cap while she called to Goodman Brown. “Dearest heart,” whispered she, softly and rather sadly, when her lips were close to his ear, “prithee put off your journey until sunrise and sleep in your own bed to-night. A lone woman is troubled with such dreams and such thoughts that she’s afeard of herself sometimes. Pray tarry with me this night, dear husband, of all nights in the year.” “My love and my Faith,” replied young Goodman Brown, “of all nights in the year, this one night must I tarry away from thee. My journey, as thou callest it, forth and back again, must needs be done ’twixt now and sunrise. What, my sweet, pretty wife, dost thou doubt me already, and we but three months married?” “Then God bless you!” said Faith, with the pink ribbons; “and may you find all well when you come back.” “Amen!” cried Goodman Brown. “Say thy prayers, dear Faith, and go to bed at dusk, and no harm will come to thee.” So they parted; and the young man pursued his way until, being about to turn the corner by the meeting­ house, he looked back and saw the head of Faith still peeping after him with a melancholy air, in spite of her pink ribbons. “Poor little Faith!” thought he, for his heart smote him. “What a wretch am I to leave her on such an errand! She talks of dreams, too. Methought as she spoke there was trouble in her face, as if a dream had warned her what work is to be done to-night. But no, no; ’twould kill her to think it. Well, she’s a blessed angel on earth; and after this one night I’ll cling to her skirts and follow her to heaven.” With this excellent resolve for the future, Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose. He had taken a dreary road, darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the forest, which barely stood aside to let the narrow path creep through, and closed immediately behind. It was all as lonely as could be; and there is this peculiarity in such a solitude, that the traveller knows not who may be concealed by the innumerable trunks and the thick boughs overhead; so that with lonely footsteps he may yet be passing through an unseen multitude. “There may be an Indian behind every tree,” said Goodman Brown to himself; and he glanced fearfully behind him as he added, “What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!”

2

3

4 5

6

7

8

9

1

Goodman: title of respect for farmer or householder.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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10

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

His head being turned back, he passed a crook of the road, and, looking forward again, beheld the figure of a man, in grave and decent attire, seated at the foot of an old tree. He arose at Goodman Brown’s approach and walked onward side by side with him. “You are late, Goodman Brown,” said he. “The clock of the Old South was striking as I came through Boston, and that is full fifteen minutes agone.” “Faith kept me back a while,” replied the young man, with a tremor in his voice, caused by the sudden appearance of his companion, though not wholly unexpected.

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12

[Public Domain]
CSR0P148

1 �

During the Colonial period, the forest embodied all that was evil, including the unknown. This is most apparent in which of the following paragraphs? A B C D 1 and 2 6 and 7 8 and 9 11 and 12
CSR01095.148

3 �

This excerpt suggests that all people must, at some time, choose between good and evil. All of the following contribute to the reader’s perception that Goodman Brown knows that he is about to embrace evil except A paragraph 3, Goodman Brown says, “. . . of all nights in the year, this one night must I tarry away from thee.” B paragraph 7, Goodman Brown thinks, “. . . [it was] as if a dream had warned her what work is to be done to-night.” C paragraph 8, “. . . Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose.” D paragraph 1, “Young Goodman Brown came forth at sunset into the street at Salem village . . .”
CSR01091.148

2 �

In the final paragraph, Goodman Brown tells the man he meets in the woods that “Faith kept me back a while.” Literally, he means that his wife made him late. What other meaning could this remark have had? A His religious faith almost kept him from the journey. B His faith in his marriage was more important than the journey. C Faith is necessary to complete the things one is required to do. D The remark could have no meaning beyond the literal one.
CSR01090.148

4 �

This excerpt suggests that Hawthorne’s philosophical position includes which one of the following ideas? A B C D Man is predisposed to do evil.

Man’s first impulse is to do good.

Man creates his own reality.

Man is responsible for his actions.

CSR01086.148

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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Released Test Questions

English–Language Arts

11

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF RENTAL AGREEMENT

These terms and conditions form a part of the Rental Agreement for the rental of the Vehicle described on the Rental document. This agreement is between the Renter signing it (“I,” “Me,” or “My”) and Universal Car Agency, Inc. or an independent Universal Car Agency licensee identified on the Rental document (“Company,” “You,” or “Universal”). I, the Renter, agree to all Terms and Conditions of this Agreement, including the Rental and Return Documents. I understand that I may not rent if I do not satisfy your current standard rental qualifications. 1. Vehicle — I understand that you own the Vehicle. The Vehicle includes tires, tools, equipment, accessories, keys and Vehicle documents. The Vehicle is delivered to me in good operating condition solely for rental purposes. No one may service or repair the Vehicle without your prior approval. I AGREE THAT YOU MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY AS TO ANY MATTER WHATSOEVER INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE CONDITION OF THE VEHICLE, ITS MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. COMPANY SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE RENTAL OF THE VEHICLE TO ME. 2. Who May Drive the Vehicle — Authorized Drivers and Additional Authorized Drivers. a. I represent that I am a validly licensed driver, 25 years of age or older. b. The Vehicle shall not be operated by anyone except me, and any Authorized or Additional Authorized Drivers who are validly licensed drivers, 25 years of age or older. In addition, c. Authorized Drivers must be: 1) a member of my immediate family who permanently lives with me, or 2) a business partner, employer or regular fellow employee who drives the vehicle for business purposes. d. Additional Authorized Drivers must be a person who has signed the Rental document of this Agreement as an Additional Authorized Driver after qualification by the Company. 3. Vehicle Returns — I agree to return the Vehicle in the same condition in which I received it, except for ordinary wear and tear. I understand that there will be a rate change or additional charge if I return the Vehicle to a different location, or at a different time or due date. If for any reason I cannot return the Vehicle at the time and location required by this Agreement, I will pay for all loss or estimated damages to Vehicle, including loss of use, claim processing fees, and administrative charges, as permitted by law. 4. Prohibited Uses of the Vehicle — I agree that the Vehicle shall NOT be used by or for any of the following PROHIBITED USES, subject to applicable law: a. by an unauthorized driver b. by any driver under the influence of intoxicants, drugs, or any other substance known to impair driving ability c. for any illegal purpose d. by anyone who gives the Company a false name, address, age, or other false or misleading information e. in any abusive or reckless manner or if convicted of careless driving f. to carry persons or property for hire g. in any race, test, contest, or training activity

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

h. on unpaved roads i. leaving the Vehicle and failing to remove the keys and the Vehicle is stolen j. for any use in a foreign country without the prior written permission of the renting location. All protection is void in a foreign country. Your written permission must be obtained and special insurance must be purchased before entering a foreign country. I UNDERSTAND THAT IF THE VEHICLE IS OBTAINED OR USED FOR ANY PROHIBITED USE OR IN VIOLATION OF THIS AGREEMENT, THEN ANY LIMITATION OF MY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE VOID AND I SHALL BE FULLY RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL LOSS AND RESULTING DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOSS OF USE, CLAIMS, PROCESSING FEES, ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES, COSTS, AND ATTORNEYS’ FEES, ALSO, WHERE PERMITTED BY LAW. THE LOW OPTION SHALL BE VOID AND THE LIABILITY INSURANCE SHALL BE VOID.
CSR0P301

5 �

The reference to and definition of “Authorized Drivers” show that the rental company demands to A B C D meet exactly who may be driving the car.

interview each driver of the vehicle.

approve each driver of the car.

test each driver of the vehicle.

CSR02214.301

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Writing certain parts of the agreement in all capital letters suggests that A certain parts are more difficult to read and thus are made in large print. B these parts require special attention from the signer of the agreement. C renters should not worry about other sections of the agreement. D this section is often overlooked by renters who just want to get going.
CSR02225.301

6 �

The car rental agreement is divided into four separate parts to A discuss the main terms and conditions of the agreement. B make the agreement appear more official and binding. C show renters the main things they cannot do with the car. D provide the customer with all the facts relating to the car.
CSR02227.301

8 �

Where may the rental car not be driven? A B C D on country roads

on unpaved roads

on snowy roads

on highways

CSR02223.301

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts

11

Dear Superstar Customer: You have just purchased one of the finest food processors on the market. Thousands of cooks around the world use the Superstar food processor to chop, slice, and blend their way to healthful, delicious meals. The Superstar’s powerful motor can handle any task without overheating. Whether you are making salsa or homemade bread, or simply chopping vegetables, you’ll find the Superstar food processor will greatly reduce preparation time. Read on to learn how to operate your new food processor. For best results, use only Superstar replacement parts with your Superstar food processor.

2 3 4 5 1
Figure 1

THE PARTS OF YOUR NEW SUPERSTAR FOOD PROCESSOR
1. Motor base with motor shaft and 3-position control switch 2. Pusher—fits into feed tube and guides food being sliced or shredded 3. Cover with feed tube 4. Work bowl 5. Metal blade—chops raw and cooked food to any consistency from coarse chop to fine puree (page 7) 6. Slicing disc (not pictured)—makes perfect slices (page 11) 7. Shredding disc (not pictured)—shreds vegetables, cheese, nuts, and chocolate (page 11)

PUTTING YOUR SUPERSTAR FOOD PROCESSOR TOGETHER
Read all instructions on these two pages before you start. Check that your household voltage matches that shown on the label on the bottom of your Superstar food processor base.

Turn Work bowl Handle Click

Figure 2
1. Put base on counter or table near an electrical outlet. Do not plug in until your Superstar food processor has been fully assembled. Pick up empty work bowl, holding it with handle toward you. Put bowl on base, fitting center tube over shaft on base and placing handle slightly to left of front center (7 o’clock).

Figure 3
2. Turn bowl counterclockwise as far as it will go. It will click into locked position.

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions
6. Insert the pusher into the feed tube. Always use the pusher to guide food through the feed tube. NEVER USE YOUR FINGERS! Plug your Superstar food processor into a household electrical outlet.

