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Year 11 Chemistry Topic 4 Syllabus Summary Energy

1.1: Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall the raw
materials for this process
Energy used today comes directly/indirectly from the Sun via photosynthesis.
6CO
2(g)
+ 6H
2
O
(l)
C
6
H
12
O
6(aq)
+ 6O
2(g)
Using light energy trapped by chlorophyll, plants combine carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose, a
carbohydrate, and oxygen.
This is an endothermic reaction that absorbs light energy and is changed into chemical potential energy
which is stored within the glucose molecules.
1.2: Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the
important step in the stabilisation of the suns energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as
plants
The chemical energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be made available for use by living
organisms through respiration.
C
6
H
12
O
6(aq)
+ 6O
2(g)
6CO
2(g)
+ 6H
2
O
(l)
+ energy
Carbohydrates in plants are the energy source for animals. Apart from direct absorption of heat,
photosynthesis is the only way in which the natural environment can absorb solar energy.
The amount of energy released during respiration is the same as was absorbed during photosynthesis,
namely 2830kJ per mole of glucose.
1.3: Identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas
The main source of energy today is fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas).
Plants, using the suns energy via photosynthesis, harvest energy from the sun to live and grow, and
animals receive energy by eating plants or other animals.
Usually when a plant or animal dies, it is broken down by decomposing bacteria mainly into CO
2
and H
2
O.
Fossils fuels are substances which were formed by the action of high temperature and high pressure upon
decaying plant and animal matter over millions of years ago.
Instead of being fully decomposed to CO
2
and H
2
O, some plant and animal matter was only partially
decomposed and remained stored in the earth as energy rich compounds fossil fuels:
o Coal
Peat Early stage of coal, porous brown mass of partially decomposed matter, low % (50-
80) of carbon and high % of H
2
O.
Lignite (Brown Coal) Forms when peat is further compressed, about 60-75% carbon.
Bituminous Coal (Black Coal) Denser and drier coal, 80-90% carbon.
Anthracite (Hard Coal) Densest form of coal, 90-95% carbon, low moisture (2-5%).
Coke Artificial form of coal, 100% carbon.
o Crude Oil
Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly derived from the buried remains of
marine organisms.
Crude oil contains such a large variety of hydrocarbons (C
1
- C
100
) that it must be refined
before use through fractional distillation.
o Natural Gas
Natural gas is a mixture of methane (75-90%), ethane (5-10%), propane and butane (3-6%)
and trace amounts of other gases. Generally, ethane, propane and butane are extracted.
The ethane is used in the petrochemical industry while propane and butane are liquefied
under pressure to produce LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas).
1.4: process and present information from secondary sources on the range of compounds found in either
coal, petroleum or natural gas and on the location of deposits of the selected fossil fuel in Australia












2.1: Identify the position of carbon in the Periodic Table and describe its electron configuration

Carbon is in Group 4 of Period 2 and is element 6. It has 4 valence electrons in its outer shell.

2.2: Describe the structure of the diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical
properties in terms of bonding

Diamond
o Diamond is made of carbon atoms covalently bonded throughout a rigid tetrahedral structure.
o Atoms are arranged in buckled/puckered 6 member rings.
o It is extremely hard, is an insulator and has a brilliant lustre.
Graphite
o Graphite is made up of layers of carbon atoms covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms
forming a planar structure.
o Layers of these hexagonal rings are held only by weak dispersion forces.
o The excess electrons form a delocalised electron cloud.
o Graphite is soft and slippery, is a conductor of electricity and is a dull, black colour.
Buckminsterfullerene (known as buckyball)
o Buckyball is made of a spherical structure of carbon atoms covalently bonded to three other carbon
atoms. Standard buckyball has formula C
60
.
o It has some delocalised electrons, but is less reactive than graphite.

2.3: Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms

The large number of carbon compounds present is due to the large variety of carbon-to-carbon bonds.
A single bond, CC is formed when 2 carbon atoms share a pair of electrons. The shared pair of electrons is
called a single bond. The 2 C atoms can rotate freely around the single bond.
A double bond, C=C if formed when 2 carbon atoms share 2 pairs of electrons. The 2 shared pairs of
electrons together form a double bond. The 2 C atoms are held in a planar structure; around the double
bond, rotation is hindered.
A triple bond is formed when 2 carbon atoms share 3 pairs of electrons. The 3 shared pairs of electrons
together form a triple bond. The 2 C atoms are held rigidly with no rotation possible.








