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(Abridged Version)
A glossary of technical terms and abbreviations
used in the beverage industrial and fuel!ethanol industries"
Com#iled by $ohn E" %urtagh &h"'"
This glossary has been compiled to meet a need expressed in the beverage, industrial
and fuel-ethanol production industries. It attempts to define the various distillery
products, together ith the meanings of ords in common usage and many of the
technical terms hich appear in textboo!s, reports and nesletters.
The definitions ere prepared by comparing information from a ide variety of
published sources, ith extensive additions and amendments based on personal
experience in the industry.
"anguage is not static, but evolving continuously, and the meanings of ords cannot be
defined by any one person. They should reflect the general consensus of all persons
using them. #efinitions of ords must therefore change ith time, and e ould
elcome any suggestions as to additions and corrections.
$urtagh and Associates have exercised all due care in compiling this glossary, but they
cannot accept any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of
information contained herein.
(OTE)This is an abridged version of The Alcohol %lossary containing a representative
sample of &'( definitions. A full version containing more than )(( definitions, is included
in The Alcohol Textboo! and also in the *orldide #istilleries %uide.
! A !
Abbreviation for *ngstrom"
Absolute ,thanol.
A pharmaceutical term for anhydrous ethanol. It is generally defined as having less
than & per cent ater.
-therise !non as ethanal, acetic aldehyde or ethylaldehyde. A clear flammable
li.uid ith a characteristic pungent odor. /hemical formula /01/0-. 2oils at 3&4/ and
free5es at -&31.64/. It is miscible ith both ethanol and ater. It has a narcotic effect
on humans, and large doses may cause death by respiratory paralysis. It is a congener
in the production of ethanol by fermentation, and is usually a ma7or constituent of the
heads fraction removed in rectification.
Acetic Acid.
A genus of gram!negative, aerobic bacteria comprising ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells,
as singles, pairs or chains. -therise !non as acetic-acid bacteria or vinegar bacteria,
they are able to oxidi5e ethanol to acetic acid. They may be responsible for loss of yield
in ethanol production, if a fermented mash is agitated or aerated excessively.
Acid-Acid 8rocess.
Acid-,n5yme 8rocess.
Acid 0ydrolysis.
The hydrolysis of a #olymer by the use of acid. In the case of starch hydrolysis, acids
may be used as an alternative to en+ymes in either (or both) the li,uefaction or
saccharification processes.
Acid *ashing.
A process in hich yeast recovered from a finished fermentation is acidified to reduce
the level of bacterial contamination, prior to recycling into a ne fermentation.
An unaged alcoholic beverage produced in /entral and :outh America by the
distillation of beer derived from the fermentation of sugar-cane 7uice or molasses. It
is similar to a crude rum.
A member of a class of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
/onsidered as hydro-yl derivatives of hydrocarbons, produced by the replacement of
one or more hydrogen atoms by one or more hydro-yl (--0) groups. ;nder the
modern I;8A/ (International ;nion of 8ure and Applied /hemistry) naming system, the
name given to an alcohol is derived from the parent hydrocarbon, ith the final <e<
changed to <ol<. Thus methane-methanol, ethane-ethanol etc. The principal alcohol in
fuel and beverage use is ethanol, (otherise !non as ethyl alcohol.)
Alcohol-9uel 8ermit (A.9.8.).
Alpha Amylase.
An en+yme used in the li,uefaction of starch, in the grain-mashing process, prior to
saccharification and fermentation. Alpha amylase hydroly+es the long-chain starch
molecules into short-chain de-trins. These are more suitable for subse.uent
saccharification by other en5ymes to fermentable glucose. (Alpha amylase is an endo!
en+yme in that it or!s from the inside of the amylose molecule, brea!ing it don
more-or-less randomly.) In beverage!alcohol production, the alpha amylase en5yme
may be derived from malt (sprouted barley), but in fuel!ethanol production, the en5yme
is obtained solely as a bacterial product. The en5yme molecule contains a calcium
atom hich is essential for its activity.
American :ociety for Testing and $aterials (A.:.T.$.).
Amyl Alcohol.
The principal constituent of fusel oil. -therise !non as #entanol. /hemical formula
/60&&-0. ,ight isomers exist, the commonest being primary iso!amyl alcohol.
The name given to any en+yme hich hydroly+es (or brea!s don) amylose, hich is
a ma7or component of starch.
A ma7or component of starch (together ith amylo#ectin). The amylose molecule is
composed of straight chains of hundreds of glucose units. In the grain-mashing
process for ethanol production, amylose may first be bro!en don into short-chain
de-trins by al#ha amylase, hich are, in turn, bro!en don into single glucose units
by amyloglucosidase.
Anaerobic #igestion.
+ngstrom (+).
A unit of length e.ual to one ten-billionth of a meter, used for measuring the diameter of
chemical molecules. Thus, in ethanol dehydration, a molecular sieve material ith
holes 1 +ngstrom units in diameter, may be used to separate ater, hich has a 3.6 +
diameter, from ethanol hich has a '.6 + diameter.
A chemical substance produced by micro!organisms, that has the capacity to inhibit
the groth of other micro-organisms, or to destroy them. The antibiotic most commonly
used in ethanol production is #enicillin.
Antifoam (or #efoamer).
Antiscalant (or :cale Inhibitor).
A.uavit = A!vavit. (Various spellings.)
A name applied to various types of distilled s#irits in northern ,urope. In %ermany it
may apply to grape brandy. In #enmar! it may apply to grain s#irits flavored ith
caraay. In :eden it may apply to grain spirits flavored ith aniseed and dill.
A.ueous :olution.
Archer #aniels $idland (A.#.$.).
Armagnac, or Armagnac (%rape) 2randy.
A brandy distilled in the %ers #>partement (county) in south-estern 9rance. The
d>partement is precisely divided into three regions, 2as-Armagnac, 0aut-Armagnac,
and Tenar?5e, and these names may be used to further designate the armagnac
product. Armagnac is normally produced in a single #ot!still distillation of .ine and is
then aged in oa! barrels.
Arrac! = Ara!. (Various spellings.)
The suffix used to denote an en+yme. 9or example, the en5yme hich brea!s don
amylose is referred to as an amylase.
Atomic *eight.
The term used to describe a constant-boiling mixture. It is a mixture of to (or more)
components hich has a loer boiling #oint than either (or any) component alone. 9or
example, ater, hich boils at &((4/, and anhydrous ethanol, hich boils at @A.64/
form a constant-boiling-mixture, or a5eotrope, at @A.&64/. The va#or of the mixture has
the same composition as the li.uid, and therefore, no further concentration can be
achieved by normal distillation. ;nder normal pressures, it contains approximately B@
per cent by volume ethanol (&B'4 #roof). It is very expensive in energy to attempt to
reach &B'4 proof, so &B(4 proof is generally considered to be the practical, economic
a5eotrope limit for fuel!ethanol distillation.
A5eotropic #istillation.
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! / !
2acteria (:ingularD 2acterium).
Any of a large group of microscopic plants constituting the class :chi5omycetaceae,
having round, rod-li!e, spiral, or filamentous single-celled bodies that are often
aggregated into colonies, are often motile by means of flagella, and reproduce by fission
or by the formation of asexual resting spores. They may live in soil, ater, organic
matter, or the live bodies of plants and animals. In ethanol production, bacteria are
significant in that they compete ith yeast to ferment the available sugars in a mash to
products other than ethanol, and cause losses in yield. 0oever, some bacterial
cultures may be added deliberately to rum fermentations, to help produce certain
desired congeners. -ne genus of bacteria, 0ymomonas is currently being examined
commercially, for its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol.
2acterial /ontamination.
2alling (or 2rix).
A scale used to measure the s#ecific gravity of a li.uid in relation to that of a solution
of sugar in ater. ,ach unit on the scale is e.uivalent to one percent by eight of
sugar. Thus a mash of 3(4 balling has the same specific gravity as a 3( per cent =
sugar solution. The scale is fre.uently considered to indicate the percentage of
dissolved solids in a li.uid, although this is only true of solutions of pure sugar.
Traditionally, the term <2alling< has been used in grain distilleries, hile <2rix< has
been used in sugar mills and rum or molasses!alcohol distilleries. The measurement is
accomplished by use of a 2alling (or 2rix) hydrometer.
2arbet Time.
A li.uid measure e.ual to '3 ;.:. gallons, or 6.) cubic feet. -r, a ooden container
used for the aging and maturation of alcoholic beverages. 2arrels used for .his1ey
maturation are made of oa! ood, and have a capacity of about 63 2"S" gallons.
2arrels may be used only once for aging bourbon .his1ey, so there is a orldide
trade in used bourbon barrels for aging other alcoholic products such as Scotch
.his1y and rum.
2ase "osses.
2atch /oo!ing.
2atch #istillation.
2atch 9ermentation.
The fermentation of a set amount of mash in a single vessel, in a discontinuous
operation. In the ethanol-production industries, batch fermentation predominates over
continuous fermentation.
2eer 8reheater.
2eer :till.
The distillation unit used for the initial removal of ethanol from finished beer. It
generally consists of a stri##ing section hich extracts the ethanol from the beer and
a concentrating or rectifying section, hich normally ta!es the ethanol up to &B(4
#roof (B64G"L"). 2eer stills may consist of a single tall column, or to or more columns
standing side by side, lin!ed by va#or pipes.
2eer-:tripping /olumn.
2eer *ell.
2eta Amylase.
An en+yme hich hydrolyses the long-chain amylose molecules in starch into
fermentable maltose, the dimer (or double-molecule) of glucose. (It is an e-o!en+yme
in that it or!s from an outer end of the molecular chain, brea!ing off maltose molecules
one by one.) It is found in malt (sprouted barley), in association ith al#ha amylase.
*ith the advent of microbial amyloglucosidase en5ymes, malt amylases are generally
only used in the production of heavily-flavored beverage alcohol.
2eta %lucan.
2eta %lucanase.
2everage Alcohol.
2inary A5eotrope.
An a+eotro#e or constant boiling mi-ture having to components, such as ethanol
and ater.
2iological -xygen #emand (2.-.#.).
2lended *his!y.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as a mixture hich contains straight .his1y, or a blend of
straight his!ies, at not less than 3( per cent on a #roof!gallon basis, excluding
alcohol derived from added harmless coloring, flavoring or blending materials, and,
separately, or in combination, .his1y or neutral s#irits. A blended his!y containing
not less than 6& per cent on a proof-gallon basis of one of the (recogni5ed) types of
straight his!y, may be further designated by that specific type of straight his!yE e.g.
<2lended rye his!y.<
2lender Tax /redit.
2oiler ,fficiency.
2oiling 8oint.
The term used to refer to the herbs, spices and other plant materials used in the
production of gin. 2y definition, gin botanicals must include 7uniper berries and may
include materials such as orange and lemon peels, iris (orris) root, coriander seed,
fennel seed, angelica root, caraay see, cinnamon bar!, cassia bar!, cardamom seed,
2ourbon *his!y.
2ritish Thermal ;nit (2.T.;.).
The amount of heat re.uired to raise the temperature of one pound of ater one degree
3ahrenheit, under defined pressure conditions. It is the standard unit for measuring
heat energy in the ;.:.
2ubble /ap.
A contacting device used on some distillation #lates. It consists of a cylindrical
<chimney<, set in a hole in the plate, covered by a dome-shaped cap, hich deflects the
va#ors rising up the chimney, to cause them to pass through the li.uid layer on the
2ureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and 9irearms (2.A.T.9.).
An agency of the #epartment of the Treasury entrusted ith enforcing las covering the
production, distribution and use of alcohol, tobacco and firearms.
2utanol (2utyl Alcohol).
A minor constituent of fusel oil. /hemical formula /'0B-0. 9our isomers exist. They
are all colorless, toxic flammable li.uids. n-2utanol may be produced as a co!#roduct
ith acetone and ethanol by the fermentation of selected carbohydrates ith the
anaerobic bacterium /lostridium acetobutylicum. 2utanols are used as solvents and
chemical intermediates.
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! C !
An apple brandy produced in Gormandy, 9rance, by the distillation of a fermented
mash of apples. It is sub7ected to to #ot!still distillations, and is then aged in oa!
/anadian *his!y.
/arbon #ioxide.
A colorless non-flammable gas. /omposition /-3. It does not support human
respiration, and in high concentrations it causes asphyxiation. It is approximately &.6
times the eight of air, and tends to accumulate in floor drains, pits and in the bottoms
of unventilated tan!s. It is produced by various means, notably the combustion of fuels
in an excess of air, and is a by#roduct of yeast fermentation. It may be recovered
from fermentations and compressed to a li.uid or solid (<dry-ice<).
/arbon $onoxide.
/arbon :teel.
/aribbean 2asin Initiative (/.2.I.).
A root crop ith a high starch content, gron in the tropics and sub-tropical regions.
Hnon in 2ra5il as <manioc<, it is used there as an alternative to sugar cane, as a
feedstoc1 for ethanol production. It is also processed for food as <tapioca.<
/ell Cecycle.
An en+yme capable of hydroly+ing long-chain cellulose molecules into simple
sugars, or into short-chain #olymers.
/elsius (or /entigrade).
A temperature scale in hich (at normal atmospheric pressure), ater free5es at 5ero
degrees and boils at &(( degrees.
/entrifugal 8ump.
/hemical -xygen #emand (/.-.#.)
/hlorine #ioxide.
/hemical formula /l-3. It is a strongly-oxidi5ing, yello-to-reddish-yello gas at room
temperatures. It has an unpleasant odor, similar to that of chlorine, and reminiscent of
that of nitric acid. It is unstable in light. It reacts violently ith organic materials and is
easily detonated by sunlight or heat, in concentrations greater than &( per cent at
atmospheric pressure. 2oils at &&4/ and free5es at -6B4/. /hlorine dioxide may be
used as a sterilant, and may be produced in situ for sterili5ing yeast mashes, by
addition of sodium chlorite solution in the presence of acids or chlorine (or hypochlorite
solution). It is considerably more effective as a sterilant than straight chlorine.
/.i.p. :ystem.
/itrus $olasses.
A by!#roduct of the citrus 7uice industry. /itrus residue, mainly peel, is treated ith
lime, and then passed through a press. The press li.uor is then evaporated to a
viscous, dar!-bron molasses, of about @34 /ri-. /itrus molasses is similar to cane
blac1stra# molasses, having about '6 per cent total sugars. 0oever, it has more
#rotein and a much loer ash content than blac!strap. /itrus molasses may be diluted
and fermented for ethanol production, but it may need pretreatment to reduce the