Metal blade

Shaft

OPERATING CONTROLS
The control switch on the base of the machine has 3 positions that give you fingertip control of operation:

Figure 4
3. Pick up metal blade by the center plastic part. Never touch metal cutting blades, which are razor sharp. Place blade over motor shaft. If it doesn’t go down, twist it gently clockwise until it does. Push top of center plastic part to push blade down as far as it will go. Lower blade should almost touch bottom of bowl.

(1) For continuous operation, move the control switch up to the ON position. (2) For ON-OFF operation (pulse chopping), press the control switch down to PULSE. The motor will run until the control switch is released. (3) The machine should always be kept in the OFF position (center) when not in use.

PRACTICING WITH FOOD
Try chopping some food to get a feel for how the processor works. (Try starting out with a soft fruit or vegetable.) First, cut the food into 1-inch pieces. Note: using different-sized food pieces could result in an inconsistent chop texture. Insert metal blade in work bowl and put in food pieces. Put on cover and lock it. Press control switch down to PULSE, then release it. Repeat two or three times. Watch what happens to the food. New users are usually surprised by how fast the Superstar food processor works. You will quickly get used to its great speed. Using this technique, you can get an even chop without the danger of overprocessing. For a coarse chop, pulse only a few times. For a finer chop, continue pulse/chopping until you get the texture you want. (Note: Onions and other foods with high water content can turn into a smooth puree very quickly. Do not overchop. Pulse in short intervals. Check food after each pulse.)

Turn Click

Feed tube Cover

Figure 5
4. Put cover on bowl, with feed tube at front, slightly to left of front center.

ADDING FOOD WHILE PROCESSING

Figure 6
5. Turn cover counterclockwise to lock it into place. It will click into position. The motor of your Superstar food processor will not start unless work bowl is securely locked in position and cover is securely locked on work bowl.

When you want to add liquid while the machine is running, pour it through the open feed tube. This is especially useful when making mayonnaise, bread dough, cakes, and many other recipes. See index for a list of recipes. You can also add small pieces of food like cheese, meat, or garlic cloves while the machine is running by dropping the food through the open feed tube. To prevent spills, use a funnel when adding flour, sugar, and other dry ingredients.

CSR0P304

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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9 �

English–Language Arts
12 �
The instructions warn against all of the following except

11

The “Practicing with Food” section of the instructions praises the Superstar food processor’s A B C D beauty.

speed.

versatility.

simplicity.

CSR02245.304

A using your fingers to guide food into the feed tube. B holding the control switch down for a very long time. C using pieces of food that are all different sizes. D adding eggs through the feed tube while the machine is running.
CSR02238.304

10 �

Which of these should you do to lock the cover onto the work bowl? A B C D Push it down as hard as you can.

Turn it counterclockwise.

Remove the pusher from the feed tube.

Move the control switch to the ON position.

CSR02243.304

13 �

Which of the following is not evidence supporting the claim “You have just purchased one of the finest food processors on the market”? A Thousands of cooks around the world use the Superstar food processor . . . B The Superstar’s powerful motor can handle any task . . . C . . . the Superstar food processor will greatly reduce preparation time. D . . . use only Superstar replacement parts with your Superstar food processor.
CSR02247.304

11 �

Which of the following sections could most likely be found immediately after the “Adding Food While Processing” section in the manual? A B C D Removing Processed Food Warranty Information Packing Your Food Processor for Shipping Recipe Index
CSR02241.304

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1

English–Language Arts
The Solace of Open Spaces
by Gretel Ehrlich It’s May and I’ve just awakened from a nap, curled against sagebrush the way my dog taught me to sleep—sheltered from wind. A front is pulling the huge sky over me, and from the dark a hailstone has hit me on the head. I’m trailing a band of two thousand sheep across a stretch of Wyoming badlands, a fifty-mile trip that takes five days because sheep shade up in hot sun and won’t budge until it’s cool. Bunched together now, and excited into a run by the storm, they drift across dry land, tumbling into draws1 like water, and surge out again onto the rugged, choppy plateaus that are the building blocks of this state.

Released Test Questions

2

The name Wyoming comes from an Indian word meaning “at the great plains,” but the plains are really valleys, great arid valleys, sixteen hundred square miles, with the horizon bending up on all sides into mountain ranges. This gives the vastness a sheltering look. Winter lasts six months here. Prevailing winds spill snowdrifts to the east, and new storms from the northwest replenish them. This white bulk is sometimes dizzying, even nauseating, to look at. At twenty, thirty, and forty degrees below zero, not only does your car not work, but neither do your mind and body. The landscape hardens into a dungeon of space. During the winter, while I was riding to find a new calf, my jeans froze to the saddle, and in the silence that such cold creates I felt like the first person on earth, or the last. Today the sun is out—only a few clouds billowing. In the east, where the sheep have started off without me, the benchland tilts up in a series of eroded red-earthed mesas, planed flat on top by a million years of water; behind them, a bold line of muscular scarps rears up ten thousand feet to become the Big Horn Mountains. A tidal pattern is engraved into the ground, as if left by the sea that once covered this state. Canyons curve down like galaxies to meet the oncoming rush of flat land. To live and work in this kind of open country, with its hundred-mile views, is to lose the distinction between background and foreground. When I asked an older ranch hand to describe Wyoming’s openness, he said, “It’s all a bunch of nothing—wind and rattlesnakes—and so much of it you can’t tell where you’re going or where you’ve been, and it don’t make much difference.” John, a sheepman I know, is tall and handsome and has an explosive temperament. He has a perfect intuition about people and sheep. They call him “Highpockets,” because he’s so long-legged; his graceful stride matches the distances he has to cover. He says, “Open space hasn’t affected me at all. It’s all the people moving in on it.” The huge ranch he was born on takes up much of one county and spreads into another state; to put 100,000 miles on his pickup in three

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draws: gullies that are shallower than ravines.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts

11

years and never leave home is not unusual. A friend of mine has an aunt who ranched on Powder River and didn’t go off her place for eleven years. When her husband died, she quickly moved to town, bought a car, and drove around the States to see what she’d been missing.
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Most people tell me they’ve simply driven through Wyoming, as if there were nothing to stop for. Or else they’ve skied in Jackson Hole, a place Wyomingites acknowledge uncomfortably because its green beauty and chic affluence are mismatched with the rest of the state. Most of Wyoming has a “lean-to” look. Instead of big, roomy barns and Victorian houses, there are dugouts, low sheds, log cabins, sheep camps, and fence lines that look like driftwood blown haphazardly into place. People here still feel pride because they live in such a harsh place, part of the glamorous cowboy past, and they are determined not to be the victims of a mining-dominated future. Most characteristic of the state’s landscape is what a developer euphemistically describes as “indigenous growth right up to your front door”—a reference to waterless stands of salt sage, snakes, jack rabbits, deerflies, red dust, a brief respite of wildflowers, dry washes, and no trees. In the Great Plains the vistas look like music, like Kyries2 of grass, but Wyoming seems to be the doing of a mad architect— tumbled and twisted, ribboned with faded, deathbed colors, thrust up and pulled down as if the place had been startled out of a deep sleep and thrown into a pure light.

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“The Solace of Open Spaces” from THE SOLACE OF OPEN SPACES by Gretel Ehrlich, copyright © 1985 by Gretel Ehrlich. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Putnam Inc.
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Kyries: short prayers.

CSR1P194

14 �

Read this excerpt from paragraph 4 of the passage. . . . planed flat on top by a million years of water . . . The word planed is from the Latin root plan, which means A B C D level. broad. faded. polished.
CSR11413.194

15 �

To which literary subgenre is this passage most closely related?

A B C D parody

allegory

satire

pastoral

CSR11425.194

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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16 �

English–Language Arts
18 �

Released Test Questions

In paragraph 5, the author mainly uses quotations by Wyoming residents to A invite the reader to identify with people from Wyoming. B enhance the clarity of the passage. C explain how she slowly came to appreciate Wyoming. D illustrate the relationship between Wyoming and its people.
CSR11417.194

Which philosophical point does the author make in the passage? A B C D Hard work is the purpose of life. People are shaped by their environment. Practical skills are more important than formal education. People were never meant to live in large groups.
CSR11424.194

17 �

Read this excerpt from the passage. People here . . . are determined not to be the victims of a mining-dominated future. This statement reveals the author’s belief that A people are foolish for resisting inevitable changes. B profits from the mines should be used for the benefit of the state. C mining could potentially threaten the ranching way of life. D Wyoming is in danger of pollution caused by mining.
CSR11422.194

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts
adapted from The Art of Optimism
by William De Witt Hyde, LL.D.

