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^S J E X E N A .
J^Tma Fuddrx.
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R u/fm Catechift.
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Composd and Publiihd by
Order of the C ZA R:
To which is Annexd, a
S h o r t A C C O U N T


Ch u r c h - G o v er n men t
' %
M O S C O V I T E S .
Adornd with C U T S .
BGJ semsGmsassmse^&sssfG^^
The S e c o n d E d i t i o n .
L O N D O N :
inted for W. M e a d o \v s, at the Angel,
Cornhill, M dccxxv. Price i i . 6d,
T o the Right Honourable
Lord Chief J u s t i c e of the
S p e a k e r to the Houfe
E fl rfl : E di ti on of the
Ruffian C a t e c h i s m ha
v i n g been all fol d off, I
thi n k i t m y D u ty to ac
qu ai n t the P u b l i ck that i t is to Y ou r
A z L ord-
( w )
L ordi hi p the Englifi R eader i s ob l i gd
for thi s l i ttl e T reati i : For ti s you , m y
L ord, that en cou ragd m e to p u t i t i n
an Englifi D rei s, p refu m i n g, as I hu m
b l y con cei ve, that a C atechi i fn c om
posd by the Order of the Czar m u ft
bear i n every P age fom e Sem b l an ce of
hi s exten i i ve G en i u s, an d be as di ffe
ren t from m oft other W ri ti n gs defi sn d
o o
for the I n ftru & i on of Y ou th, as hi s
Schem es of P ol i ti ck s have been from

the l ow an d n arrow V i ew s of other

great H eroes 5 for he has thi s pecu l i ar
to hi m fel f, that he has n ot on l y con -
qu erd p owerfu l P ri n ces, bu t he has
overcom e E n em i es m ore terri bl e than
Swedes an d Tartars, I m ean Su p erfti -
ti on bl en ded wi th i gn oran ce, an d for
ti fyd wi th i n veterate Ob i l i n ac y, i n hi s
ow n Su bj ects, b y i n trodu ci n g A rts an d
Sci en ces
Sci en ces, C i vi l i ty an d R el i gi on , wi th
all the B l efl m gs atten di n g them , i n to
all the P rovi n ces of the Ruffian E m -

I b eg l eave i n thi s P l ace to m ak e

m y m oi l hu m bl e an d p u b l i ck A c k n ow
l edgm en ts to Y ou r L ordi hi p for al l
your Favou rs, bu t m ore parti cu l arl y
for gi v i n g m e an Op p ortu n i ty to do
fome Servi ce to R el i gi on ; for I
fl atter m y i l that m an y G en tl e
m en , u p on readi n g thi s B ook , wi l l
entertai n a m ore favou rabl e Op i n i on
i of the Rtiffian C hu rc h, an d others wi l l
be exci ted tj fettl e a C orrei p on den ce
wi th the Prel ates of i t, an d thereby
render our (el ves an d them m ore capa
bl e to defeat the w i c k ed an d b l oody
D efi gn s of thQ-Romijh C l ergy, an d p ro-
( V )
( *
agate the G oi p el f C h r i s t to
the rem ote# Parts of the Eaftern
W orl d. I am ,
M y L r
Tour Lordfiitfs
Humhle and

Obedient Servant $
Jenkin Tho. Philipps.
E ST any Expreffions in this Eng-
Tranflation might give offence,
becaufe, in the Expofition of the Se
cond Commandment, Image -Wor-
ihip, with fome Reftriction, is allowd,
I Beggd the Favour of an eminent
Prelate to perufe it before I fent it to the Prefs, who
direfted me to iignify in the Preface, that this Opi
nion is to be rejected, as it certainly is,, becaufe all
the Heathens, both antient and modern, might
iexcufe themfelvcs from the Sin of Idolatry by the
fame Way of arguing 5for they all allow that there
is but one fupreme Being, and that their nominal
Gods were but as fo many Vicegerents, fupcrin-
tending the Affairs of the World 3 and that their
Idols of Stone or Wood were only commemorating
Helps to Devotion, as may be gathered from St.
Augufiins Book of the City of God, Arvchins, Mi-
minus Felix, primitive Fathers, and from many mo
dern Accounts of the Keath
wi l o in tile lit
vm ]
Yet they, as well as the J em for their worfhip-
Nations under the Dominion of the Czar in Sibe
ria, and in the Kingdom of Jfiracan, that have
no Image-Worihip among them, and are grievous
ly offended with thG^Mofiovites, who ufe them in
their Houfes and Churches : And thefe poor Hea
thens were very kind to the Swedijb Officers, who
were for many Years Prifqners among them 3 and
obferving thefe Gentlemen never bowed, as the
Ruffians did, to Crucifixes and Images, judged
from thence that they were of their Religion. Th
Swedifi Officer who gave me this Information was
of opinion, that thefe Heathens might eafily be !
pejrfuaded to embrace Chriftianity, i f they were
converfant with Proteftants.
The Treatife of the Ruffian Church Govern
ment and Ceremonies hereunto annexd, is com
pild out of feveral modern Authors, writ in diffe
rent Languages on this Subjeft, and from the beft
Accounts I could have from Gentlemen who livd
many Years in the Czar's Dominions.
Nov.**. 172.3*
T he A U T H O R s
' all pious Parents, Guardians, Tutors*'
and Matters, who have the Gare and
Infpeftion bf Youth.
Ch r i st i a n R ad h r ,
H well-being of in all the feveral
Stages of Life, i f morally mfider d, de-
pnds on Education ; fory Train up a
Child in the Way that he ihould go*'
and when he is old he will not depart
from it. I f his Mind is early feafon d with the Fear
of God, which is the Beginning of Wifdom, there is
Reafon to hope that he mil prove virtuous in riper
Tears ; but i f this is negleEled} the whole courfe of
his Life, in all likelihood, will be anfwerable to his
Education, irregular and vicious. And this is not
only true of particular Perfons, but of Nations and
For Man being naturally inclined to Vice, and the
Imaginations of his Heart being evil continually, *tis
morally impoffible but that he mufl prove debauchd and
wicked, i f good Education is not calld in to affift againfi
the Power of Original Corruption, and the Influence of
Cuflom and wicked Practices. The Apofile empha
tically exprejfes it, Evil Communications corrupt
good Manners, i Cor. xv. And the Son of Syracli
tells us, He that touches Pitch ihall be polluted
il thereby j
thereby ; Qmk He that xonverfes with a proud
Man, will become like unto him. In fine, what
4 ,. y
Education of Youth ?
How much this is wanting in Ruffia, is too
dent, Ft many, tho* otherwife good and
VI -
of Si
and Mother; but who are meant by Father and
Mother3 and what is properly fignifyd by Honour,
lofs. In like manner, they know
Commandment fay.
underfiand the perfeB Meaning
of that Precept ? Who is the Man
Crime to circumvent another in buy
to conceal "Things found, buy
ind felling ;
.ds,'0r tak't
thefe are fo
/ I I ^
Spccies of flealing. The fame Obfe
good with regard to all the Commandments.
What care then can fuch Men take of the Edu
cation oj their Children, who themfelves live in fuch
Darknefs and Ignorance, that they know nothing of
the Laid of God, but place all Religion in external
and bodily Exercifes ;
f Gcdy which confifi
Lord J cJ w Chrifl, and keeping his Commandments in
Live and religious Fear.
Sums are of Opinion, fZwi the befl Education we
can befhw upon our Childreny would be to teach them
to read and write; but this' is evidently falfe : for
what will it avail to read and not underfiand, or to write,
vJ.iih :c}:d;a e,; voihing to make us better Men. Bui
hi w
I'jOVJ many are there amongfl us wholly ignorant of
Meaning of the ten Commandments, of the Creed,
the Lords-Prayer. And their Reading is fo far ft
eficial to
nd falfify
-Lampoons and Pafquils, forging of
g Contracts, to the Prejudice of o-
ig falfe Doctrines, which they flu-
u o I J
iflians. But it would be endhfs
s Inconveniences flowing from hi
fe Schif1
at ion of Children
% L 1. J
conflfl ? This Queflion is anfwerd by the Royal Pro
phet, in Pfal. cxix. 9.
It is therefore in the Word of God only we mufl
feekfor God'S Will; and this we mufl
of Touth, i f we PurPofe
them a pious Education ; and this in a more parti
cular manner is the Duty of all religious Parents, -
tors, and Guardians, and all fuck as are charged with
the bringing up of Chriflian Children, Deut. vi.
But Parents, &c. becaufe of their own Ignorance and
Incapacity, not being able to comply with this great
?ffary to publifi)
^ ^ ^
Creed, and ten Commandments ; for the Boohs publijped
already on this Subject, are wrote in the old Sclavo-
nian Language, and not in the vulgar Moicovitc
Dial eel, and therefore of little or no Service to the
Ruffian Tenth. Wherefore, in order to fupply this great
Defel, our gracious Sovereign Lord, Peter I. having
at heart the fpiritual Welfare of his People, conjider\i
very jsriov.fh how fome fettled Method of infhuciing
Touth might he introduced into all Riiihn, and GW
was grao::Q\ pkufed to bh js his pioui hn^iicn.i>by
infpirhig his Majefly with this Refolution of publifhing
a perfpicuous and fh n't Expofition of the Lords Prayer,
Creed and ten Commandments, with dn A B C Book
thereto prefixed; that while the Children lern to fpll
and read) they may not only f pend their time in getting
Pfahns without Book, but may learn by Heart thof
fhort Expofitions, after which they may commit to Me
mory Prayers or Pfahns with'Underflandingi andthere-
fore, by the exprefs Order of his Imperial Majefly, we
have publifoed this fmall T*reatife, wherein Children
may know the Will of the Lord, and be accuflomed to
fear himfrbm their mcfl tender Years.
Therefore, be it known to all you who have the Care
of the Education of Youth that you are inexcufable in
eforth fail
f l
qitired to caufe your Children to be infiruiled out of ;
Book, and, to examine them yourJelves, to fee i f they,
derfland the feveral Articles of the Creed, and the .
iitions of the Lords Prayer. You are further obligei
fee that they lead holy Lives, conformable to the L
of God] and if they have fail'd in their Duty,
tiuift fliew them a gain ft which of Gods Commandme
they have tranfgicjsd, and give them fatherly Cor
clions when it is neceffary ; which i f you faithf

on you and them. Here folk

in the Ruffian Language.
ifford yiU matter of Joy
!leffings up-
These are the Print 1/dters
&/ K
, .
e <z*
d i a a ^J l $
' Gm-JL E
J S . rTi\
c& C K
t/Ll/fl \
0 0 o Cs9 c-O
i i j m i W
mmmm& m
ILLjl . tu
h t

l x
o a ____________________
% #fc

Ruffian C a t ec h i s m .
Of the La<w of GOV, as contained in the
T e n C o m m a n d m e n t s .
O. frl3=l i l s i ^ H A T is the Law of G O D ?
A. The Law of God is his
Commands deliverd to Men
by the Hands of 'Mofes, and
exprefsd in the Ten Com
mandments ; whereby every
one may know what is agree
able to the Will of God, in order to put it in
Practice ; and to avoid what is difagreeabl to th
Divine Wilh
0. Which are the Ten Commandments?
A. They are as follow.
t *
i. Cjat t fijait jase no otijei* j bue
i l tiDljou fljalt not tiiaiic t o tjp fcf anp
graaen Smage, no? tlje lt &ene& of any
tfjinn; tfjat iss ettijec itt $eafeen abo&e, no? in
tlje eat t lj beneatij, no? fit tlje lat er unoer
tlje ait i) t Cijcu fljalt not p?ap t o t em,
no? fei'c tljem*
ni. Cijou fijait not tafte iijc aonme of t5e
Lo tljp oj in iiain*
i v . Kemembec t o Itecp ijoty tije Sabbat s
D a j i Daps fljalt tjou Bo all tljp
?&, but tlje efcentj Daj? 10tje abbatlj
of fjc ? tijp otu
v . wnot it t!)p int ljec nni ^ot fier, t ijat
tljp Oap0 mav tie long in tlje lanu
v i . Cijou fiait not M l
v u . Cijou fljalt not commit Sflttlterp.
v i n . Cijau flju not teal*
i x . Cijou fijait not bea? fafe OTitncfs? a--
garnit tljp l3eigjbou.
x . Cljau fljalt not coct tjp eig)boui?0
Ulit, tjou fijait not t owtljp $eigjbout i
otife, (1102 IjiS (HttlagesO no? fjig SJjan*
^et &nnt , tto? Ins S0afo@>etiiant, no? jis
0 r , no? iji0 3fs, no? }ji0 T5eai!0, no? anp
t ijing t jat is? tljp Bet gljbout t f*
Q_. Do thefe Commandments want any Expli
cation ?
A. Yes ; becaufe of the Ignorance of the
common People, fuch Explication is highly nece-
flary ; and becaufe the Precept is ihort, though
very comprehenfive.
Qj Pray then explain the firft Precept, and
tell me what God commands therein ?
I t
[ 5 ]
A. I t is requird thereby that we do know and
own him to be the Uncreated, Eternal, Omni-
prefent, All-wife, Omnipotent, moil: Holy and
moil Merciful G O D ; and that we do put all
our Confidence in him, expe all good things
from him, fear and love him with all our Hearts,
and perform every good Work in Charity and
godly Fear. Further, God commands us in
this Precept to have no other Gods befides
Q. What is it to have no other Gods; and
who are they that fin againft this Firfl Command
A. T o have other Gods, fignifies to conceive
unbecoming Notions of any Creature, and to at
tribute. to him any Perfection that is due only
to the Supream Being, or to love him, and put
the fame Confidence in him, as we do in God,
1. Idolaters, who imagined to themfelves many
Gods, who, as fo many feveral Lords, had the
immediate Infpection over different Things , as
one was fuppofed to rule the Heavens, another
the Earth, a third over the Waters ; fome took
Care to furniih Men with Meat, and others pro
vided them with Drink ; fome were Gods of
War, and others of Peace, and many more fuck
like Fooleries.
2. Superflitious People among tis Cbriflians; who
attribute a Power of doing Good or Evil to
Perfons or Things, who are in Truth endued
with no fuch Faculties : As for Example, when
one Day is preferrd to another, for beginning
this or that Work, or that one Accident or Ad-
13 2 venture
venture is happier than another. Further, when
we give heed to Witches, Wizards,, and Inter
preters of Dreams. In a Word, all Old Womens
Fables, and Will-Worihip, which is not accord
ing to the Word of God, is Superftition.
3. All thofe are Tranfgrefl'ors of this Com
mandment, who rely too much oh their own or
others Power, or profperous Succeifes.
4. Thofe, who though they are not chargeable
with Idolatry, Superftition, or prefumptuous
Conceits of themfelves, yet either disbelieve the
Being of a God, as Atheifts 5 or deny his Provi
dence, and attribute every thing to fatal Necef-
fity, or Chance, and deny, that there (hall be any
future Reward or Puniihment, becaufe there is no
other Life after this : Thefe Men are commonly
called Epicureans, from one Epicurus, who for
merly maintained thefe Herefies amongft the
0. What is forbidden in the Second Command
ment ?
A. Idolatry.
Qj What is Idolatry ?
A. Idolatry is giving Divine Worfhip to any
Image, or the Likenefs of any thing that is ill
Heaven, in Earth, or in the Water under the
Earth ; that is, when one approaches fuch an
Image in the Humility of his Heart, and fears
it, puts his Confidence in it, as having in it felf
invifible Virtue or Efficacy : Thus the Old Hea
thens worfhipM Images, which the Chriftians do
ufually, by way of Contempt, call Idols.
Q_. What (hall we fay of Images ufed by Chri
A. Thefe
[ ] .
A. Thefe are not I dols; for they were not
introduced in order to be worfhipd, but to bring
to our Remembrance the Works of God ; nei
ther is the Refpe paid to them to be efteemed
Idolatry, while it cannot be called Divine Wor
ship, fuch as that formerly preached in. Greece^
and mentioned in the Seventh General Council,
which forbids to put our Confidence in them, or
to worihip them in Spirit and in Truth, as we
do the Supream God; thoJ it allows a civil Re-
fpeft, fuch as Embracing or Kiffing, to be paid
to the Images of Chrift, or the Saints, direct
ing the Devotion to God only when thou bowefc
before the Images.
Qj Who are the Tranfgreffors of this Secotid

A. All fuch as give the Images that Worihip

that is due only to God, which is exprefly for
bidden in the Seventh General Council, as before
mentioned. Whence it will follow, that thofc
that bring the Image to Church, and there bow
before it ; and others, who pay more Refpect
to gilded Images than to plain ones ; and laft-
ly, thofe who will not pray at all without the
tJ fe of Images : All thofe Men tranfgrefs againft
the Decree of the Seventh Council.
Q. What does Gcd command in the Third
Precept ?
A. We are commanded thereby to praife God
with Reverence and godly Fear, and neither di-
minifh his Glory, nor blafpheme his Name.
Q. Who are thofe that tranfgrefs againft this
Commandment, by diihonouring God, and blair
pheming his Name ?
B 3 A. As
A. As Gods Name is hallowed by good
Works, fo it is blafphemed by evil Works ;
and as good Works are grounded on every
one of the Commandments, fo evil Works are
forbidden in every one, and more efpecially
the Sin of Blafpheming the Name of God,
1. When any one does in exprefs Words re
vile and blafpheme his Name.
2. When any one calls God to vvitnefs upon
every trivial Occafion.
3. When we charge God with a Lie.
Q. Can t you explain thefe Ways of Blafphe-
ming the Name of God more clearly, and {hew
wherein they do conflit ?
A. Thofe are guilty of Blafpheming the Name
of God, who make him a Lyar, Unjuft, Im
potent, and the A u thor of Sin; or thofe that
revile the Holy Scriptures, the bleffed Virgin
the Mother of our Lord, or thofe who are
acknowledged Saints. Moreover, tis a Degree
of Blafphemy, when one calls God to blefs
any wicked Defign, as i f a Robber or Thi ef
bcggd God to blefs his wicked Enterprize,
for thereby he makes God, as much as in him
lies, a Robber alfo.
2. The Name of God is blafphemed by Swear
ing fallly againft the Light of ones one Con-
icience, or taking his Name in vain in common
Converfation, or by taking an Oath upon every
trivial Occafion.
3. Thoie curled Impoftors make God a Lyar,
who impute Miracles and Wonders to Images,
Relicjues of Saints, and to fome particular
I 7 ]