2.4: Process and present information from secondary sources on the uses of diamond and graphite and
relate their uses to their physical properties
Diamond:
o Used as jewellery due to their brilliant sparkle and hardness (they cannot be dulled by scratches as
gold and platinum can).
o Used in making drills and cutting implements (e.g. circular saw blades for cutting tiles, bricks and
steel) due to its hardness.
Graphite:
o Used as electrodes in ordinary and alkaline dry-cell batteries due to high electrical conductivity.
o Used as electrodes in extracting aluminium from alumina.
o Used as a dry lubricant (often on door catches in motor cars) and pencils due to its hardness, and its
slipperiness that makes it useful for these purposes (the planar layers slide over one another).


3.1: Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the
uses of each fraction obtained

Crude Oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons formed by geological action on decayed aquatic plant and
animal matter over millions of years.
Oil accumulates under domes of impervious rock hundreds to thousands of meters below the Earths
surface, and has to be refined before it can be used.
The crude oil is heated to about 400C to produce a hot vapour that enters the fractionating tower.
As the vapour rises upwards, it cools down and the fractions with higher boiling points begin to condense
onto horizontal trays, while the other components keep rising upwards until the temperature is sufficiently
low for them to condense.
Thus the higher boiling point components, or those with longer carbon chains, tend to condense near the
bottom while those with lower boiling points, or those with shorter carbon chains, condense at the top of
the fractionating column.







































3.2: Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes from
C1 to C8

PREFIX: Length of carbon chain.
SUFFIX: -ane for alkanes, -ene for alkenes.
SIDE CHAINS:
o CH
3
methyl, CH
2
CH
3
ethyl, CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
propyl, (CH
2
)
3
CH
3
butyl, F fluoro, Cl chloro, Br bromo, I iodo.
STEPS:
o Name the longest C chain.
o Identify side chains and write in alphabetical order
o Multiple side chains indicated using di-, tri-, tetra-, pent- etc
o Number all side chains so that the sum is a minimum.
o In alkenes, the double bond must be names with the lowest number. The side chains are named
relative to the double bond.
Number of Carbon Atom/s Alkane Alkene
1 Methane ------------------------
2 Ethane Ethene
3 Propane Propene
4 Butane Butene
5 Pentane Pentene
6 Hexane Hexene
7 Heptane Heptene
8 Octane Octene

3.3: Compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes C1 to C8 and use the term homologous
series to describe a series with the same functional group
Alkanes (C
n
H
2n+2
)
o The alkanes make up a homologous series. This refers to a family of compounds with the same
functional group, in this case C-C.
o Small alkanes (C
1
- C
4
) are gases.
o Larger alkanes (C
5
- ~C
18
) are colourless liquids.
o Even larger alkanes (C
20
onwards) are waxy solids.
Relatively low MP and BP
MP and BP increase with chain length
Insoluble in water
Low density
Do not conduct electricity
Relatively stable
Alkenes (C
n
H
2n
)
o The alkenes also make up a homologous series with the C=C functional group.
o There is at least one double bond, meaning that at alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
o Simplest alkenes (C
2
C
4
) are gases.
o Larger alkenes (C
5
- ~C
17
) are colourless liquids.
Relatively low MP and BP, lower than alkanes
MP and BP increase with chain length
Insoluble in water
Low density
Do not conduct electricity
More reactive than alkanes
Homologous Series Suffix General Formula Functional group/ Bonding in C series
ALKANE -ane C
n
H
2n+2
Single Bond C - C
ALKENE -ene C
n
H
2n
Double Bond C = C
3.4: Explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point and volatility of the above
hydrocarbons, and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion forces)
Alkanes and alkenes are non-polar, meaning that the only intermolecular force between molecules is the
weak dispersion forces.
As the chain length increases, so does the molecular weight, and the more likely that dispersion forces will
form.
Dispersion forces increase with molecular weight, thus as the chain length increases, so do the melting and
boiling points.
3.5: Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes C1 to C8 in view of their weak
intermolecular forces (dispersion forces)
Alkanes with low molecular weight are extremely flammable and can be toxic at high concentrations.
Liquid alkanes have high volatility they evaporate quickly and form an explosive mixture with air.
Storage:
o Use well maintained cylinders and fittings for gaseous hydrocarbons.
o Add odorous components to help detect leaks (eg methyl-mercaptan).
o Use sturdy containers to store liquids and gases
o Keep away from flames and sparks
o Do not handle in confined spaces
o Keep areas well ventilated and use fume hoods for prolonged use
Transport
o Fuel tank located at the back of vehicle
o Have narrow inlet and outlet pipes
o Store in heavy steel tanks that are well sealed and able to withstand collision.
4.1: Describe the indicators of chemical reactions
Chemical changes involve the production of new materials. When wax is burnt in air (as in a burning candle),
new chemical compounds, such as carbon dioxide and water, are formed. Mixing carbon dioxide and water
does not cause wax and oxygen to re-form.
General indicators of chemical reactions:
o Production of gas bubbles
o Formation of a precipitate
o Formation of new substances
o Permanent change in colour
o Change in temperature
o Change in odour
o Release/absorption of energy
o Process cannot be easily reversed (e.g. electrolysis)