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The world we live in is a world of mingled good and evil. Whether it is chiefly good or chiefly bad depends on how we take it. To look at the world in such a way as to emphasize the evil is the art of pessimism. To look at it in such a way as to bring out the good, and throw the evil into the background, is the art of optimism. The facts are the same in either case. It is simply a question of perspective and emphasis. Whether we shall be optimists or pessimists depends partly on temperament, but chiefly on will. If you are happy it is largely to your own credit. If you are miserable it is chiefly your own fault. I propose to show you both pessimism and optimism, give a prescription for each, and leave you to take whichever you like best: for whether you are a pessimist or an optimist doesn’t depend on whether the world is wholly good or wholly bad, or whether you have a hard lot or an easy one. It depends on what you like, and what you want and what you resolve to be. Perchance you are the most fortunate and happy person among my hearers. There are thousands of people who would be miserable were they situated precisely as you are. They would make themselves miserable because that is their temperament; that is their way of looking at things. And even in your happy and enviable condition, with all your health and wealth, and hosts of friends, and abundance of interests, they would find plenty of stuff to make their misery out of. On the other hand, you may be the person of all others among my hearers who has the hardest time, who has lost dearest friends, who has the severest struggle with poverty, who has worst enemies, who meets cruelest unkindness, who seems to have least to live for. Thousands of people would be supremely happy if they were in precisely your circumstances. Life is like the ocean. It drowns one man, because he yields to it passively and blindly. It buoys up the other because he strikes it skillfully, and buffets it with lusty sinews. There is enough that is bad in every life to make one miserable who is so inclined. We all know people who have plenty to eat, a roof over their heads, a soft bed to lie in, money in the bank to cover all probable needs for the rest of their days, plenty of friends, good social position, an unbroken family circle, good education, even the profession of some sort of religion; who yet by magnifying something that happened to them a long while ago; or something that may happen to them at some time to come; or what somebody has said about them; or the work they have to do; or the slight someone has shown them, or even without anything as definite as even these trifles, contrive to make themselves and everybody else perpetually wretched and uncomfortable. These people have acquired the art of pessimism. Practically, anybody can be a pessimist who wants to. The art is easily acquired. Here are the rules for it. Live in the passive voice, intent on what you can get, rather than on what you can do. In the subjunctive mood, meditate on what might be, rather than what actually is. In the past or future tense, either harp on what has been, or worry about what will be, rather than facing the facts of the present. In the third person, find fault with other people instead of setting your own affairs in order. In the plural number, follow the standards of respectability of other people rather than your own perception of what is fit and proper. Keep these rules faithfully, always measuring the worth of life in terms of personal pleasure, rather than in terms of growth of character or service of high ends, and you will be a pessimist before you know it. For pessimism is the logical and inevitable outcome of that way of looking at life.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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6

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A sound optimism accepts with open eyes all the hard facts on which pessimism builds. Enjoyment is fleeting. Nothing can permanently satisfy us. As Browning said to an artist who complained that he was so dissatisfied with what he had done, “But think, if you were satisfied, how little you would be satisfied with!” Optimism proclaims this very incapacity of ours to be satisfied with anything finite, the glory of our nature, the promise and potency of our progress and development, the assurance of our immortality. If good is a satisfied feeling, which is to be given to us ready-made, then indeed we shall never get it, and pessimism is the ultimate truth. If good is a state of eager and enthusiastic activity of will, then this world of ours is just the best place imaginable to give field for this activity. Having given rules for the art of pessimism, I suppose I ought to be equally explicit in regard to optimism. I will here again adopt the easily rememberable form in which the rules for pessimism were cast. Indeed, the rules for optimism are simply the inverse of the rules for pessimism. Live in the active voice, intent on what you can do rather than on what happens to you. In the indicative mood, be concerned with facts as they are rather than as they might be. In the present tense, concentrate on the duty at hand, without regret for the past or worry about the future. In the first person, criticize yourself rather than condemning others. In the singular number, seek the approval of your own conscience rather than popularity with the many. Whoever lives the life of such unselfish devotion to the good of others and of all, and lives it in the active voice, indicative mood, present tense, first person, singular number, is bound to find his life full and rich and glad and free; is bound, in other words, to be an optimist.

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[Public Domain]
CSR1P199-1

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts
The Pursuit of Happiness
by Charles Dudley Warner

11

1

Perhaps the most curious and interesting phrase ever put into a public document is “the pursuit of happiness.” It is declared to be an inalienable right. It cannot be sold. It cannot be given away. It is doubtful if it can be left by will. The right of every man to be six feet high and of every woman to be five feet four was regarded as self-evident, until women asserted their undoubted right to be six feet high also, when some confusion was introduced into the interpretation of this rhetorical fragment of the eighteenth century. The pursuit of happiness! It is not strange that men call it an illusion. But I am satisfied that it is not the thing itself, but the pursuit, that is an illusion. Instead of thinking of the pursuit, why not fix our thoughts upon the moments, the hours, perhaps the days, of this divine peace, this merriment of body and mind, that can be repeated, and perhaps indefinitely extended by the simplest of all means, namely, the disposition to make the best of whatever comes to us? Perhaps the Latin poet was right in saying that no man can count himself happy while in this life, that is, in a continuous state of happiness; but as there is for the soul no time save the conscious moment called “now,” it is quite possible to make that “now” a happy state of existence. The point I make is that we should not habitually postpone that season of happiness to the future. Sometimes wandering in a primeval forest, in all the witchery of the woods, besought by the kindliest solicitations of nature, wild flowers in the trail, the call of the squirrel, the flutter of the bird, the great worldmusic of the wind in the pine-tops, the flecks of sunlight on the brown carpet and on the rough bark of the immemorial trees, I find myself unconsciously postponing my enjoyment until I shall reach a hoped-for open place of full sun and boundless prospect. The analogy cannot be pushed, for it is the common experience that these open spots in life, where leisure and space and contentment await us, are usually grown up with thickets, fuller of obstacles, to say nothing of the labors and duties and difficulties, than any part of the weary path we have trod. The pitiful part of this inalienable right to the pursuit of happiness is, however, that most men interpret it to mean the pursuit of wealth, and strive for that always, postponing being happy until they get a fortune, and if they are lucky in that, find in the end that the happiness has somehow eluded them, that, in short, they have not cultivated that in themselves which alone can bring happiness. More than that, they have lost the power of the enjoyment of the essential pleasures of life. I think that the woman in the Scriptures who out of her poverty put her mite into the contribution-box got more happiness out of that driblet of generosity and selfsacrifice than some men in our day have experienced in founding a university.

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[Public Domain]
CSR1P199-2

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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A B C D

English–Language Arts
22 �

Released Test Questions

Which word from “The Pursuit of Happiness” is derived from a Latin root that means “age”? inalienable

immemorial

primeval

essential

CSR11107.199

Both “The Art of Optimism” and “The Pursuit of Happiness” are best classified as A B C D political speeches.

informal speeches.

acceptance speeches.

persuasive speeches.

CSR11115.199

20 �

In the first sentence of paragraph 6 of “The Art of Optimism,” the phrase “hard facts” means A B C D things that are hard to understand.

the difficult realities of life.

lessons that must be learned.

things that a pessimist believes to be true.

CSR11104.199

23 �

Both Hyde and Warner advise their listeners to A B C D give money to charities.

attend to their duties.

spend time in nature.

live in the present.

CSR11112.199


21

In the last sentence of paragraph 5 of “The Pursuit of Happiness,” Warner uses the phrase “driblet of generosity” to convey that the woman A B C D could have given more.

gave regularly.

gave resentfully.

willingly gave what she could.

CSR11110.199

24 �

Hyde and Warner share the view that A B C D the main goal of life is pleasure.

it is easier to be happy if you are wealthy.

individuals have the power to control the

quality of their lives. people should ignore social conventions and do as they like.
CSR11114.199

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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English–Language Arts
The Wood-Pile
by Robert Frost (1874–1963) Out walking in the frozen swamp one grey day
I paused and said, “I will turn back from here.
No, I will go on farther––and we shall see.”
The hard snow held me, save where now and then
One foot went down. The view was all in lines Straight up and down of tall slim trees Too much alike to mark or name a place by So as to say for certain I was here Or somewhere else: I was just far from home. A small bird flew before me. He was careful To put a tree between us when he lighted, And say no word to tell me who he was Who was so foolish as to think what he thought. He thought that I was after him for a feather–– The white one in his tail; like one who takes Everything said as personal to himself. One flight out sideways would have undeceived him. And then there was a pile of wood for which I forgot him and let his little fear Carry him off the way I might have gone, Without so much as wishing him good-night. He went behind it to make his last stand. It was a cord of maple, cut and split And piled––and measured, four by four by eight. And not another like it could I see. No runner tracks in this year’s snow looped near it. And it was older sure than this year’s cutting, Or even last year’s or the year’s before. The wood was grey and the bark warping off it And the pile somewhat sunken. Clematis1 Had wound strings round and round it like a bundle. What held it though on one side was a tree Still growing, and on one a stake and prop, These latter about to fall. I thought that only Someone who lived in turning to fresh tasks Could so forget his handiwork on which He spent himself, the labour of his axe, And leave it there far from a useful fireplace To warm the frozen swamp as best it could With the slow smokeless burning of decay.
CSR1P197

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[Public Domain]

1

Clematis: a vine plant that bears white or variously colored flowers.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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25 �

English–Language Arts
27 �

Released Test Questions

In line 35, when the poet mentions “Someone who lived in turning to fresh tasks,” he is referring to a person who A B C D likes things to be organized.

rarely completes his projects.

dislikes hard work.

feels at home in the outdoors.

CSR11353.197

One feature of this poem that classifies it as modern American poetry, rather than poetry of the Colonial period, is that A B C D it is not strongly moralistic or religious.

it has only one main character.

it provides a description of nature.

it lends itself to various interpretations.

CSR11356.197

26 �

What is ironic about the winter setting of the poem? A Animals cannot make use of the wood because they are hibernating. B The wood could be keeping someone warm, but instead it is rotting in the swamp. C The speaker would not have noticed the wood-pile if the trees had not been bare. D The person who cut the wood wanted to come back to it, but the snow hid his tracks.
CSR11361.197

28 �

Robert Frost wrote and published from 1894 until his death in 1963. What literary trend of Frost’s era can be found in this poem? A B C D focus on everyday things

intricate rhyme schemes

instances of dialogue

dramatic ending

CSR11357.197

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts
Grinning the Bark off a Tree
by Davy Crockett (1786–1836)

11

1

That Colonel Crockett could avail himself, in electioneering, of the advantages which well-applied satire ensures, the following anecdote will sufficiently prove. In the canvass of the Congressional election of 18__, Mr. ***** was the Colonel’s opponent—a gentleman of the most pleasing and conciliating manners—who seldom addressed a person or a company without wearing upon his countenance a peculiarly good-humored smile. The Colonel, to counteract the influence of this winning attribute, thus alluded to it in a stump speech. “Yes, gentlemen, he may get some votes by grinning, for he can outgrin me—and you know I ain’t slow— and to prove to you that I am not, I will tell you an anecdote. I was concerned myself—and I was fooled. You all know I love hunting. Well, I discovered a long time ago that a raccoon couldn’t stand my grin. I could bring one tumbling down from the highest tree. I never wasted powder and lead when I wanted one of the creatures. Well, as I was walking out one night, a few hundred yards from my house, looking carelessly about me, I saw a raccoon planted upon one of the highest limbs of an old tree. The night was very moony and clear, and old Rattler was with me; but Rattler won’t bark at a raccoon—he’s a strange dog in that way. So, I thought I’d bring the lark down in the usual way, by a grin. I set myself—and, after grinning at the raccoon a reasonable time, found that he didn’t come down. I wondered what was the reason—and I took another steady grin at him. Still he was there. It made me a little mad; so I felt round and got an old limb about five feet long, and, planting one end upon the ground, I placed my chin upon the other, and took a rest. I then grinned my best for about five minutes; but the cursed raccoon hung on. So, finding I could not bring him down by grinning, I determined to have him—for I thought he must be a droll chap. I went over to the house, got my axe, returned to the tree, saw the raccoon still there, and began to cut away. Down it come, and I ran forward; but nary a

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

raccoon was there to be seen. I found that what I had taken for one, was a large knot upon the branch of the tree and, upon looking at it closely, I saw that I had grinned all the bark off, and left the knot perfectly smooth. “Now, fellow-citizens,” continued the Colonel, “you must be convinced that, in the grinning line, I myself am not slow—yet, when I look upon my opponent’s countenance, I must admit that he is my superior. You must all admit it. Therefore, be wide awake—look sharp—and do not let him grin you out of your votes.”