Places, or do pretend themfelves to the Power o'f

doing Miracles.
Lafily, Thofe that knowingly and wilfully
propagate falfe or fuperftitious Doctrines, do
make God a Lyar alfo.
Q. What -does God command in the Fourth
Prccept ?
A. He does thereby appoint and fet afide
one Day in the Week for his own Service.
For although we are in Duty bound to praife
God every moment of our Lives, yet we are
fo bufily employd the reft of the Week in
our refpeive Callings, that he is little ho
nourd by us; and therefore, that we may
ferve the Lord without Diftraftion, the feventh
Day is confecrated to his Worfhip, by fuper-
feding all the ordinary and troublefome Offi
ces of Life. This Day in the Old-Tefta-
xnent, was Saturday, or the laft Day of the
Week; but in the New, ris the firft, when
we are to honour and commemorate the Re-
furreion of J e s u s C h r i s t ; and hencetis
called the Day of the Refurreftion; and from
laying afide our daily Employments tis called
a Day of Repofe.
There are other Feaft-Days befides Sunday,
to commemorate the mighty Works of God,
and to honour fome of his Saints, which by
Vcrtue of this Command, we are obliged t
ob ferve.
( How is God to be praifed on Feaft-Days?
A. In the firft Place, we -muft chearfully
frequent on thefe Days the Houfe of God, and
give attentive heed to Divine Service, where-
4 in
[ 8 ]
in God is praifed for his infinite Kindneifes
bellowed upon us, whether they be Temporal
or Spiritual ; and take notice, that it is not
enough to aifift at thefe Exercifes, but that
we muft hear with Underftanding, giving entire
a (lent and confent, with Faith and Fear, to thefe
fpiritual Songs.
2. What is read or preached in the Church,
hear it with Meeknefs and holy Attention,
returning Thanks to the Lord, that he con-
defcends to fpeak to thee by the Mouths of
his Minifters, and itrive earneftly to be not
only a Hearer, but a Doer of the Word; and
aifure thy felf, that i f thou doft not grow bet
ter by hearing the Word preachd, it will aggra
vate thy Condemnation.
3. When thou art in thy Houfe, encourage
thy Children, and the reft of thy Family, to
fear the Lord, by keeping them from Gaming
and diforderly Exercifes, and by repeating to
them what thou didft hear in Church. Thus
thou wilt edify both thy felf and thofe that hear
thee, and retain more firmly what thou haft
heard in the Congregation.
4. We ihould be always ready to diftribute
Alms to the Poor, but more efpecially on
Holy Days, for with fuch Sacrifices God is well
f leafed.
Q. Who are thofe that tranfgrefs this Com
mand ?
A. Ail thofe who do not ferve God in the
Manner above mentiond, and more efpecially,
i . Thofe that defpife the received Prayers
of die Church, and either abient themfelves
% ^ 4 4
' ? ]
from the Publick Worihip to give iio Atten
tion to what is fung or preached.
2. Priefts, and other Ecclefiafticks, who ei
ther altogether negleft Preaching and Singing
in the Ghnrch, or perform thefe holy Exer-
cifes without due Reverence, as by reading
too fail and inconfiderately, thefe 'Mens Sins
are of a double Die, they offend God them-
felves, and caufe the whole Congregation to
offend him alfo. '
3. .This Commandment is grofly violated by
thofe who fpend the Day in Drinking, Gaming,
Quarrelling, and diforderly Living, for certainly
this cant be fanctifying the LordVDay.
Qj I s it then abfolutely and always finful to
Work on the Sabbath-Day ?
A. We intimated already, that hard Labour
is to be laid afide on thofe Days, that God
may be ferved without Diffraction ; and other
Employments, tho lefs laborious, as Merchan
dize, and attending Courts of Judicature ; yet
in fome Cafes, tis no Sin to work on the
Sabbath-Day, as on the following Occafions :
1. When our Neighbour calls for our Af-
fiftance in his Sicknefs, or when his Houfe is on
2. I f a Man, whofe Habitation is very remote
from any Place of publick Worihip, and can
neither read himfelf, nor has any other that
can read to him, he does better to follow his
da:Iy Employment in his own Houfe, than to
frequent lew3d Company.
[ 10
Thefe are the Commandments which
relate to the Love of God ; the
Six following concern the Love of
our Neighbour.
)_. What is required in the Fifth Command
ment ?
A. I t is required of us to honour and re-
fpe not only our natural Parents, but thofe
that are in the Dignity and Place of Parents,
and have any degree of Authority over us.
jQ. Who are thofe that can juftly demand
this Rei'peit from us, and what honour and
reverence is due to them refpeively ?
A , I n the firft Place, Kings and Magiftrates,
ivho rule over us in the Lord, are to us in
the Place of Fathers, whofe Duty it is to de
fend their Subjects, and feek what is beft for
them, both in Temporals and Spirituals, and
therefore mu ft have a watchful Eye to all
Ecclefiaftical, Military, and Civil Affairs, that
Men do confcientioufly execute their refpective
Employments; and this is, next God, the
higheft Fatherly Dignity.
Subjects are in Duty bound, as obedient Sons,
to manifeft their Subjeion to Kings, as fol-
ioweth :
1. They muft Love and Honour them, ne
ver name them but with Sentiments of
profound Rei'pe.
2. Offer unfeigned Prayers to the Almighty
for their Health and long Life.
3. Obey their juft Commands without
4. Ven-
4 Venture their Lives chearfully, to defend
them againft the Enemies, Rebels, and
Traitors of their Perfons and Govern
5. Pay Taxes and other cnftomary I mpor
tions chearfully.
2. Next to Kings and Sovereign Princes, Spiritu
al Governours,' Senators, Judges, and Generals
of Armies, and other Magiftrates, are veiled
likewife with the Fatherly Dignity.
The Duty of Ecclefiaftical Governours is, to
lead the People in the Way to Salvation. The
Civil Magiftrate ihould diftribute Juftice with
out Refpefl: to Perfons. The General muft pro
mote Military Difcipline, and infpire the Soldiery
with Chriftian Courage.
Inferiours muft love and refpe their Supern
ours, pray for them, and chearfully obey all
their juft Commands.
3. The third Order of Men that are vefted
with Fatherly Authority, are our natural Pa-
rents, viz. Fathers and Mothers: For though
according to Nature, they claim the firft Place,
yet in a Civil Society, the Perfons abovemen-!
tiond, as promoters of the Publick Good, de*
ferve greater Honour than they.
I t is the Duty of Parents, to feek and pro-*
mote the Well-being and Happinefs of their-
Children 5 to whom they owe thefe three
Things :
i. To nouriih them, and take care of theiff
Health, until they are able to a: foi
themielves, and afterwards promote their
Happinefs according to the Laws of the
Land, to the beft of their Power.
[ 1 1 ]
2. To feafon their tender Minds with the
early Knowledge and Fear of God.
3. To take Care to have them inftrued in
fome Trade or Calling fuitabie to their
refpedive Capacities, whereby they may be
able to provide for themfelves.
The Duty of Children, is to love, fear, and
obey their Parents ; to efteem them very high
ly, and never without Leave prefume to fit in
their Prefence, nor to undertake any thing of
Moment, as Matrimony, or a Monaitical Life,
without the Approbation of their Parents.
I f the Parents through any Difafter come
to Poverty, the Children ihould help them
chearfully, and even inftruct them in the
Knowledge and Fear of God, i f they have
had the Advantage of a better Education
than their Parents have had ; but this is to
be done with a great deal of Refpeft and Mo-
defty, like a wife Phyfician, and. not by way
of Command.
4. The neareft Relations, as Uncles and Aunts,
the Eldeft Brother, CTc. are likewife invefted with
a Fatherly Authority, and a great deal of Re-
fpefc and Honour is due to them, though in a
lower degree than to our Parents.
5. Benefadors, who out of meer Charity,
without any View of Advantage to themfelves,
do good to others, and more efpecially to fuch
as are Orphans and helpleis, and bring them up
as their own Children : A Child is in Duty bound
to love, fear, and honour fuch his good Patron,
as i f he had been his own Father.
6. Thofe
[ '
6. Thofe who inftrud Youth in any ufefal
Knowledge, as in the Myftery of any Trade,
do partake of the Fatherly Authority, and are
bound to teach their Difciples or Apprentices
meekly all that they know, with all the Expe
dition poffible.
The Learner ihould obey, love and refpe his
Teacher as his Father, tho he rewards him for
his Labour ; but i f he teaches him gratis, fuch a
Teacher is worthy of double Honour, for he
ftands in his Fathers ftead.
7. Landlords, Matters of hired Servants, and
thofe of Slaves, either bought with Money, or
taken in War, ftand in the Place of Fathers, and
tis their Duty to inftruft them in the Know
ledge of Religion; to give them what is ne-
ceffary for their Suftenance ; to chaftife them
for their Amendment, but not to fatisfy a pee-
vi(h Paffion ; and pay them their Wages ; and
not exafl: from their Tenants any unreafonable
and unjuft Payments.
Servants owe filial Love and Obedience to their:
Matters, and they mutt ferve them faithfully
and diligently, without Lying, or embezling or
wafting their Matters Goods, but promote his
Interett as their own.
i. Aged Perfons ftand in the Place of Pa
rents, tho Civil Authority takes Place before
Age ; for a young King is a Father to his aged
The Aged ihould not defpife young Men,
who are otherwife of the fame Dignity and
Order ; and it is the Duty of a young Man, to
teftify all outward Marks of Refpeft towards
L 14 ]
their Seniors, by giving them the beib Place, and
all other Tokens of Civility.
I t clearly appears from what has been faid,
that all thofe who dont comply with thefe re-
fpeive Duties abovementioned, are Tranfgref-
fors of this Commandment.
Objetl. I am at a lofs how to behave my felf,
when, one, to whom I owe filial Obedience, com
mands, and another, who likewife ilands in the
fame Degree of paternal Authority, forbids me
the fame Thing ?
Anfw. When neither of thefe have Authority
over each other, then you muft have a Regard
to what is commanded, and not to the Perfons
that command. For if your Mailer, to whom
you Owe Fidelity and Service, commands you
any lawful Thing, and your Father forbids it,
obey your Mailer, and not your Father. But
i f one is fuperior in dignity to the other, obey
that fuperior Perfon ; for if thy Father or thy
Mailer commands thee any thing that is againft
the Order of the Magiftrate, obey the Civil
Power, and not thy Father or Mailer. But if
the Magiftrate bicls thee do any thing that
the , fc -rbids, by all means obey the Cz,ar.
Q. What does God forbid in the Sixth Com
A. Killing is thereby exprefly forbidden, and
all the Species and Degrees thereof are therein
What is meant by this Word Kill ?
A. All Kinds oi Killing, as killing a Man
with a Weapon, Strangling, Drowning, or Pol
lening, and many other Ways and Methods of
t alcing
taking away the Life of another MaiL 2. He
that doth any Ways contribute defignedly to
take away his Neighbours Life, as breaking a
Hole in the Ice, over which a Man is to pafs in
the Night; or fetting his Neighbours Houfe on
Fire, &c. And in this Clafs of Murtherers, are
all' Rebels and Traitors, who contribute to
brins the Sword of War into their own Coun
try i as alfo thofe, who give or accept Chal
lenges to fight Duels, are to be accounted Tranf-*
greifors of this Commandment. 3. Thofe who
will force Men to Work or Drink more than
their Strength is able to bear ; and in a Word,
all thofe who contribute to throw others into any
Excefs of A nger or Sadnefs, or any other parti
cular Paffion, deftrudive of Mans Health, do
violate this Commandment:
Q_. Are Soldiers and Judges to be reputed
Tranfgreflors of this Commandment, when they
put any Man to Death ?
A. No : For Judges do but execute the Pow
er entrufted to them by God ; neither do Sol
diers tranfgrefs this Commandment, when they
kill the Enemy; for they do but comply with
their Duty, when, in Defence of their Country,
and in Obedience to their Sovereign, they do
kill their Enemies ; but it is the Duty of Prin
ces, to fee that the War be undertaken for
juft and fubftantial Reafons.
Qj I s it then a Sin to lay violent Hands 011
curielves ?
A. Without doubt : For God, and not our
felves, has Power to difpofe of our Lives, and
therefore we muft exped Death patiently, and
[ * ]
not hafteil itj and bring it wilfully on ou
Q. What does God forbid in the Seventh
Commandment ?
A . He forbids Adultery.
Qn What is Adultery ?
A. I t is an unlawful Converfation of Man
with a married Woman, or a Woman with
a married Man* which is more particularly
forbidden in this Commandment, which com
prehends alfo Fornication, and all other Kinds
of Carnal Uncleannefs.
Q. I s it a Sin to converfe carnally with
ones own Wife ?
A. Marriage is a Divine Inftitution, ordered
for the mutual Affiftance and Propagation of
The Duty of Man and Wife is to love and
honour one another, for the better Managing
of the Affairs of a Family, and pious Edu
cation of their Children j and in order there
unto, both the Man and Woman mufl: be
mutually true to the Marriage Bed, or elfe
they are Tranfgreflors of this Commandment.
Befides, wanton Touches, a lullful Eye, and la-
fcivious Expreffions, are to be avoided, be
caufe they are incentives to carnal Inclinati
ons, which are condemned in this Command
Q. What is forbidden in the Eighth Com
mandment ?
A. All Sort of Stealing is herein forbidden;
but that the common People may have a more
perfect Knowledge of the Nature of Theft, and
wherein it doth confift, vve ihall enumerate
this Place the ieveral Kinds of Stealing.
Theft is either Clandeftine, as when we ap
propriate any Thing without the true Own
ers Knowledge ; or open, as when any Mans
Goods are taken from him by Violence; or
Laftly, knaviih and cheating Theft, as when un
der plaufible Pretences, and cunning Devices,
an honeft Man is bereft of what is his own.
Q. How many Kinds are there of clandeftine
Stealing ?
A. Very many, viz,.
1. Picking of Pockets, Houfe-breaking, Shop
lifting, robbing of Barns, Fiih-Ponds, Gardens,
carrying away Corn and Hay.
2. Plundering the Publick Treafur of
Churches or Cloifters, which two lft is com
monly called Sacrilege. To which may be re
duced, rifling the Graves of the Dead, which
kind of Stealing merits a more than ordi
nary Puniihment, as being an Offence of the
rnoft heinous and favage Nature.
3. I t is a kind of clandeftine Theft, not to
reftore Things found, or to conceal Beaft, or
a Servant, that is run away from his Mafter ;
to alienate the Goods of a Man in Diftrefs, as
when his Houfe is on Fire, or his Shop broke
to Pieces ; for this is to plunder thofe who are
already miferable, and barbarouOy to add Affli-
ion to Affliction.
Q. How many Kinds are there of open
Stealing ?
A. Very many, vi
[ .8 ]
. Highwa-Men and. Rapparees, who plun
der Travellers of all their Money, and threaten
to Murder them ac the fame Time, which i f
they do, they, fin both againft the Sixth and
Eighth Commandment.
2. When a Man in Power does take away un-
juftly the Goods, Houfes, Tenants, Lands of
another, who is not able to repel Force by
Force, for this is no better than robbing on the
3'. Ufing other Mens Things againft their
Wills; as to drive Waggons, or fow on '-
their Mens Grounds, or to ufe their Veflels,
Cloaths, Carts, working Tools, or Arms, with
out leave either from the Proprietor, or or
der from the publick Magiftrate.
4. All forced Buying and Selling; as for
Example, When one Man compels another
to fell what he has no mind to part with,
and vhat at a low Rate, or to buy what he
does not want.
5. All unjuft and unreafonable Contrats; as
when in Time of Dearth and Famine, one
fells his Corn to another in Extremity and
Want, at an exceffive Price ; or when one of
fers his Service to another who is upon the
Point of Periihing either by the Enemies Sword,
or by danger of Drowning, on very exor
bitant Conditions.
6. When one fees his Brother in great Ne-
ceffity, and will not lend him either Corn or
Money but at excefllye Ufury.
7. Vio-
7 Violent detaining of Foreign Goods, and
alfo retaining Wages due to Servants or
8. Forcing People to Slavery, and oppreffing
of a free . People.
9. Forcing Labourers to perform more Work
than what they have promifed in their Con
10. Invading other Mens Territories in time
of Peace.
Q. How many Kinds are there of cunning and
artful Thieving ?
A. There are very many, whereof fome of
them are thefe :
i . Wilful Deceit in Merchandize, as when
one fells bad Wares for good ones, or fells an
' old Horfe and warrants it young, or adulte-
!rates good Wares, as by mixing Duft with
: fine Flower ; or by daihing Wine with Wa-
j ter, or by felling Chryftal for Diamonds, or
!Martens Skins for the fineft Sable, &c.
i . By over-rating our Commodities, andSel-
: ling them too dear.
3. By making Ufe of falfe Weights;
4. By Cheating, in gathering more Cuftora
and Taxes than what is due, which is a
Crime peculiar to Collectors and Cuftom-Houfe
5. Uttering or Coining falfe Money, which
is a very heinous Crime, and prejudicial not
only to private Men, but to the publick
C 2 6. Cheat-
[ ; . >* 1
[ t
6. Cheating ingathering of Alms; as when
any Mali pretends that he is very Poor or
Weak, and through fome bodily Infirmity is un
able to get a Livelihood, or that through Fire,
Water, or the like Calamity, is reduced to
beg his Bread ; or by going about to gather
Contribution for Building Monafteries, Hofpi-
tais, the Redeeming of Prifoners, and fuch
like knavifh Methods of Cheating the Pub-
7. All fulfome Flattery for enticing heed-
leis and unwary Perfons, and all hypocriti
cal Pretences to uncommon Piety, the better
to excite well-meaning People to deal out Alms
more plentifully, is a kind of Stealing.
8. Thofe who with Images and Reliques of
pretended Saints, and Pilgrimages to certain
Placcs, with a Dcfign to cheat People of their
Money, do falfely pretend to the Power of
doing Miracles.
9. Thofe who are not faithfully diligent in
their Mailers Service? for that Part of their
Wages, which by fui table Diligence they do
not earn, may be faid to be ftolen. The fame
may be faid of all Labourers, whofe Work
is not proportionable to their Wages.
10. All Forgers of falfe Wills, in order to
defraud the lawful Heir of his Inheritance,
and all falfe Pretenders to Affinity and near-
nefs of' Bloud, with a view only to make
themfeives Heirs to an Eftate.
xi. P.eceivers of the Publick Money, who
icileu their Receipts, and magnify their Ex-
pences, in order to appropriate the Money of
t he
[ ]
the Nation, which is a very heinous Crime,
becaufe the Prince will thereuoon be neceffi-
tated to burthen his People with new Taxes,
to make up the Sum embezled by his Offi
12. All Judges, who take Gifts for palling
unrighteous Judgments, are Thieves according
to this Commandment, tho in other Things
they may be morally jufl: and honeft Men.
13. Al l unfair Proceedings in the Confecra-
tion of Biihops and other Ecclefiaftical Per-
fons, for the fake of filthy Lucre, which fin-
fnl Practice is called Simony, or the Sin of
Simon Magus, who would buy the Gi ft of God
for Money.
14. All unequal Diftribution of Civil Em
ployments to worthlefs and unskilful Perfons,
although there is no bribing in the Cafe ; for
it is an injury done to People better qualified,
and the Publick fufters for it.
Thefe are fome of the feveral Species of
Stealing ; and i f we have omitted any, it may
be eafily reduced to one of thefe.
But take thefe two Remarks along with
i . That the Sin of Stealing does either come
from unfatiable Deiire of getting Riches, for
a covetous Man is never iatisfied with what
he has; therefore by right or wrong he ap-
propriates the Pofieiilons of others. Or from
Indolence, and a lazy Temper, which will
2. That there is no Forgivenefs to be ex
pedit'd for any of the forementiond Species
of Stealing, till Reftitution and Satisfaction is
made to the injurd Parties.
Qj What is forbidden in the Ninth Com
mandment ?
A. I t forbids us to bear falfe Witnefs a-
gainft our Neighbour, which is of two Kinds,
the one in, the other out of the Courts of
Q. What kind of falfe Witnefs is given in
Courts of Judicature ?
A. They are thefe three following :
-i. Falfe Accufation.
2. Falfe Witnefs, either by Swearing falfe-
ly againft an innocent Perfon, or by fuppref-
fing the Truth againft the Guilty.
3. When the Judge does not ufe all Dili
gence and poffible Means to come at the Truth,
he is a Tranfgreifor of the Ninth Command
ment, and of the 6th and 8th at the fame
Time; fuch a Judge does an honeft Man a
great deal of Prejudice, though he fliould e-
fcape with his Life and Fortune.
Qj What are the Kinds of falfe Witnefs
which are committed in daily Converfation ?
A. i . Slandenng and Backbiting.
2. Affronting another to his Face with abu-
five Lanr;u:>:-e.
*- o
3. Condemning the AcHons of Strangers,
though in themfelves blameable, and to be
idi in p proved.
4. Ridiculing others for feme natural Imper-
fe&ions, whether in Body or Mind, without
fome very folid Reafon for fo doing.
5. All fatyrical Pleafantries, that tend to
diminiih our Neighbours Reputation, and all
finifter difadvantageous Interpretation of other.
Mens Words and Aions. > .
6. This Sin may likewife be committed by.
Nods and Signs, as ihaking the Head* or by
fighing at the mentioning the Name of a cer
tain Man, in fuch a Manner, that his con
tempt and diflike is fufficiently manifefted ;
and even Silence fometimes has a louder Mean
ing than Words to raife fufpicion in. the Minds
of others, and diminiih our Neighbours Re
7. Add hereunto Pafquils, and Piftures made
on Purpofe to injure our Neighbours Re
8. Laflly, There is another more fubtle
Method of blackening our Brothers good
Name, by giving him very high Encomiums,
and uncommon Praifes, but blended with fuch
mean and ugly Circumftances, that the Man
may feem more odious. In a Word, whatfo-
ever Contributes to the Diminiihing our Neigh
bours good Name, whether it be in Word
or Deed, is a Violation of the Ninth Com
To avoid this Sin of hurting the Reputa
tion of others, confider, _ _ .
i . That Inclination to fpeak Evil of 0-
thers flows from Envy, Pride, Revenge, and
a long Cuftom of Lying; for whoever utters
what in Duty he ihould have concealed, and
C 4 con-
[ * ]
conceals what he fhould have difclofed, is a
Lyar, and condemned by this Commandment.
2. That this Sin of hurting our Neighbours
Reputation, i f once contracted, is very diffi
cult to be forgiven, becaufe of the Unvvilling-
nefs of all fuch Slanderers to make honour
able Reparation to the injured Perfon, with
out which there can be no Forgivenefs ex-?
pefted for this Sin.
Q. What is forbidden in the Tenth Com
mandment ?
A. All unjuft defiring or coveting is here
by condemned, and whatever in the five fore
going Precepts is forbidden to be done, the
very Thoughts of fo doing is forbidden here,
and what is commanded to be done, the firft
fecret Motions of the Heart towards the Non
performance is here condemned.
And therefore it is not enough to abftain
from injuring others, but we muft not defire
or luft after what belongs to our Neighbour.
As for Example, the (5th Commandment for
bids taking away another Mans Life, but the
firft angry intentions of hurting the Body of
our Neighbour is forbidden here. The 7th
forbids criminal Familiarity with another Mans
Wife, or of a Woman with anothers Huf-
band ; but here lulling only after a Woman
is condemned. The 8tn forbids appropriating
other Mens Goods, &c. And therefore this
joth Commandment comprehends all thofe of
the fcond Table, as the firft Commandment
implies all rhe Commands of the firft Table,
relaths God and his Worlliip.
Q- Is
[ 1 5 1
Q. I s that all that is neceifary to be knowii
concerning the Law of God ?
A. Yes : Thefe are the principal Things ne-
ceifary to be known for. thy Inftrution, with
thefe additional Obfervations relating to the
Divine Law.
X. The moral Law is unchangeable, univer-
fally obliging all Nations, Jews and Cnriftians,
in all Places, and at all Times, to the End
of the World. For tho the ceremonial Law,
which ferved only to tipify and fee forth to
the Jews, through Purifications and Offerings,
the Myfteries of our Redemption, was annul
led at the Death of Chrift, (in whom it was
accompliflnd,) and tho the fame may be faid
of the judicial Law given by Mifes, for the
Government of the J eweft Comman-wealth ; yet
the moral Law is, and will remain always the
J 4
2. All thefe Commandments are to be o-
beyd by us with the profoundeft Refpect and
filial Fear, confiderine that the Lawgiver is
o . J
Almighty, Omnipotent/ and feerh our Thoughts
afar off, and is certainly to be our J udge;
and 3tis a fearful Thing to fall into the Hands of
the living God. And that we may jfear God
not as Slaves, but as dear Children, according
to this holy Law, confider that the Lawgiver
is the Eternal Juftice, the Perfe&ion of Good-
nefs and Truth it felf, who has created us,
and alfo redeemed us with the precious Blood
of his dear Son, and protects and lends us by
his wife Providence, caufmg all Things to
work together for our Good.
3. This
3 This Love to God .cannot be kindled in
our Hearts by our own Strength, without the
Afliftance of Gods holy Spirit ; therefore we
muft be inftant in Prayer, that God would be
gracioufly pleafed to inflame our Hearts with
love towards himfelf, and that we may have
a regard to all his Commandments.
4. I f our Obedience to thefe Commands
proceeds from the Fear of Men, or out of
Vain-glory, in order to be the more efteern-
ed in the World, or from any other Princi
ple than from true Love, it cannot be accep
table in the Eyes of God, for it is Hypo-
5. We trangrefs the Law of God, not
only by our own Sins, but by partaking in
the Sins of others, by Commanding, Counfel
ling, or any way Aflifting others to commit
any wicked Aions. For Example, I f I hire
a Cut-throat to murder my Neighbour, I am
my felf a Murtherer. I f I conceal Stolen Goods,
I my felf am guilty of Stealing. & c.
God (heweth his Mercy for Thoufand Ge
nerations to thofe that love him, and his
Righteoufnefs to the Childrens Children of
thofe that fear him, and keep his Command
Explanation of the Lord's- rayer.
ui* fat ijct * Mjici) net in tpeaett*
Our Father, God, and Creator, who, though
thou filleft ail Places with thy Omniprefence,
yet the better to exprefs our Conceptions of
thy infinite and immenfe Power, we fay that
thou art in Heaven ; and thence, out of thy
infinite Grace and Goodnefs, thou command-
eft us to call Thee our Father, although for
the Multitude of our Tranfgreffions, we are
not worthy to be called thy Children. There
fore we come as poor and miferable Sinners to
the Throne of Grace, praying with Faith

