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Frank Parsons (1909)
*Founder of Modern Career

*His assessment and interview
process established the format
for career counseling (Holland,

*Personal record and self-
analysis questionnaire

*Poineered approaches to
individualized career counseling
and advancing social justice
through career development
work (OBrien, 2001)

*His work was the first
conceptual framework for career
decision making and became the
first guide for career counselors
(Brown and Brooks, 1996)

*Greatly influenced the study of
job descriptions and job
requirements in an attempt to
predict future job success from
the measurement of traits that
are job-related (Zunker, 1994).

* Greatest contribution is the
development of many
assessment instruments and
techniques and occupational
information (Isaacson & Brown,
*Emanate out of the logical positivists worldview that relies on
measurement and objective data that is interpreted by an expert, on
that basis, also makes predictions.

*Founded on the notion that individuals are different and that their
different capacities can be measured and related to occupations.

*Choosing an occupation involves trying to match an individual to a
job so that their needs will be met and their job performance will be
satisfactory (Brown, 1990).

Brown (1987) noted that traits relatively stable and he described five (5)
characteristic of trait and factor:
1. Traits are not independent of each other and there are interaction
between them which leads to behavior patterns, however, the links
remain unclear.
2. The placed on quantification of data placed on trait and factor
theorists and the objective use of inventories, tests and other measures.
3. External validation, where individuals are compared with reference
groups in particular work environments.
4. Interactive nature of trait and factor theory and the influence of the
environment on the personalities of the individuals and in turn, their
influence on the environment as they try to satisfy their needs.
5. The average or typical individual has the innate ability to make
adequate decisions if personal and environmental data are available to
him or her.

*Portrayed career decision-making as a cognitive process.

*Career choice was viewed as a single, static, point in time event.

*Parsons maintains that personal counsel is fundamental to the
career search.

*Three (3) elements of career selection:
1. Self knowledge: A clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes,
abilities and interest, resources, limitations and other qualities.
2. World of work: Knowledge of the requirements and conditions
for success, advantages and disadvantages,
compensation,opportunities and prospects, in different lines of
3. True reasoning of the relations of these two groups: cognitive
processes and analytical skills are fundamentals t career selection.

Trait and Factor: refers to the assessment of the person and the
job (Sharf, 1992)

Trait: individual characteristics which can be measured through

Factor: characteristics required for successful job performance

Seven (7) stages for a career
counselor to work through with
1. Personal data: create a
statement of key facts about
the person, remembering to
include every fact that has
bearing on the vocational
2. Self-analysis: a self-
examination is done in private
and under the instruction of
the counselor. Every tendency
and interest that might impact
on the choice of a life work
should be recorded.
3. The clients own choice
and decision: this may show
itself in the first two stages.
The counselor must bear in
mind that the choice of
vocation should be made by
the client, with the counselor
acting as guide.
4. Counselors analysis: the
counselor tests the clients
decision to see if it is in line
with the main quest.
5. Outlook on the
vocational field: the
counselor should be familiar
with industrial knowledge
such as lists and
classifications of industries
and vocations, in addition to
locations of training and
6. Induction and advice: a
broad-minded attitude
coupled with logical and clear
reasoning are critical at this
7. General helpfulness: the
counselor helps the client to
fit into the chosen work, and
to reflect on the decision.
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David V. Tiedeman and David
O'Hara (1963)

*Developed a decision-
making model which
attempted to combine personal
awareness with appropriate
external information.

*They believed that the role and
process of personal choice and
decision making was absent
from the existing theories of
career development.

*Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman
(1990) state that their theory
does not predict the behavior of
individuals; instead, it".. . is a
value-functioning model that
allows a person to put his or her
own decision-making activity
into perspective for himself or
herself (personal reality)"

*Do not believe individuals need to go through all steps in order;
instead, they suggest that some steps may occur simultaneously and
that decisions may be reversed.

*Believe that the process of career development occurs through a
continual process of differentiation and reintegration. The
process of occupational change, and change in general, permits
opportunities for differentiation and reintegration.

*Suggest that a key task for individuals is to separate personal realities
from common realities.
1. Personal realities - are defined as acts, thoughts, behaviors, or
directions that people feel are right for them.
2. Common realities - are what society tells people to do.