[Public Domain]
CSR0P146

29 �

A B C D

Crockett’s attitude toward his audience conveys admiration. loathing. familiarity. contempt.
CSR01077.146

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Colonel Crockett draws from which of the following archetypes in his portrayal of his opponent? A B C D rebel

hero

trickster

scapegoat

CSR01076.146

30 �

Crockett addresses his speech to “gentlemen” because in his day A women were not considered American citizens. B all women stayed at home during political speeches. C women were not allowed to vote. D the term “gentlemen” was assumed to include women.
CSR01072.146

32 �

What political system is reflected in the passage? A B C D democracy

socialism

communism

theocracy

CSR01071.146

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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English–Language Arts

11

Eleanor Roosevelt Speaks to the Members of the American Civil Liberties Union, Chicago, IL, March 14, 1940
1

Now I listened to the broadcast this afternoon with a great deal of interest. I almost forgot what a fight had been made to assure the rights of the working man. I know there was a time when hours were longer and wages lower, but I had forgotten just how long that fight for freedom, to bargain collectively, and to have freedom of assembly, had taken. Sometimes, until some particular thing comes to your notice, you think something has been won for every working man, and then you come across, as I did the other day, a case where someone had taken the law into his own hands and beaten up a labor organizer. I didn’t think we did those things any more in this country, but it appears that we do. Therefore, someone must be always on the lookout to see that someone is ready to take up the cudgels1 to defend those who can’t defend themselves. That is the only way we are going to keep this country a law-abiding country, where law is looked upon with respect and where it is not considered necessary for anybody to take the law into his own hands. The minute you allow that, then you have acknowledged that you are no longer able to trust in your courts and in your law-enforcing machinery, and civil liberties are not very well off when anything like that happens; so I think that after listening to the broadcast today, I would like to remind you that behind all those who fight for the Constitution as it was written, for the rights of the weak and for the preservation of civil liberties, we have a long line of courageous people, which is something to be proud of and something to hold on to. Its only value lies, however, in the fact that we profit by example and continue the tradition in the future. We must not let those people in back of us down; we must have courage; we must not succumb to fears of any kind; and we must live up to the things that we believe in and see that justice is done to the people under the Constitution, whether they belong to minority groups or not. This country is a united country in which all people have the same rights as citizens. We are grateful that we can trust in the youth of the nation that they are going on to uphold the real principles of democracy and put them into action in this country. They are going to make us an even more truly democratic nation.

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[Public Domain]
CSR1P201

1

cudgels: short, heavy clubs.

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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33 �

English–Language Arts
35 �

Released Test Questions

The relationship between succumb and overcome is the same as the relationship between A B C D minority and citizens.

fight and struggle.

bound and free.

conquer and destroy.

CSR11082.201

Roosevelt argues that citizens should not take the law into their own hands because A B C D doing so leads to mob violence.

enforcing the law is the government’s job.

people should fight with words rather than

violence. people have to defend themselves rather than depend on others.
CSR11085.201


34

The repetition of the word “fight” is used to support which central theme in Roosevelt’s speech? A B C D becoming a U.S. citizen protecting civil liberties looking out for foreign countries ensuring the division between church and state
CSR11074.201

36 �

In the middle of paragraph 2, Roosevelt implies that “you have acknowledged that you are no longer able to trust in your courts and in your law-enforcing machinery” when you allow individuals A B C D to speak and assemble freely.

to organize as labor unions.

to take the law into their own hands.

to think that justice will always prevail.

CSR11079.201

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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37 �

English–Language Arts
38 �

11

Read these lines from the beginning of paragraph 3. We must not let those people in back of us down; we must have courage; we must not succumb to fears of any kind; and we must live up to the things that we believe in and see that justice is done . . . Roosevelt’s use of repetition in phrasing and structure in these lines creates A B C D a hostile tone that increases in anger.

an objective tone based on facts.

a sympathetic tone supported by example.

a persuasive tone that builds with intensity.

CSR11077.201

Roosevelt’s reference to youth at the end of her speech is A B C D an appeal to authority.

a reassurance.

a summary.

an accusation.

CSR11076.201

39 �

The reader can infer from the speech that Roosevelt believes that the majority of Americans are A B C D intimidated.

law-abiding.

violent.

hardworking.

CSR11086.201

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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1

English–Language Arts

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Scholarship Scam Target of New Legislation

“You’re a finalist. Millions of unclaimed dollars. Available nowhere else. Act now or lose out. Scholarships guaranteed.” These words may have started out as music to the ears but have ended on a sour note to the tune of $5 million a year in losses to scholarship scam artists. As college costs continue to skyrocket, families face the challenge of footing the bills. Added to earning a living, running a home, and raising a family, finding and applying for scholarships and financial aid can be a daunting task. Unscrupulous scam artists are capitalizing on this dilemma—kicking you while you are down, so to speak. They know how intimidating the college application process can be, with tests to take, essays to write, educational institutions to investigate, financial records to obtain, and mountains of forms to complete. To the overwhelmed student, the seemingly simple solutions offered by scholarship companies are like waterfall mirages to a man stranded in the desert. Knowing their daughter, Jenna, wanted to pursue a career in biochemistry, Mr. and Mrs. Robinson signed up with a scholarship service company that promised “fantastic financial aid packages.” They assured the Robinsons they would “do all the work” and guaranteed they would secure a scholarship for Jenna. An initial payment of $495 was required to “hold” the scholarship. To “confirm eligibility,” the Robinsons were required to provide information about their checking account from which $20 was automatically deducted each month. Two years have passed, and the Robinsons have received none of the promised services, have been unable to obtain a refund, and have spent months trying to stop the automatic deductions.
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In response to the fleecing of thousands of Americans, stricter sentencing guidelines were established by the College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000. An excerpt from this act follows:

6

The Act:
to enhance protections against fraud in the offering of financial assistance for college education, and for other purposes

3

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
7

This Act may be cited as the College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000.

SECTION 2. FINDINGS.
8

Congress makes the following findings: (1) A substantial amount of fraud occurs in the offering of college education financial assistance services to consumers. (2) Such fraud includes the following: (A) Misrepresentations regarding the provision of sources from which consumers may obtain financial assistance (including scholarships, grants, loans, tuition, awards, and other assistance) for purposes of financing a college education. (B) Misrepresentations regarding the provision of portfolios of such assistance tailored to the needs of specific consumers. (C) Misrepresentations regarding the pre­ selection of students eligible to receive such assistance. (D) Misrepresentations that such assistance will be provided to consumers who purchase specified services from specified entities.

9

4

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Released Test Questions
(E) Misrepresentations regarding the business relationships between particular entities and entities that award or may award such assistance. (F) Misrepresentations regarding refunds of processing fees if consumers are not provided specified amounts of such assistance, and other misrepresentations regarding refunds. SECTION 3. SENTENCING ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FRAUD.
10

English–Language Arts
12

11

“Red lights should begin flashing when you see the words ‘guaranteed, your money back, you can’t get this information anywhere else, you’ve been selected, you’re a finalist, or we need your credit card number,’” warns Andrew Noonan, president of American College Endowment. “No legitimate scholarship service will pressure you to buy now or risk losing out, give evasive answers, or guarantee scholarships or grants.” If you should choose to hire a scholarship service, check the credibility of the company. Request names and telephone numbers of satisfied customers, and call them. Ask your school financial aid counselor about the service. Phone the Better Business Bureau to see if they are aware of unresolved complaints involving the service. Once you have decided on a service, be sure to get their refund policy in writing before you sign anything, give up any money, or reveal account information. The next time a company claims that millions of dollars in student aid go unclaimed each year, be sure to investigate carefully before signing any papers.
CSR2P160

13

Pursuant to its authority under section 994(p) of title 28, United States Code, the United States Sentencing Commission shall amend the Federal sentencing guidelines in order to provide for enhanced penalties for any offense involving fraud or misrepresentation in connection with the obtaining or providing of, or the furnishing of information to a consumer on any scholarship, grant, loan, tuition, discount, award, or other financial assistance for purposes of financing an education at an institution of higher education, such that those penalties are comparable to the base offense level for misrepresentation that the defendant was acting on behalf of a charitable, educational, religious, or political organization, or a government agency. Stricter laws may result in some scam artists being penalized but offer no guarantee that defrauded consumers will recoup their losses. It is even more important to be a wise consumer when searching for financial aid than when purchasing an automobile where lemon laws offer some restitution to innocent victims.