rpnfofoen tijp 33atne-

Illuminate our Underflanding, and purify
our Hearts, moft merciful Father, that we may
acknowledge Thee to be our only Creator and
Redeemer, praife Thee unfeignedly, and place
all our Hopes and Confidence in Thee, that
all thofe who believe in Thee, may be more
and more confirmed in their moft holy Faith,
and that thofe who fit in the Regions and
Shadow of Death, may fee thy marvellous
Light; root out all Unbelief, Schifms, and
Herefies, and enlarge the Boundaries of thy
holy Church, that all the Nations of the
Earth may be converted to Thee.
[ 17 ]
Grant, O deareft Saviour, that we may not
lofe the Inheritance of thy Kingdom; that
after we have ended this Life, we may reign
with Thee for evermore; and therefore
while we are in this early Tabernacle, we
figh and groan till we are clothed in thy
heavenly Maniions with everlafting Glory.
Wl 6e tone on at t ij, as it te iit
|)0ai )e
Plant thy Fear in our Hearts, quicken and
warm our Souls with thy holy Spirit, and fo
ih'engthen our Weaknefs, that we may under-
ftand thy Commandments and do them, that
thy Will may be done on Earth, as it is in
ie 0 tjig Dap out: M p 'Bt t au
Give us, merciful Father,, all that is necei-
fary for the Support of this natural Life,
wholefome Air, the Fruits of the Earth in A-
bundance, and thyBleifing upon our handy Work.
Blefs the Civil Magiftrate. Give Health and
long Life to our Orthodox, Vidorious Sove
reign Peter Alexowitz, Czar and Emperour over
ail Ruffia, and to all the Court and Army.
Grant that the Nobles may be Loyal, Men of
Truth and hating Co vetouihefs. Preferve all the
refpedive Magiftrates in Love and Unity, and
grant to us all what thou knoweft to be ne-
ceifary for us before we ask Thee. Give us
this Day our Daily Bread, and gracioufly pre
vent all our Neceffities.
[ *8 ]
[ [
anti ftrgfte us out fefpafTeg, as foe for*
$\ Mtljcm tljat t it fpafg againft ug.
According to thy infinite Mercy, through
the Mediation and precious Blood o thy on
ly begotten Son, ihed for our Sins, forgive us
0 God, all our Tranfgrefllons which we have
wilfully, or through Ignorance, committed, ei
ther in Thought, Word, or Deed, as we for
give our Brethren who trefpafs againft us.
Enter not into Judgment with thy Servants,
for in thy Sight no Man living ihall be jufti-
fied. For there is no Man that iinneth not ;
thou only art without Sin, and thy Righte-
oufnefs is from everlafting to everlafting, and
thy Word is Truth.
8 leaa mnot int o t empt at ion-
Moft gracious Lord and Father, the God
of all Comfort, behold with an Eye of Pity,
the Weaknefs and Inconftancy of our Minds,
and lead us through this Wildernefs World, re
moving far from us all imminent and un-
forefeen Dangers, that we may not be caft down
with over-much Sorrow. But i f it is thy
Pleafure, as a loving Father, to chaftife us
for our Amendment, thy Will be done, on
ly give us Strength and Patience to bear thy
Fatherly Corre&ions ; and grant, that in the
Times of Profperity and Abundance, we may
fear Thee, and never forget thy great Be-
W 4 w
Del i er t $ ftm CM*
More efpecially, Lord and Saviour, from
our crafty Enemy the Devil, who is a Mur-
therer from the Beginning; who, by deceiv
ing our firft Parents, precipitated all Man
kind into the Depth of Mifery ; and when he
fees that we are redeemed by the Death of
thy dear Son, yet always goes about like a
roaring Lion, feeking whom he may devour, from
whofe Snares, good Lord, deliver us at all
Times, and at the Hour of Death.
ifo? t ft ne t ilje ft ngiom, t je p o t o i * aiti
tje $, foi* efcec ani eet\ Amen.
We are affured, O heavenly Father, that
Thou heareft our Prayers, and wilt grant all
what is neceffary for us; for thou art our
God, and we are thy Servants: Thou art
our King, and we are thy inheritance, re
deem ed by the Blood of J e s u s C h r i s t . Thou
alfo art Almighty, and thou canft do what
Thou pleafeft. Grant that whatever Thou
workeft by us, according to thy good Plea-
fure, may be done to the Honour of thy
great Goodnefs; not unto us, O Lord, not
unto us, but to thy Name, be all Honour and
Thankigiving, for Thine is the Glory for e-
ver and ever. Amen.
The Lord is near to all that. call upon
him in Truth, he anfwers the Prayers of the
Righteous, and helps in Time of Trouble.
Here follows the Angels Salutation to th
bleifed Virgin, which is conceived in fo plain
Expreflions, that there is no need of any
i Hail thou that art highly favoured, the Lord
is with Thee, bleffed art thou among Women, &c.
j 5the Orthodox F ai th, or the Creed brief-
j ly Explained.
] 3! efeae in tije fat iiet
ceato? of pcatici anti Cnciij, of all
t f m 0 iMc ana inlwfiiJle.
I believe in one God the Father, and place
all my Confidence in Him, and confefs that
I He is the Almighty Lord and King of all
I Things in Heaven and Earth , i. e. of all vi-
I fible Bodies, and of all invifible Spirits, An-
I gels and Souls of Men, and that he created
I them all by the Word of his Mouth;
I 2itQ tit one L o $ MttsS Cfjct if, tije onto
Seffottcn of oli, begotten of tiie a*
tijei* before tije 'Beginning of tije Kto^i,
iigijt of I i g i j t , t ine Cob of t rue
Iiom attti not niasc, of tije fame feiance
iiuifj tije jfatijet', b? iuijom all djingg
Mz m ^ e ;,
I I alfo belie, e in one Lord J e s u s C h r i s t ,
I and place all my Confidence in Him, and con-
I fefs that he is indeed the only begotten
I Son of God according to his Divine Nature,
I who is bora of the Father by an eternal Ge-
f neration
[ 3* J
iteration, the Manner whereof furpaifes all ere-
ated Underftandings. As the Father is Light,
fo i s. the Son ; and as the Father is God, fo
is the Son God, and has the fame Power,
Wifdom, and all the fame Divine Attributes
with the Father. He is born of the Father,
and not created, he has no feparate Nature,
but is the very fame one God with , the Fa
ther, and has in Conjunction with the Father,
created all vifible and invifible Beings, yet
there is a Perfonal Difference between the
Father and the Son.
mi )Qf02u0 Sgteit came soluit ft om tyea<
, ano tip tije $oim of tije (Sijoi
in tijg tKHdmb of tfje (Htrgm it t ocp, too!}
our 1 lefij upon ijt m, teas tnafce S^ait , atm
foas crucifies unOer pnt t iusi Pilat e, Uiass
Bean aim t oieo, aim tje tijtco Dap rofc
from tijc DeaOj accocfflnff to tlje
pt un% fiJt nfccnticu into ;eaben, an5 fit*
tctJj, eu tje Et 'gijt of 3 tfje fa**
I believe that this Order has been obferv-
ed in bringing about the great Work of our
Redemption, through our Lord J e s u s C h r i s t .
Our firft Father Adam, by violating the Laws
of God, made himfelf and his Pofterity fub-
j e to Sin and Death, and thereupon lofing
the primitive Innocence of our Nature, we
were conceived in Sin, and we are vici
ously inclined from our Youth, and of our
felves unable to obey the Divine Law; and
[ 31 J
[ 35 ]

fyerefore God, who would not that Mankind
fnould periih, did redeem it through his dear
Son J e sus C h r i st , i n the Order and Man
ner following : The only begotten of the. Fa
ther comes down from Heaven, not meaning
thereby that he moved from one Place to a-
nother, for he is .Qmniprefent, God -JblefifedjT o-
ver all; but he willingly took upon him our
Nature, and in the Womb of Mary ,was.made
Man, exclulive of the ordinary Way of Ge
neration. For (he knew no Mali, but a Body
was prepared unto him out of the Blood; of
the always blefled Virgin. By the Power , of
the Holy Ghbft, he was made like unto us
in all Things, Sin only excepted He was
one Perfon, and. one Chrift, fubfifting in the
Divine and Human Nature. I t is thus God
4 * * 4 ^
and Man did undertake to compafs o;ur .Re
demption, by interceding for us with his
Father, by fuffering for us under Pontius Pi
late, and fatisfying, by his Death, Burial, and
Refurreftion, the Demands of Divine Juftice,
that every one that will believe in him may
not periih, but have everlafting Lite. After his
Refurre&ion, in Soul and Body he afcended
miraculoufly into Heaven, and fits at the
right Hand of God the Father, and is equal
to Him in Power and Glory, He dwells with
us here on Earth invifibiy, protecting us
all from our vifible and invihbb Enemies, and
J *
leading us to eternal Li.
[ 34 ]
an fof conic apm Mil) ? nna
5ajeffp ta 3lut!ffc tlje Uiicft tije
DenO, nito qf f)$ ft t ngsom tijm tie
no eiiD