*Postulate that an awareness of decision making is related to career

*Believe that the language people use to describe their careers mirrors
their beliefs about themselves (Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman, 1990).

*"Comprehension of the 'lightness' of one's personal reality arises from
the evolution of consistency in one's words and actions" (Miller-
Tiedeman & Tiedeman, 1990).

*Believe that people are self-organizing systems, capable of creating
their own realities and acting on their worlds. "Self-construction and-,
career making are fashioning life as you want itseeing yourself as the
designer and builder of your life" (Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman, 1990).

*Believe that humans are prone to imprisoning themselves in the status
quo instead of developmentally freeing their spirit to soar in the realms
of what might be. To enter the realm of what 'might be,' they suggest
that individuals need to move into the self-aware level of ego
development and utilize "I " power (Miller-Tiedeman & Tiedeman, 1990).

*Suggest that people's entire lives are their careers and that, if they
become adept at listening to their own personal wisdom rather than
societal dictates, they will be prepared for whatever career changes are
to come (Miller-Tiedeman & Tiedeman, 1990).

*Emphasis on the subjective and intuitive elements within career
decision making adds a different perspective to the theories of career
development; postulate that participation in the workplace results in new
challenges (Miller-Tiedeman & Tiedeman, 1990).

Two phases:
1. Anticipation phase: refers to the stages prior to action, and
includes four stages:
a. Exploration - people investigate possible educational,
occupational, and personal alternatives.
b. Crystallization - begins as individuals attempt to organize,
evaluate, and synthesize information about themselves and the
world of work. Thoughts begin to stabilize and distinctions
between the alternatives occur.
c. As crystallization takes place, a choice or a decision follows.
The degree of clarity, complexity, and freedom available affect the
level of motivation and the certainty of carrying through.
d. Clarification - the client begins to formulate a plan for
carrying out his or her choice.

2. Accommodation phase - reflects the stages individuals
encounter after beginning to implement a decision and is
comprised of three stages. As clients begin to implement their
choices, they come into contact with people and the realities of
the settings they enter.
a. Induction - during this stage, people are receptive to learning
from others to ensure their behavior meets the standards of the
environment. After successfully moving through the induction
stage, people become less receptive to learning and more
b. Reformation - people begin to influence their environment.
c. Integration - the final stage, people experience an integration
or a synthesis of their goals with the goals of others in the
environment. The outcome is a sense of equilibrium and a
coherent sense of purpose.

1. Differentiation - is a matter of separating experiences.
2. Integration - is a matter of structuring them into a more
comprehensive whole.

Hierarchical structuring - is what happens when a new and
more comprehensive whole is formed from the continuous
separating and merging that go on daily and momentarily with
each of us (Miller-Tiedeman & Tiedeman, 1990).

Life Career - reflect the idea that life is career and career is life;
emphasizes purpose, not work (Miller-Tiedeman, 1988).

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Anne Roe (1956)

*Focuses on early relations with
the family and their subsequent
influence in career choice.

*Major contribution appears to
be her emphasis on of the
impact childhood experiences on
career development and her job
classification system.

*Inspired by Maslow's hierarchy
of needs, Roe incorporated the
psychological needs that
develop out of parent-child
interactions in her
conceptualization of personality.

*Provide the perspective of the
family as a system which
provides a framework for
understanding the transmission
of social
influences (Bordin,1994).
*Two of her key propositions were that, first, occupation is potentially
the most powerful source of individual satisfaction at all levels of need;
and second, that social and economic status depends more on the
occupation of an individual than upon anything else (Roe, 1957).

*Identified a number of other variables affecting career choice and
assigned them weights of importance. These variables included: gender,
the state of the economy, family background, education, physical
impairments, friends and chance. This was significant in that it
recognized that there are many different variables affecting a person's
choice of occupation and that these variables carry different weight over

*Occupations could be arranged along a continuum based on the
intensity and nature of the interpersonal relationships involved in the
occupational activities and in an order that would have contiguous
groups more alike than non-contiguous ones.

*Classified occupation into two (2) major categories:
1. Person oriented
2. Non-person oriented

*Three (3) Types of Parenting Style:
1. Emotional Concentration - Parents in this category are
overprotective or too demanding. The overprotected child learns
to follow the rules and becomes dependent upon the approval of
others for self-esteem. The child with too-demanding parents
learns that high standards must be met to receive approval and
therefore tends to become a perfectionist.
2. Avoidance - Parents in this category range from those who
neglect their children to those who reject them. These children
believe they lack value because their basic needs are ignored.
3. Accepting - These are parents who accept their children as
they are and meet both their physical and psychological needs.
These children learn that they have intrinsic value, which is not
dependent upon their performance.