14

11

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40 �

English–Language Arts
42 �

Released Test Questions

Read this sentence from paragraph 1 of the document. These words may have started out as music to the ears but have ended on a sour note to the tune of $5 million a year in losses to scholarship scam artists. Which statement best describes how the author uses rhetorical technique in this sentence? A Understatement is used to introduce the topic with a sarcastic tone. B Figurative language is used to intensify the impact of the statement. C Word repetition is used to emphasize the importance of the subject of the document. D Allusion is used to address the topic of the document on a historical level.
CSR21039.160

How does the author’s inclusion of the story about the Robinson family best make an appeal to emotion? A by revealing how the family chose to solve their problem B by providing detailed statistics about scholarship scam payments C by explaining the inconveniences of making payments through automatic deduction D by describing the plight of a family victimized by a scholarship scam
CSR21041.160

43 �

What is the underlying irony presented in the document? A Parents and students both are affected by the injustice of financial assistance fraud. B The increase in the cost of a college education has caused an increase in scholarship opportunities. C A rise in financial assistance fraud has led to stricter legislation against scam artists. D Consumers seek aid from scholarship companies to save money but instead lose money.
CSR21038.160

41 �

Read this sentence from paragraph 3 of the document. To the overwhelmed student, the seemingly simple solutions offered by scholarship companies are like waterfall mirages to a man stranded in the desert. What statement does this analogy make? A People find it hard to come up with original ideas. B Pride often prevents people from asking for the help they need. C People in desperate situations are subject to distorted perceptions. D Fear causes people to further appreciate the things they have.
CSR21032.160

44 �

What can the reader conclude from the information presented in paragraph 14 of the document? A There is plenty of scholarship money available to those who know where to find it. B Only the most prepared applicants will be considered for scholarship awards. C Scholarship offers that advertise excellent funding are eventually worth the hassle. D Especially generous scholarship offers often may involve misrepresentations.
CSR21040.160

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English–Language Arts

11

excerpt from Flush Times in Virginia City
by Mark Twain The following excerpt is taken from Mark Twain’s book Roughing It, published in 1891. The essay “Flush Times in Virginia City” depicts a Nevada silver mining town during the 1860s. To show what a wild spirit possessed the mining brain of the community, I will remark that “claims” were actually “located” in excavations for cellars, where the pick had exposed what seemed to be quartz veins—and not cellars in the suburbs, either, but in the very heart of the city; and forthwith stock would be issued and thrown on the market. It was small matter whom the cellar belonged to—the “ledge” belonged to the finder, and unless the United States government interfered (inasmuch as the government holds the primary right to mines of the noble metals in Nevada—or at least did then), it was considered to be his privilege to work it. Imagine a stranger staking out a mining claim among the costly shrubbery in your front yard and calmly proceeding to lay waste the ground with pick and shovel and blasting powder! It has been often done in California. In the middle of one of the principal business streets of Virginia, a man “located” a mining claim and began a shaft on it. He gave me a hundred feet of the stock and I sold it for a fine suit of clothes because I was afraid somebody would fall down the shaft and sue for damages. I owned another claim that was located in the middle of another street; and to show how absurd people can be, that “East India” stock (as it was called) sold briskly although there was an ancient tunnel running directly under the claim and any man could go into it and see it did not cut a quartz ledge or anything that remotely resembled one. One plan of acquiring sudden wealth was to “salt” a wildcat claim and sell out while the excitement was up. The process was simple. The schemer located a worthless ledge, sunk a shaft on it, bought a wagonload of rich “Comstock” ore, dumped a portion of it into the shaft and piled the rest by its side, above ground. Then he showed the property to a simpleton and sold it to him at a high figure. Of course the wagonload of rich ore was all that the victim ever got out of his purchase. A most remarkable case of “salting” was that of the “North Ophir.” It was claimed that this vein was a remote “extension” of the original “Ophir,” a valuable mine on the “Comstock.” For a few days everybody was talking about the rich developments in the North Ophir. It was said that it yielded perfectly pure silver in small, solid lumps. I went to the place with the owners and found a shaft six or eight feet deep, in the bottom of which was a badly shattered vein of dull, yellowish, unpromising rock. One would as soon expect to find silver in a grindstone. We got out a pan of the rubbish and washed it in a puddle, and sure enough, among the sediment we found half a dozen black, bullet-looking pellets of unimpeachable1 “native” silver. Nobody had ever heard of such a thing before; science could not account for such a novelty. The stock rose to sixty-five dollars a foot. And then it transpired that the mine had been “salted”—and not in any hackneyed2 way, either, but in a singularly bold, barefaced, and peculiarly original and outrageous fashion. On one of the lumps of “native” silver was discovered the minted legend, “TED STATES OF,” and then it was plainly apparent that the mine had been “salted” with melted half dollars! The lumps thus obtained had been blackened till they resembled native silver, and were then mixed with the shattered rock in the bottom of the shaft. It is literally true. Of course the price of the stock at once fell to nothing.

1

2

3

1 2

unimpeachable: unquestionable, genuine. hackneyed: overused, trite.

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4

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Released Test Questions

There were nabobs3 in those days—in the “flush times,” I mean. Every rich strike in the mines created one or two. I call to mind several of these. They were careless, easygoing fellows, as a general thing, and the community at large was as much benefited by their riches as they were themselves—possibly more, in some cases. Two cousins did some hauling for a man and had to take a small, segregated portion of a silver mine in lieu of three hundred dollars cash. They gave an outsider a third to open the mine, and they went on teaming. But not long. Ten months afterward the mine was out of debt and paying each owner $8,000 to $10,000 a month— say $100,000 a year. One of the earliest nabobs that Nevada was delivered of wore $6,000 worth of diamonds on his chest and swore he was unhappy because he could not spend his money as fast as he made it. Another Nevada nabob boasted an income that often reached sixteen thousand dollars a month; and he used to love to tell how he had worked in the very mine that yielded it, for five dollars a day, when he first came to the country. . . . But why go on? The traditions of Silverland are filled with instances like these, and I would never get through enumerating them were I to attempt to do it. I only desired to give the reader an idea of a peculiarity of the “flush times” which I could not present so strikingly in any other way, and which some mention of was necessary to a realizing comprehension of the time and the country.

5

6

7

8

[Public Domain]
CSR1P318

3

nabobs: rich, powerful men; great spenders.

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45 �

English–Language Arts
48 �
This passage is best classified as a A B C D

11

Paragraph 3 of the passage could best be classified as an A B C D epitaph.

elegy.

anecdote.

allegory.

CSR13949.318

parable because it attempts to teach the reader a moral lesson. satire because it finds humor in human vice. farce because its sole aim is to make the reader laugh. parody because it mocks other literary works.
CSR13950.318


46

Which philosophical argument does Twain mainly make in paragraph 3 of the passage? A B C D Patience is a virtue.

Hard work leads to true satisfaction.

People are inherently good.

Appearances can be deceiving.

CSR13961.318

49 �

The frank tone and objective viewpoint of this passage make it especially characteristic of which American literary period? A B C D the Revolutionary period

the Realistic period

the Naturalistic period

the Contemporary period

CSR13958.318

47 �

In “Flush Times in Virginia City,” Twain mainly attempts to convey what aspect of the silver mining era? A B C D its historical effects

its violence and destruction

its scope of national benefits

its absurd characteristics

CSR13954.318

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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50 �

English–Language Arts
53 �

Released Test Questions

The following questions are not about a passage. Read and answer each question. When the leaders of the two parties in the Senate agree on an amendment, the support is called A B C D bipolar.

bipartisan.

bilingual.

biannual.

CSR00066.OSA

Which term refers to the study of diseases of the brain? A B C D neurobiology

epidemiology

dermapathology

neuropathology

CSR00067.OSA

54 �

The relationship between fire and ashes is the same as the relationship between event and A episode.

imagination.

newspaper.

memories.

CSR00065.OSA

51 �

The relationship between whisper and scream is the same as the relationship between A B C D thunder and lightning.

breeze and tornado.

light and dark.

sweet and candy.

CSR00072.OSA

B C D

55 �

Which version of this sentence does not contain any misspelled words? A Smythvale once contaned many successful businesses. B Smythvale once contained many sucessful businesses. C Smythvale once contained many successful businesses. D Smythvale once contaned many sucessful businesses.

52 �

Which word is the correct term for a life form that can live both on land and in water? A B C D antibiotic

amphibious

biodegradable

biogenesis

CSR00161.OSA

CSL11910.OSA

56 �

Which instrument would be used by a scientist to measure time? A B C D goniometer

hydrometer

chronometer

anemometer

CSR00104.OSA


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English–Language Arts

11

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report, which may contain errors. Was Early Medicine Just What the Doctor Ordered? (1) The medical profession has come a long way, but it had to start somewhere. (2) Early medicine was often based on inadequate or unscientific information. (3) Early physicians sometimes did the right thing even if they did not do it in precisely the correct way. (4) For example, the ancient Egyptians used thousands of herbs for their incredible healing power. (5) There is also evidence that they set and splinted fractured bones. (6) They even attempted surgery, but due to a lack of anesthesia, the patient usually had another problem, a bump on the head after being knocked unconscious. (7) However, ancient medical practice involved not only direct treatment but also philosophical ideas. (8) The Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the “father of medicine,” created a code of ethical medical behavior that is still used by doctors today. (9) Renaissance physicians began to search for more scientific evidence to support their medical findings. (10) This search did not stop all old practices. (11) For instance, some of the first barbers also were surgeons. (12) They performed minor surgeries along with hair cuts and attention to small wounds; however, they were not as respected as physicians. (13) While some of these methods may seem like common sense and others demonstrate a lack of sense, the work of these early physicians pushed people to question and learn, essential skills in the world of medicine.
CSL1P050

57 �

Which sentence should be added as the first sentence in the second paragraph to introduce the ideas in the paragraph? A B This code of behavior is today known as the Hippocratic Oath. The growing interest in science that characterized the Renaissance in the 1400s brought changes in medicine. Interestingly, barbers have often been linked to medical practice. Common sense is a rare commodity, but it has been important in medicine.
CSL11828.050

58 �

Which sentence in the passage best supports the idea in sentence 3? A B C D sentence 5 sentence 6 sentence 10 sentence 11
CSL10363.050