I believe that our Lord and Redeemer J e-
su s C h r i s t , will appear in excellent Majefty
in the End of the World, to judge the Quick
and the Dead, and to render all thofe, who
are truly penitent to the End, partakers of
his everlafting Kingdom; but thofe who con
tinue and die in their Rebellion and Unbelief,
{hall be damned to everlafting Torments ; and
becaufe his Kingdom is to have no end, the
Joys and Pleafures of the Righteous, and the
Pains and Sorrows of the Wicked, ihall be
endlefs alio.
3i ieitc l c fit ti}c ij off, fofj o q u tc fc -
net!) nil t ijinffg, aiiD piocec&etlj ft cm tije
irnt ijcr, to toijom luitij tije JFntOec anti tije
0rm, is ' mzall honour anti p?at fe, of Urtjam
tije Piopijetgi ijaue fo^tolU
I likewife believe in the Holy .Gh o st , and
put all my Confidence in Him, and do con-
fefs that he is not a miniftring Spirit only,
but of the fame EiTence with the Father,
from whom he proceeded before all Times,
and to with the Father and Son, one
God, is due all Worihip, Honour and' Glory.
I believe that this lame Holy Spirit has
have tranfmitted to us by Writing, was not
written by their own private Judgment and
Motion, but by the Infpiration of the Holy
Spirit of God ; and therefore I believe all that
is written in the Old and New-Teftament,
as infpired Writings, and as a perfeft infalli
ble Rule both of Faith and Practice.
3?n tije Catjotcfc ana 8paffoicft
C ij u fc ) ,

I believe in the Holy Catholick and Apo-

ftolick Church, and place all my Hope and
Confidence in the Head thereof only, Chr i st
J e s u s our Lord. I believe that this Church
is an uniformity of Opinion among Chriftians,
who retain the Doftrines of C h r i s t as they
have been delivered by the Apoftles, and ex
plained by the Fathers and General Coun
cils. I further believe the Government of the
Church to be Hierarchical, confifting chiefly
in the Power which Bifhops and Presbyters
have to preach the Word of Life to the Peo
ple, to exercife the Power of the Keys, that
is, to pronounce forgivenefs of Sins to thofe
that are Penitent ; and in the Name of the
Lord,' declare them aceuried who continue
obftinately in their Sins.
This is what I believe bv the Church ; and
thofe that receive not the Doctrine ol the A~
poftles, I reject and abhor.
3 fert ile one O'Snptifm foj i ijr Rcuiiffioii
n? GV
D s I
I believe that Baptifm is a Sacrament, or
dained b y C h r i s t for the Forgivenefs of Sins,
and he that unfeinedly believes in C h r i s t
receives Forgivenefs, not only of the Original
Sin in which he was born, but aifo of his
atual T-ranfgreffions ; and I heartily acknow
ledge that this Sacrament fhould not be rer
peated to any particular Believer.
31 ijope fo? t\)t Eefuit eaion of tfje Dcafy
ano toe li f e eocrlaffing.
i expefl: with ftedfaft Faith, that the Bo
dy of all thofe who die in the Lord, will
in the End of the World rife again in the
fame Manner as the Body of C h r i s t J e s u s
did rife firft, and therefore called the firft
Fruits of the Refurreion, and the Firft-born
of thofe that Sleep. The Wicked and Im-:
penitent (hall be alfo raifed from the Dead,
but they {hall go into everlafting Torments,
and the Righteous into everlafting Happinefs!,
Therefore being juflified by Faith, we have Peace
with God., through our Lord Jefus Chrifi7 by whom
alfo we have Accefs by Faith unto this Grace,
wherein we fland, and rejoice in the Hope of the
Glory of God\ Rom. v. I , 2.
Thefe ihort Explanations of the Ten Com
mandments, Lords-Prayer. an d th e Creed3 b c-
ing designed principally for the Inftruftion of
young Children, are not bnckcd with Scriptu
ral Precis ; but if nnv one ; call in Que;
I 5 7 ]
ft ion the Solidity of either of them, we do
hereby give Notice, that a larger Catechifm
will be ihortly publiftied, wherein every Point
will be proved .at large by the exprefs Words
of the Holy Scripture. I t will be advifeable
for thofe who are defigned to teach Youth,
to . learn by Heart thefe Explications, t be
more ready to inftruct Children, and receive
their Anfwer to thefe refpeftive Queftions.
The Church-Government and Ceremonies
of the R U S S I A N S .
H E Mofccvites have it by Tradr-
tiorij that St. Andrew the Apoftle
firft preached tlie Gofpel at Kiow:
And others arc as pofitive, that
one St. Antonius delivered and con-
many Miracles, the faving Do-
rine of Chrift in the City of Nmgrod. But
be this as it will, it is nnanimouily agreed by
all neighbouring Hiftoriari's, that in the Tenth
Century, the Ruffians were yet Heathens, vvor-
fhipping their Idols Ptonini, Stribi, Chrfi, and
and that twas Helena, the great
who firft countenanced Chriftianity
but that bein quite extinguifhed
'i s. Great
in K
ffia > -
her Son Bofians, Woldomh f
Duke of Ruffia, in the Year 990, did introduce
into all his Territories, the Chriftian Religion,
with the Difcipline and Ceremonies then pra-
difed in the Greek Church j and this was

nd Confia
' '
done in purfuance of Marriage Articles b-
fs Ann, Sifter to Baft-
tinus, PorpUrogenetus, .the
_______ 4 5of Confiantinople. The
Ruffians have onftantly .adhered to the Greek
Church ever fince, and would never acknow
ledge th Jurifdiion of the Latin Church,
ufurped by the Pope of Rome.
I t follows from thefe Premifes, that the.Of-
. * '
ficers and Ecclefiaftical. Dignities are as many
in Number, ,and the fame in a manner, both
in Name and Degree, as tv ere in the Eafiern
Churches, when flourifhing. under their Gre
cian Emperors.
Their Patriarch, or chief Direct-
Patriarch. or in Matters of .Religion, until
the Year 1518, was of theCity
^ 4 J , / f
rch of C/,70, becaufe being,driven by the Turk
from Confiantinop!t\ the Seat of the Eafiern Em
pire, he removed to that Ifland, arid there
placed his Patriarchal Refidencej fo that the
Emperors and Clergy of Rujfia,.where wont year
ly to fend him Prefents, and to acknowledge
a Spiritual kind of Homagfc and Subjection
due to him, and to that Church. But in the
Year abovementioned, the Patriarch of Confian-
tinople or Chto, called Hieroncmo, (being -banifhed,
as fome fay, by, the Tiirk ; or, as others do'
conjecture, depofed by the Greek.Clergy 5) came
to Mofmv, and perfuaded the Emperor, that
the Patriarchal See might, be tranilated thi
ther ; urging firft, that twas highly unrea-
ftnable that it ihould continue any longer un-
D 4 der
de!r fh Turkifo Yoke. And idly, becaufe th
'Kufjuiti Church was the only genuine Daitgh*-
tei of the Greek at that Time, holding th
fame Dodrine and Cereriionie's with it, th
reft being all fubjed to th Turk, and fallen a-
wfly from the ri ght. Profeflion. Wherei n the
crafty Greek, to; make. the better Market of
his, broken Ware, (hewed at large the' Ad
vantages artd Honour that would accrue to
the Empei'of and his Country, by having the
Patriarchs Seat tranikted into the chief City
and Seat of his Empire. As for the Right
of tranflating the fame, and appointing his
Succeifor, he made no doubt of it, but that
it pertained wholly to himfelf.
Hereupon ' the Emperor and his Councir,
with.'the principal of his Clergy affembled at
Mtfavj, where it wits refolved, that the Metro
politan of Mofcd ihoitld be declared Patriarch
% $
of th whole Greek Church, and have the
fame Authority and Jurifdidion that pertain
ed before to the Patriarch of Confiantinople or
Scla ; and. that it might be done with more
Order and Solemnity, the 25th of ^anumy,
1588, the Grek Patriarch, accompanied by the
Ruffian Clergy, . went to the Greek Church of
Prechefi'e, or our undefiled Lady, within the
Emperors Palace, (having firft walked in Pro-
ceilion through the City, and bleffed the Peo
ple with his two Fingers) where he made an
Harangue and delivered his Refignation in
Writing, and fo laid down his Patriarchal
Staff, which was prefntly received by the
Metropolitan of , with divers other Ce
40 .
^ 4
remonies then ufed in the Inauguration of this
new Patriarch. And the fubtile Greek) load
ed with great Frefents from the Emperor and
the Clergy, retired into Poland. I t is very
probable, this was defignedly intended, to
caufe a Schiftn between the Ruffian and Greek
Churches, but the Projeft proved abortive.
For, notwithstanding this new Patriarch of
Mofcow, the Greeks continued to ehoofe their
own, and both Churches are ftri&ly united
as before. From this Time to 1700, they rec
kon eleven Patriarchs of Mofcow.
I . Jofi.
2. Gerfliogen.
3. Ignatius, W hom , however, foti i e
will not reckon among
the others, he having
been a Roman-Catholicht
in the Time of Pfeudo-
4. Philaretus.
6 . Jofitt.
7. Nicen.
5 . Jofaff.
p. Piflerirn.
j o . yoakhn.
11. Adrian.
After whom none has been chofen ; the pr-
lent Emperor, as Head of the Church, ta
king the chief Government thereof into his
Hands. Who Itkewife, on iome folemn
[ 4 ]
Qccafions, a els publickly in. the Church in his
patriarchal Capacity : For the former Patriarchs
being next to the Czar in Power and Authority,
and Lords Paramount in the Dii'eftion of
w +
Mens Confcienees, and being alfo very often
one of the Emperors Brothers., or fome near
Relation, and by their Office being obliged
to refide in the Capital of the Empire, they
ufed to plot againft their Sovereign in his Ab-
fence, or underhand favoured foreign Enemies ;
which Inconvenience his Czarifi) Majefty refolvd
to remove^ by this great Specimen of human
Prudence, viz. not contenting himfelf with the
empty Title of Head of the Church, he re-
folved to exercife the Ecclefiaftical Dignity iti
Peribn, and, in that Capacity, about eight
Years ago, gav this remarkable * Charge to
his Clergy.
( C

cc His Czarifi.) Majeftys Ordr to the high il
l umi nated^, Metropolitan of Novogorcd and
IVdiki Luki.
His great Czarifi Majefty has iiTued a fpe-
cinl Order to fend to von, th Archireis,
^ J /
(Archbifnops) the Copy of the Promife made
by the Archirejts of Afiracnn and Wokgda, on
their Prefentation at Petersburg, to th end
you, ihe other Archirejs3do inviolably con
form thereto in every Particular.
<e And the high illuminated Job, Metropo
litan of; Novogorcd and We/iki Lukiy is hereby
* See prefin! State of RuiTia, p, 1 7 4 ,
IH injoined to obferve the faid high Order as a
j general Rule in all Cafes ; in purfuance where-
of, we Archireje's have promifed the fame, ac-
| <c cording to theSenfe of the Holy Scriptures,
and the Canons of Councils, for the bet-
; ter ruling of the Flock, and the Benefit o
:: " Souls, 'viz,.
ij i . I promife, that I will not exeommii-
nicate, nor exclude from the Sacraments of
; the Church, any Perfon, either for himfelf,
or with his whole Family, out of private
I Paffion, or on account of any Differences what-
foever, that he may happen to have with
me, or any who are fubordinate to me ;
i f<purfuant to the 4th Canon of the 7th Ge-
neral Council, and the 134th Canon of the
c Council of Carthage, hem, purfuant to the
<: 39th Law of the * Emperor juftinian ; unlefe
fuch Perfon appears to be a notorious O f-
[ fender and Tranfgreifor of Gods Command-
!.*" ments, or an Heretick againft the Church#
; and has firft been thrice admonifhed, with-
I out humbling or amending ; however, I will
excommunicate and fever him from the Church
only for his own Perfon, and not with his
whole Family.
cc 2. That I will deal with thofe who oppofe
i- the holy Church with Judgment, in a re-
gular Way, and with Meeknefs, purfuant
to the Doftrine of Paul the Apoftle, That a
Servant of the Lord muft not ftrive, ht be gentle
!____ [ 45 ]



all Men, apt to teach,- not angry. That I
will reprove all Oppofers with Meeknefs,
that God in time' may bring them to Re
pentance and Acknowledgment of the Truth,
according to the 66th Canon of the Synod
of Carthage.
3. That I will keep the Monks together,
according to the Canons and Rules prefcribd
to them, and will not permit them to run
out of. their own.into other Monafteries, nor
to enter into fccular Houfes, unlefs upon
prefflng Occafions, and for the good of their
Friends, with myfpecial Knowledge and
Confent in Writing, if they (hall defire it ;
purfuant to the 4th and i i th Canons of the
fourth general Council.
4. That I will not build any new Church
my felf without neceffity, nor allow others to
do it, that the fame may not happen after
wards to be left unfinifhed ; purfuant to the
84th Canon of the particular Synod of Car
thage, and the 27th Law of Jufiinian,
5. That I will not make many Priefis,
tc Deacons, or other Church-Officers, without
<c due Neceffity, or fur filthy Lucre fake ; but
for the fake of the feedipg of the Flock,
<c and for the Advantage of the holy Church ;
purfuant to the 6th Canon of the fourth ge-
neral Council.
6. Moreover, I promife, that I will vifit
ct the Diocefe committed to my Charge every
Year, i f poiiiblc, or at Icaft every third or
fourth ^ear, my felf, and in Perfon, fo as
the Apoftics di d, and have i nfpefti on there-
i: of
t * , I
of, not for Lucre, Fame, or Honour fake ;
but after, an Apoftolick Manner, and in the
Lord, to the end the Faithful may remain in
t Faith, and in Praftice of good Works: Par-
ricularly, I will be careful in obferving, in-
ftru&ing, and correcting the Priefts, that
they do prevent Schilm, Superftition, and
Worfhip, contrary to Gods Command; and
11that no Shrines which are unknown, and
have not the Teftimony of the Church, be
honourd as facred Relicks and that they
caufe thofe Sorcerers, who feign .thenifelves
to be pofTeffed, and go about naked, or on-
ly in their Shires, to be carried before the
Judge of the Place, and be punifhed ; that
they do not countenance any fictitious and
" deceitful Works, carrying an Outfideof God-
linefs, be they performd by ecclefiaftical
or fecular Perfons ; that they do not fet up
the holy Images for Deities, nor afcribe to
them lying Miracles, which gave a Handle to
the Adverfaries of calumniating the Ortho
dox, but that they may honour them accor-
ding to the Senfe of the holy Orthodox Ca-
tholick Church.
7. That I will not intermeddle with any
worldly Affairs and Strife, except when there
appears open Injuftice ; in which Cafe I will
" firft ad mo ni In, and afterwards even make re-
port to his Czariflj Ma jelly, purfuant to
" the Doctrine of the Apoftle ; Support the
f 4 * ]
There was formerly but one Me-
Metyopoli- tropolitan in all Ruffia, viz. of Mo-
tans. fcow; but this being erefted into a
Patriarch, four Metropolitans were
created, the one of Novogorod, the others of Ra
ft ove, of Cafan, and Sankyen : Their Office was
to receive of the Patriarch fuch Ecclefiaftical
Orders as he thought good, and deliver them j
to their refpeftive Archbiihops, befides thei
Ordering their own Diocefe.
Their Archbiihops are thofe of
Archhiftop. Kiow, Mofcow, Wolodomir, See. t heir!
Office is all one with the Metropo
litans, fave that they have an under Jurifdidioii, j
as Suffragans to the Metropolitans, and Supe
rior to the Bilhops.
Then follows their Uladifries, or
Bifiops. Bifhops, who are many in Num
ber, having each a very large Dio
cefe, as dividing the reft of the whole Empire
between them.
The Ecclefiaftical Jurifdiion
Ecclefiaftical of the Metropolitans, Archbi-
JuyijdiEiicn. fhps and Bifliops, is the fame in
a manner that is ufed by the
Clergy in other Parts of Chriftendom ; for be
fides their Authority over the Clergy, and or
dering fuch Matters as are meerly Ecclefia-
ffical, their Jurifdiion extendeth to all Te-
ftimentary Caufes, Matters of Marriage, and
Divorcements, fome Pleas of Injuries, &c.
To whichPurpofe alfo they have thei r Officials
or Commiilaries, (whom they call Bojaren Ula-
ditskcy) that are Lay-Men and Perfons of Qua
lity, who keep their Courts, and execute their,
Jurifdiion : And, befides their other Oppref-
fions over the Common People, tyrannize alio
over the inferior Clergy.
As for the Archbiihop or Bifhop himfelf, he
bears no fway in deciding thofe Caufs that
are brought into his Court; but i f he would
moderate any Matter, which he judges wrong,
he muft do it only by Intreaty with his Gentle
man Official: The Reafon is, becaufe thefe
Bojarskey, or Gentlemen Officials, are not ap
pointed by the Biihops, but by the Empero
himfelf, or his Council, and are to give an ac
count of their Doings to none but to them. I f
the Biihop can by Intreaty have the Choice of
his own Official, it is efteemed as a very great
In a word, the Clergy of Ruffin, as well con
cerning their Lands and Revenues, as their
Authority and Jurifdiion, are altogether or
dered and over-ruled by the Emperor and his
They have alfo their Affiftants, or feveral
Councils of thir Priefts, who are of their Dio-
cefe, refiding within their Cathedral Cities, to
the Number of twenty four.
The Patriarchs yearly Revenue
out of his Lands, befides his other Revenues.
Fees, was about 3000 Ruhels or Du-
ws; the Metropolitans and Archbiihops 2500;
the Biihops, fome 1000, fome 800, &c.
Their Habit or Apparel, when
they appear in their Pantifiudibus Apparel.
011i'olemn Ocafions, is a ''.litre on
[ 47 ]
their Heads, after the Popifh Faihion, fet with
Pearl and precious Stones; a Cope on their
Backs made of fine Brocade, embroidered with
Pearl; and a Croiiers Staff in their Hands,
laid over with Plates of Silver double gilt, with
a Crofs or Shepherds Crook on the top. Their
ordinary Habit when they ride, or go abroad, I
is a black Hood on their Heads, that frequent- 1
ly hangeth down their Backs. Their upper]
Garment, which they call R:is, is a Gown of j
black Damask, with Lifts or Stripes of white I
Sattin laid upon it, every Stripe about two I
Fingers broad, and their Crofiers Staff carried j
before them. The People flock together from I
all Quarters to receive their Paternal Benedicti
on, which they perform with their two Forc-
Fingers, after a marvellous Manner.
The Election and Appointing of
Election of Eiihops, and the reft of. the Dig-
jBifiops. nified Clergy, belongeth wholly to
the Czar. They are always cho-
fen out of the Monafteries ; lb that there is
no Bifhop, Arehbifhop, or Metropolitan, but
hath been a Monk or Friar before. And for j
that ReafOn they are, and muft all be un
married Men ; for Monks vow perpetual Cha-
ftity. When the Emperor hath nominated
the Perfon, he is invefted in the Cathedral of
his Diocefe, with many Ceremonies. They
have alfo their Deans and Archdeacons. The
reft of the Clergy are the Archimandrites, who
govern the Convents of Monks, and the Igu*
moncs thofe of the Nuns. Next follow the
Popes and Proto-popes, being the fecuiar Priefe
and Arc'n-Priefts. The Number of which infe-
riour Clergy and cloiftered Monks and Nuns is
exceeding great, and who are for the moft
part very illiterate and poor, living chiefly up
on the Benevolence of the Laity.
As for their Preaching, like as
in other Chriftian Countries, they Learning of
neither ufe it, nor indeed are capa- the Clergy.
ble of it, being utterly unlearned
both in the Scriptures and all other forts of
Knowledge; by confequence, the People being
fo indifferently inftrufted, live in grofs I gno
rance. Only their Manner is twice every Year,
( i. e. on New-Tears-Day and St. John Baptift )
to make an ordinary Speech to the People, e-
very Metropolitan, Arehbiihop, and Biftiop, in
his Cathedral Church, to this or the like ef
fect : That i f any bear Malice towards his
Neighbour, i f any entertain traiterons Thoughts
againft the Czar, let him beware of fuch wicked
Devices; i f any have not kept his Fails and
Vows, nor done his other Duties to the holy
Church, he muft be heartily forry for the like
Omiflions, &c, And this is a matter of Form
with them, utterd in fcarce more Words than
here fet down. Yet this is pronounced with
that Grace and Solemnity, in a Pulpit fet up
on purpofe for this one Aft, as i f he were to
preach over a whole Body of Divinity.
The Empcrour is always prefent at this
folemn Exhortation, and his prefent Czarifi
Majefty, ever fince he has fuppreiled the Pa
triarchal Dignity, has officiated himfelf on
E thefe
[ 49 J
thefe Feftivals, beginning the Tunes, and
reading the Epiftle before the high Altar.
font mile ex-
* expound any Parts
of Scripture in_ their
Churches, neither do
they preach, becaufe
they hold, that by
this Means Herefies
and erroneous Opini
ons in -regard to the
Faith, are publifhed
to the World. They
fay, that publick
Preaching, as it con
tains nothing but fub-
tle Queftions and fine
fpun Conclufions, is
the Source of all Er
rors. They declare
like wife, that plain
Precepts are more
proper to difpofe the
Mind and Soul of
plication de tout ce
quils lifent dans leurs
c c
; Ils ne pr
chent 'point non plus,
parce quils 'tiennent
que cefi par ce nio*
en que les Herefiess
cc & les opinions er
rones l'gard de
ic la Foi fe repandent
Cdans le monde. Ils
cc difent que ces
dications publiques,
Cf pleines de queft;
c c