Eight (8) Occupational Groups:
1. Service
2. Business contact
3. Organization
5. Outdoor
6. Science
7. General culture
8. Arts and entertainment

Six (6) Occupational Levels based upon degree of responsibility,
capacity and skill:
1. Professional and managerial with independent responsibility
2. Professional and managerial
3. Semiprofessional and small business
4. Skilled
5. Semiskilled
6. Unskilled

Robert Hoppock (1976)

*Stressed the function of the job
in satisfying personal needs.

*Vocational development begins
with the first awareness that a
job can help meet ones needs
and continues as the person is
better able to anticipate how
10 Basic Postulates
1. Everyone has needs: basic physical needs and higher-order
psychological needs. People vary in the pattern of their need structures,
and individual reaction to needs influences occupational choice.
2. People tend to gravitate toward occupation that serves their perceived
needs. Few people are controlled by a single need; most people have a
variety of need that act in concert to influence occupational choice.
3. Individuals do not necessarily have to have a clear intellectual
awareness of their needs for those needs to affect an occupational
choice. Individuals with self-understanding and insight may understand
the forces that influence them, and others may simply experience
pleasure or satisfaction in certain occupational areas.
Counselors Role:
1. Stimulate the clients self-
awareness of interest and needs,
including the clarification of values.
2. Promote insight into what gives
life a personal meaning.
3. Provide accurate and complete
occupational information.
4. Help match the clients
perceived strength and
weaknesses with occupations likely
to provide maximum satisfaction.
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potentially satisfying a particular
career could as compared to

*Once a person becomes aware
of other jobs that could satisfy
personal needs, then
occupational choices are subject
to change.

*The degree of job satisfaction
can be determined by assessing
the difference between what a
person wants from the job and
what he or she has attained.

4. Life experiences help to develop a pattern of individual occupational
preference and as such suggest a developmental perspective in
occupational guidance. Contact with occupations occurs experientially
and vicariously, supporting the need for both work or occupational
experiences and occupational information, especially during the years of
formative development.
5. Given a great diversity of occupational choices, the individual must
develop effective decision-making skills based on solid self-awareness
and a rich informational base. A trial-and-error process of occupational
experimentation is usually not appropriate.
6. Self-understanding is the basis on which occupational choices rests,
thus it is the primary goal of career counseling.
7. Understanding the self is only half of the occupational choice process;
one must also have a thorough information about available occupations.
A person cannot choose a career without knowledge that it exists.
Likewise, accurate information dispels stereotypes and myths about the
activities involved in various types of work.
8. When a persons needs are met by a job, then he or she experiences
job satisfaction.
9. Individuals can delay need satisfaction if they perceive their job as
having the potential to satisfy their needs in the future.
10. If the balance between needs and satisfaction is unfavourable, then
a worker will change jobs if another position appears to offer the
potential to meet needs more fully.
Norman Gysbers & Moore

*Proposed the concept of life
career development in an
effort to expand and extend
career development from an
occupational perspective to a life
perspective in which
occupation (and work) has place
and meaning.

*Later, Gysbers, Heppner, and
Johnston (2003) changed the
factor name of religion to
spiritualityand added the new
factors of social class and sexual

*The major purpose in using a life career development perspective in
counseling is to provide clients and counselors with real-world language
to identify, sort out, and understand the complexities and dynamics of
clients problems, issues, and concerns.

*McDaniels and Gysbers (1992) added the factors of gender, ethnic
origin, religion, and race to the life career development perspective.
These factors were added to underscore their importance in shaping
human behaviour and to provide individuals with greater explanatory
power to understand their life career development.

Life Career Development - self-development over the life span
through the integration of the roles, settings, and events of a
persons life.

*The word life in life career development meant that the focus
was on
the total personthe human career.

*The word career identified andrelated the roles in which
individuals were involved (worker, learner,family, citizen), the
settings where individuals found themselves (home, school,
community, workplace), and the events that occurred over their
lifetimes (entry job, marriage, divorce, retirement).