C D

59 �

Which verb phrase would make the action of the underlined word in sentence 11 more precise? A B C D were named were being were specified as were considered to be
CSL10360.050

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report, which may contain errors. Pioneer in Prevention (1) Sara Josephine Baker was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1873 and attended private schools in preparation for Vassar College. (2) She supposed that she would finish college, get married, and raise a family. (3) Circumstances caused a change in plans. (4) Instead of attending Vassar, her family decided that Baker would obtain a degree that would allow her to earn a living for the family. (5) Most likely, her relatives expected her to choose one of the occupations considered suitable for a young woman at the time. (6) Nursing is a popular profession today. (7) Baker astonished them all by choosing to attend the Women’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. (8) Despite her family’s objections, she moved to New York City in 1894 to begin her training. (9) After graduation, she worked as an intern at the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston. (10) During a three-month assignment in an outpatient clinic, Baker encountered a world very different from her own and learned that medical science was not adequately reaching these crowded city populations. (11) Consequently, she devoted her life to the children of these cities, first as a medical inspector for the New York City Department of Health and eventually as assistant to the commissioner of health. (12) Her success in these positions allowed her to gain funding for one of her most important achievements, a comprehensive approach to preventive health care for children. (13) In a time when most medical attention was given after a person was already sick, she tested her approach with remarkable results. (14) While her name may not be famous, her contributions to infant and child care, including the creation of safe baby clothes, continues to save lives each day.
CSL1P054

60 �

Which transition would best enhance the meaning if added as the second word in sentence 3? A B C D , doubtfully, , amazingly, , however, , moreover,
CSL10407.054

61 �

Which sentence is not related to the main idea of the essay? A B C D sentence 2 sentence 6 sentence 11 sentence 12
CSL10403.054

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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62 �

English–Language Arts
63 �

11

Read the following sentence. After her retirement from the Bureau of Child Hygiene, she was a representative on children’s health issues to the League of Nations. Where is the best place to add the sentence to the report? A B C D after sentence 1 after sentence 4 after sentence 9 after sentence 13
CSL10408.054

Which of these is the correct substitute for the underlined word in sentence 14?

A B C D continue

continued

continuing

Leave as is.

CSL10405.054

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. A Family of Stars (1) William Herschel and his sister Caroline Lucretia Herschel made large contributions to the field of astronomy. (2) William Herschel moved from Germany to England in 1757. (3) He became an organist at a chapel in Bath in 1766. (4) Although he was a musician by occupation, William Herschel developed a growing interest in the skies throughout the 1770s. (5) Unlike many current astronomers, his focus was on distant celestial bodies rather than nearby objects. (6) He began to make telescopes, even grinding his own mirrors to make them large enough to view far into space. (7) His first major find was the discovery of the planet Uranus in 1781, which earned him being famous, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and the post of Court Astronomer to King George III. (8) Finally, at the age of 43, he was able to give up music to pursue astronomy full time. (9) Caroline Herschel joined her brother in Bath in 1772 and became his assistant, recording his observations and calculating the position of various objects in outer space. (10) In 1786 the brother and sister team moved to a house in Slough with a yard big enough for their telescopes. (11) Caroline used these large telescopes to locate a new comet in 1786. (12) This discovery brought Caroline fame, publication in the Royal Society’s journal, and official acknowledgement as William’s assistant, a job which paid 50 pounds per year. (13) After William’s death in 1822, Caroline continued her brother’s work. (14) She won the Royal Astronomical Society’s gold medal in 1828 and became an honorary member in 1835, making her one of the most famous and admired women astronomers.
CSL1P051-3

64 �

Which of the following is the best way to combine sentences 2 and 3? A William Herschel moved from Germany to England in 1757, then he became an organist at a chapel in Bath in 1766. When William Herschel moved from Germany to England in 1757, he became an organist at a chapel in Bath in 1766. William Herschel moved from Germany to England in 1757 and became an organist at a chapel in Bath in 1766. Since William Herschel moved from Germany to England in 1757, he became an organist at a chapel in Bath in 1766.
CSL10374.051

65 �

What is the best way to write the underlined words in sentence 7? A earning him fame, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and gained the post of Court Astronomer to King George III. which earned him fame, won the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and the post of Court Astronomer to King George III was gained. which earned him fame, won him the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and gaining the post of Court Astronomer to King George III. which earned him fame, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and the post of Court Astronomer to King George III.
CSL10368.051

B

B

C

C

D

D

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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66 �

English–Language Arts

11

What is the main purpose of this report? A B C D to compare William Herschel’s work to his sister’s to analyze the relationship between the Herschel siblings to describe the Herschel siblings’ influence on astronomy to discuss Caroline Herschel’s discovery of a new comet
CSL10376.051

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. James Rodriguez

Physical Science

Mrs. Richards

March 24, 2003

Tough Weather on Fragile Islands
1

El Niño is the term used to describe the weather

phenomena resulting from the warming of the waters in the

Pacific Ocean that flow southward along the coast of South

America, around late December. As early as the 1500s, the

effects of El Niño were recorded, but in recent history, about

Ecuador every four years, El Niño becomes powerful enough to cause

changes all over the world (Wilson 83). Researchers in the

Galapagos Islands, about 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador,

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS are in a unique position to monitor the effects of El Niño

since they are directly in its path (see fig. 1). In 1998, the

fragile ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands suffered the

Pacific Ocean devastating impact of the strongest El Niño since 1982–83

(Stewart).

Atlantic Ocean

Equator

2

Fig. 1. El Niño's path. Thompson, John R. The effects on sea life were the most profound. Warm "El Niño's Wrath Hits Galapagos Islands." water temperatures altered the food chain and led to a Science. 4 Apr. 1998, 90. significant die-off of marine iguana and a decrease in the population of other animals such as sea lions. Fur seals were spotted in places where they are usually absent. Hammerhead sharks all but disappeared from their normal ranges and were found at unusual depths. While sea turtles fared well, the coral reefs, the “rain forests of the oceans,” did not (Gaines 17).

3

In fact, the coral bleaching that is the result of temperatures of only a couple of degrees warmer than usual was probably responsible for the wildlife disruption. Corals receive their brilliant coloration from zooxanthellae, a kind of algae that lives within their tissues and is essential for their survival (Wilson 87). When the water is warmer for a sustained period, the coral tissue expels the zooxanthellae, causing the coral to lose its color; this will eventually kill the coral and all the marine life that depend on it (88). It is too early to know the long-term consequences, but scientists at the Charles Darwin Research Station suspect that the 1997–98 El Niño facilitated the establishment and spread of species alien to the Galapagos and altered the kind and number of the old species on the islands (Stewart). Researchers don’t know how many times this has happened in the past, but for now, they know that the future of this fragile ecosystem depends on the tough little weather phenomenon called El Niño.

4

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English–Language Arts
Works Cited

11

Gaines, James J. Photographs by Herman Robins. “What is El Niño?” Environmental News. 16 Feb. 1998, 14–19. Stewart, Joseph. “El Niño and the Galapagos Island Report.” New York Times. 28 Aug. 1998, late ed.: K1. New York Times Online. 24 Mar. 1999. Thompson, John R. “El Niño’s Wrath Hits Galapagos Islands.” Science. 4 Apr. 1998, 89–94. Wilson, Eric K. Galapagos: Ecotourism on the Equator. New York: EcoBooks, 1999.
CSL0P008-3

67 �

James includes a map of El Niño’s path and the Galapagos Islands in order to help the reader A B C D visualize the information. organize the information. review the information. research the information.
CSW00092.008

69 �

Which source listed on the Works Cited page was accessed using a computer? A B C D Gaines, James J. . . . Stewart, Joseph . . . Thompson, John R. . . . Wilson, Eric K. . . .
CSW00089.008

68 �

What tone is achieved through James’s choice of diction? A B C D nostalgic alarming serious humorous
CSW00091.008

70 �

From which source is the last sentence of paragraph 3 taken? A B C D Gaines, James J. . . . Stewart, Joseph . . . Thompson, John R. . . . Wilson, Eric K. . . .
CSW00096.008

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

G R A D E

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. NASA Spin-Offs
1

What started as a race to space between the United States and Russia has turned out to be a technological revolution that has greatly improved the quality of daily life throughout the world. Scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have invented new technology to make space flights doable. The same technology, when applied on Earth, has produced thousands of products in the areas of health and sports that have significant impacts on our lives. Many of these improvements are in the fields of health and medicine. NASA-inspired technology fueled the great advances in the early detection of deadly diseases. For instance, computer chips designed for the Hubble telescope are used in digital imaging devices that help medical professionals detect cancer at very early stages. Eye doctors can now diagnose vision problems in very young children by using ocular screening. Ultrasound scanners, portable x-ray devices, and bone analyzers are among the medical devices developed with the help of space technology. Fogless ski goggles and special sportswear are among the hundreds of items of sports equipment inspired by NASA technology. Space technology has been applied to sports too. The running shoes that athletes use today have midsoles that act like shock absorbers and keep the runners steady while in motion. These shoes utilize the technology NASA used to design the moon boot. In golf, athletes use a new ball that employs NASA research on how to make the flight of the ball from the tee to the green faster and more accurate. In swimming, athletes can swim faster because of NASA-developed riblets in the fabric of their swimsuits. Almost all aspects of daily life continue to improve because NASA scientists are still at work. Transportation, methods of preparing food, and work environments are other ways in which NASA technology has made significant changes.
CSL1P185-3

2

3

4

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

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Released Test Questions
71 �

English–Language Arts
74 �

11

How can the writer most improve paragraph 2? A name medical devices developed through space technology B provide more information about medical professionals C explain how the Hubble telescope helps detect cancer D add details about ultrasound scanners, x-ray devices, and bone analyzers
CSL11710.185

Which of the following best states the writer’s apparent purpose in this report? A to inform readers about NASA-inspired improvements in lifestyle B to entertain readers with stories about NASA C to compare the work of NASA and Russian scientists D to persuade readers to do more research about lifestyle improvements
CSL11715.185