4.2: Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction
It is the process in which a self-sustaining chemical reaction occurs at temperatures above those of the
surroundings simply put, combustion is burning.
The reaction involves a chemical reacting with oxygen to release significant amounts of heat energy an
exothermic reaction.
Burning of coke (Carbon), petrol (Octane) and natural gas (Methane) are examples of combustion reactions.
Being exothermic, during combustion, the enthalpy of the products is less than the enthalpy of the
reactants, i.e. H<0 (in the formulae H = -MCT).

4.3: Outline the changes in molecules during chemical reactions in terms of bond-breaking and bond-
making
Atoms are NOT created nor destroyed during a chemical, they are just rearranged (Law of Conservation of
mass).
Chemical reactions always involve energy changes.
Energy is used/taken in to break bonds so that atoms or ions become available to react and can be
rearranged.
Energy is released when new bonds are formed.
If energy released during bond formation > energy used to split bonds, the reaction is exothermic e.g.
combustion.
If energy released during bond formation < energy used to split bonds, the reaction is endothermic e.g.
electrolysis.

4.4: Explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed
Bond-breaking is an endothermic process as energy must be supplied to break the chemical bonds in
reactants.
Bond-making is an exothermic process as energy is released when particles collide and new bonds are
formed.

4.5: Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy
For a reaction to occur, particles of reactant particles must collide with sufficient energy to disrupt the bonds
of the reactant molecules.
Therefore, before a reaction can occur, an amount of energy known as the activation energy must be
available to reactants to kick-start the reaction.
The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy that reactant molecules must possess in order to
form products.
Unless this minimum collision energy is reached, the colliding molecules will just bounce off each other.

4.6: Describe the energy profile diagram for both endothermic and exothermic reactions
For an exothermic reaction, the enthalpy of the products is less than the enthalpy of the reactants, i.e. H<0.
For an endothermic reaction, the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, i.e.
H>0.
The peak of both diagrams represents the activated complex or transition state.
The enthalpy difference between the reactant enthalpy and the activated complex is the amount of energy
needed for a reaction to occur, known as the activation energy (E
a
).















4.7: Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy
Most fuels do not just spontaneously combust. An energy input or spark is required to start a combustion
reaction.
Ignition temperature of a fuel-air mixture is the minimum temperature to which the mixture must be
heated in order for combustion to occur.
Most common fuels have a high activation energy, which can be thought of as a high activation energy
barrier to reaction, which can only be overcome by a high ignition temperature.
Therefore, the higher the activation energy, the higher the ignition temperature and vice-versa.

4.8: Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and
explain how these can be avoided
Carbon Dioxide:
o When hydrocarbons are completely combusted, or sometimes when incompletely combusted,
carbon dioxide is produced.
o Carbon dioxide is one of the major gases known to contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect (or
global warming).
Carbon Monoxide:
o When incomplete combustion occurs, carbon monoxide may be produced.
o Carbon monoxide binds preferentially to haemoglobin rather than oxygen, reducing the amount of
oxygen being delivered to cells, which can be fatal to humans.
o Formation of carbon monoxide is common in petrol engines where there is not enough oxygen.
o To avoid this problem, one way is to keep the air-to-fuel ratio high.
o In engines this is not practical because it would increase the ignition temperature, so a catalytic
converter in the exhaust system converts CO to CO
2
(equation is given below with oxides of
nitrogen).
Particulate Matter:
o When incomplete combustion occurs, fine particles of soot or ash may be produced.
o They are so small that they do no settle out of the air.
o This causes visibility to decrease as a form of air pollution.
o They also are respiratory irritants and cause damage to plants.
o Also, soot is carcinogenic, and therefore, it is a major cause of cancer.
o These particles can be removed by using electrostatic precipitators, which use high voltage to induce
a charge on particulates, which are then attracted to a positive/negative plate and are removed.
Sulfur dioxide:
o Sulfur dioxide is produced by sulfur impurities in fossil fuels, especially coals, which are released
when they are burnt.
S
(s)
+ O
2 (g)
SO
2 (g)
o SO
2
is a respiratory irritant that causes breathing difficulties.
SO
2 (g)
+ O
2 (g)
2SO
3 (g)