content of d-"imonene, (commonly referred to as <citrus-stripper oil<) hich tends to
inhibit yeast groth.
/leaning-in-place :ystem (/.i.p.).
/losed Ceceiver.
/occus (8lural I /occi).
A type of bacteria hose cells are spherical in form. They may occur as single cells,
clusters or long chains.
/ognac or /ognac (%rape) 2randy.
/o-$ingled Tan!.
The term used for fuel!ethanol tan!s at refineries or pipeline terminals, here to or
more suppliers may share the same tan! for storing their ethanol. (This necessitates
the tan! oner or operator establishing .uality standards for product put into the tan!.)
/ommodity /redit /orporation (/././.).
/ompletely-#enatured Alcohol (/.#.A).
A term used by the /"A"T"3" to describe ethanol hich has been made unfit for human
consumption by addition of specified denaturants such as methyl-isobutyl-!etone,
1erosene or gasoline"
/oncentrating /olumn.
/ondensed $olasses :olubles (/.$.:.).
The term used to describe molasses stillage hich has been concentrated by
eva#oration. The molasses residue (after fermentation and distillation, may be
concentrated to about )(4 /ri- (or approximately )( per cent solids), to be sold for use
as a substitute for molasses in animal feeds. Its principal use in feeds is as a ca!ing
agent and dust suppressant. It contains a high concentration of salts.
/hemical compounds hich are produced together ith ethanol in the fermentation
process. They are fre.uently referred to as <impurities<. /ommon congeners are
methanol, acetaldehyde, esters (such as ethyl acetate), and fusel oils, (higher
alcohols, particularly amyl alcohols.) 9ermentation conditions may be ad7usted to
control congener formation, depending on the re.uirements for the end product.
/onstant-2oiling $ixture.
/ontinuous /oo!er.
A system into hich a mash of ater, grain and en+ymes may be fed continuously, to
be coo!ed and discharged to the fermentation system. /ontinuous coo!ers generally
consist of a slurry tan1 connected by a pump to a steam-7et heater, a holding vessel or
lengths of piping (to provide some residence time at the coo!ing temperature), one or
more flash vessels (to cool the coo!ed mash) a holding vessel for en5ymic
li,uefaction, and a heat e-changer for final mash cooling. /ontinuous coo!ers are
more common in fuel!ethanol plants than in beverage!alcohol plants.
/ontinuous #istillation.
/ontinuous 9ermentation.
/ontrol "oop.
/ooling toer.
A place here ooden barrels are made or repaired. Also used to refer to a supply of
barrels (i.e. the product of the or! of a coo#er).
/orn-:teep "i.uor.
/orn *his!y.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as <.his1y produced at under &)(4 #roof, from a fermented
mash containing not less than A( per cent corn grain<. If corn his!y is stored in oa!
barrels, the 2.A.T.9. stipulates that the proof should not be more than &364, and that
the barrels be used, or uncharred, if ne. 9urthermore, the his!y cannot be sub7ected
to any treatment ith charred ood.
/orrosion Inhibitor.
/ountry "i.uor.
/rude--il-*indfall-8rofits Tax Act of &BA(.
A colorless, flammable, alicyclic hydrocarbon li.uid, of chemical formula /)0&3, hich
boils at A(.14/, and free5es at ).64/. It is used as an alternative to ben+ene as an
entrainer in the dehydration of ethanol by a+eotro#ic distillation.
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! ' !
#ealer Tan! *agon (#.T.*.).
Vessel used for the separation of to-phase li.uids. In a fusel!oil decanter, an upper
fusel-oil phase is separated from a loer a.ueous-ethanol phase. In a ben+ene-
column reflu- decanter, the upper, mainly-ben5ene phase is separated from the loer,
mainly-ater phase. :ee &hase Se#aration.
#eficit-Ceduction Act of &BA'.
The process of removing ater from a substance, particularly the removal of most of the
remaining 6 per cent of ater from &B(4 #roof ethanol, in the production of absolute or
anhydrous ethanol.
#emethyli5ing column.
A substance added to ethanol to ma!e it unfit for human consumption, so that it is not
sub7ect to taxation as beverage!alcohol. The /"A"T"3" permits the use of 3 - 6 per cent
of unleaded gasoline (or similar, specified substances) for use as denaturants for fuel
ethanol. (:ee also s#ecially!denatured alcohol and com#letely!denatured alcohol.)
#enatured Alcohol.
#epartment of ,nergy. (#.o.,.).
#etergent 8ac!age.
A non-fermentable, large, branched-chain #olymer of sucrose molecules, produced in
molasses by bacterial contamination (mainly "euconostoc mesenteroides). It gives a
<ropey< appearance to molasses hen stirred or poured, and reduces ethanol yield on
#extrose ,.uivalent (#.,.).
A measure of the degree of hydrolysis or saccharification of starch. It is no longer
considered as significant as previously in ethanol production, ith the more general
acceptance of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
#i-,thyl ,ther.
#ifferential-8ressure /ell (#.8. /ell).
A compound sugar hich yields to monosaccharide units on hydrolysis. 9or
example, lactose yields glucose and galactose, sucrose yields glucose and fructose,
hile maltose yields to glucose units.
#isc-and-#onut /olumn.
#istilled :pirits.
#istilled-:pirits 8ermit (#.:.8.).
#istillers 2ushel.
6) lbs of any grain, regardless of volume.
#istillers #ried %rain (#.#.%.).
The dried residual by!#roduct of a grain-fermentation process. It is high in #rotein, as
most of the grain starch has been removed. It is used as an animal-feed ingredient. 2y
strict definition, #.#.%. is produced only from the solids separated from .hole stillage
by centrifuging or screening. In practice, the term is commonly used to describe the
entire dried-stillage residue, ma!ing it synonymous ith '"'"G"S"
#istillers #ried %rain ith :olubles (#.#.%.:.).
#istillers #ried :olubles.
#istillers 9eeds.
#istillers 9eeds Cesearch /ouncil.
An organi5ation established in the ;.:. in &B'6, to fund and coordinate university
research into the utili5ation of '"'"G" It holds an annual conference in early April to
publici5e its findings. It as previously a division of the #istilled :pirits /ouncil of the
;.:., hich is a beverage!alcohol-producers organi5ation. It is no an independent
body ith membership open to all alcohol producers. Its head.uarters are in #es
$oines, IA.
#istillers *et %rain (#.*.%.).
#istillery-run 2arrels.
Cecently-emptied, used .his1ey barrels hich have not been sorted to remove those
ith or ithout defects.
#$A )@J.
#oncomer (or #onpipe).
#.8. /ell.
#ried-9ruit 2randy.
#ry #egermination.
A process for the removal of germ from grain ithout the need for steeping and .et
milling. It may involve some pretreatment of the grain to raise the moisture content
before processing. It is used in :cotland for corn milling in grain!.his1y plants, and is
used in the production of corn fla!es, but is not commonly used in the ;.:. ethanol-
production industry.
#ry $illing.
#ual-9lo 8late (or Tray).
A /aribbean synonym for vinasse or molasses stillage. It is commonly used to refer to
vinasse hich has been stored for some time, to allo bacterial development, prior to
being used as bac1set, in the production of heavily-flavored rums.
#upont *aiver.
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! E !
,au de vie (8luralD ,aux de Vie).
An en+yme hich acts on internal portions of a large #olymeric molecule rather than
around the periphery. 9or example, the al#ha amylase en5yme hydrolyses lin!ages
ithin amylose and amylo#ectin molecules, as an endo-en5yme. In contrast
amyloglucosidase acts as an e-o!en+yme in only hydroly5ing the outermost lin!ages.
,nergy-Investment-Tax /redit (,.I.T./.).
,nergy-8olicy Act of &BB3.
,nergy-:ecurity Act of &BA(.
,nergy-Tax Act of &B@A.
;.:. federal legislation hich instituted the first e-cise!ta- e-em#tion for gasoline
blended ith &( per cent fermentation ethanol. It exempted the blends from the entire
tax of ' cents per gallon. It also created an energy!investment!ta- credit 4E"5"T"C"6 of
&( per cent, hich applied to e.uipment for converting biomass to ethanol, in addition
to the standard &( per cent investment-tax credit.
,nvironmental 8rotection Agency (,.8.A.).
,n5ymatic 0ydrolysis.
The hydrolysis of a #olymer by the use of en+ymes. In the case of starch hydrolysis,
an al#ha amylase en5yme may be used in the initial hydrolysis to achieve
li,uefaction, and an amyloglucosidase en5yme may be used to complete the
hydrolytic saccharification to fermentable sugars.
-therise !non as ethyl alcohol, <alcohol<, <grain!s#irit<, or <neutral s#irit<, etc. A
clear, colorless, flammable o-ygenated hydrocarbon. /hemical formulaD /306-0. It
has a boiling #oint of @A.64/ in the anhydrous state. 0oever, it forms a binary
a+eotro#e ith ater, ith a boiling point of @A.&64/ at a composition of B6.6@ per cent
by eight ethanol.
,thyl Acetate.
,thyl Alcohol.
,thyl /arbamate.
,thylene %lycol.
,thyl Tertiary-2utyl ,ther.
,xcise-Tax ,xemption.
,xtractive #istillation.
A process in hich a substance referred to as an e-tractant is added to a mixture being
distilled, to change the volatility of one or more components. The less-volatile mixture
ill then descend in a continuous!distillation column, hile the more volatile
components may be removed in the condensed overhead va#ors. In the use of
extractive distillation in the dehydration of ethanol, li.uid extractants such as ethylene
glycol, or glycerol may be used. :alts such as potassium and sodium acetates may
also be used alone in molten form, or in mixtures ith glycerol etc. Anhydrous ethanol
is recovered in the overhead condensate, hile the ater combines ith the extractant
to emerge from the bottom of the column. (This is the reverse of the situation in
a+eotro#ic distillation, as ith ben+ene, etc.) The extractant is then separated from
the ater in another column (or an eva#orator) and is recycled.
In the production of neutral s#irit, light rums or .his1ies, extractive distillation may be
used to remove fusel oils and some other congeners in the condensed overhead
va#ors. In this instance, the extractant is ater, as some of the congeners hich have
a loer volatility than ethanol in a concentrated state, may have a higher volatility than
ethanol hen diluted ith ater, so that they rise up the extractive distillation column,
hile the ethanol descends.
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! 3 !
9acultative Anaerobe.
Term used to describe a microorganism such as a yeast, hich is essentially aerobic
(or air-re.uiring), but can also thrive under anaerobic (or air-free) conditions.
9ahrenheit :cale.
A temperature scale in hich the boiling #oint of ater is 3&349 and the free5ing point
is 1349. (The 5ero point as originally established as the loest point obtainable ith a
mixture of e.ual eights of sno and common salt.)
9armers 0ome Administration (9m0A).
9ederal ,xcise-Tax ,xemption.
9eed 8late (or 9eed Tray).
The #late or tray onto hich the distilland (li.uid to be distilled) is introduced in a
distillation column. In theory, it is the point in a column above hich enrichment or
concentration occurs, and belo hich stripping occurs.
9ermentable :ugars.
9ermentation ,fficiency.
The measure of the actual output of a fermentation product such as ethanol, in
relation to the theoretically!obtainable yield.
9ermentation ,thanol.
The vessel in hich the process of mash fermentation ta!es place. The vessel may be
fabricated from steel, fiberglass, etc., and is normally fitted ith an internal or external
cooling system for controlling the temperature of the fermenting mash.
9lame Arrester.
9lash /ooling.
9lash 8oint.
9lavored #istilled :pirits.
9lexible-9ueled Vehicle (9.9.V.).
9loc de %ascogne.
9luidi5ed-2ed-/ombustion 2oiler.
9ossil 9uel.
9ractional #istillation.
A process of separating mixtures such as ethanol and ater, by boiling and draing off
the condensed va#ors from different levels of the distillation column.
9ructose (or "evulose).
A fermentable monosaccharide, or simple, single-unit sugar, of the chemical formula
/)0&3-). Its chemical structure is similar to that of glucose, but it has the distinction of
being seeter to the taste. It may be produced from glucose by en5ymatic
isomeri+ation, as in the production of high!fructose corn syru# 4H3CS6.
9ruit 2randy.
9uel-%rade ,thanol.
9uel ,thanol.
;sually denotes anhydrous ethanol or motor!fuel!grade ethanol hich has been
denatured by addition of 3 - 6 per cent unleaded gasoline, and hich is intended for
use as an automotive fuel in blends ith gasoline.
9usel -il.
Term used to describe the higher alcohols, generally the various forms of #ro#anol,
butanol and amyl alcohol, hich are congeners, or by!#roducts of ethanol
fermentation. Gormally, predominantly iso-amyl alcohol. Their presence in alcoholic
beverages is !non to be a cause of headaches and hangovers. The fusel oils have
higher boiling #oints than ethanol and are generally removed in the distillation
process, to avoid accumulations in the rectifier. They may be subse.uently added bac!
into the anhydrous product for motor!fuel!grade ethanol.
9usel--il #ecanter.
(Ceturn to top)
! G !
A monosaccharide, of chemical formula /)0&3-), hich, ith glucose, is a
constituent of the disaccharide lactose. It is an isomer of glucose, but is less-readily
fermented by yeasts to ethanol.
%as /hromatography (%./.).
%as-"i.uid /hromatography.
%asohol (or %asahol).
A trade name registered in Gebras!a in &B@1, by the Gebras!a Agricultural 8roducts
Industrial ;tili5ation /ommittee, hich as later renamed the (ebras1a Gasohol
Committee. (The committee as responsible for laying the groundor! for the
development of the present-day ;.:. fuel!ethanol industry.) The trade name, in either
spelling, covers a blend of anhydrous ethanol <derived from agricultural products< ith
gasoline (not necessarily unleaded). The committee has freely granted permission for
commercial use of the trade name, provided it is not used for blends containing
alcohols other than ethanol.
%asoline ,xtender.
%ay "ussac (%.".).
The name given to a scale of the concentration of ethanol in mixtures ith ater, here
each degree is e.ual to & per cent by volume (i.e. &4 %.". is e.uivalent to 34 ;.:.
#roof.) It ta!es the name from the 9rench chemistry pioneer, Koseph-"ouis %ay "ussac.
The scale is used extensively in ,urope, :outh America etc.
%ay "ussac ,.uation.
%ear pump.
In reference to the coo!ing of starchy feedstoc1s, gelatini5ation is the stage in hich
the starch granules absorb ater and lose their individual crystalline structure to
become a viscous li.uid gel. %elatini5ation is significant in that it is the preliminary
process necessary to render starch susceptible to en+ymatic hydrolysis, for
conversion to fermentable sugars.
%eneva %in.
An en+yme hich hydrolyses starch into its constituent glucose units. (:ee
An en+yme hich hydrolyses glucan. (:ee /eta Glucanase.)
%lucose Isomerase.
%lycerol (or %lycerine).
A clear, colorless, viscous, seet-tasting li.uid belonging to the alcohol family of
organic compounds. It has a chemical formula of /03-0/0-0/03-0, having three
hydro-yl (-0) groups. It is a by!#roduct of alcoholic fermentations of sugars. It is
hygrosco#ic, and may be used as an e-tractant in the dehydration of ethanol.
%rain Alcohol.
%rain :pirit.
%rain *his!y.
%rain :orghum.
(-therise !non as <milo<), a sorghum gron for grain production, as distinct from
s.eet sorghum gron for the sugar content of its stem. It may be used as a
feedstoc1 for ethanol production.
%ram Gegative.
%ram 8ositive.
%ram :tain.
%rappa, or %rappa 2randy.