*Finally, the word development was used to indicate that
individuals are always in the process of becoming.
*The life career development
perspective can help counselors
identify and interpret clients
internal thought and feelings using
real- world language (life roles, life
settings, life events) that can
elucidate clients thoughts and
feelings that once were jumbled
and confused.

Step in Managing School Guidance
and Conseling Program
1. Planning
2. Designing
3. Implementing
4. Evaluating
5. Enhancing

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John L. Holland (1959)

*Conceptualised as a trait and
factor theory and remains in
the tradition of differential
psychology (Weinrach &
Srebalus, 1990).

*Provides a parallel way of
describing people and
environments by classifying
them according to six types
(Gottfredson & Richards, 1999).

*Major proponent of the person
environment fit approach,
despite being classified as a trait
and factor theory.
*Assumption: vocational interests are one aspect of personality, and
therefore a description of an individuals vocational interests is also a
description of the individuals personality (Weinrach & Srebalus, 1990).

*Claimed that jobs change people, and people change jobs (Holland,

*Propositions ((Holland, 1997):
1. In our culture, most persons can be categorized as one of six types:
Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, or Conventional.
2. There are six model environments: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic,
Social, Enterprising, or Conventional.
3. People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills
and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable
problems and roles.
4. Behavior is determined by an interaction between personality and

*Claimed that by late adolescence most people can be
characterised according to their resemblance to these types
(Nauta, 2013).

*Represented diagrammatically using a hexagon which provides a
visual representation of the relationships between the personality or
occupational type.

*Claimed that individuals seek out work environments which are
compatible with their attitudes and values and allow them to use their
skills and abilities, a corollary of which is that people in similar jobs will
have similar personalities.

*Behaviour is determined by interaction between the individual and the
environment and determines factors such as job satisfaction, stability
and achievement, educational choice, and personal competence and
susceptibility to influence.

*Suggested that childrens biological dispositions in interaction with their
early life experiences produce learned preferences for some activities
and not others. These preferences in combination with learned skills and
competencies shape values, beliefs and styles (Gottfredson, 1999).

*Individuals develop preferences for certain activities as a result of their
interaction with cultural and personal forces including peers,
biological heredity, parents, social class, culture, and the
physical environment (Holland, 1992), and that these preferences
become interests in which individuals develop competencies.

*Personality types are indicated by choice of school subjects, hobbies,
leisure activities and work, and vocational interests and choices are
reflected by personality.
*Categorises people into one of six broad types of personality:
1. Realistic (R) - has practical abilities and would prefer to work
with machines or tools rather than people: mechanic; farmer;
builder; surveyor; pilot
2. Investigative (I) - analytical and precise; good with detail;
prefers to work with ideas; enjoys problem solving and research:
chemist; geologist; biologist; researcher
3. Artistic ( A ) - artistic or creative ability; uses intuition and
imagination for problem solving: musician; artist; interior
decorator; writer; industrial designer
4. Social ( S ) - good social skills; friendly and enjoys involvement
with people and working in teams: nurse; teacher; social worker;
psychologist; counsellor
5. Enterprising ( E ) - leadership, speaking and negotiating
abilities; likes leading others towards the achievement of a goal:
salesperson; television producer; manager; administrative
assistant; lawyer
6. Conventional ( C ) - systematic and practical worker; good at
following plans and attending to detail: banker; secretary;

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Donald Super

*According to Super, self-concept changes over time, and develops as
a result of experience.

*As such, career development is lifelong.

*Super argues that occupational preferences and competencies, along
with an individuals life situations, all change with time and experience.

*Super developed the concept of vocational maturity, which may or
may not correspond to chronological age: people cycle through each of
these stages when they go through career transitions.

*People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can
express themselves and further implement and develop their self-

*According to Super, our interactions with the social environment
influence our personal expectations and goals.