SO
3 (g)
+ H
2
O
(l)
H
2
SO
4 (aq)

o This formation of acid rain causes damage to natural ecosystems and buildings and structures.
Australian coal is in high demand because of its low sulphur content.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NO
x
)
o Nitrogen and oxygen gas do not normally react with each other, but at high temperatures (>1000C)
they will combine to form nitric oxide, which then reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide.
N
2 (g)
+ O
2 (g)
2NO
(g)

2NO
(g)
+ O
2 (g)
2NO
2 (g)

o These reactions occur in the high temperature environment of car engines and power stations,
emitting small amounts of both these gases.
o Nitrogen dioxide causes respiratory difficulties and damages organ tissue.
o However, when sunlight acts on NO
2
producing ozone, this leads to photochemical smog and causes
reduced visibility, eye and respiratory irritation as well as damage to plants and animals.

NO
2 (g)
NO
(g)
+ O
(g)

O
2 (g)
+ O
(g)
O
3 (g)

o Catalytic converters in the exhaust systems of cars can convert NO and CO into N
2
and CO
2
.
2NO
(g)
+ 2CO
(g)
2CO
2 (g)
+ N
2 (g)

4.9: Describe chemical reactions by using full balanced chemical equations to summarise examples of
complete and incomplete combustion
Complete combustion:
C
5
H
12 (l)
+ 8O
2

(g)
5CO
2 (g)
+ 6H
2
O
(g)

Incomplete combustion:
C
5
H
12 (l)
+ 6O
2

(g)
4CO
(g)
+ CO
2 (g)
+ 6H
2
O
(g)
C
5
H
12 (l)
+

O
2

(g)
3C
(s)
+ CO
(g)
+ CO
2 (g)
+ 6H
2
O
(g)
C
5
H
12 (l)
+ 4O
2

(g)
3C
(s)
+ 2CO
(g)
+ 6H
2
O
(g)

5.1: Describe combustion in terms of slow, spontaneous and explosive reactions and explain the
conditions under which these occur

Combustion is a chemical reaction because:
o Light and high levels of heat are released.
o New substances are formed (CO
2
and H
2
O).
o The process cannot be easily reversed.
Combustion reactions proceed at very different rates.
Slow Combustion:
UV
o Occurs when we use big lumps of fuel and limit the supply of air.
o Burning only occurs on the surface of the big lumps and its speed is controlled by the limited supply
of air.
o For example, coal and wood stoves burn for hours due to low surface area of the coal or wood, and
the limited oxygen available inside the stoves.
Spontaneous Combustion:
o There is a large surface area of fuel exposed to an excess of oxygen and there is a good mixing to
stop oxygen concentrations becoming depleted near the surface of the particles.
o Gaseous fuel of vapourised liquid fuel is mixed with excess air and fuel is always in contact with O
2
.
o The gaseous nature of the mixture and the high temperature ensures that combustion proceeds
rapidly.
o An example of fast combustion is in power stations, where ground-up coal is used in excess oxygen.
o The combustion is spontaneous because there is a large surface area and an excess of oxygen
available.
o Another example is burning methane or LPG, which mix well with air since they are gases.
Explosive Combustion:
o An explosion is just an extremely rapid reaction one that goes into completion within a few
microseconds.
o Liquid fuel is injected and vapourised into an excess amount of heated air.
o A spark is used to ignite the heated mixture of petrol and air.
o In most explosive reactions, the reactants are finely divided, existing as vapour, powder or dust,
increasing surface area and thus rate of reaction.
o An example of explosive combustion is in car engines where a spark is used to ignite a heated
mixture of fuel and air.
5.2: Explain the importance of collisions between reacting particles as a criterion for determining
reaction rates
For a reaction to occur, the reactant particles (atoms, molecules, ions) must react with sufficient energy to
overcome activation energy barrier.
Anything that increases the rate of these particle collisions will increase the rate of reaction.
Concentration
o An increase in reactant concentration means that there is an increase in the number of reactant
particles per unit volume.
o This will lead to an increased chance of collisions, leading to an increase in the number of collisions
per unit time.
o Although the same proportion of these reactions will be successful (given that nothing else is
changed), the greater rate of collisions results in a greater number of successful collisions.
o This increases the rate of reaction.
Surface Area
o Surface area is an important factor for heterogeneous reactions.
o If the surface area of a reactant is increased, more of the reactant molecules are exposed to
collision.
o Since particles must collide to react, this will lead to an increased rate of reaction.
Temperature
o An increase in temperature leads to an increase in the average kinetic energy of particles.
o Although the increased velocities of the particles lead to a greater rate of collision, the increase in
rate of reaction due to this is small.
o Temperature affects reactions mainly because a higher proportion of reactant particles will have
energy above activation energy.
o This means that a greater proportion of collisions will be successful collisions, leading to an increase
in the rate of reaction.
Breaking big lumps of solid into smaller pieces:
o This increases the surface area of the solid and consequently, the rate of collision increases as more
particles of the solid are exposed, increasing the rate of reaction.
Stirring:
o Keeps the solid suspended in the solution or gas and exposes the maximum surface area of the solid
to the solute or gas.
o For reactions in a solution, stirring quickly replaces the solution in which the reactant has been used
up with a fresh solution, so that there is always plenty of solute for the solid to react with.
5.3: Explain the relationship between temperature and the kinetic energy of particles
Not all particles in a sample have the same amount of kinetic energy.
Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample.
As the temperature increases, not only does the average kinetic energy increase, but the proportion of
reactant particles with sufficient kinetic energy to react is increased, resulting in rate of collisions increasing,
causing an increase in the rate of reaction.
5.4: Describe the role of catalysts in chemical reactions, using a named industrial catalyst as an example
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by providing an alternative pathway with lower
activation energy.
They speed up a reaction without being consumed.
H stays the same for the catalysed and uncatalysed reactions.
The catalyst my change chemically during part of the reaction but is chemically, always the same at the end
of the reaction as it was at the beginning.
Examples of industrial catalysts:
o Zeolites, which are porous aluminosilicate compounds that are used in the catalytic cracking of
hydrocarbons to turn longer chains of hydrocarbons into petrol.
o Magnetite, an iron-iron oxide catalyst is made by heating Fe
3
O
4
with small amounts of potassium
oxide, calcium oxide and aluminium oxide.
The mixture is ground to a powder, reducing some of the magnetite to elemental iron,
leaving a highly porous catalyst with large surface area.
o The manufacture of nitric oxide, NO, by the Ostwald process is an important step in the industrial
manufacture of nitric acid.
The first step of this process used a platinumrhodium catalyst.
Because the catalyst and reactants are in different phases, this process is an example of
heterogeneous catalysis.
The initial reaction is catalytic oxidation of ammonia: 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)