! H !
0ammer $ill.
Term used to describe the impurities produced in ethanol fermentations
(<congeners<), hich have loer boiling #oints than ethanol. They include methanol
and aldehydes.
0eads-concentrating column.
A distillation column used to concentrate heads removed in the production of neutral
s#irit, light rums and .his1ies.
0eat ,xchanger.
0eat of /ondensation.
0eat of Vapori5ation.
0iag 8rocess.
A process developed in %ermany in the &B1(Ls for the dehydration of ethanol by
e-tractive distillation, using a mixture of sodium and potassium acetates as the
0igh 2oilers.
0igher Alcohols.
Alcohols having more than to carbon atoms ithin their molecule. They exist in
various isomeric forms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, so also the number
of isomers increases, but at a greater rate. The loer members of this group, namely
#ro#anol, butanol and amyl alcohol, are ma7or constituents of fusel oil.
0igh-9ructose /orn :yrup (0.9./.:.).
0igh-8erformance "i.uid /hromatography (0.8."./.).
0igh-Test $olasses (0.T.$.).
A ooden barrel ith a capacity of approximately )) 2"S" gallons (36( liters6, used in
:cotland for aging .his1y. It is usually constructed from shoo1ed, bourbon!.his1ey
barrels, of 63 gallons capacity, by using additional staves and larger heads and hoops.
0ollandLs %in or %eneva %in.
A direct-reading instrument for indicating the density, s#ecific gravity or other similar
characteristics of li.uids. It is generally comprised of a long-stemmed glass tube ith a
eighted bottom, hich floats at different levels in li.uids of different densities. The
reading is ta!en at the meniscus, here the calibrated stem emerges from the li.uid.
The li.uid temperature is normally determined hen ta!ing a reading, and reference is
made to hydrometer tables to obtain a correction to a standard temperature. A #roof
hydrometer measures the content of ethanol in a mixture ith ater. A bri- or balling
hydrometer measures on a scale e.uivalent to the percentage of sugar by eight in an
a,ueous solution.
0ydroselection column.
0ydrous ,thanol.
Term used to describe a substance hich has the property of absorbing moisture from
the air. Anhydrous ethanol is hygroscopic, and its exposure to moist air should
therefore be minimi5ed.
0ydroxyl %roup.