*Career self-concept, according to Super, is a product of the interaction
of your personality, interests, experiences, skills, and values and of the
ways in which you integrate these characteristics into your various life
Supers Five Life and Career Development Stages
1. Growth - birth-14: Development of self-concept, attitudes,
needs and general world of work
2. Exploration - 14-24: "Trying out" through classes, work
hobbies. Tentative choice and skill development. It has three
major developmental tasks:
a. crystallizing - career dreaming occurs
b. specifying - narrowing down career aspirations to a few options
worthy of more detailed exploration
c. implementing a career choice
3. Establishment - 25-44: Entry-level skill building and
stabilisation through work experience
4. Maintenance - 45-64: Continual adjustment process to
improve position
5. Decline/Disengagement 65+: Reduced output, prepare for

Eli Ginzberg 1951

*Studied the theories of
vocations and concluded that
the occupational choice is a

*Stated in his theory that the vocational choice is a process that
undergoes the above said 3 stages-Fantasy, Tentative and Realistic
*He has divided the process of vocation choice into 3 stages.
These stages or levels are as follows:
1. Fantasy stage - He has said that the vocational development
process starts right from the child's birth and it goes on life-long.
The study of vocational development is possible only from the
child's age of 7 years. The period of fantasy is the child's age of
11 years.
2. Tentative Choice Stage - The age of tentative choices ranges
from 11 to 17 years. According to Ginzberg, the tentative
choices stage can also be divided into 3 sub-stages. These sub-
stages are:
a. Interest Stage: At this stage, the child develops its interests.
b. Capacity Stage: After the development of interest stage, the
child starts paying attention towards his capacities.
c. Value Stage:After the capacity stage, the child studies his
values and analysis.
3. Realistic Choice - The age above 17 is known as the age of
realistic choice. He has divided this stage into 3 sub-stages. These
sub-stages are:
a. Exploration Stage: At this stage, the child explores various
vocations as first of all.
b. Crystalisation Stage: This is the second stage where the
child decides about his likings, i.e., at this stage the child, after
exploring various vocations, decides in which path he is to move.
c. Specification Stage: This is the last stage where the child
adopts the specific group of occupation.

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David Bordin (1990)

*Synthesizes previous
applications of psychodynamic
theory to career choice.

*Bordin turned to
development in early
childhood to account for
work motivation, and in
particular focused on the
development of personality.

*Emphasis is on the
development of personality in
relation to the role of work
and play in an individuals life.

*Essentially, Bordin suggested that people seek work which they find
intrinsically interesting or from which they can derive pleasure (Lent &
S.D. Brown, 2013, p. 3).

*Basic tenet: individuals seek enjoyment in work as in other areas of
their lives.

*Individuals express their need for play in work as in other areas of their
lives by looking for something they will enjoy doing.

*Bordin claimed that in young children play and work are fused, and that
through the process of development and socialization, play and work
become demarcated.

*A process of socialization and external pressures from parents and
caretakers (p. 107) affects how an individual distinguishes play from
*Bordin (1990)claimed that overemphasis on analysis, activation
of self-consciousness, and overambition may be intimately tied
to failures to fuse work and play.

*It is also during these early years that individuals build a unique
identity,drawing to some extent from the influences of their parents.

*He acknowledged the influence of biologically and culturally determined
sex roles in identity development, as well as the level of parental support
and nurturance, and the need to be unique from but connected to

*Bordin claimed that development is largely an unconscious
process where the individual draws from aspects of both parents as well
as the extended family.

*Acknowledged the interaction of a number of influences, including
economic, cultural, geographic, biological and accidental factors, and in
turn their influence on personality.

*Emphasis in career counselling focuses much more on the individual
striving for inner meaning. He advocated the use of guided fantasy,
dreams, examining life histories, and imaginative approaches.

*Work can be seen as a sublimation of infantile impulses into socially
acceptable behavior (Bordin, 1990).

*Proposed that play is intrinsically satisfying, and it is the
satisfaction of simply engaging in an activity which distinguishes
play from work.

*He accounted for this demarcation in terms of spontaneity,
which is used to refer to elements of self-expression and self-
realization in our responses to situations (Bordin, 1990, p. 105).

*Extreme effort converts spontaneity into compulsion, that
is, activities are performed out of a need or compulsion to do
them rather than out of an intrinsic desire to do them because
they are enjoyable.

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Linda Gottfredson 1981

*Attempts to describe how
career choice develops in young

*Circumscription and
Compromise focuses on the
development of an individuals
view of the occupational choices

*Assumes that we build a cognitive map of occupations by picking
up occupational stereotypes from those around us.

*Occupations are placed on this map using only a small number of
dimensions: sex-type, prestige level and field of work.