& de conclu-
fubtiles &
fource de
font la
toutes les
erreurs. Ils preten-
cc dent auffi quune do-
fimple efl plus
their Czars to Good- cc propre difpofer le
r. 1 1 t T CC . J -
nefs and a holy Life,

cur & efprit de

than Explications of leurs Czars au lien
their Articles of c & la Saintet des
Fairh ; for which tc murs ^ que explica-
Reafon they rejeft
tion des plus hauts
" my
* vide h R el i g i on an c i en n e 6c m odern e de M u fc ov i tes
i m p ri m a Cologne 16 9 8 . p a g . i j . 2c 8 3 .
and -forbid* with
great Severity, .all
Difputs about religi-
ous Matters. And
i f at any time Con-
tefts arife, they are
immediately quaihd
by the Prudence
and good Conduft
of the Patriarch ; and
tc though the Difpute
be about never fo
tc trifling a Matter, tis
he alone that muft
decide it.
The fame Author,
page 83, declares,
The Reafon why the
Ruffians preach not in
their Churches is,
becaufe, in their Opi-
nion, thfe Houfe of
God is prophan-
ed thereby, th
Preacher, as his Paf-
fions more him, be
ing apt to vent what
ever comes upper-
fi moft, to raife Qaefti-
oris and Difputes,
which make the com-
(e myfleres ; cefl four-
iC quoi ils rejettent
C. U defendent avec
beaucoup de feverit
toutes t les difputes,
K gard des chofes
cc Divines. Que f i en
matiere de Religiont
il sleve quelque dif -
cc fevent, i l eft ufj-
tc tt pdif par la
prudence . & la bonne
conduite du Patri-
arche, & . quelque pe-
Cc tite que [oit la con-
reflation, il nejl per-
tc mis u lui Jeulden
(t dcider.
cc La y aifon pourquoi
cc ils ne prchent pas
f i
Eglifes, eft
gination, la maifoti
<c de Dieu eft profane
par les prdications,
cc attendu que lon y dit
par pdffioi
( C
vient l'Efp
1 v 4 ^ *
l on y agite des que-
c<ftions & des difputes,
qui font errer le corn-
<c mun Peuple, & don-
mon E 3
mon People fall into
t Error, and fo intro-
dnce Novelties in Re-
ligion ; fo that preach-
ing, they fay, for the
moft part does more
Mifchief and gives
more Chagrin to the
C Hearers, than Con-
cc folation and Profit.
Whereas the Read-
ing the New-Tefta-
ment, as ufed in their
Churches, is fufficient
to teach them good
Manners, and inftrud
them in all Chriftian
" Virtues. They add,
that by thus reading
the New-Teftament,
u the Chriftians of the
firft Ages were edifi-
ed, and filled with the
Holy Ghoft. That
i f the Scripture muft
needs be interpreted,
it is much better (ac-
c cording to their Cu-
c ilom) to read in their
Churches the Homi-
lies of the Holy Fa-
thers, than to permit
very ignorant Prieft,
who loves Wrangling,
[ s1
nent place aux muve-
autez, & que ces Pr
dications aportent fou-
vent plus de. chagrin
& de dommage aux
Auditeurs, que de con
flation & de profit ;
Au lieu que la le-
Elure du Nouveau Te-
flament, lors quelle efi
faite dans les Eglifesi
fufit pour enfeigne-
ment des bonnes murs,
& de toutes les ver
tus Chrtiennes, Us a-
joutent, que cefi par
cette mme leElure, que
les Chrtiennes, ds le
commencement ont difie
Eglife, & quils ont t
remplis du Saint E f
prit. Que f i ton de-
firoit quelque explica
tion de Ecriture Sainte,
ill valoit beaucoup mieux,
comme cefi leur cou-
tumejieur dans lEglife,
les Semons des Saints
Peres, que de permet
tre un homme ig
norant y amateur de
difpntes, rempli de va
nit, & enfl dorguiel\
de dbiter au Public
and is puft up with
Vanity and Pride, to
vent in publick Af-
femblies his own fan-
ct taftical - Opinions,
with a View only to
gain the Applaufe
of the giddy Mul-
titude. Therefore
<c they utterly forbid
all Diiputes, and vain
Philofophical Rea-
fonings, as tending.
to create Animofities
< among Chriftians, and
prove the greateft
t Obftacle to the Pra-
fc dice of true Piety,
cc filling the Mind with
Cc a Spirit of Pride and
ic Vanity, and by con-
tc fequence, entirely de-
cc ftroying the true Spi-
tf rit of Chriftianity.
<Cfis propres imaginait-
cc 'ons} dans la me feu-
lement de parofter, &
cc Enqurir eflime de
fes Auditeurs, L
deJfuSy ils rejettent en-
iCtirement , toutes les
iC Difputes, & mme la
Philofophiey allguant
ic pour leurs raifons,
quel/e nefert qufuire
natre plefieurs dtff-
rens qtiette fi un vb-
cc flacle la patrique de
cCla pitj attendu quelle
cc remplit Pefprit d'or-
(t gueil & de vanit] &
cCque par confeqnent,
cc elle dtruit entirement
cc la fimplicit du Chri-
cc flianifme.
Notwithftanding this Opinion prevails through'
out Riffia, his prefent Czarif b Majefty* having
in his Travels obferved the Ulefulnefs of
Preaching, as to the I nftruion and Morals of
the People, has fince (out of a Pious and
Princely Care for his Subjects Good) ordered
feveral young Priefts to Kiow, and other Schools,
to profecute their Studies, and render them-
felves able to preach with Eloquence, and Un-
E 3 derftanding.
drftanding. And already, among feveral o?
thers, one 'TheophylaElus, a Greek Monk at Pe
tersburg, almoft daily gives Proof of his great
Learning and Abilities this Way; but as to
Controverfies in Rligion and Politicks, they,
as well as the reft of the Clergy, are expref
ly forbid, by Authority, to handle fuch Sub
jects, without their Sovereign's particular Leave
or Command.
Their Prifs (whom they call
Priefis. Popes, or Papaes,) are made by
the Biihops, without any great
Examination before, or Ceremonies at,
their Admiffion, fave, that their Heads;
are fhorn about a Hands Breadth on the
Crown, and that Place annointed with Oil by
the Biihop. I t is thefe fecular Priefts only
who are allowed, or rather obliged, to marry ;
but i f the firft Wife die, he cannot take a
fcond, but he forfeits his PriefthoocL and
his Living withal, purfuant to the Senfe the
Ruffian Church puts upon that Text of St.
Paul to Timothy, x Tim. iii. 2. A Bifljop mufl he
the Husband of one Vl'ife. I f he will needs mar
ry again after his firft Wife is dead, he is
no longer called Papa, but Rofpapa, or Quondam
Priefi. This caufes them to make much of
their Wives, who are accounted as the Ma
trons or Women of the beft Reputation in
the Pariih. Thefe Priefts have no
heir Main- Tythes, but ftand at the Benevo-
tenance. lence of their Pariihioners, and get
a Maintenance by their Offerings,
Shriftes, Marriages, Burials, Dirges, and Pray
[ 54 ]
[ 55 1
ers for the Dead and the Living, (which they
call Mali tu a.) For' befides the Churh Se;-
vice, their Manner is, for every, private Per-
fon to have a Prayer faid for him by the
Prieft, upon any occafion of Bufinefs whatfo-
ever, whether he is to go a Journey, Sail,
Plough, Sow, or whatever elfe he doth. Which
Prayer is not framed according to the Oc
cafion of his Bufinefs, but at random, being
fome of their ordinary and ufual Church
Prayers, and it is thought to be more holy
and effectual, i f repeated by the Priefts own
Mouth. They have likewife a Cuftom to fo-
lemnize the Saints Day, who is Patron to
their Church, once every Year , at which
Time, all th Neighbours from other adjacent
Pariihes flock in, to have Prayers faid to that
< * / J
Saint for themfelves and Friends, and fo make
the Prieft an Offering for his Pains ; this
makes a great Part of his Maintenance, efpe-
oially i f the Saint of that Church is of Cre
dit and Efteem for fome extraordinary Mira
cles. But then the Tythe of all thefe Per*
quifites is paid to the Bifliop of his Diocefe.
The Papa, or Prieft, is known
by his long Tufts of Hair, his Their Habit..
Gown with a broad Cape, and a
walking Staff in his Hand ; when he fays the
Service in the Church, he puts on a Surplice,
and fometimes his Cope upon folemn Days.
They have befides their Papas or Priefts, their
Churnapapes or black Priefts ; thefe keep their
Benefices, though they are admitted Monks or
Fryars within fome Monaftery. They feem to
E refe-m-
iemble Regular Priefts in the Romifi) Church.
Under the Prieft, is a Deacon in every Church,
who does the Office of a Pariih Clark, and
nothing elfe. Their Protopapas or Arch-Priefts,
and their Arch-Deacons (who are next in E~
lection to be their Protopapds) they ferve only
in Cathedrals.
The Priefts have hitherto preferred the Li
berty of wearing Beards, which they tender
almoft as their Lives, and have a high Ve
neration for them, inalmuch as they think
they make them referable God Almighty,
whom their Painters reprefent with a great
Their Monks or Fryars are here
Monh. more numerous than in any other
Country, and it is obfervable, that
the moil: fruitful and pleafant Parts i'warm
with Monafteries, the Number whereof is not
only due to the Devotion of the Inhabitants,
but becaufe the Monks Life is iafeft from
the Oppreffions and Exactions that ahv.iys
fall heavy upon the Laity, which induce ma
ny to put on the Fryars Weed, as the beft
Armour againft fuch Sufferings j befides, there
are many, who upon fome Difappointinent
from Friends, throw themfelves into a Mo
naftery; and others take it as a Sanfluary, and
become Monks, to avoid fome Punifhment
they delerve by the Laws of the Realm ; for
i f they get a Monaftery over their Heads,
and put on the Cowl before they be appre
hended, it is a Protedcion to em againft any
L a w , for what Crime fce\ er, except high
Treafon ; but with this Provifo, that no one
is admitted, unlefs he-bring tvxth him Land,
or Stock, or Money, and put it into the com
mon Treafure, (except fuch as are _command
ed by the Emperour ;) and fome bring to the
Value of a iooo Rubels, fome more, and none
lefs than 3 or 400.
The Manner of their Admiffion
is as follows: Firft, the Abbot Their Ad-
ftrippeth him of all his fecular mifjion.
Apparel, then he puts upon him
next his Skin a white Flannel Shirt, widi a
long Garment over it reaching to the Ground,
girded with a Broad Leather Belt, and an upper
Gown of black Saye, then is his Head (horn
a Hands Breadth clofe to his Skin, and thefe
or the like Words are pronounced by the
Abbot, whilft he clips his H ai r: As thefe
Hairs are clipped off, and taken from thy Head,
fo now iue take thee and feparnte thee clean from
the World and worldly Things, Sic. This done,
he anointeth his Crown with Oil, and put-
teth on his Cowle, and fo admits him among
the Fraternity. They vow a perpetual Chaiti-
ty, and Abftinence from Flefh.
They have alfo many Nunne
ries, whereof fome admit none Nuns.
but Noblemens Widows and
Daughters. A Nun takes the Ha
bit with the following Ceremo- Their Ad-
nies: Upon her entring into the mifion.
Nunnery, (lie wears a black Gown,
and her Hair is combed quite over her Face,
flic is conduced by the Siiterhood into the
[ 57 J
middle of the Ghappel, ftooping as fhe Walks
where a Prieft ftands before a Desk, i here (he
throws her felf upon, the Ground thrice, and,
continues, afterwards, in that Pofture. The
Prieft, after having faid a Prayer, asks, her
tlivers Queftions, viz,. Whether ihe entered in
to a monaftical Life out of Conftraint ? Whe
ther ihe entirely renounced the World ? Whe
ther (he would obey the Laws prefcribed ?
T o all which (he anfwers, Yes, fo. help me
God. Then the Prieft begins another Prayer,
after which he bids her rife, and (hew her
Face. Upon which, fome old Nun parts her
Hair, fteps up to the Desk, takes a Pair o
Sciifars which lie upon it, prefents them to
the Prieft, kiifes his Hand, and defires him
to cut of her Hair, which he feemingly de
clines, and lays the Sciifars afide. This Ce
remony being repeated a fcond and third
Ti ne, the Prieft at laft takes the Sciifars,
and having parted her Hair into four Tref-
fes, cuts them crofs Ways over the Crown
of her Head, the Chorufes finging certain Hymns
in the mean Time, Then the old Nuns put
the Girdle about her Waft, and drefs her
in the Habit of the Order ; her Relations,
who ftand by, weeping and bewailing the
young Woman, as now dead and loft to the
World. Laft of all, the Prieft reads to her
the Statutes of the Convent, and prefents her
to the Lady Abbefs.
The Revenues o the Ruffian Con
vents were very great in former Revenues.
Times, at prefent they are ftript
of what is fpurfluous, yet have they ftill
their Competency. And it is aftonifhing to
fee their immenfe Treafure, coniifting of Jew
els, Pearls, and. Gold, whih. is in a meafure
loft to the Publick ; but fince the Battle of
Narva, when the Affairs of Ruffia had but an
indifferent Afped, the Monafteries were forced
to contribute largely towards the Defraying
the publick Charges of the War againft the
Befides the feveral Orders of Hermits.
Monks, &c. the Ruffians have cer
tain Hermits, (whom they call holy Men)
they go naked about the Country in the coldeft
Seafon, with Iron Chollars about their Necks,
their Hair hanging lank and favage-like over
their Shoulders ; they are efteemed as Pro
phets, and affume the Liberty of Talking
what they pleafej fo that i f they reprove any
openly, the Party concerned takes it very pa
tiently, and fays no more than Po Grecmn, i .e.
this is for my Sins; and i f any of thefe
Hermits take any Goods out of one Mans
Shop, and give them to another, the Owner
thinks himfelf much beloved of God, and muclj
beholden to the holy Man fpr his fo do
[ 59 J
[ ]
Of the R u s s i a n L I T U R G Y .
H E Morning Service they
tall Zaitrana, i. e. Mat-
tins. The Pvieft entereth
v to the Church with his
Deacon following him ;
when he is got about the middle of the
Church, he begins to fay with a loud Voice,
Blaflavey Uladika ; i. e. Biefs us heavenly Father,
Then he addeth; In the Name of the Fathery
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghofl, one very
God in Trinity. And Afpody Pomehij, or. Lord
have mercy upon us, repeated three Times. This
done, 011 he marches towards the Chancel,
or fanolum fanBortm, as they call it, and en-
treth into the Scharfvey Dwrey or heavenly
Door; which no Man may enter into but the
Prieft only. Where ftanding at the Altar, or
Table, he faith the Lcrds Prayer, and then
again Afpody Pomoluuij, pronounced twelve times,
then praifed be the Trinity, the Father3 the Son,
and the Holy Ghofl, for ever and ever ; the Dea-
[ ]
cons and People anfwering, Amen. After this,
the Prieft addeth the Plalm for the Day,
beginning with, 0 come let us worfiip9 and fall
down before the Lord our Maker, &c. and there
upon he, with the Deacons and People, all
turn themfelves towards their Images that
hang on the Wall, and croffing themfelves,
bow down three times, knocking their Heads
to the very Ground. After this, he readeth
the Ten Commandments and Athanafiuss Creed
out of the Service-Book.
This being done, the Deacon, who ftandeth
without the heavenly Door, readeth the Life
of fome Saint, with a plain finging Note,
not unlike to the Roman Catholicks, when they
iing their Gofpels. After all this, (which laft-
eth an Hour and Half) he addeth certain fet
Colles or Prayers, fuitable to what he read
before out of the Saints Lives, and fo endech
his Morning Service ; a great many Wax-
Candles burning all the while before the Ima
ges of the Saints, fome whereof are as thick
as a Mans Waft, vowed or enjoined as a Pe
nance upon the People of the Pariih.
About nine a Clock in the Morning, they
have another Service, called Obeidna, and if it
be fome Feftival-Day, they read, Blejfed be the
Lord God of I frad, &c. and We praife Thee, 0
God, &c.
Their Evening Service is called
Vecherna, the Prieft beginneth with Vefpers.
Blaftavey Vladika, as at Mattins,
and the Plalms appointed for the Vecherna;
which being read, he fingeth, My Soul doth
C i
Ajpody Pomeluui, Lord have mercy upon us,
'thirty times together. To ivhich the -Boys,
tv ho are the Church, anfyver all with one
Voice, as faft as their Lips ean move, Verij,
Verij,.Verij, otPraife, Praife, Praife, thirty times
together. Then i s read by the Prieft, .and on
Holy-Days, fung the 'firft Pfalm* Blejfed is tht
Man, &c. and .at the end is added Hallelujah re-
peated ten Times : The next in order is fome
part of the Gofpel read by the Prieft, which
he endeth with Hallelujah repeated three 'times;
and fo : having faid a Colle in remembrance
of the Saint of that Day, he endeth his E-
vening Service. All this while the Prieft
ftandeth at the Altar, within the Chance!,
whence he never moveth all Service-Time. The
People ftanding together the whole Time iri
the Body of the Church, and fome in the
Porch, for they have neither Seats. nor Pews
in any of their Churches, being in their Opi
nion an inducement to Indevotion .and Lazi-
neis, and this is : univerfally the Practice of
the Greek Church ; but .thofe who are old and
feeble, are allowed Crutches to lehpon.