! 5 !
Imperial %allon.
A measure of volume in the 2ritish system, defined in &A3' as the volume occupied by
&( pounds eight of ater at )349 and 1( inches of barometric pressure. It is the
e.uivalent of &&=6 ;.:. gallons, or '.6') liters in the metric system.
Indian-$ade 9oreign "i.uor (I.$.9.".).
Industrial Alcohol.
#enotes any ethanol hich may be intended for industrial uses, such as solvents,
e-tractants, antifree5es and intermediates in the synthesis of innumerable organic
chemicals. The term covers ethanol of both synthetic and fermentation origin, of a
ide range of .ualities and #roofs, ith or ithout various denaturants.
Industrial-#evelopment Cevenue 2onds (I.#.C.2.).
The portion of a culture of yeast (or bacteria) hich is used to start a ne culture or a
An en+yme capable of hydroly+ing inulin to its component fructose units.
Irish *his!ey.
Iso-Amyl Alcohol.
Iso-8ropyl ,ther (I.8.,.).
An ether (otherise !non as di-iso-propyl ether), hich is used in some fuel!ethanol
plants as an entrainer in the dehydration process, as an alternative to ben+ene etc. It
is a colorless, volatile li.uid, chemical formula (/01)3/0-/0(/01)3, hich boils at
)@.64/ and free5es at -)(4/. It readily forms explosive mixtures ith air. Inhalation of
vapors may cause narcosis and unconsciousness.