*As young people build this map, they begin to decide which occupations
are acceptable and which are unacceptable those which fit with their
own developing self concept and those which do not.

*Proposes that when people are forced to compromise their career
choices, they are more likely to compromise first on field of work, then
on social level and lastly on sex-type as the amount of compromise

Circumscription - ruling out unacceptable options based on their
perceived fit with ones developing self-concept. In the early stages
this filtering process is quite crude and inaccurate, but it is lasting.
1. Orientation to size and power (age 35). Children become
aware that adults have roles in the world. They realise that they
will eventually become adults and take on roles for themselves.
2. Orientation to sex roles (age 68). Children begin to
categorise the world around them with simple concrete
distinctions. They become aware of the more recognisable job
roles and begin to assign them to particular sexes. They will start
to see jobs which do not match their gender identity as
3. Orientation to social values (age 913). By now children
have encountered a wider range of job roles and are capable of
more abstract distinctions. They begin to classify jobs in terms of
social status (income, education level, lifestyle, etc.) as well as
sex-type. Based on the social environment in which they develop
they will begin to designate some
jobs as unacceptable because they fall below a minimum status
level (tolerable level boundary) and some higher status jobs as
unacceptable because they represent too much effort or risk of
failure (tolerable effort boundary).
4. Orientation to internal, unique self (age 14+). Until this
point circumscription has been mainly an unconscious process. As
entry into the adult world approaches young people engage in a
conscious search of the roles still remaining in their social space.
In this process they use increasingly complex concepts such as
interests, abilities values, work-life balance and personality to
exclude options which do not fit with their self image and identify
an appropriate field of work.

Compromise - In this stage, individuals may be inclined to
sacrifice roles they see as more compatible with their self-concept
in favour of those that are perceived to be more easily accessible.
In this they are often limited by their lack of knowledge about how
to access certain roles because of lack of information, lack of
know-how and appropriate tactics, and lack of helpful social

John D. Krumboltz, 1976
*Learning takes place through observations as well as through direct

*Simplify the process of career selection; based primarily on life events
influential in determining career selection

*Individual learning experiences over the life span develop the primary
influences that lead to career choice:
s and performance in
relation to learned standards

*4 Factors of Career Development:
1. Genetic endowments and special abilities
Inherited qualities that may set limits on individual career
2. Environmental conditions and events
Factors of influence that are often beyond the individuals control
Certain events and circumstances influence skills development,
activities, and career preferences
3. Learning experiences
Instrumental learning experiences and associative learning
Counselors should address the
following problems:
remediable problem exists
make decisions or solve problems
alternative for inappropriate
inappropriate reasons
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-entry behavior such as applying for a job or selecting an
education or training institution

*Assisting individuals to understand fully the validity of their beliefs is a
major component of the social learning model

Negative and positive reactions to pairs of previously neutral
4. Task approach skills
Sets of kills the individual has developed, such as problem-
solving skills, work habits, metal sets, emotional response, and
cognitive responses
Modified as a result of desirable or undesirable experiences

Happenstance (Krumboltz, Mitchell, & Levin)
negative consequences
chance events over the life span are to be recognized as important
influences in clients lives

over perceived inability to achieve
Ren Dawis, 1964

*This is sometimes referred to
as the PersonEnvironment

*The more closely a persons abilities (skills, knowledge, experience,
behaviours, etc.) correspond with the requirements of the role or the
organisation, the more likely it is that they will perform the job well and
perceived as satisfactory by the employer.

*Similarly, the more closely the reinforcers (rewards) of the role or
organisation correspond to the values that a person seeks to satisfy
through their work, the more likely it is that the person will perceive the
job as

*The degrees of satisfaction and satisfactoriness are seen as predictors
of the likelihood that someone will stay in a job, be successful at it and
receive advancement.

*The theory acknowledges that the correspondence between person and
environment may not be perfect perhaps because the person chose
the wrong career or the employer chose the wrong candidate. Even a
good correspondence
may change over time.

*The persons skills might develop so that they outgrow their role or
their priorities may change because of non-work commitments.
*The flexibility of a person or an environment will determine the extent
to which they can tolerate any lack of correspondence between abilities
and requirements and/or values and reinforcers. Flexibility will vary from
individual to individual and from environment to environment. Internal
factors, such as personality or organisational culture, will influence the
level of flexibility, as will external factors, such as the availability of
alternative options. When the lack of correspondence is so great that
flexibility is no longer viable, some form of adjustment often takes place.

