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The Rydbergs equation for the hydrogen atom is:

1
= 1.097 10
7
(
1

1
)
n
1
2
n
2
2
Use the above equation to calculate the (i) wave number, (ii) wavelength and (iii) frequency for
the last line in the Balmer series.
Solution 3.1
Using n
1
= 2 and n
2
=
1
= 1.097 10
7
(
1

1
)
2
2

2
(i)
1
= 2.74 10
6
m
1

(ii) = 3.65 10
7
m or = 365 nm (Wavelength)
(iii) f =
C

=
3.0 10
8
3.65 10
7
= 8.22 10
14
Hz (frequency)
In the stratosphere, chlorine molecules absorb electromagnetic radiation and dissociate to
produce chlorine atoms, which are responsible for the destruction of ozone.
ClCl(g) 2Cl(g)
Given that the bond energy of chlorine is 242 kJ mol
1
, calculate the wavelength of the light
absorbed.
Solution 3.2
E = hf
242 = (3.99 10
13
) f
f = 6.07 10
14
Hz
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CHAPTER 3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Question 3.1
Question 3.2
Wavelength =
C
f
=
3.0 10
8
6.07 10
14
= 4.94 10
7
m
Or = 494 nm
Part of the Lyman series in the hydrogen emission spectrum is as shown below:
(a) Draw an energy level diagram to show how the lines are produced.
(b) (i) Define ionisation energy of hydrogen. Illustrate your answer with an appropriate
equation.
(ii) Calculate the ionisation energy (in kJ mol
1
) of hydrogen from the above spectrum.
Solution 3.3
(a)
(b) (i) Ionisation energy of hydrogen is the minimum energy required to remove the lone
electron in the hydrogen atom per mole of gaseous hydrogen atom under standard
conditions (298 K and 101 kPa).
H(g) H
+
(g) + e
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Question 3.3
88.2 10.27 10.62 10.97
Wave number ( x 10
6
) m
1
88.2 10.27 10.62 10.97
Wave number ( x 10
6
) m
1
n = 1
n = 2
n = 3
n = 4
n =
(ii) E = hf
= h
C

= (3.99 10
13
)(3.0 10
8
)(10.97 10
6
)
= 1313.1 kJ mol
1
The diagram below shows the lines in the Balmer series in the emission spectrum of hydrogen
atom.
(a) Draw a labelled energy diagram to show how the lines marked X and Y are formed.
(b) Name two species that would produce similar emission spectrum as that of the hydrogen
atom. Explain your reasoning.
Solution 3.4
(a)
(b) Li
2+
and He
+
. Both the ions are one electron species.
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Question 3.4
X Y
Frequency
X Y
Frequency
n = 1
n = 2
n = 3
n = 4
n =
(a) Explain the difference between orbit and orbital.
(b) Draw the shape of
(i) an s-orbital
(ii) a p-orbital
(iii) the five d-orbitals
Solution 3.5
(a) Orbital refers to the volume in space around the nucleus where the probability of finding a
particular electron in 95%.
Orbit refers to the fixed circular path around the nucleus where a particular electron
revolves.
(b) (i) s-orbital
(ii) p-orbitals
(iii) d-orbitals
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Question 3.5
y
z
x
Y
X
Z
z
z
z z z
y y
y y y
x x
x
x x
dxz

dye dxy

dx
2
-y
2



dx
2