! $ !
Ket /oo!er.
An apparatus for the continuous coo1ing of grain mashes, in hich the mash is
pumped past a 7et of steam hich instantly heats the mash, to gelatini+e the starch.
! 7 !
Harl 9ischer Titration.
A method to chemically determine the amount of ater present in a sample of ethanol
and=or other substances. *hen correctly practiced, the method can give an extremely
accurate measurement of very small .uantities of ater in ethanol (in parts per million),
even if gasoline denaturant is present. :ee Titration.
H7eldahl $ethod.
Hluyveromyces fragilis (or marxianus).
A lactose-fermenting yeast used in the production of ethanol from cheese .hey.
Hubiersch!y 8rocess.
The first patented process for the continuous dehydration of ethanol ith ben+ene.
*ith relatively minor variations, the process developed in &B&' on the basis of JoungLs
earlier batch process, is still used in many fuel!ethanol plants.

! L !
"actic Acid.
A genus (or class) of bacteria hich produce lactic acid as a ma7or product in the
fermentation of carbohydrates. They are found extensively in fermenting food
products, such as souring mil! and in grain dust. They are the principal cause of loss of
yield in ethanol fermentations. -therise referred to as lactic-acid bacteria, they are
generally gram!#ositive and controllable ith #enicillin and certain other antibiotics.
"ag 8hase.
Applied to yeast #ro#agation, refers to the initial period in hich the yeast inoculum
becomes adapted to the mash, prior to attaining the rapid increase in cell numbers
referred to as the logarithmic #hase.
"atent 0eat.
"ead 8hase--ut.
"ees 2randy.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as brandy distilled from the lees of standard grape, citrus or
other fruit .ine. It is designated <lees brandy<, and .ualified by the type of fruit from
hich the lees ere derived.
"ight *his!y.
The change in the phase, or conversion of a solid substance to the li.uid state. In
reference to starch, it is the stage in the coo1ing and saccharification process, in
hich gelatini+ed starch is partially hydroly+ed by an al#ha amylase en+yme (or
occasionally by an acid) to give soluble de-trins. This converts the starch mash into a
free-floing li.uid.
"i.ueurs and /ordials.
"iter (or "itre).
"oan %uarantee.
"ogarithmic 8hase.
Applied to yeast #ro#agation, refers to the period in hich cell numbers are increasing
at an exponential rate, after the initial lag #hase.
"o 2oilers.

! % !
2arley grains hich have been steeped in ater and then alloed to germinate. The
germination is normally halted by drying the grains hen the sprouts are about the
same length as the grains. At this stage, the malt (or <malted barley<) contains
considerable amounts of al#ha and beta amylase en+ymes, hich can saccharify the
barley starch and other additional starch in a mash, to yield fermentable sugars. (In
:cotland, the drying may be done by exposing the malt to a flo of peat smo!e. This
imparts a smo!ey odor to the malt.) $alt is used in .his1y production, mainly for its
contribution to product flavor, hile in fuel!ethanol production the necessary
saccharifying en5ymes are normally derived from microbial sources.
$alt *ine.
$alt *his!y.
In the ;.:., it is defined by the /"A"T"3" as a .his1y produced at less than &)(4 #roof
from a fermented mash containing at least 6& per cent malted barley, and stored at
under &364 proof in charred, ne, oa! barrels. In :cotland, malt his!ies are made
from a &(( per cent malted-barley mash, and may be aged in previously-used, oa!
barrels. $alt his!ies may be mixed ith grain .his1ies, to impart much of the
characteristic flavor of blended Scotch .his1y.
$arc 2randy.
A mixture of milled grain or other fermentable carbohydrate in ater, hich is used in
the production of ethanol. The term may be used at any stage from the initial mixing of
the feedstoc1 in ater, prior to any coo1ing and saccharification, through to the
completion of fermentation, hen it becomes referred to as <beer<.
$c/abe-Thiele #iagram.
$echanical Vapor Cecompression ($.V.C.).
$ethane #igester (or Anaerobic #igester).
$ethanol (or $ethyl Alcohol).
A colorless poisonous li.uid, ith essentially no odor and very little taste. It is the
simplest alcohol, and has a formula /01-0. It boils at )'.@4/. It is miscible ith ater
and most organic li.uids, including gasoline. It is extremely flammable, burning ith a
nearly invisible blue flame. It is a congeneric product of ethanol fermentations.
0aving a loer boiling #oint than ethanol, it tends to be a ma7or component of the
8heads8 stream on distillation. #ue to its miscibility ith ben+ene, its presence in a
hydrous ethanol feed may reduce the efficiency of dehydration processes here
ben5ene is used as an entrainer. $ethanol is produced commercially by the cataly5ed
reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. It as formerly derived from the destructive
distillation of ood, hich caused it to be !non as 8.ood alcohol8. $ethanol may be
blended ith gasoline, but re.uires a co!solvent such as ethanol or a higher alcohol
to maintain it in solution. :ee 'u#ont 9aiver. :ee 'emethyli+ing Column.
$ethyl Tertiary 2utyl ,ther ($.T.2.,.).
A colorless, flammable, li.uid o-ygenated hydrocarbon. /hemical formula
(/01)1/-/01.. It contains &A.&6 per cent oxygen and has a boiling #oint of 66.34/. It
is produced by reacting methanol ith isobutylene. Its use as an octane enhancer in
gasoline has been approved by the E"&"A", at levels of up to &6 per cent.
$ilo (or $ilo-$ai5e, or $illet, or %rain :orghum).
$olar :olution.
The thic! li.uid remaining after sucrose has been removed from the mother li.uor (of
clarified concentrated cane or beet 7uice), in sugar manufacture. /lac1stra# molasses
is the syrup from hich no more sugar may be removed economically. It has usually
been sub7ected to at least three eva#orating and centrifuging cycles to remove the
crystalline sucrose. Its analysis varies considerably, depending on many factors,
including sugar-mill e.uipment and operational efficiency, but it may contain
approximately '6 - )( per cent by eight of fermentable sugars and approximately &(
per cent ash (or salts). It is commonly used as an ethanol feedstoc1 hen prices are
favorable. High!test molasses 4H"T"%"6 is not a true molasses, as it is the mother li.uor
from hich no crystalline sugar has been removed by centrifugation, but hich has
been treated ith acid to reduce crystalli5ation. It may contain approximately A( per
cent by eight of sugars, and is very lo in ash. It is normally only produced in years
hen the sugar price does not 7ustify its recovery. It may be used as an ethanol
feedstoc! hen prices are favorable, and has the advantage over blac!strap of causing
less distillation!column scaling due to ash. 0oever, it re.uires more nutrients for
fermentation. :ee also Citrus %olasses.
$olecular :ieve.
A microporous substance composed of materials such as crystalline alumino-silicates,
chemically similar to clays, and belonging to a class !non as +eolites. The si5e of the
pores in the substance may vary ith its chemical structure, being generally in the
range of 1 to &( *ngstrom 4*6 units in diameter. *ith material having a very precise
pore si5e, it is possible to separate smaller molecules from larger ones, by a sieving
action. 9or example, in ethanol dehydration ith a #otassium alumino!silicate
material prepared ith pores of a diameter of 1+ units, ater molecules ith a diameter
of 3.6+ may be retained by adsorption ithin the pores, hile ethanol molecules of a
diameter of '+ cannot enter, and therefore flo around the material.
The term <molecular sieve< is fre.uently used loosely to describe the entire ethanol-
dehydration apparatus hich holds the beads of sieve material and includes the
e.uipment and controls necessary to regenerate them hen saturated ith ater.
$olecular *eight.
$other Jeasting.
$otor-9uel-%rade ,thanol ($.9.%.,.).
$otor -ctane Gumber ($.-.G.).
$ultiple-,ffect ,vaporator.
$unicipal :olid *aste ($.:.*.).