The:Sacrament of Baptifm, 'which

.the Ruffians believe abfolutely ne-
is admini-
. ceifary to Salvation,
ft red after this manner : The Child is ..brought
to the Church (before eight Days are elapfed
after he is *born) the Prieft ftanding ready with
a Tub of Water by him, to receive at the
Porch the little Infidel, who is to be made a
Chriftiao, &c. Then he teacheth the Witnef-
[ t i 1
fes, (who al to the Number of two oi three)
in a certain fee Form out of his Book, what
their Duty is in bringing up the Child after
he is Baptized, (viz.) That he muft be taught
to know God, and Chrift the Saviour. And
becaufe God is of great Ma j eft y, and we muft
not prefume to come unto him without Me
diators, therefore they muft teach him what
Saints are the beft and chief Mediators, &c.
This done, he commandeth the Devil, in the
Name of God, to come out of the Water:
So after certain Prayers, he plungeth the
Child thrice over Head 'and Ears. For this
they hold to be a Point neceflary, that no
part of the Child be undipped in the Water.
The F rm of Words ufed by the Prieft in
the Aft of Dipping, or Baptifm, is the very
fame prefcribed in the Gofpel, and ufed in all
hriftian Churches.
When the Child is baptized, the Prieft
yeth Oil and Salt tempered together upon
ie Forehead and both fides of his Face, and
,.ien upon his Mouth, drawing it along with
his Finger over the Childs Lips, repeating
withal certain Prayers to this Effe : That
God will be pleafed to make him a good
priftian, &c. all this is done in the Church-
prch. Then is the Child (as being now re
ceived into the Number of the Faithful) car
ped into the Church, the Prieft going before,
end there he is preinted to one of the prin-
ipal Images, (being laid on a Cuihion before
lie Feet of the Image) to be commended nn-
oGod, I f the Chifd be fick or weak, (efpe-
dally in Winter) they make the Water Luke
warm. After Baptifm, the Manner is to cm
off the Childs Hair, and having wrapped i
within a piece of Wax, to lay it up as
Relick or Monument in a fecret Place of tin
Church. The Ruffians baptize none in pri
vate Houfes, unlefs the Weaknefs of the In
fant wont fuffer it to be carried to Church,
or the Houfe be a great Way off ; in fuel
Cafes they take care not to Chriften it in thi
Lying-in Chamber, believing that Room to bi
defiled and unclean.
This is the Manner cf their Baptifm, whici
they account to be the beft and perfedel
Form, as they do all other Parts of their Re
ligion, received, as they fay, from the bel
Church, meaning the Greek And therefon
they will take great Pains to make a Profelyte,
or convert either an Infidel, Reman Catholickj
or Proteftant, by Rebaptizing hi
Rebaptizing. after the Ruffian Manner. Such ai
thus receive the Ruffian Baptifm, an
firft carried into fome Monaftery, to be inftruftei
there in the Doftiine and Ceremonies of the!
Church. And firft they put the Profelyte into a
new Apparel, and fet a Garland on his Head, then]
rhey anoint his Head with Oil, and put
Wax-Taper into his Hand, and fo pray ovei
him four times a Day for feven Days toge
rher. Ail this while he is to abftain froir
Fiefti and white Meats. The feven Days be
in ended, he is purified, and waihed in
B' ^nio; nnd on the eighth Day he is brought
into the Church, where he is taught by th
Monks how to behave in Croffing himfelfi
bowing to the Ground, and fuch like Geftures,
which are very numerous in the Ruffian Church.
Then he is led to a River to be Baptized, i f
in Summer ; and i f it be in Winter, they
break a Hole in the Ice, and dip him as u-
fuai, three Times, in the Name of the Father,
Son and Holy Ghoft.
The Sacrament of the Lords-
Supper is adminiftred here but Lord*s-Suppera
once a Year, in their great Lent
Time, a little before Eafter. Three at the
moil are admitted to communicate at one
Time. The Manner whereof is this : Firft,
They confefs all their Sins to the Prieft,
(whom they call their Papa, or ghoftly Father)
then they come to the Church, and are called
up to the Communion-Table ; here firft they
are asked of the Prieft, whether they be
clean, or no ? That is, whether they have
never a Sin behind left unconfefled. Upon their
anfweringj A7b, they are taken to the Table,
where the Prieft begins with certain ufual.
Prayers, proper for this high Solemnity, the
Communicants landing in the mean Time with
their Arms folded one within the other, like
Penitentiaries, or Mourners. When thefe Pray
ers are ended, the Prieft takes a Spoon, fills
it full of red Wine, puts into it a fmall Piece
of Bread,. and tempercth them both together*
fo delivers the Spoon to the Communicants*
who ftand in Order, pronouncing the ufual
Words of this Sacrament, Eat this, &c, Drink
thisy &c. both at one Time, without any Paufe.
F After
[ 5 ]
After this, he delivereth them Bread by it
felf, and then Wine mixt with a little tvarm
Water, to reprefent the Blood and Water
which flowed from our Saviours Side. While
this is doing, the Communicants unfold their
Arms, and then folding them again, follow
the Prieft thrice round abcut the Communi
on Table, and fo return to their Places again.
Whc:'f ring faid certain other Prayers, he
di fr ; 1 ihe Communicants, with charge to
be. r.:erryand cheerful for feven Days next fol-
lowiv^; which being ended, they are enjoin
ed Lo faft as many Days : Which they ob-
fervc with very great Devotion, eating no
thing elfe but Bread and Salt, except a lit
tle Cabbage., and other Herbs , and for their
Drink, they are allowed Water mixt with a
little Honey. The Bread ufed in the Sacra-
ment muft be leavened and baked by a
Priefts Widow. The Ruffians communicate
always under the two Species of Bread and
Wine, in which Point they differ from the
Roman Church. The Form of Communion is
taken out of the Liturgy of St. Chrjfoflom, and
this part of it has been Englifh cl by Dr.
Cavil of Cambridge, in his Account of the Greek
Church, with Reflections on their prefent
Difcipline, particularly in the Eucharift, where
in he learnedly {news the Difference between
the Greek Mais and [ Traniubftantia-
Thei r
Their Nuptial Ceremonies are
very different from thofe ufed in Marriage,
other Countries. The young Man
is never permitted to lee his Miftrefs till they
are aually married, but the Courtfhip is began
and carried on by his Mother, or fome o-
ther elderly Matron of his Acquaintance ;
when the intended Bride and her Friends have
approved of the Propofal (for without the
Knowledge and Confent of the Parents, the
Contraft is not lawful,) the Fathers on both
fid es, or fuch as are to them inftead of Fa
thers, with their other chief Friends, have a
Meeting about the Dowry, which is common
ly very large, after the Ability of the Pa
rents; fo that you (hall have a Market-Man
(as they call him) give i oos Rubeh, or more,
with his Daughter.
As for the Man, it is never required of
him, nor doth it ftand with the Cuftom of
Ruffia, to fettle any Jointure ; but in Cafe he
have a Child by her, ihe enjoyeth a third of
the Husbands Eftate after his Deceafe. I f he
have two Children by her, or more, ihe is
to have a larger (hare, but at the 'Difcretion
of the Husband. But i f the Husband dies'
without Iffue, ihe returns Home to her Friends
without any Thing, fave her Dowry. When
the Agreement is made concerning the Dow
ry, they fign Bonds one to the other, as well
for the Payment of the Dowry, as the cele
brating the Marriage by a certain Day. I f
the Woman was never married before, her
Father and Friends are bound befides to af-
F 2 fure
[ 7 J
Cure her a Maiden, and this occafions many
Law-SuitSj when the Man finds Reafon to
mifti'uft his Wifes Honefty.
The Contract being thus finiflid, the Par
ties begin to fend Tokens to one another ; the
Woman fends firft. On the Eve .before the
Wedding-Day, the Bride is carried in a Col-
limago, or Coach, (or in a Sledge, i f it be
Winter) to the Bridegrooms Houfe, with her
Wedding-Cloaths, and the Bed they are to lye
on ; for this is always provided by the Bride.
Here (he is accompanied all that Night by
her Mother, and other Women, but riot wel
comed, nor once fecn by the Bridegroom him
On the Wedding-Day, the Bride puts on a
Veil of Lawn, or fuch like, and being accom
panied with her Friends, as the Bridegroom
is with his, they go all to Church on Horfe-
back, tho the Church be never fo near, and
themfelves but in mean Circumftances. The
Words of Contract, and other Ceremonies in
folcmnizing the Marriage, are much after the
Manner, and with the lame W o r d s ufed here
in England, with a Pving given to the Bride,
which being put on, and the Words of Con
trat: pronounced, the Brides Hand is deliver
ed into the Hand of the Bridegroom, who
ibr.dedi all this while on the one fide of the
Altai' or Table, and the Bride on the other.
S> the Marriage Knot being knit by the
Prie ft, the Bride comcth to the Bridegroom,
and iaeth down at his Feet, touching his
Rioe with her Head, ia Token of Conjugal
L 6 9 1 .
Obedience; and the Bridegroom, in return, caft-
eth the Lappet of his upper Garment over
the Bride, to intimate his willingnefs to pro
tect and cherifh her.
Then come the Father and other Friends of
the Bride, and bow themfelves low to the
Bridegroom ; and fo likewife his Friends bow
themfelves to the Bride, in Token of Affinity
and Love ever after between the two Fami
lies; and to make the Tye of Friendihip or
Kindred more folemn, the Father of the.
Bridegroom offereth to the Prieft a Loaf of
Bread, who delivereth it again to the Father
and Friends of the Bride, with Atteftation be
fore God and their Images, that he deliver
the Dowry wholly and truly at the Day ap
pointed, and hold ever after true Love and
Affeion one Kindred with the other. Then
they break the Loaf in Pieces, and eat of it,
to teftify the Sincerity of their Intentions.
Thefe Ceremonies being ended, the new
married Couple go Hand in Hand, attended
by their Friends, towards the Church Porch,
where they are prefen ted with a Cup of Mead;
the Bridegroom drinks to the Bride, who
pledges him, putting the Cup under her Veil,
for fear of being ieen by the Bridegroom.
At their return home from Church, they
fprinkle Corn out of the V/indotvs on the
Bridegroom and Bride, in Token of Plenty,
wiihing Fruitfulneis and Abundance may at
tend them ever after. The Ruffians allow cf
/ *
this fcandalous Cuftom, contrary to Scrip
ture and good Reafon, that the Husband,
F 3 upon
upon diflike of his Wife, for any trifling Faults,
may go into, a. Monaftery and turn Monk, and
fo leave th poor Woman to ihift for her'
felf ever after. The Ruffians marry very
young,.-and their Houfes are flockd with
' Children.
Their Funerals are attended
Burials. with many Mourning Women hird
for that Purpofe, who make moft
hideous and lamentable Outcries. And a
Prieft carries before the Corps the. Image of
the Saint, to whofe Protection the deceafed
had been recommended in his Baptifm ; which
Image the Mourners kifs very devoutly, to
whofe Care they recommend 'the Soul of
their dead Friend; and having incensd the
Grave with Frankincenfe and other fweet
imelling Gums, they put a Pafs in the dead
Bodys Hand, figned by the Biihop of the
Diocefe, in the Form following: We N.
N. Biihop and Prieft, do certify by, thefe
Prefents, that N. hath lived among us as
a good Chriftian, according to the Tenets
<c of the Greek Church. He has confefled his
<c Sins, and received Abfolution ; he honoured
God and his Saints, and obferved the Feaft
and Faft Days of holy Church ; therefore
we have given him this Certificate,^ to be
perufed by * St. Nicholas, and the other
* St. Nicholas they account their chief Saint, Patron
and Frotedlor, end as it were the] Porter of Heavens
Gates, as ths Papifts do their St, Peter*
<c heavenly Inhabitants, that fo he may enter
unmolefted into everlafting Glory.
The Ruffians have a Koly-Day, which they
call Raditeli Sabot, or the Relations Sabbath-
Day, becaufe on that Day the burying Pla
ces of the Deceafed are viiited by their near-
eft Relations, who carry their Provifions and
divers Prefents, and, with the moft lamenta
ble Cries and Howlings, ask the Dead how
they do, why they died, what ailed them,
and the like ; after which they return Home,
and the Popes or Priefts take Care of the.
Prefents left there, which they employ for
the Benefit of the Church ; this Cuftorn of
bemoaning the Dead, is alio obferved on o-
ther Occaiions for fome time after the Bu
N. B. At Petersburgh, they have left off thefe
Cuftoms, by the Czar s exprefs Order ; but in
the Villages and remote Places from Court they
ftill prevail.
Tht Ruffians fet upCroifes in the
high Ways, in their Churches, Signing with
and at the Door of their Houles, the Sign of
and crofs themfelves on their Fore- the Crofs,
heads and Breafts at their riling
in the Morning, and when they fet down to
Meat j and when they Swear, they fvveaf by
the Crofs, and kifs it.
Holy Water is lo highly e-
fteemed by the Ruffians, that they Holy Water.
hallow even whole Rivers once e-
very Year. At Mofcow, this is done with great
Ppmp and Solemnity, the Emperours them-
F 4 felves
[ 7 ]
elves being' prefent at it, with all their No
bility, and the Clergy of all Orders and De
grees ; they conjure the Devil out of the Wa
ter by cafting in Salt and Frankincenfe, and
fo fanify the whole River. The Ceremony
being over, Crowds of People flock together
to put in their Buckets, and take of the hal
lowed Stream to drink ; others plunge their
Children therein, and many leap into the Ri
ver; and fome naked barren Women bathe
themfelves for three Days fucceflively, in hopes
of becoming Fruitful. They give the Water
to their Sick, as a fovereign Remedy againft
all Diftcmpers. 7 mlfth-Day is the Time ap
pointed for this Solemnity, when the fame is
performed by Biihops, in all Parts of the Ruf*
fian Empire.
At every Brewing, their Man-
They Brew ner is likewife to bring a Diih of
with it* their Wort to the Prieft, which
being hallowed by him in th
Church, is poured into the Brewing, and fo
giveth it fuch a Vertue, that when they drink
of it, they are feldom fober. The like they
do with the firft Fruit of their Corn & c.
Befides their Fails on IVeduef-
Faflsdays and Fridays, (the one, be
caufe they fay C h r i st was fold
r-n the Wednefdayi the other becaufe he fuf-
iered on Friday) they have four great Fail
ing- 1 iines or Lents every . Year. The
which they czll their great Lem, is at the
fame Time with ours: The fcond at Midfwn-
The Third in Harveft-Time ; And the
fourth about Hol/muhide. In their ^reat Lent,
for the firft Week, they cat nothing but
Bread and Salt, and drink nothing bn: Water,
neither do they work at their Trades, but
mind Shriving and Failing only.
They have alio three Vigils in Vigils.
their great Lent, which they call
Stoiania. Then the whole Pariih muft be pre
fen t in the Church, and .watch from nine in.
the Evening, till fix in the Morning, all the
while ftanding, cxcept when they proftrate
themfelves before their Images, which muft
be 170 Times in one Night. All their Faft-
ing-Days added together, make near thirty
Weeks in the Year; during which Time, they
tafte neither Flefh, nor what comes of Fleih3
but live moftly upon Fifh and Linfecd Oil. In
the Monafteries they never eat Flefli through
out the Year.
ThzRvffimiSy for the generality,
make uie of painted Images, of Lnagesi
which their Church Wails are full,
and many richly adorned, and fet forth with
Pearl and precious Scones. Some they have
Emboficd, that flick from the Board almoft
fin Inch outward, in the Nature of Bo[fey or
even Bafs Relievo3*; they call thefe Chodovo*
cites, or their Miracle Workers. O f their
Pictures or I marcs, thev give the firft Place
to our Saviour, the next to his Mother; then
follow the Multitude of the heavenly Hofts
who, in their Opinion, intercede with God
for the Salvation of Mankind. Among thofe
Saints, St. Nicholas and St. Sergios receive the
greateft Honours. They have alfo peculiar
tutelary Saints for every fort of Affliction,
and each Family, nay, fometimes, each indivi
dual in the Family hath his Bog or God,
which is kept wrapt up in the fineft Silks
and Brocades, and adorned fometimes with
Diamonds, &c. to the Value of fome Thou-
fand Pounds. The Superftition of the com
mon People is fo great, (notwithftanding his
prefent Czarifo Majefty does what he can to
difcountenance this fort of Image Worihip,)
that i f a Perfon fees his Neighbour profper
jn Trade, Husbandry, Education of Children,
and the like, he borrows his Bog of him for
fuch a Time, giving him a large Premium ;
this he places in his Houfe, and does him
all imaginable Honour, in order to obtain of
him the like good Succefs in his Undertak
ings. Others take their Saints along with
them when they go to work in the Fields,
that by their Prefence they may be kept and
defended from all Harm by their Interceffion,
and God may blefs the Labour of their
Their Churches are built round,
Churches. to fignify, as they fay, the Form
of the Celeftial Bodies, and the
Mufick. endlefs Power of God. They fuffer
no inftrumental Mufick in their
Churches, for they fay, that God can only
be praifed by human Voice. Bells,
Bells, Crojfes. and Croffes upon the Spires of
their Churches, are looked upon
as eifentially neccifary to the Being of a Church.
The Ruffians have all along to
lerated the Proteftants, whe- Toleration:
ther Lutherans, or Cahinifis, to
have publick Churches and Schools in all
the chief Cities of the Empire; and the
prefent Czar laid the fir ft Foundation-
Stone for a Lutheran Church, in one of the
Suburbs of Mofcm , and went once, attended by
fome of his Noblemen, to affift publickly at
the Service of God in the Cahinifi Church in
one of the Suburbs or Slaboda of the fame
City, which none of his Predeceifors ever did.
Neither the Jews nor Roman Catholicks receive
the fame kind Treatment in Ruffia ; the one,
becaufe they killed our Saviour J esu sC h r i st ,
and the other, becaufe when the Polanders in
vaded Mofcovy, they committed great Cruel
ties and Outrages, as well againft their Priefts,
as their Churches and Images. And the Ruf
fians are very jealous of the latter, both on
religious and fecular Accounts. As for o-
ther new upftart Opinions, the Ruffians pu-
niih them very feverely, as may be
learned from the Capital Pnnilhment inflift-
ed on a German Merchant, named Norder-
man, who, for obftinately maintaining and
publiihing fome of the Vifions of Jacob Beh-
rnen, was burnt in Mofcow, not many Years
The Church of Rome has from Time to
Time been making Overtures to bring over
the Ruffian Church to the Obedience of that
t 75 ]
greateft Honours. They have alfo peculiar
tutelary Saints for every fort of Affliction,
and each Family, nay, fometimes, each indivi
dual in the Family hath his Bog or God,
which is kept wrapt up in the finefi: Silks
and Brocades, and adorned fometimes with
Diamonds, &c. to the Value of fome Thou-
fand Pounds. The Superftition of the com
mon People is fo great, (notwithftanding his
prefent Czarifi Majefty does what he can to
difcountenance this fort of Image Worfhip,)
that i f a Perfon fees his Neighbour profper
in Trade, Husbandry, Education of Children,
and the like, he borrows his Bog of him for
fuch a Time, giving him a large Premium;
this he places in his Houfe, and does him
all imaginable Honour, in order to obtain of
him the like good Succefs in his Undertak
ings. Others take their Saints along with
them when they go to work in the Fields,
that by their Prefcnce they may be kept and
defended from all Harm by their Interceffion,
and God may blefs the Labour of their
Their Churches are built round,
Churches. to fignify, as they fay, the Form
of the Celeftial Bodies, and the
Mufick. endlefs Power of God. They fuller
no inftrumental Mufick in their
Churches, for they fay, that God can only
be praifed by human Voice. Bells,
Beils, Crojfes. and Crofles upon the Spires of
their Churches, are looked upon
a Church.
[ 74 ]
as eilentially neceflary to the Being of
The Ruffians have all along to
lerated the Proteftants, whe- Toleration:
ther Lutherans, or Calvinifis, to
have publick Churches and Schools in all
the chief Cities of the Empire; and the
prefent Czar laid the firft Foundation-
Stone for a Lutheran Church, in one of the
Suburbs of Mofcow, and went once, attended by
fome of his Noblemen, to affift publickly at
the Service of God in the Cahinifi Church in
one of the Suburbs or Slaboda of the fame
City, which none of his Predeceffors ever did.
Neither the Jews nor Roman Catholicks receive
the fame kind Treatment in Ruffia, the one,
becaufe they killed our Saviour J e s u s C h r i s t ,
and the other, becaufe when the Polanders in
vaded Mofcovy, they committed great Cruel
ties and Outrages, as well againft their Priefts,
as their Churches and Images. And the Ruf
fians are very jealous of the latter, both on
religious and fecular Accounts. As for o-
ther new upftart Opinions, the Ruffians pu-
nifti them very feverely, as may be
learned from the Capital Pnniihment infljft-
ed on a German Merchant, named Norder-
man, who, for obftinately maintaining and
publiihing fome of the Vifions of Jacob Beh-
men, was burnt in Mofcow, not many Years
The Church of Rome has from Time to
Time been making Overtures to bring over
the Ruffian Church to the Obedience of that
SeeJ as may be feen at large in Antonius
Pojfevinus the Jefuits Account of Mofcovy,
but their laft Attempt was in the Year 1717,
when his Czarifh Majefty being at Paris, the
Doctors of the Sorfome prefented to him the
following Projeft.
[ 7< ]
A P R O -
Trefented by fome Doctors of the Sorbonne
to his Czariili Majefly, to promote
an Union between the Churches of
Rome and Ruifia. Tfranflated from
the Original Latin, printed in the pre
fect State of Ruifia.
M O N G the feveral Things which
his Czarifl) Majefty had the Curio-
fity to vietv at Paris, he was pleat
ed to vifit the College of the Sor-
bonne, the 14th Day of June 1717.
where, in the Library, among many other
valuable Books, he was'ihewed fome Volumes
relating to Religion, wrote in the Sclavonian
Tongue. His Majefty condefcended with great
Affability to fall into Difcourfe with the Do-
ftors of this College, who took occafion
humbly to put in a Word touching the Ruf
fian Religion ; and what an Addition of Glo
ry it would bring to fo great an Emperor,
if he would ufe his Endeavours to unite the
Ruffian and Roman Churches, and eftabliih Con
cord between them; which they thought
would not be very difficult to effed, i f ma
naged with calmnefs and a charitable Spirit.
To whom the Czar moft graciouily replied :
That he knew the two Churches differed in
fome Points, (of which he named two) but as
his Time was taken up with the Military and
many other Concerns of the Government, he
had no Leifure himfelf to fettle thefe Diffe
rences: Neverthelefs, i f the Doors of the
Sorbome would confer in Wiicii/ 7 with the
Biihops of his Church as to thoiS Matters,
he would ufe his Authority to oblige them
to give their Anfwers.
Encouraged by this Promife of the beft of
Princes, the Dodors of the Sorbome then pre-
fent, tender this Writing to his C&arifi Ma-
jefty, the rather, becauie they obferve with
Admiration, that the Councils of this Em
peror tend to raife the Splendor of his Em
pire, not only by military Valour, and the
Liberal Arts and Sciences, but alfo by the
Glories of Religion ; on which, he knows, that
the Happinefs and Strength of Empires chief-
We read it delivered by the Apoftle, and
moft earneftly recommended by him, that we
ihould ftrive together ;o keep the Unity of the
Spirit in the Bond oj Peace, becauie there is
but one God, one Lord, one Fdh/;, one Baptifm.
To facilitate which Unity with the Ruffian
Church, it is no imali Inducement, that there
[ 78 ]
are not thofe Obftacles which are found, to
our Grief, among the Proteftants, and the va
rious Ses in the Eaft.
The Ruffian Church acknowledges tvith us
the Unity of the Supreme Majefty of God,
and that the three Perfons in the facred Tri
nity are confubftantial ; and condemns the
Blafphemies of the old and modern Arians.
She agrees with us in the Confeflion of the
whole Dodtrine touching the Kypoftatical U-
nion and Diftinion of the two Natures of
Chrift, as it is received by us out of the re
vealed Word of God. She alfo agrees wi.h
us in what the Catholick Faith teaches of G-
riginal Sin, of the Redemption of Chrift, of
ithe Necefiity of the Affiftance of Divine
Grace, for the due Performance of all and e-
jvery Act of Piety. She owns with us the fe-
ven Sacraments inftiruted by Chrift in his
Church, and that the Bread and Wine in the
[unbloody Sacrifice of the AJtar, . e fuuhm-
tially changcd into the Body a'd Elo'jd of
[Chrift; nd pays Adorr., n .. w Lord
[Chrift really prefent in the T; ;
She Wnrihi-'S and i: - c^es the bleiled Vi r-
[gin, % God, and the Saints who
Ch "u m Heaven, and reverences
) I * * r
t' Relique.'? oi the Saints, as well as we, and
p ys that Honour to the facred Images which,
due ' .) thofe whom they reprefent. She
[doth p: :;ally with us fay Prnyers, give Alms,
" ; for the jFaithful, departed
this Life in the Communion of the Church ;
7 9
certainly believing* that: thei r Souls may reap
Benefit thereby, i f be that they have any
farther Fuhifliment to fufter from the Divine
J uftice. She acknowledges I ikewife, that Chrift
has impowercd the Ciuirch to enad Laws, j;
which -a!l the Fai thful are in Duty bound to;
obey: Such are thofe which enjoi n Fafti ngJ
and abifoining from Flefh at certai n Ti mes ap-;i
pointed by the Church.
Laflb;, T hat we may not feem too tediouslj
i n enumerati ng all thofe Points of Fai th wd
hol d in common with the Ruffians, They havejj
as great .Veneration and Refpeft, ,as well as!
we, for the Scripture, infpired by God, and
the holy Tradi ti ons of the Church, as the
rnoft certain Pail es of Fai th. They acknow
ledge, with us, one vifiblc Catholick Church,
as the fupream and infallible J udge for deci
di ng all Controvejfies in Matters of Fai th;
confdl i n^ withal, as wc do alfo, that there
is no 1'K-pr of Salvation, but in the Commu
nion ol this one Holy Guhol i ck and Apoito-
l i ck Church. But now, i f there be no hopes
of Salvation without the Uni ty or the Church,
as the holy Sai pture, and the uninterrupted
Tradi ti on teach ; I f the Apt.flic St. / W ,
Gal . v. 20. doth nor femal e to reckon Schilms,.
and Seas, aim ng thole Sins which exciudc
Men .opt ol the Ki ngdom oi Heaven ,* with