72 �

Which underlined word in the following sentences is not consistent with the tone of the rest of the report? A Scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have invented new technology to make space flights doable. B Many of these improvements are in the fields of health and medicine. C In golf, athletes use a new ball that employs NASA research on how to make the flight of the ball from the tee to the green faster and more accurate. D Transportation, methods of preparing food, and work environments are other ways in which NASA technology has made significant changes.
CSL11707.185

75 �

Which sentence from the report expresses the writer’s point of view? A What started as a race to space between the United States and Russia has turned out to be a technological revolution that has greatly improved the quality of daily life throughout the world. B NASA-inspired technology fueled the great advances in the early detection of deadly diseases. C Fogless ski goggles and special sportswear are among the hundreds of items of sports equipment inspired by NASA technology. D The running shoes that athletes use today have midsoles that act like shock absorbers and keep the runners steady while in motion.
CSL11709.185

73 �

Which paragraph needs to be revised so that the topic sentence is placed in a more logical position in the paragraph? A B C D paragraph 1

paragraph 2

paragraph 3

paragraph 4

CSL11711.185

76 �

Which of these would best support the main idea of the report? A a statement from a doctor who uses space technology for diagnoses B examples of sports equipment used in different sports C a description of the race between the United States and Russia D more details about running shoes and their components
CSL11712.185

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s essay. It contains errors. A Job Interview (1) A job interview is one of those life experiences, like dentist appointments or when you have to organize a closet, that most people dread. (2) A job interview can be much less dreadful, however, if you are prepared and confident of your ability to make a good impression. (3) The interviewer will see you before you say a word, so it’s important to be well groomed and properly dressed. (4) Wear clean, pressed clothes that fit well and are appropriate to the workplace. (5) If in doubt, visit the company’s parking lot just before starting time on a day before your interview to see how employees dress. (6) When you introduce yourself, smile, extend your hand, and look the interviewer in the eye. (7) Be prepared to answer questions about your experience and abilities, and be ready to explain why you are sure you can do the job well, and why you want the job. (8) Arrive on time or even a little early. (9) Listen carefully to what the interviewer says, and don’t interrupt. (10) Make sure to take with you all the information you might need to fill out forms, such as addresses and telephone numbers of references. (11) Think about what other information the interviewer might be interested in, and be sure to mention it. (12) If the job you are applying for involves working with children, and you were counsellor of the year at a summer camp for kids, bring a letter of recommendation or an award citation to show the interviewer. (13) Thank the interviewer for his or her time. (14) A job interview can be an opportunity to showcase your strengths, rather than an occasion to dread, if you follow these guidelines.
CSL1P092-3

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Released Test Questions
77 �

English–Language Arts
79 �
Read this sentence.

11

What is the best way to rewrite sentence 1? A A job interview is one of those life experiences that most people dread, like dentist appointments and when you have to organize a closet. B A job interview is one of those life experiences that most people dread, like going to the dentist or organizing a closet. C A job interview is one of those life experiences, like when you have to go to the dentist and organize a closet, that most people dread. D A job interview is one of those life experiences, like going to the dentist that most people dread and organizing a closet.
CSL10799.092

For example, if the job you are applying for involves working with children, and you were counsellor of the year at a summer camp for kids, bring a letter of recommendation or an award citation to show the interviewer. Which underlined word is spelled incorrectly? A B C D counsellor recommendation citation interviewer
CSL10801.092

78 �

Which sentence should be moved closer to the beginning of the second paragraph? A B C D sentence 8

sentence 9

sentence 11

sentence 14

CSL10803.092

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. Su Lee

Geography

Ms. Jacobson

March 5, 2003

Climbing Mount Everest
1

Imagine a group of mountain climbers at the summit of Mount Everest. It has taken the climbers days to ascend to an altitude of 29,000 feet. They have covered some of the most treacherous terrain imaginable, but the final 300 feet will prove to be the most formidable. From the South Summit, the climbers will traverse a narrow ridge that is vertically exposed on both sides, requiring them to proceed cautiously. The climbers will be forced to stop between steps before continuing to breathe six to eight times as a result of the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb. Exhausted when they reach the top, the climbers will have little energy left for celebrating. Since 1953, when Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay became the first to climb Mount Everest, only a little more than one thousand mountain climbers have successfully completed the 29,028-foot climb to the highest point on earth. Beginning their journey in Kathmandu, Nepal, the base of Mount Everest is reached after mountain climbers hike more than 100 miles, reaching an elevation of over 17,000 feet. This trek takes three weeks and helps the body adjust to the decreased oxygen levels experienced at higher altitudes. A process called acclimatization begins soon after climbers are exposed to higher elevations, increasing their bodies’ ability to make more red blood cells to carry oxygen. Complete acclimatization, however, takes several weeks. Even after reaching base camp, climbers have to make several round-trips to higher areas on Mount Everest to prepare their bodies for the lack of oxygen they will experience on the mountain. Acclimatization is only the first of many challenges confronted by the climbers. One of the most daunting requirements of the climb to the top of Mount Everest is crossing Everest’s icefalls, which are deep crevasses in the mountain that continually open and close due to the constantly shifting glaciers. Sometimes there is no way around an icefall, and lightweight aluminum ladders must be laid across the gap to form a bridge for the climbers. Avalanches, too, are a common occurrence, and they are by far the most dangerous obstacle climbers face. High winds at the top of Mount Everest can also be problematic. Hypothermia and frostbite are serious potential health risks. In spite of the dangers involved in climbing Mount Everest and the odds against reaching Everest’s summit, adventurers flock to the mountain to have their strength tested, to test their courage, and have their climbing abilities put to the test. While

2

3

4

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English–Language Arts

11

some people wonder why anyone would face such obstacles to achieve this goal, climbers who dream of scaling Mount Everest identify with the legendary British climber George Mallory, who, when asked why he wanted to climb Mount Everest, replied, “Because it’s there.”
CSL2P032-4

80 �

Read this sentence from paragraph 1 of the report. The climbers will be forced to stop between steps before continuing to breathe six to eight times as a result of the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb. What is the best way to rewrite the sentence? A Before continuing, the climbers will be forced to breathe six to eight times to stop between steps as a result of the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb. Due to the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb, the climbers will be forced to stop between steps to breathe six to eight times before continuing. The climbers will be forced to stop between steps to breathe six to eight times because of the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb before continuing. As a result of the high altitude and physical difficulty of the climb, the climbers will be forced to stop between steps before continuing to breathe six to eight times.
CSL20102.032

81 �

Read this sentence from paragraph 1 of the report. Exhausted when they reach the top, the climbers will have little energy left for celebrating. In which sentence would the placement of the word finally best help to clarify meaning? A Exhausted when they reach the top, finally, the climbers will have little energy left for celebrating. Exhausted when they reach the top, the climbers finally will have little energy left for celebrating. Exhausted when they finally reach the top, the climbers will have little energy left for celebrating. Exhausted when they reach the top, the climbers will have little energy left, finally, for celebrating.
CSL20100.032

B

B

C

C

D

D

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11
82 �

English–Language Arts
83 �

Released Test Questions

Read this sentence from paragraph 2 of the report. Beginning their journey in Kathmandu, Nepal, the base of Mount Everest is reached after mountain climbers hike more than 100 miles, reaching an elevation of over 17,000 feet. What is the best way to rewrite the sentence to clarify its meaning? A The base of Mount Everest is reached after mountain climbers hike, beginning their journey in Kathmandu, Nepal, more than 100 miles, reaching an elevation of over 17,000 feet. B Beginning their journey in Kathmandu, Nepal, mountain climbers must hike more than 100 miles, reaching an elevation of over 17,000 feet, to reach the base of Mount Everest. C To reach the base of Mount Everest, an elevation of over 17,000 feet must be reached by mountain climbers who must hike more than 100 miles, beginning their journey in Kathmandu, Nepal. D Hiking more than 100 miles, their journey to reach the base of Mount Everest is beginning in Kathmandu, Nepal, where mountain climbers must reach an elevation of over 17,000 feet.
CSL20103.032

Which sentence could best be added to paragraph 3 to provide specific details about the hazards of climbing Mount Everest? A Krzysztof Wielicki made the first winter ascent to the summit of Mount Everest in 1980. B As climbers ascend to higher altitudes, they tend to experience changes in their abilities to make decisions. C Each year, Mount Everest grows in height as it is slowly uplifted by a tectonic plate moving northward below it. D Winds often gust to 150 miles per hour, and temperatures range from minus twenty to minus one hundred degrees, even in summer.
CSL20107.032

84 �

Read this sentence from paragraph 4 of the report. In spite of the dangers involved in climbing Mount Everest and the odds against reaching Everest’s summit, adventurers flock to the mountain to have their strength tested, to test their courage, and have their climbing abilities put to the test. How should the underlined part of the sentence be revised to make use of parallel structure? A to test their strength, their courage and have their climbing abilities tested B to test their strength, how courageous they are, and their climbing abilities C to have their strength and courage tested and testing their climbing abilities D to have their strength, courage, and climbing abilities tested
CSL20106.032

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85 �

English–Language Arts
86 �

11

The author uses phrases like “treacherous terrain,” “daunting requirements,” and “dangerous obstacle” in order to further A express his admiration for the challenges the climbers face. B explain his own interest in climbing the mountain. C educate readers about specific skills necessary to climbing. D persuade readers to consider becoming climbers.
CSL20113.032

What is the main purpose of the report? A B C D to explain the challenges of climbing Mount Everest to define the process of acclimatization on Mount Everest to persuade readers to climb Mount Everest to describe the physical geography of Mount Everest
CSL20111.032

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

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11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. Jazz
1