! ( !
Gebras!a %asohol /ommittee.
A committee previously !non as the Gebras!a Agricultural-8roducts-;tili5ation
/ommittee. :tarting in &B@1, it as responsible for initiating trials on the use of ethanol-
gasoline blends, hich led to the development of a nationide fuel!ethanol industry. It
is the registered oner of the trade name <Gasohol< or <Gasahol<.
Get ,nergy 2alance.
Geutral 2randy.
Geutral spirit.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as <distilled s#irits produced from any material at or above
&B(4 #roof<. In practice, neutral spirit is purified, odorless, tasteless and colorless
ethanol hich has been produced by distillation and rectification techni.ues hich
remove any significant amount of congeners. It is used in the production of beverages
such as vod1a, gin, cordials, and cream li,ueurs.
Gitrogen -xides.
Gormal :olution.

! O !
-ccupational-:afety and 0ealth Administration (-.:.0.A.).
-ctane ,nhancer.
-ctane Cating (or -ctane Gumber).
-ffice of Alcohol 9uels.
A division of the 2"S" 'e#artment of Energy charged ith a ide range of activities to
promote the development of the production and use of alcohol fuels. It as established
by the Energy!Security Act of :;<=.
-il 8rice Information :ervice (-.8.I.:.).
:hort-chain #olymers of simple sugars (or monosaccharides), generally considered
to cover the range of 3 to A units. :hort de-trins produced by hydrolysis of starch are
included in this category.
-mnibus Ceconciliation Act of &BB(.
-rganoleptic Testing.
The .uality-control process of chec!ing samples of alcoholic products on the basis of
odor and taste. It is normally performed by comparing samples of ne production ith
older samples of acceptable .uality, hich have been designated for use as
-rifice $eter.
An aniseed-flavored distilled s#irit, produced in %reece, /yprus and other $iddle-
,ast countries.
-verhead Vapors.
-xygenated 9uels.
"iterally meaning any fuel substance containing oxygen, the term is commonly ta!en to
cover gasoline-based fuels containing such oxygen-bearing compounds as ethanol,
methanol, %"T"/"E", E"T"/"E" etc. -xygenated fuel tends to give a more complete
combustion of its carbon to carbon dio-ide (rather than mono-ide), to reduce air
pollution from exhaust emissions.
-xygenated 9uels Association (-.9.A.).

! & !
8ac!ed #istillation /olumn.
Abbreviation for &etroleum Administration for 'efense 'istrict.
The collective name for salts of a series of antibiotic organic acids produced by a
number of 8enicillium and Aspergillus species molds, active against most gram!
#ositive bacteria and some gram!negative cocci. (:ee Gram stain.) The commonest
type of penicillin used in ethanol fermentations to control bacterial contamination is
the potassium % form, otherise !non as ben5yl penicillin potassium.
8ermanganate (or 2arbet) Time.
A laboratory test used for assessing the .uality of samples of industrial or beverage
alcohol. It is the time re.uired for an alcohol sample to decolori5e a standard potassium
permanganate solution. The time is an indication of the reducing (deoxidi5ing) poer of
the sample, and is considered to be a crude measure of the presence of congeners.
8etroleum Administration for #efense #istrict (8.A.#.#.).
8hase :eparation.
8ineau des /harentes.
A type of brandy distilled from the .ine of muscat grapes, in :outh American countries,
particularly 8eru.
8late (or Tray).
A contacting device placed hori5ontally at intervals ithin a distillation column. 8lates
may be simple perforated discs, ith or ithout do.ncomers, as in the sieve #late and
the dual!flo. #late, or they may have bubble ca#s, tunnel ca#s, or various types of
floating valves, to improve the contact beteen the rising va#or and descending li.uid"
:ieve plates and tunnel caps are the most common form of plates used in ethanol
production facilities.
8late (or Trayed) #istillation /olumn.
8omace 2randy or $arc 2randy.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as brandy distilled from the (fermented) s!ins and pulp of
sound, ripe grapes, citrus or other fruit, after the ithdraal of the 7uice or .ine
therefrom. it is designated <pomace brandy<, or <marc brandy<, and .ualified by the
name of the fruit from hich it is derived. %rape pomace brandy may be designated as
<gra##a< or <gra##a brandy.<
8ositive-#isplacement 8ump.
8otassium Alumino-:ilicate.
A simple batch distillation unit used for the production of heavily-flavored distillates
for beverage use. It consists of a tan!, (hich is heated either by an internal steam coil,
or by an external fire), and an overhead!va#or pipe leading to a condenser. It may be
used in the production of heavily-flavored rums and .his1ies.
A measure of the absolute!ethanol content of a distillate containing ethanol and
ater. In the ;.:. system, each degree of proof is e.ual to (.6 per cent of ethanol by
volume, so that absolute ethanol is 3((4 proof. In the Imperial system <proof<, (or &((4
proof), is e.ual to 6@.() per cent ethanol by volume, or 'A.3' per cent by eight, hile
absolute ethanol is @6.36 over proof, or &@6.364 proof.
8roof %allon (p.g.).
8roof Tables.
8ropanol (or 8ropyl Alcohol).
A minor constituent of fusel oil. /hemical formula /10@-0. It exists as either of to
isomers. 2oth are colorless, toxic, flammable li.uids, ith odors similar to that of

! R !
Cac! 8rice.
A name given in Tur!ey to a product similar to Ou+o.
A device for supplying heat to a distillation column ithout introducing live steam. It
generally consists of a shell-and-tube heat e-changer connected to the base of the
column, ith li.uid from the column entering inside the tubes, to be heated indirectly by
steam on the shell side.
Cecoopered barrels.
Cectified :pirit.
A distilled s#irit hich has undergone some degree of rectification.
Cectifying /olumn (rectifier, rectification column, or rectifying section).
Ceflux Catio.
The ratio of the amount of condensate being reflu-ed to the amount being ithdran
as product. %enerally, the higher the reflux ratio, the greater is the degree of separation
of the components in a distillation system.
Ceneable 9uels Association (C.9.A.).
Cesearch -ctane Gumber (C.-.G.).
Ceverse -smosis (C.-.).
Coller $ill.
A mill for crushing or grinding grain or other solid material by passing it beteen to
steel rollers. The rollers may be smooth, or serrated to shear the grain, and they may
turn at differing speeds to increase the abrasion. Coller mills are suitable for small
grains such as heat, but do not perform as ell as a hammer mill on corn.
Ceid vapor pressure (C.v.p.).
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as <an alcoholic distillate from the fermented 7uice of sugar
cane, sugar-cane syrup, sugar-cane molasses, or other sugar-cane byproducts,
produced at less than &B(4 #roof, in such a manner that the distillate possesses the
taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to rum.< ;nli!e the specifications
for .his1ies the 2.A.T.9. does not re.uire that the rum be aged in oa! barrels. 2ritish
regulations specify that rum be produced <from sugar-cane products in sugar-cane-
groing countries.<
Cye-$alt *his!y.
Cye *his!y.