what Care, and Luluilry or.rht Chrrilians to

J * v/
itrivo and endeavour to ai ri ve at this perfeti
Concord, and ro remove all Obfiaclcs, i f any
there be, with ail noillble fpeed,
J * > .
A n d
And what can hinder the Chriftian Caufe
from receiving this moft excellent and defina
ble Advantage, of uniting the jRuffian and La
tin Church ? I s it any thing relating to the
Difcipline of either ? The Difcipline may bq
different in divers Churches, without breach
of Unity. I n many Provinces, faith St. Fir-
miliani many things differd, according to the
Diverfity of Places and Appellations ; not-
v/ithftanding which, the Unity and Peace of
the Catholick Church has fuffered no detri
ment at any Time. And St. Auguftine is more
large upon this Subject, faying, Let there be
one Faith of the univerfal Church, which is
difperfed over the whole Earth, let that be as i f
ic were the internal Principle of its Members ;
altho this Unity of the Faith be outwardly
expreifed by different Ceremonies and Obfer-
vances, whereby nothing that concerns what
is true in Faith is any Way obftructed. For
all the glorious Beauty of the Kings Daugh
ter is within; but thofe various Ceremonies
ufed in different Countries are fuppofed to
be in lier Cloarhing, whence it is faid, ihe is
brought to the King in Raiment of variety
of Needle-work. But let the Variety of this
Vefture be fuch, as may not give Occafion to
divide and tear, the Church by contentious
Differences. And truly the Eafl: and Weftern
Churches preferved Peace and Unity between
them to the. Time of that unhappy Cmilarl-
us, notwithstanding they differd in Worihip
and Difcipline. Nay, in thefe our Parts of
the Latin Church, we fee that different Cu-
G ftoms
[ 81 J
[ ]
ftoms obtain in different Places; and thofe of
the Greek Church, who join again in Com
munion with us, continue to live according
to their own Cuftoms. There will therefore
be no impediment why the Ruffian Church
pay not keep to its Difcipline, as before.
She may offer or adminifter the Sacraments
with leavened Bread, provided (lie doth not
find fault with thofe who do not ufe the
fame; and will allow the confecrating of un
leavened Bread, in the Latin Church, to be
right and lawful ; as Tbeophylattus, Demetrius
Cmatenus, Bifhop of Cyprus, Barham, Gregorius
Protofyncellns, and others amongft the Greeks,
eminent for their Learning and Moderation,
have acknowledged. Nor would there be a-
ny Danger that the Pope of Rome ihould
change any other Rites of that Church, no
more than we our felves have any caufe to fear
that any of the Cuftoms received in the Galli
can Church will ever be abrogated ; forafmuch
as we teach, that it is not in his power fo
to do. '
I s there any Obftacle arifing from Hierar
chy, or the Government of the Church,
that might fruftrate the fo much defired U-
nion of thefe two Churches? Tho5the Ruffian
Church feems to be affeded and alarmd with
nothing more than this, yet the greateft Dif
ficulty of it will difappear, if, avoiding all
Ambiguities, the Cafe itfclf be but clearly
and. diftinly ftated.
Imprimis, We teach that the Bifhops are, ju
re ~diviu\ the Succeffors of the Apoftles, and
Chriits Vicars ; and the Pope of Rome, who is
the lawful SucceiTor of St. Peter, is, 'by the
fame divine Right, the Chief of the Biihops,
and the chief Vicar of Chrift, and, for that
reafon, the Centre of Unity, and the vifible
Bond of Communion, from which the apoftolick
See derives its Superiority over any other par
ticular See, as Irenaus fpeaks, to watch over
the univerfal Church, and to take care that
the holy Canons be obferved, and the Unity
of the Faith be maintained, according to St.
Cyprian. That this Primacy of the Pope of
Rome is grounded upon the Words of the Goi-
pel, and attefted by the antient Tradition of
the. Church of the firft Centuries, the fiift
eight general Councils (which the Ruffian
Church owns) do plainly teftify : And this is
the only Thing, viz. the Primacy of the Pope
of Rome, which our whole Church unanimously
believes. The other Points of Doctrine about:
which the Catholicks do not fo altogether ac
cord, are not of the number of thofe that are
contained in the Catholick Rule of Faith or
Confeffion. This has been very lately confefsd
by the moft holy father himfelf, in his folemn
Approbation of a renowned Book, wrote by a
very eminent Bifiiop of ours, wherein he ex
plains the Catholick Faith, and vindicates it
irom the Calumnies of the Prcteftants. The
Doitrine of the Gallick Church is in Truth
this, That the Authority which the holy Sce
claims over the Church in general, and every
I Paflor of each Church in particular, is not
j left to the foie and arbitrary Difpofal of
I G 2 the
[ 'i ]
the Pope, to life it as he liftetfi, and as he
thinks fit ; but is to be regulated and mana
ged according to the holy Canons diated
by the Spirit of God, and confecrated by the
Obfervance and Deference of the firft Ages |
of Chriftianity. That the fupreme Authority j
hath been committed by our Lord C h r i s t to |
an AlTembly of Biihops, or Paftors, which the |
Pope himfelf is to fubmit to, in thofe thing3 I
which regard the Faith, the Extirpation of |
Herefy, and the Reformation of the Church j j
and this has been folemnly determined by I
our Gallick Clergy, in the general Councils of |
Conflans and Bafil, and maintaind all along by
the feverai facred Orders of the Clergy of
Paris. We alfo hold, That the Decrees of the
Roman Pontiff are not an infallible Rule of
Faith, without the Approbation of the uni-
verfal Church. That Chrift has -not given
the Pope, whofe Power is merely fpiritual,
an Authority over fecular Kingdoms, direftly
or indirely ; and that he cannot, on any Ac
count, or religious Pretence whatfoever, ab-
folve any Subject from their Obedience, or
Oaths of Allegiance. The Roman See knows
very well, that we thus think and teach j
and i f there be any, who, ftretching the
Prerogative of the Pontiff further, differ in
Opinion from us, we do not, however, break
Peace with them, nor they with us, but we
all continue in the fame Communion ; for
afmuch as thefe Differences in Opinions dp
not concern the Belief of the Roman Primacy
itfelf. But this we muft add, that what