This report will give readers a brief history of jazz and a starting point for identifying jazz music. It is important first to understand two musical terms that represent two of the distinguishing elements of this kind of music: improvisation and syncopation. Improvisation is the spontaneous creation of new music. Jazz musicians continually explore new melodies, and rhythms evolve as they are playing. This technique makes jazz performances exciting. To create a syncopated rhythm, or beat, musicians break up the regular patterns of sounds and put in irregular, or unexpected, accents. Over the years, these two elements have attracted many creative musicians to jazz because they make innovation possible. Blues is a form of music in which simplicity, character, and structure have helped jazz instrumentalists in their improvisations. Not only does the structure of the blues lend itself to improvisation, it also creates the sad mood for which the blues is famous. Any mood in music—happy, sad, suspenseful—is created by an element called a scale, which are a group of notes played together in varying patterns. In the case of the blues, a group of five notes called a pentatonic scale is responsible for the sad mood of the blues and of some jazz. The simple but profound blues songs played on a guitar or piano have been one of the biggest influences on jazz. Music historians usually date the early history of jazz from the late 1800s to the beginning of the 20th century. One early influence on jazz that originated in St. Louis was called ragtime, a form of music in the late 1890s. Ragtime features the piano and uses a syncopated rhythm. Dixieland, the first fully developed form of jazz, originated in New Orleans in the early 1900s. Among other instruments, it features a trumpet or cornet, a trombone, a clarinet, and drums. New Orleans jazz bands sometimes play while marching, and they are known for playing mournful music as well as celebratory songs. By the early 1930s, jazz had evolved into a complex and varied art form. From the mid-1930s to the mid-1940s, jazz moved into the swing era. Big bands (about 15 musicians) played this new form of jazz, whose featured instruments were those of an orchestra: the clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, piano, drums, and others. Featuring the same instruments, bebop, or bop, evolved from swing. It has complicated rhythms and emphasizes harmony over melody. Bebop, in turn, was followed by modern forms of jazz like cool jazz, with its slower beat and softer sounds. Modern jazz tends to be characterized by the saxophone, the bass guitar, and the piano. Especially influenced by music from Africa, Latin America, and the United States, jazz is now combined with rock, Latin music, and even classical music. Many musicians of today are attracted to jazz for the same reasons that musicians have been drawn to it for the past century. It is an art form that welcomes experimentation.
CSW1P049-3

2

3

4

5

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Released Test Questions
87 �

English–Language Arts
89 �
Read this sentence.

11

How could the opening sentence best be revised to be consistent with the rest of the report? A This report will be a starting point for identifying jazz music. B Jazz is a form of popular music with a long and interesting history. C This report will give an overview of the interesting history of jazz. D Jazz is a really cool art form that people should learn more about.
CSW10422.049

One early influence on jazz that originated in St. Louis was called ragtime, a form of music in the late 1890s. What is the best way to rewrite this sentence? A Originating in St. Louis, ragtime, in the late 1890s, was a form of music called ragtime, an early influence on jazz. B One early influence on jazz was a form of music called ragtime that originated in St. Louis in the late 1890s. C In the late 1890s, a form of music originated in St. Louis that was called ragtime, an early influence on jazz. D Called ragtime, a form of music was an early influence on jazz that originated in St. Louis in the late 1890s.
CSW10423.049

88 �

Read this sentence. Any mood in music—happy, sad, suspenseful—is created by an element called a scale, which are a group of notes played together in varying patterns. Which word should replace the underlined word in the sentence? A B C D was been is were
CSW10627.049

90 �

Which sentence would best conclude this report? A I think you can probably tell that jazz is my favorite kind of music. B In addition, the electronics technology of today is playing a bigger role in jazz music. C Jazz endures because it has the natural ability to change with the times. D Therefore, if you are considering studying music, why not learn to play jazz?
CSW10427.049

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CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

11

English–Language Arts

Released Test Questions

The following is a rough draft of a student’s report. It contains errors. Damon Cohen

Government I

Ms. Santos

3 October 2000

Mount Rushmore: A Monumental Work
1

It would be a colossal tribute to the United States of America, carved in durable granite stone so that weather and the ravages of time would have little effect. “After six and a half years of blasting and carving, Gutzon Borglum’s vision would become a work of art ranking in national importance with the Statue of Liberty and the Washington Monument” (Carter 26). This was the artist’s plan. However, when he proposed carving the heads of four U.S. Presidents into the granite walls of Mt. Rushmore, Borglum had no idea that he would in fact devote the rest of his life to what would become a grand but unfinished tribute to America. Borglum believed that the significance of a sculpture could be expressed in the magnitude of its size (U.S. Dept. of the Interior 3). Positioned in South Dakota’s majestic Black Hills, it would be a tribute to all Americans, a monument recalling the growth of the United States of America from the moment of its birth as an independent nation. Borglum chose to express this theme using the faces of four great men who had fought for the betterment of the American people. He chose George Washington, this nation’s first President. He chose Thomas Jefferson, America’s third President. He chose Abraham Lincoln, our sixteenth President. He chose Theodore Roosevelt, our twenty-sixth President. Because of their individual contributions, Borglum viewed these four as symbols of our nation’s developmental phases. 1924 1925 1927 1930 1936 1937 1939 1941 Borglum selects Mt. Rushmore as the memorial site. Borglum is commissioned to do the memorial. President Coolidge dedicates the memorial and the work begins. The head of George Washington is completed. The head of Thomas Jefferson is completed. The head of Abraham Lincoln is completed. The head of Theodore Roosevelt is completed. Borglum dies; his son, Lincoln, continues work for several months.

2

3

Fig. 1. Time Line: The Creation of Mt. Rushmore.

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4

English–Language Arts

11

With the artist’s death on March 6, 1941, Mt. Rushmore became an unfinished masterpiece. In spite of his project’s unfinished state, Gutzon Borglum was able to contour in stone what America meant to him. To this day, the eyes of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Roosevelt gaze across the land they loved. The magnitude of these four stone faces gives a feel of permanence to the United States of America, moving onlookers to reflect on what America means to them. Works Consulted Bowman, Elizabeth F. Figures in Stone. Philadelphia: McGrath-Mayer Publishing, 1996. A book about various works that artists through the ages have created from stone. Carter, James and Alicia Martinez. “From a Granite Mountain.” Amazing Feats. 17 May 1997. A magazine article about the processes involved in carving the faces on Mt. Rushmore. U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Mount Rushmore National Memorial — The Beginning. National Park Service, www.state.sd.us / state / executive / tourism / rushmore / mtrush.htm 12 April 1998. A Web site that describes how Mt. Rushmore came to be. Victor, Paul. Photographs by Celine Gerard. “Four Stone Faces.” American Monuments. 14 March 1989. A magazine article about Mt. Rushmore and the significance of the four Presidential faces to the artist and to all Americans.
CSL0P015

91 �

In this passage, Gutzon Borglum is shown to be all of these except A B C D dedicated. creative. athletic. ingenious.
CSW00290.015

92 �

In paragraph 3, which one of these does Damon use for rhetorical effect? A B C D repetition metaphor persuasion analogy
CSW00289.015

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93 �

English–Language Arts
95 �

Released Test Questions

In his next draft, Damon can improve paragraph 3 by A briefly summarizing the history of the United States. B adding details about the four Presidents’ contributions. C describing what each President’s face looked like. D providing descriptive details to help the reader imagine the Black Hills setting.
CSW00288.015

We can tell from this annotated bibliography that Celine Gerard is a

A B C D painter.

writer.

sculptor.

photographer.

CSW00287.015

94 �

Which author listed in the Works Consulted section wrote a book about a variety of artists? A B C D Elizabeth Bowman

James Carter

Alicia Martinez

Paul Victor

CSW00293.015

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

G R A D E

Released Test Questions
Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Correct Answer C A D A C A B B B B A D D A D D C B C B D D D C B B A A C C C A C B B

English–Language Arts
Standard 11RL3.5.3 11RL3.1 11RL3.2 11RL3.9 11RC2.3 11RC2.1 11RC2.1 11RC2.3 11RC2.4 11RC2.3 11RC2.2 11RC2.3 11RC2.4 11RW1.2 11RL3.1 11RL3.2 11RL3.8 11RL3.9 11RW1.1 11RC2.2 11RC2.2 11RL3.1 11RL3.9 11RC2.6 11RL3.4 11RL3.3 11RL3.5.2 11RL3.5.3 11RC2.6 11RC2.6 11RL3.6 11RL3.8 11RW1.3 11RC2.2 11RC2.4 Year of Release 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006

11

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

G R A D E

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11

English–Language Arts
Question Number 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Correct Answer C D B B B C D D D C D D B B B B B D D C C B B D C B D A C D C A C B D Standard 11RC2.5 11RC2.1 11RC2.4 11RC2.5 11RC2.1 11RW1.3 11RC2.6 11RC2.1 11RC2.4 11RL3.1 11RL3.9 11RL3.5.C 11RL3.1 11RL3.5.A 11RW1.1 11RW1.3 11RW1.2 11RW1.2 11RW1.3 11WC1.2 11RW1.2 11WS1.1 11WS1.3 11WC1.1 11WS1.9 11WS1.3 11WS1.9 11WC1.1 11WS1.9 11WC1.1 11WS1.1 11WS1.4 11WS1.5 11WS1.7 11WS1.7

Released Test Questions
Year of Release 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2006 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.

CA L I F O R N I A S TA N DA R D S T E S T

G R A D E

Released Test Questions
Question Number 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Correct Answer D A C A A A B A A B C B D D A A B C B C C A B A D

English–Language Arts
Standard 11WS1.9 11WC1.1 11WC1.1 11WS1.1 11WS1.2 11WS1.3 11WC1.1 11WS1.3 11WC1.2 11WC1.1 11WS1.9 11WC1.1 11WS1.3 11WC1.1 11WS1.2 11WS1.1 11WS1.9 11WC1.1 11WC1.1 11WS1.1 11WS1.2 11WS1.4 11WS1.3 11WS1.7 11WS1.7 Year of Release 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007

11

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This is a sample of California Standards Test questions. This is NOT an operational test form. Test scores cannot be projected based on performance on released test questions. Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education.