! S !
The process of converting a complex carbohydrate, such as starch or cellulose, into
fermentable sugars such as glucose or maltose. It is essentially a hydrolysis. The
process may be accomplished by the use of en+ymes or acids.
:accL Tan! (or :accharification Tan!).
:cale Inhibitor.
:cotch *his!y.
A distilled s#irit made in Kapan, using rice as the fermentation feedstoc1.
:hoo!ed 2arrel (or :hoo!).
A used bourbon!.his1ey barrel hich as been dismantled to reduce the space
re.uirements for transportation.
:ieve analysis.
A laboratory test made on grain meal, to chec! that the milling process is being
conducted correctly. The meal is added to the top of a stac! of sieves ith increasingly-
finer meshes descending donards. The sieve stac! is vibrated for a standard time
period, and the eight percentage retained on each screen is determined. *ith
hammermills, the sieve analysis ill generally sho that the meal gradually becomes
coarser, as the hammers ear and need turning or replacement.
:ieve 8late (or :ieve Tray).
:imultaneous :accharification and 9ermentation (:.:.9.).
A procedure in hich the saccharification of a coo!ed starch mash occurs in the
fermenter (by addition of en+ymes), simultaneously ith the commencement of
fermentation (by addition of yeast). This procedure is replacing the traditional process
ta!en from the his!ey industry, in hich there is a specific holding stage for
saccharification ith malt or microbial en5ymes (in a sacc> tan1), prior to the mash
going to a fermenter.
:lurrying Tan!.
:mall 2usiness Administration (:.2.A.).
:pecially-#enatured Alcohol (:.#.A.).
The term is used to describe ethanol denatured ith any formulation of compounds
selected from a list approved by the /"A"T"3" The denaturant renders the ethanol unfit
for beverage purposes, ithout impairing its usefulness for other applications.
:pecific %ravity (:.%.).
:pent-:ulfite "i.uor (:.:.".).
:pirit *his!y.
Abbreviation for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
A mixture of to carbohydrate #olymers (amylose and amylo#ectin), both of hich
are composed of glucose monomers lin!ed together by glycosidic bonds. :tarch is the
principal energy-storage product of photosynthesis, and is found in most plants,
particularly in roots, tubers and cereal grains. :tarch may be sub7ected to hydrolysis
(saccharification) to yield de-trins and glucose.
The mixture of non-fermentable (or non-fermented) solids and ater, hich is the
residue after removal of ethanol from a fermented beer by distillation. :tillage may be
dried to recover the solid material, (as '"'"G", in the case of grain feedstoc1s).
:toichiometric Jield.
:traight *his!y.
:tripping /olumn (or :tripping :ection).
The portion of a distillation column belo the feed tray, in hich the descending li.uid
is progressively depleted of its volatile components, by the introduction of heat at the
:ub--ctane 2lending.
Any of a class of ater-soluble, simpler-carbohydrate, crystalline compounds that vary
idely in seetness and include the monosaccharides and loer oligosaccharides.
They may be chemically reducing or non-reducing compounds and are typically optically
active. ,xamples include the monosaccharides, glucose, fructose, mannose and
-ylose, the disaccharides sucrose, maltose, lactose and the trisaccharides raffinose
and maltotriose.
:ulfite Alcohol.
:ulfite-*aste "i.uor (:.*.".).
An effluent produced in the sulfite-pulping process used in some papermills. It partly
consists of a dilute solution of sugars produced by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose. It
may be used as a feedstoc1 for the production of ethanol by fermentation, using
selected yeast strains, after stripping out the sulfite (or sulfur dioxide) ith steam.
:upplementary /olumn.
:urface Transportation and ;niform Celocation Assistance Act of &BA@.
:urface-Transportation-Assistance Act of &BA3.
:ynthetic ,thanol.
Ethanol produced by any one of several synthetic processes, such as the catalytic
hydration of ethylene, the sulfuric-acid hydration of ethylene, and the 9ischer-Tropsch
process, in hich it is a ma7or byproduct of the synthesis of methanol by catalytically
reacting carbon dio-ide and hydrogen. :ynthetic ethanol is chemically identical to
fermentation ethanol, but does not .ualify for ;.:. federal or state incentives for
blending ith gasoline, and may not be used in the production of alcoholic beverages.

! T !
An unaged, /aribbean or :outh American alcoholic beverage produced by batch
distillation of beers obtained by the fermentation of sugar-cane 7uice or molasses. It
is similar to aguardiente and rum.
Technical Alcohol.
Ternary A5eotrope.
An a+eotro#e or constant!boiling mi-ture made up of three components. 9or
example, a mixture of @' per cent volume ben+ene, &A.6 per cent ethanol and @.6 per
cent of ater forms an a5eotrope boiling at )'.B4/.
Tetra-,thyl "ead (or "ead Tetra-,thyl).
Theoretical 8late (or Tray).
Theoretical Jield.
Thermal ,fficiency.
Thermal Vapor Cecompression.
Thin :tillage.
The li.uid portion of stillage hich has been separated from the solids by screening or
centrifuging. It contains suspended fine particles and dissolved material. It is normally
sent to an eva#orator, to be concentrated to a thic! syrup hich is then dried ith the
solids portion to give '"'"G"S"
Total sugars as invert (T.:.A.I.).
A simple crude analytical measure of reducing sugars in molasses.
Tunnel /ap.

! 2 !
A process for the separation of colloidal or very fine solid materials, or large dissolved
molecules, by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable membranes. The
process may be used for removal of #rotein from cheese .hey prior to fermentation.
;nited :tates #epartment of Agriculture (;.:.#.A.).
;.:. %allon.
A measure of 31& cubic inches li.uid at )(49. It is the e.uivalent of 1.@A6 liters, in the
metric system, or 6=) of an 5m#erial gallon.

! ? !
Vacuum #istillation.
Vacuum 9ermentation.
A process of operating a fermentation under vacuum, so that the ethanol or other
product is va#ori+ed and removed as it is formed, to avoid its concentration becoming
inhibitory to the yeast. In a patented variation !non as the <Vacuferm< process,
instead of maintaining the entire fermenter under vacuum, the fermenting beer is
circulated through a vacuum chamber to flash off the ethanol, before returning the beer
to the fermenter.
Vapori5ation (or Volatili5ation).
Vapor 8ressure.
Vent /ondenser.
The term sometimes applied to the stillage of molasses, grape 7uice, or other li.uid
ethanol feedstoc1s.
The tendency of a solid or li.uid to pass into the va#or state at a given temperature.
*ith automotive fuels, the volatility is determined by measuring the Reid va#or
#ressure 4R"v"#"6.

! 9 !
A 2ritish synonym for distillers beer.
*et $illing.
The condition hen droplets of li.uid fall through the holes of a sieve #late in a
distillation column. It may be caused by (a) having a steam flo that is too lo, or (b)
having too lo a li.uid flo to maintain a level on the plate, or (c) having a tilted plate,
so that the li.uid depth is uneven.
*heat *his!y
*his!y = *his!ey.
#efined by the /"A"T"3" as <an alcoholic distillate from a mash of grain, produced at
less than &B(4 #roof, in such as manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma
and characteristics generally attributed to his!y<. *ith the exception of corn .his1y, it
should be stored in oa! barrels. (The 2.A.T.9. uses the spelling <his!y<, but the
spelling <his!ey< is fre.uently used in the ;.:. and Ireland.)
*hole :tillage.
*ine %allon.
A 2"S" gallon of li.uid measure, as distinct from a #roof gallon.
*ood Alcohol.
! @ !
A #entose (or 6-carbon sugar), derived from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose.
/hemical formula /60&(-6. It is not fermented by normal strains of distillers yeasts.