ever the Authority of the Pope of Rome is at

this Day, which he exercifes with relation to
the Eleion of Biihops, Confirmations, and
Diipenfations, as being allowed him either by the
Concdions of the Church, or by certain Sti
pulations and Agreement with fovereign Princes,
or on account of his Patriarchal Dignity ; this
Authority, we fay, is not to be extended to
thofe Churches which are not ufed to this
kind of Policy ; neither do we read, that this
was ever propofed as a Condition in thofe
Overtures that have been made for reconciling
the Latin and Greek Churches. What (hou a
then hinder a happy Union of the Ruffian and
Latin Churches ? Shall their Opinion of the Pro
ceeding of the Holy Ghoft bar it ? But even in
this Matter we may be brought to concur in
our Sentiments without great Trouble and Dif
ficulty, provided there be a Difpofition to recon
cile Differences, and not to widen the Breach.
For, ift, th&Ruffian Church profefles that the Ho
ly Ghoft proceeds from the Father through the
Son ; and the Latin affirms, that the Holy Spi
rit proceeds from the Father and the Son ; both
thefe Ways of Expreffion are found to have
been ufed by fuch of the holy Fathers whofe
Authority both Churches allow. The holy Fa
thers, Bafil the Great, and Gregory the Divine,
obferve that thefe two Words s- and <n, from
and through, fignify the felf-fame thing; where
fore fome of the moft eminent Divines have
taught, that the forementiond Expreifion, being
taken in a proper Senfe, may have the fatr.e
Meaning. For what is meant by laying, that
G 2 the
[ *5 1
the Holy Ghoft proceeds from the Father, thro
the Son ? I s it only, as fome of the Greeks, no
great Lovers of Peace, do contend that the Holy
Ghoft proceeds indeed from the Father ; but that
the Father and the Son are of one and the fame
Subftance (wUf.) Now i f this be the right Ex
plication of the Words, it may for the very fame .
Rcafon be faid, that the Son proceeds from the
Father through the Holy Ghoft, feeing the Son
proceeds from the Father, and the Father and
Holy Ghoft are of the felf-fame Subftance. But
no one Greek ever faid, that the Son proceeds
from the Father through the Holy Ghoft. So
that the Expreffion we read in the holy Fathers,
muft be underftood in a larger Senfe, (viz,.) that
the Holy Ghoft proceeds from the Father thro
the Son ; that they are not only of the fame
Subftance, but that both Perfons are one and the
lame Principle, and that the Holy Ghoft pro
ceeds from both, though 'tis the Father has
given this Power to the Son, that as the Holy
Spirit proceeds from the Father, fo he ihould
alfo proceed from the Son ; as i f one Light be
ldndled by another Light, and they two together
produce a third (which Simile * St. Gregory Nijjene
nies) then the third may be properly faid to pro
ceed not only from the firft immediately, butal-
fo from the firft thro5the fcond. And this is
what the Latin Church prafeffes in its Belief, that
the Holy Ghoft proceeds from the Father and
the Son, and both thefe Ways of !peal>ing (if
v l Jk 7 . cor.t, cun\
rightly interpreted) have the fame Meaning. A"
nother Reafon why the Latin Church confefles
that the Holy Ghoft proceeds from the Father
and the Son, is, becaufe they have received this
Way of expreffing this Article by Tradition
from the holy Fathers and the Councils. Let us
hear Epiphanitts : The Holy Ghoft is always with
the Father and the Son ; not as a Brother of the
Fathers, not as one begotten or created, nor as
a Brother of the Sons, or the Fathers Grand-
ion, but proceeding from the Father, and receiv
ing from the Son, not differing from the Father
and the Son, bat of the fame Subftance and Di
vinity of the Father and the Son. To the fame
Purpofe, faith St. Cyril of Alexandria, in his Sy no
dical Letter, written in his own and the Councils
Name, to Neflorius, which Dorine he conftantly
aflerts in his fucceeding Writings, and cannot
be faid to have ever receded from it. And that
St. Athanafius}Bafil the Great, and Didyms, with
many others of the holy Fathers of the Eaflem
Church) were of the fame Opinion in this Mat
ter, might be eafily proved ; but the narrow
Limits of this Writing will not allow it. The
Ruffians themfelves know very well, that among
the Latins, Hilary the Great, St. Ambrofe, Augufiin,
Leo, and many more, were of this Mind. Why
then fhould the Ruffian Church be averfe to com
mune with thofe whom they know to hold no
thing for a Doftrine of Faith, but what has been
handed down to them by the holy Fathers of
both Churches, and comes recommended by no
iefs Authority than that of the General Council ?
Now, what we believe in our Hearts, who can
G 4 blame
fc A
87 ]
blame us, for confeffing the fame with oui?
Mouths ? Efpe.cially fince the Latin Church al
lows thofe of the Greek, who return to their Com
munion, and agree with them on this Head, to
repeat the Creed in their own Way, without
littering the Word (que)
Thirdly, The withdrawing of the Greek from
the Latin Church did not take its rife from this
Point: There is no mention made in MichadCos-
rularius and Leo Acridanuss Letters of the Pro-

ceeding of the Holy Ghoft, nor in thofe of Leo

the Ninth ; nor doth Peter the Antiochean Patri
arch, in his Letter to Dominicus Gtadenfis, alledge
this as one of the Caufes of their firft Difference: ;
but fays plainly, that Michael Cmularm finds
fault with no other of the Tenets of the Latins,
but that of the unleavend Bread. And even

Michael Ctsrularm the Patri arch himfelf, the Ring

leader of this Schifm, doth not objed any thing
elfe to the Latin Church, but the unleavened
I ^
Bread, their notRng\r\gHallelujam Lent,and--fuch
like. But how frivolous are thefe Objeftions,
and of how little Weight ? Yet did he not fcru-
ple, with fome few fuffragan Biihops, to ihut up
the Churches of the Latins, and to excommnni-
* #
cate the Roman Pontiff, and all the Weft, who
iubmitted to his Difcipline, and this without
previous Examination, or judicial Proceedings in
Form, or fair hearing of both Sides, or any Au
thority of Council. Concerning which, Leo X.
Pope of Rome, expoflulates in a mild manner,
and lays before him the Tendernefs of the true
Mother, whole Bowels are faid. in Salomon s Hi-
(lory, to have yearn d, bec.uiie l i e could net lee
' ' * her
I * > 1
her own Son divided. Adding withal, that thd
Differing in Cuftoms and Forms, which the
Circumftances of Time and Place require, do
not hinder the Salvation of the Believers, inaf-
much as Faith only worketh by Love, and, do
ing all the Good that can be done, commendeth
us to God.
Thefe were the Beginnings of the-Separation
of the Greek, and confequently of the Ruffian,
from the Latin Church, which indeed ought to be
well remembred, feeing Confequences are to be
judged by their Antecedents. And ever fince thofe
firft fatal Times, we are in great Affiiion and
continual Sorrow at Heart for our Brethren.
But not to mention here, that the Latin Church
r. *
hath not neglefted any .thing in her Power to re
move the Schifm, which did not take its rife
from her, it will fuffice to add only, that no
thing could be more acceptable to us, than an
happy Union ; as nothing is more deteftable to
us than Schifm. How greatly we ought to ab
hor feparating from the Communion of the Ro~
mifb Church, is what we are moft earneftly ex
horted to by St. Cyprian and St. Firmilian, not-
withftanding they both had had very hot Diputes
(if ever there were any) with the See of Rome.
Who can, fays one of them, who can be fo ex
travagantly contentious, as either to iirtagine that
the Unity of God may be divided, orfo daring,
its to attempt to rend in pieces the Church,
which is the Seamlefs Coat of Chrift?
The Lord himfeif teaches us in his holy Go-
fpel, laying, There (hall be but one Flock and
ic one Shepherd. The Apoilie St,/ W/ likewife,
i n -

Mnuating the fame thing, lays this Truth be
fore us, aomoniihing us in thefe Words : I
befeech you, Brethren, in the Name of our
Lord J e s u s C h r i s t , that yefpeak the fame
ec thing, and that there be no Divifion among
st you To which Words, abounding with fo
much Charity, we ihall only add a very pious
Admonition of a more modern Greek, Tbeoria-
nus by Name, who after he had owned that the
confecrating of unleavend Bread and leavened
was equally holy, and that this was the Opinion
of all the Latins, he had heard, he then addref-
fes himfelf to the Greeks of his Communion, thus,
Firft of all, ive admoniihyou, that you be not
tentions, for we allow no fuch Praftices, nei
ther does the Church of God, but rather pur-
fue Peace with all Men, who embrace Chrift,
for he makes of two one ; and love the Latins
as Brethren, for they hold the true Faith.
We (hall conclude this Writing (which, by
reafon of the fudden Departure of his Czarijb
Majefty, was drawn up in much hafte) with in~
ceflant Prayers to Almighty God, who rules over
all, that as this Auguft Prince has, by raifing
the Luftre and Splendor of his Kingdom, obtain
ed fo great a Name, he may ftill more increafe his
Fame, by fubmitting his enlarged Empire to that
of the holy Catholic Religion, and thereby ex
tend far and near the Kingdom of Chrift, by whom
he reigns with fo much Glory and Honour.
That he may be another Cyrus (whom the Lord,
out of his abundant Mercy, took by his right
Hand, as tis faid by the Prophet) and an happy
Reftorer of his People to the Light of Truth, of
Concord,and Peace, and breaking down the Wall
of Partition, may he remove all the Animofities
and Feuds that have lafted fo long between his
Church, and that cf Rome ; that at length there
be but one faithful People, as there is but one
Church, and one Religion. By fuch his pious
Endeavours to propagate the Faith, he will more
eminently furpafs the Fame of his Anceftors,
than by his other Heroic Exploits, and obtain a
fovereign Power equally awful by his own Vir
tue, as by the Majefty of his Scepter ; which
will then ftand moft firm and fafe, when he
fhall confecrate it for the lauciohle Maintaining
of the Caufe of God, as Gods Servant, and for
the Procuring of a happy Union, as a dutiful
Son of the Church,
At the Sorbonne, the 15th of June, 1717.
Lewis Herbert, Prieft, D.D.
Jacob Cbrifiopb. Braquet, &c. &c. &c.
E Francis Vivant Presb. and D.D. and Fel
low of the Parifian Faculty of the Sorbon~
ne, and Chancellor of the Church and Univerfity
of Paris, Canon of the fame Church, and Vicar
General of his Eminency the moft Reverend
D. D. Ai'chb. of Paris, Cardinal Noailes, Witnefs,
That the above-written explanatory Inftrument
or Deed of the Catholic Dorine, relating to
the Articles therein contained, is figned by the
Hands of thofe, whofe Names are under-writ
ten, and that they are all and everv one Priefts,
and Mafters and Doctors of the ficred Faculty of
I heology, and Members of the Sorbonne Society.
[ 21 ]
imony may, and ought undoubtedly
jto be regarded and believed.
Given at Paris, at our Archiepifcopal Palace,
under our own and our Secretarys Seal,
and under our Seal of the Metropolis of
Paris of the bleifed Virgin Mary, the th,
of J uly, Anno Dom. 1717.
E Vivant, Cancell. Paris.
( l . S.) By Order of D. D. Chancell.
of the Church and Univerfity of Paris,
I t is certainly the Czars Interefl: that his Cler
gy be brought out of that profound Ignorance, in
which they live at prefent, and that they acquire
folid Learning, in order to imprint in the Minds
of their Flocks a Defire of Knowledge, and true
Notions of Religion ; that they preach up to
them the Neceflity of obeying God and their So
vereign ; abftaining from Controversies and Di
sputes, and contenting themfelves with teaching
plain Doftrine, and inforcing the Practice of good
Morals. But to admit the Roman Catholic Re
ligion, would be opening a Door to endlefs Di-
fputes, which could not fail to difturb that Civil
as well as Ecclefiaftical Tranquillity which has
been hitherto maintained in Raffia, from the ve
ry Time it received Chriftianity, which the Czar
has fo much at heart, and has already put in
Practice with fo much Applaufe, by inviting to
his Dominion fo many able Men from all Parts of
the World, without diftinguiihing Religions ;
[ J
which End he alfo purfues, by fending young
People, particularly Students of Divinity, to fo-i
reign Univerfities. Neither is it probable, that
the Czar, after having,fuppreifed the Patriarchal
Authority in Ruffia, will fubjet himfelf and his
Dominions to a far greater Dependency, either:
on the Pope or a General Council, and part with
that Supremacy ; or, to adapt the Phrafe more
,to the Form of the Ruffian Government, that de-
fpotic Power which he has acquired over the
Clergy and the whole Church. It- is needlefs to
mention the Difficulty concerning the Marriage
of Priefts, which is lookd upon in Ruffia as fa
cred, and other controverted Points, about which
both Churches are never like to agree. I (hall on
ly fay thus much, to conclude the whole Matter,'
That the Czar never had any fuch Union in his
Thoughts, but rather caufed the Reports, which
had been fpread about it, to be declared falfe
and groundlefs. And, as an ample Proof of the
Truth hereof, his Czarifio Majefty, at the fame
time the above-recited Propofal was prefented to
him, had given Orders at Amfierdam, for Print
ing off a great Number of Copies, of the Old
and New Teftament, in the Ruffian Language,
in order to difperfe them among his Subjes,
at his Return into his own Dominions.
But further, to (hew the Impoffibility of an U-
nion between the Weftern Churches, whereof the
Ruffian is the moft confiderable Part, I lhall here
fubjoin the chief Heads wherein they differ.
X. The Greek Churches abhor the Pope of
Rome s pretended Supremacy, that they cannot
allow it a fofter Name than that of Tyranny,
veil when in the Hands of the beft of Popes :
And as for his Infallibility, they have always
lookd upon it as aPiece of undifguisd Impudence,
nouriflied by the Over-flowings of filthy Lucre,
and maintained by Brigades of Monks and Fri
ars, the Popes Pretorian Bands, and the Jefuits
his Janizaries, who know not how to be aihamed.
Many among the Greeks, both ancient and mo
dern, have writ very learnedly againft the fwel-
ling Titles, and pretended Authority of the Bi-
ihops of Rome. And in our Times, Elias Meni-
(iti, Bifliop of Cepholonia, has writ the Hiftorv of
the Schifm between the Eafiern and Weftern
Churches, to which he has added feveral contro-
veriial Treatifes againft the Church of Rome,
whereof the firft and moft confiderabJe is that
againft the Popes Supremacy, wherein he ihews,
at the very Entrance of his Difcourfe, that the
Difputes about Ecclefiaftical Authority and
Church-Government, (i. e. whether the Church
be Monarchichal, Ariftocratical, or Democrati-
cal, in Compliance with the feveral Species of
Civil Government) had been more definitive of
the Practice of Chriftian Piety, than all the He- put together; and explains the feveral
Texts of Scriptures whereon the Papal Authority
is grounded, e. g. thefe Words, Thou art Peter,
a;ul upon this rock I will build my church; it is mani-
feft from the Context, that the Rock is Peters
confeffing, in the Name of the other Difciples,
Thou art Chrift, the Son of the living God, upon
which the Chriftian Church was to be built; or, in
other Words, to believe that Jefus, the Son of the
bleiled Virgin Mary, was the promifed Meffias,
[ >4 ]
[ J J ]
the Son. of the Moft High ; for this is the chief
and almoft only Point of Doctrine that diftin-
guiihes the Chriftian Church from that of the
J ews- fo that this Text entitles the Perfon of
Sc. Peter to no other Privilege than the other
Apoftles, who believed as well as he, that Jefus
of Nazareth was the true Meffias : And as for
Peters being charged thrice to feed Chrifts
Flock, it is to put him in mind of his denying
Chrift three times, which none of the other Apo
ftles did ; he cites both Greek and Latin Fathers
to fupport the Reafonablenefs of this Expofition.
The Book of Meniati is writ in the vulgar Greek,
and is to be feen in my Lord Harleys Library,
who is a diligent Collector of all thats curious
in all Languages and Sciences.
2. The Mofcovites oblige all their Priefts to
enter into the holy State of Matrimony ; the Ro
man; forbid it their Clergy upon pain of Dam
nation, though they recommend it as a Sacra
ment to the Laity. There is no Shadow of Pro
bability, that the Ruffian Clergy will complement
the Pope with this Part of Chriftian Liberty, no
more than the Priefts of all the other Eaftern
3. The Ruffians commemorate the Death of
Chrift with Bread and Wine, according to our
Saviours exprefs Words ; the Rjamiffi Clergy de
fraud all the Laity of the Cup in the Sacrament,
while they allou it themfelves, as i f they were
the only Believers.
4. The Rv.ffians believe no Purgatory ; the Pa-
pifl.f look upon this Point the moft gainful, and
noft fundamental of their Religion.
s. The
[ > ]
5 T l ie Ruffians have had all along, from their
firft Converfion to Chriftianity, the Holy Bible
in their own Language ; the Papifls never read
it in their Churches, nor do they care that the
vulgar People ihould be acquainted with Gods
Word, fearing left their pious Cheats might
thereby be too foon discovered. I might in-
ftance in many other Articles, wherein the Ruf
fians differ from the Church of Rome, and per
fectly agree with the Proteflants, which render a
Union impracticable between them and the
Church of Rome ; but very eafy to be brought
about between them and the Proteflants, and
more efpecially with the Church of England,
which comes nearer in many Particulars to the
the Greek Church, than any of the Reformed
Churches ; to inftance, the old Style which is in
ufe only here in England, and in the Eafiern
Churches; our Common-Prayer and the Greek
Liturgy agree in very many Particulars.