5.6: Explain the role of catalysts in changing the activation energy and hence the rate of chemical
reaction
Catalysts are substances used to increase rate of reaction without being consumed in the net reaction, thus
they do not change the H of a reaction.
The catalyst allows the reaction to occur with less collision energy required, lowering the activation energy
barrier required for a reaction.
As a result, a greater proportion of reactant collisions will be successful and the rate of reaction will increase.
Homogeneous catalysts are usually in the same state as the reactants.
o They work throughout the bulk of the gas or aqueous solution.
Heterogeneous catalysts are usually in a different state to the reactants.
o They provide a surface on which the reaction occurs more rapidly than it does in the reaction
mixture.
o Reactant particles are adsorbed onto the surface of the catalyst this weakens or breaks the
chemical bonds.
o Reaction occurs and then the product particles are desorbed.

5.7: Process information from secondary sources to investigate the conditions under which explosions
occur and relate these to the importance of collisions between reacting particles
Explosions occur when reactions become extremely rapid.
This usually happens when there is good contact between reactant particles and when the reaction is highly
exothermic with high activation energy.
Once the reaction is initiated, it liberates energy, which heats up the reaction mixture.
This makes the reaction go faster, releasing energy more quickly, so there is an extremely rapid escalation in
temperature and reaction rate, causing an explosion.
In order for the rate to increase in this way, there must be a good supply of oxygen available to the fuel,
otherwise the fall in concentration of one reactant (oxygen) will slow down the reaction.
Large lumps of fuel such as coal rarely explode because they rapidly use up the oxygen available at their
surfaces.
However, very small particles of flammable material dispersed through a volume of air have great potential
for causing explosions.
The total surface area of the particles is large and each particle has a ready supply of oxygen available.

5.8: Analyse information and use the available evidence to relate the conditions under which explosions
occur to the need for safety in work environments where fine particles mix with air
It is important to ensure that there can be no build-up of concentrations of flammable particles.
Formation of flammable dust should be minimised, and what does form must be efficiently removed from
the air.
Dust from obvious fuels such as coal that provides a risk, as well as dust from anything that can burnfrom
handling grain such as wheat, or from processing fibres and textiles such as paper and cotton.