! Y !
Any of certain unicellular fungi, generally members of the class Ascomycetaceae,
(although a fe are members of the class 2asidiomycetaceae). $any yeasts are
capable of producing ethanol and carbon dio-ide by the anaerobic fermentation of
sugars. Jeasts are composed of approximately 6( per cent #rotein and are a rich
nutritional source of 2 vitamins.
Jeast Autolysis.
Jeast /ream.
Jeast 8ropagator (or 8refermenter).
It is a tan! used for the propagation, or development, of a yeast culture, prior to transfer
to a fermenter. It is normally fitted ith aeration, agitation and cooling devices, and is
designed for ease of cleaning and sterili5ation.
Jeast Cecycle.
Jeast :train.

! 0 !
A member of the 8seudomonadaceae family of bacteria hich is characteri5ed by
being gram negative and non-spore-forming. The genus Nymomonas is distinguished
by its fermentation of sugar to ethanol. The principal species being examined
commercially for fuel!ethanol production is Nymomonas mobilis. It is, hoever,
considered an undesirable contaminant in beverage!alcohol fermentations, in that it
tends to produce hydrogen sulphide from sulphur compounds in the mash, particularly
that derived from molasses.
'istillery ?ocabulary A ?ocabulario de la 'estilerBa
4English to S#anish6
This list has been com#iled for t.o basic reasons)
:" To assist in the translation of re#orts from English to S#anish and
vice versa"
C" To establish a basic vocabulary of the #referred technical terms used
in distilleries in an attem#t to avoid confusion arising from the use of
various different names for the same obDect and various similar names
for dissimilar obDects"
English Es#aEol
acetaldehyde acetaldehOdo
acetic acid Pcido ac>tico
acetobacter acetobacter
acetone acetona
Acid ash lavado Pcido
aguardiente aguardiente (m)
alcohol vapor vapor alcohQlico
aldehydes aldehOdos
antibiotic antibiQtico
as-built draing dibu7o tal como construOdo
autoclave autoclave
English Es#aEol
2.-.#. #.2.-.
bactericide bactericida (m)
balling grado brix
beer vino
beer-stripping column columna de agotamiento de vino
beer preheater precalentador de vino
beer ell tan.ue pulmQn (m)
beerstill destiladora de vino
beerstill product producto intermedio
biological oxygen demand
demanda biolQgica de oxOgeno
boiler caldera
bottoms flo to drain flegmasa
brix brix = grado brix
bubble cap campana
English Es#aEol
/.-.#. #.R.-.
/alcium hypochlorite hipoclorito de calcio
/ane-cutting season 5afra
/arbon steel acero al carbono
caustic cPustico
caustic soda soda cPustica
chemical oxygen demand (/.-.#.) demanda .uOmica de oxOgeno (#.R.-.)
chlorine cloro
chlorine dioxide diQxido de cloro
clarifier clarificador
column columna
column profile perfOl (m) de la columna
condensor condensador (m)
condensor vent venteo del condensador
/ongeners cong>neres = congenericos
cooling toer torre de enfriamiento
copper demister deneblinadora de cobre
English Es#aEol
day tan! tan.ue diario
#eadleg pierna muerta
#ecanter decantador
degrees brix grado brix
#emethyli5er demetili5adora
diluted molasses mosto
#istillery destilerOa
#rum tambor = bidQn
dry yeast levadura seca
English Es#aEol
,.#. column columna hidroselectora
,sters >steres
,thanol etanQl (m)
,ther >ter
ethyl acetate acetato de etOlo
extractive-distillation column columna hidroselectora
English Es#aEol
fermentation batch bache de fermentaciQn
9ermenter fermentador (m)
first .uality product tan!
tan.ue de producto de primera
flame arrester arrestallama
9lange brida
flo diagram flu7ograma
9lometer rotPmetro - (medidor de flu7o)
fusel oil aceite (m) fusel
English Es#aEol
%./. /.%.
gas chromatograph (%./.) cromatQgrafo de gases (/.%.)
English Es#aEol
0eads cabe5as
heads tan! tan.ue de cabe5as
heads concentrating column
columna de concentraciQn de
heads concentrator concentrador de cabe5as
heat exchanger intercambiador de calor
high fusels fuseles altos = aceites altos
0ose manguera
0ydrochloric acid Pcido clorhOdrico
0ydroselection column columna hidroselectora
English Es#aEol
industrial alcohol alcohol industrial
Inoculum inQculo
Intermediate product producto intermedio
iso-amyl alcohol alcohol isoamOlico
iso-butanol isobutanol (m)
Isotan! isotan.ue
English Es#aEol
laboratory technician t>cnico de laboratorio
"agoon piscina de vina5a = laguna de vina5a
lo fusels fuseles ba7os = aceites ba7os
lo ine producto intermedio
English Es#aEol
$.:.#.:. ho7a de datos de seguridad de
$aterial :afety #ata :heet ho7a de datos de seguridad de
$ethanol metanol (m)
$olasses mela5a
molasses mash mosto
molasses sludge lodo de mela5a
English Es#aEol
n-propanol n-propanQl
neutral spirit alcohol neutro
English Es#aEol
octane number Ondice de octana7e
-rganoleptic test prueba organol>ptica
English Es#aEol
8.SI.#. #.T.SI.
p.p.m. p.p.m.
parts per million (p.p.m.) partes por millQn
8enicillin penicilina
8ermanganate time tiempo de barb>t
p0 scale escala p0
8hosphoric acid Pcido fosfQrico
pinch point el punte pinch
8ipefitter tubero
piping and instrumentation
diagrama de tuberOas e
(8.S I.#.) (#.T.I.)
8late plato
pot still alambi.ue (m)
8refermenter prefermentador (m)
production manager gerente de producciQn
production supervisor supervisor de producciQn
8roof grado alcohQlico
8ropagation propagaciQn
8ropagation batch bache de propagaciQn
purge stream flu7o de purga
English Es#aEol
R./. control de calidad
.uality control control de calidad
English Es#aEol
Ceboiler calderOn
Ceceiver tan.ue de producciQn
Cectifier rectificador (m)
recycled yeast levadura reciclada
Ceflux reflu7o
reflux loop vuelta de reflu7o
reflux ratio ra5Qn (f) de reflu7o
residual sugars a5Tcares residuales
Cotameter rotPmetro
Cum rQn (m)
English Es#aEol
:ample muestra
sample valve vPlvula de muestra
scale (deposits) incrustaciQn
shift cre e.uipo de turno
shift supervisor 7efe de turno
shift tan! tan.ue de turno
side streams flemas
sieve tray plato perforado
sodium chlorite clorito de sodio
sodium hydroxide hidrQxido de sodio
:team vapor (m)
:tillage vina5a
storage tan! tan.ue de almacenami>nto
sulphuric acid Pcido sulfTrico
:upplementary column demetili5adora
surge tan! tan.ue de e.uilObrio (m)
English Es#aEol
T.:.A.I. A.C.T.
Tails colas
taste panel pan>l de catadores
temperature averaging bulb sensor promediador de temperatura
test tube probeta
thermal lift system (for fusels)
levantadora a base de vapor (para
total sugars as invert (T.:.A.I.) a5Tcares reductores totales (A.C.T.)
Tray plato
truc! scale balan5a de camiQn
English Es#aEol
urea Trea
English Es#aEol
valve vPlvula
valve tray plato de vPlvulas
vent condensor /ondensador finPl
Vinasse vina5a
Vinegar vinagre
English Es#aEol
ater hyacinths 7acintos de Pgua
English Es#aEol
Jeast "evadura
yeast cells c>lulas de la levadura
yeast cream crema de la levadura
yeast culture cepa de levadura
yeast recycling Cecicla7e de levadura