They list six key values that individuals seek to satisfy:
1. Achievement - conditions that encourage accomplishment and
2. Comfort - conditions that encourage lack of stress
3. Status - conditions that provide recognition and prestige
4. Altruism - conditions that foster harmony and service to others
5. Safety conditions that establish predictability and stability
6. Autonomy conditions that increase personal control and

*Active adjustment by the individual involves them trying to
change their working environment. They may seek to
change the content of the job, and therefore its behaviour
requirements, to better reflect their abilities. Alternatively,
they may try to alter the reinforcements of the job by seeking to
gain different rewards, e.g. better working conditions
or greater variety or responsibility. Active adjustment by the
environment may involve trying to change the persons
abilities through training or trying to change their values or
expectations in some way.

*Reactive adjustment may involve the individual trying to
change their behaviours to better suit the environment or by
changing their personal priorities or work values. Similarly, the
environment may change the responsibilities of a
role to better suit the natural strengths of the individual or change
the rewards to attempt to increase job

Persistence is defined as the extent to which individuals or
environments will keep trying to adjust before giving up. When no
further adjustment is possible, something more dramatic happens
the person leaves the job or they are fired.

Page 10 of 12

Duane Brown

*D. Browns theory is indicative
of the significant shift that has
taken place in theorizing about
career development and
recognition that career theory
focused too much on
Eurocentric values (verko,
Babarovi, & verko, 2008) such
as individualism, future time
orientation, moderate need for
self-control, emphasis on
activity, and a core belief that
humans should dominate
nature (D. Brown, 2003, p. 48).

Browns (1996) contribution to
career development is threefold:
1. he has drawn attention to
values, an important concept in
career development which had
previously received little in
depth attention.
2. he forged important links
between the positivist approach
of trait and factor theory and
more recent approaches to
career counselling, and to some
extent demonstrates how they
can co-exist.
3. he raised awareness of
cultural sensitivity in the career
counselling process
*Values are central.

*Emphasises the importance of a particular trait, values, D. Browns
theory also acknowledges the concept of development and the broader
context in which individuals exist.

*Claimed that career theory has all but ignored ethnic and cultural
minorities (D. Brown, 2002) and in his later work focused on both work
values and cultural values.

*Claimed that expected outcomes are the most important source
of motivation in decision-making, and that individuals decide on the
basis of values which outcomes are more important than others, that is
values form the basis for attributing worth to situations and objects
(Brown & Crace, 1996).

*Browns (2003) subsequent theoretical statements, describes eight (8)
propositions which reflect the incorporation of propositions related to
cultural values into his theory.

*Eight (8) propositions listed in D. Brown (2002), while Brown (2003)
lists seven (7):
1. Highly prioritized work values are the most important determinants of
career choice for people who value individualism if their values are
crystallized and prioritised;
2. Individuals who hold collective social values and come from families
and/or groups who hold the same social value either defer to the wishes
of the group or family members or are heavily influenced by them in the
occupational decision-making process;
3. When taken individually, cultural values regarding activity (doing,
being, being-in-becoming) do not constrain the occupational decision-
making process;
4. Because of differing values systems, males and females and people
from differing cultural groups enter occupations at varying rates;
5. The process of choosing an occupation involves a series of estimates
of ones abilities and values, skills and abilities required to be successful
in a particular occupation, and the work values that the occupational
alternatives will satisfy;
6. Occupational success is related to job-related skills acquired in formal
and informal educational settings, job-related aptitudes and skills, SES,
participation in the work role and the extent to which discrimination is
experienced, regardless of the social relationship value held; and
7. Occupational tenure is partially the result of the match between the
cultural and work values of the worker, supervisors and colleagues.

*Browns eighth proposition which is not presented in his 2003 work
relates to the primary bases for job satisfaction. In essence, he proposed
different bases for people with an individualist social value compared
with those who hold a collective social value.

*Values - beliefs that are experienced by the individual as
standards regarding how he or she should function (Brown,

*Intra-role conflict occurs when the values of the individual are
not reinforced in the workplace, for example a worker may have
different values from his/her supervisor (Brown & Crace, 1996).

Inter-role conflict occurs when the current job is in conflict with
another role, for example, when a less satisfying role
(work) takes time away from a more satisfying role, parenting
(Brown & Crace, 1996).

Life Values Inventory (LVI) was developed (Crace & Brown,
2002) and is freely available online. Designed for both adolescents
and adults to assist in decisions about life roles, the LVI measures
the 14 life values of Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the
Environment, Concern for others, Creativity, Financial prosperity,
Health and activity, Humility, Independence, Interdependence,
Objective analysis, Privacy, Responsibility and Spirituality.

*Fundamental to Browns theory (1996) is the concept that each
person develops a relatively small number of values which
dictate cognitive, affective, and behavioral patterns

*Individuals are exposed to values laden messages throughout
their lives from a variety of sources including family, friends and
the media.

*Values develop as a result of the interaction between
inherited characteristics and experience (Brown, 1996).

*Cultural background, gender, and socioeconomic status
influence opportunities and social interaction and thus there is
variation of values both within and between subgroups of society.

*As values are formed they become crystallized in the mind of
the individual and prioritized, and the extent to which this occurs
relates to cognitive clarity (Brown, 1996).

*Values are said to be crystallized when they can be labelled
and articulated by an individual which enables them to judge
their own behaviour and compare themselves with others (Brown,

*Brown and Crace (1996) claimed that individuals who are
described as high functioning people have values which are
well crystallized and prioritized.

*Values with high priorities are the most important determinants

Page 11 of 12

*Five (5) assumptions of values-based approach to career counselling:
1. the importance of considering career decisions in relation to other life
roles rather than as isolated events. Brown (1996) claimed that a
central premise of the theory is that, because people function holistically,
career counseling should only be conducted in the context of the entire
life space and other life roles. Life roles may function synergistically,
may be in conflict, or may be compensatory in relation to the
satisfaction of values.
2. the need for the counselor to assess the degree of crystallization and
prioritization of values and role relationship problems.
3. Counselors need to be able to assess mood problems such as anxiety
or depression. Dealing with such issues in career counselling draws
attention to the links between career and personal counselling.
4. the importance of other variables such as career interests in the
career counselling process, and advocated that counselors should be
able to translate various types of psychological data into values-based
terms (Brown, 1996).
5. clients will be able to make effective decisions if they understand
their values and have values-based information (D.
Brown, 1996a)

of choices made, thus individuals are most likely to be satisfied
when their choice is compatible with their values.

*The result of role interaction is life satisfaction, which differs
from the sum of the marital, job, leisure, and other roles,
satisfaction indices taken separately (Brown & Crace, 1996).

Peterson, Sampson, Reardon
and Lenz

Three Basic Career Information Processing Principles:
1. Self-knowledge is based on perception rather than fact, and is
influenced by past experience and present feelings (Peterson, Sampson,
Reardon and Lenz).
2. Knowledge about occupational options is based on facts that
can be verified.
3. In todays fast-paced society, decisions will need to be re-made
and adjusted many times over.

*CIP is based on a tri-level pyramid, with self-knowledge and
occupational knowledge as the foundation, which comprises two
Knowledge Domains. The second level of the pyramid is the
Decision-Making Skills Domain, composed of five information-
processing skills known as CASVE:
1. Communication
2. Analysis
3. Synthesis
4. Valuing
5. Executing

*Executive Processing Domain, which focuses on
metacognition (thinking about our thinking). This is the
monitoring/evaluation part of the thought process.

* In college and career awareness, the goal of promoting self-
knowledge is in service of helping students solve problems by
considering both internal and external facts. Self-awareness is
applied to decision-making, goal setting, action planning,
executing the plan, and communication.

Six Steps to Using CASVE with
1. Communication: Knowing I
need to make a choice
2. Analysis: Understanding myself
and my options
3. Synthesis: Expanding and
narrowing my list of options
4. Valuing: Choosing an
occupation, program of study, or
5. Execution: Implementing my
6. Communication: Knowing I
made a good choice

Best Practices to Employ in Using
CIP-Based Processes to Assist
Students in Getting In, Getting
There, and Getting Through:
1. Use of Motivational
Interviewing (MI) techniques
2. Use of Narrative Counseling
and selective assessment
3. Identification of red flags and
referral for services
4. Creation of mentoring and
whole-school support models
Page 12 of 12

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