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Principles of
Phase Doppler Anemometry
Dantec Measurement Technology
http://www.dantecmt.com
2
Contents
• General Features
• Optical principles
• Light scattering considerations
• Phasediameter relationship
• Sources of uncertainty
• DualPDA technique
• Application examples
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General features of PDA
• Extension of the LDA principle
• Simultaneous measurement of velocity (up to 3 components) and size of
spherical particles as well as mass flux, concentration etc.
• First publication by Durst and Zaré in 1975
• First commercial instrument in 1984
• Nonintrusive measurement (optical technique), online and insitu
• Absolute measurement technique (no calibration required)
• Very high accuracy
• Very high spatial resolution (small measurement volume)
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Preconditions for the application of PDA
• Optical access to the measurement area (usually from two directions)
• Sphericity of particles (droplets, bubbles, solids)
• Homogeneity of particle medium
(slight inhomogeneities may be tolerated if the concentration of the
inhomogeneities is low and if the size of the inhomogeneities is much smaller
than the wavelength used)
• Refractive indices of the particle and the continuous medium must
usually be known
• Particle size between ca. 0.5 µm and several millimeters
• Max. particle number concentration is limited
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Principle setup of PDA
Optical parameters of a
PDA setup:
• Beam intersection angle θ
• Scattering angle ϕ
• Elevation angle ψ
• Polarization
(parallel or perpendicular to
scattering plane)
• Shape and size of detector
aperture
X
Y
ϕ
Detector 1
Detector 2
Scattering plane
Flow
Z
θ
ψ
ψ
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Optical principle of PDA
• A particle scatters light from two
incident laser beams
• Both scattered waves interfere in
space and create a beat signal
with a frequency which is
proportional to the velocity of the
particle
• Two detectors receive this signal
with different phases
• The phase shift between these
two signals is proportional to the
diameter of the particle
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Light scattering principles
A lightwave is fully described by:
• wavelength
• intensity
• polarization
• phase
The principle of the PDA technique is the scattering of plane lightwaves by
spherical particles.
Scattering is composed of:
• diffraction
• reflection
• refraction
• absorption
An exact description of the scattering of light by a homogeneous sphere is
given by the full solution of Maxwell´s equations formulated by Mie in 1908.
Geometric optics (Snell´s law) is a simplified way to describe light scattering.
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Scattering modes
2
1st order
refraction
1
1
2
2 1 1 2
Incident ray
Reflection
2nd order
refraction
3rd order
4th order
5th order
6th order
7th order
8th order
n
p
n
m
n
p
> n
m
The intensity of the incident ray is
partly reflected and refracted.
The intensity ratio is given by the
Fresnel coefficients and depends
on the incident angle, polarization
and relative refractive index.
The scattering angle is given by
Snell´s law.
The phase is given by the optical
path length of the ray.
Most of the intensity is contained
in the first three scattering modes.
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Light scattering by droplets and bubbles
2
1
1
2
2 1 1 2
Water droplet in air Air bubble in water
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1
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2 1 1 2
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Phase relationships
Φ=
−
2
2 1
π
λ
θ ψ
θ ψ φ
d
p
sin sin
( cos cos cos )
Φ=
−
+ + − +
2
2 1 1 2 1
2
π
λ
θ ψ
θ ψ φ θ ψ φ
d
n
n n
p
rel
rel rel
sin sin
( cos cos cos ) ( ( cos cos cos )
The phase shift between two detectors is:
For reflection:
For 1st order refraction:
No calibration constant is contained in these equations.
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Phase  diameter linearity
• A linear relationship between measured phase difference and particle
diameter only exists, if the detector is positioned such that one light
scattering mode dominates.
5 10 15 20 25 30
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
Diameter (micron)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Air bubble in water
Water droplet in air
Scattering angle: 50°
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• Simultaneous detection
of different scattering
modes of comparable
intensity leads to non
linearities in the phase
diameter relationship.
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Intensity of scattered light
• The scattered light
intensity from the
different scattering
modes varies at
different scattering
angles.
• The scattering intensity
also depends on the
polarization orientation
of the incident light.
3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
3
2
1
1
2
3
parallel
polarization
perpendicular
polarization
1st order
refraction
reflection
2nd order
refraction
LorenzMie
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2π ambiguity in a twodetector system
• The phase difference
increases with increasing
particle size.
• Since phase is a modulo
2π function, it cannot
exceed 2π, i.e. 360°.
• Therefore, if a particle has
a size that causes the
phase to go beyond a 2π
jump, a twodetector PDA
cannot discriminate
between this size and a
much smaller particle.
Φ
1
Φ
1
Φ
2
Φ
2
Φ
3
Φ
3
′ Φ
3
′ Φ
3
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3detector setup
• Overcoming the 2π ambiguity
• Increasing the measurable size range
• Maintaining a high measurement resolution
d
max
Φ
Φ
12
Φ
13
360°
0
d
d
meas.
Φ
1

2
Φ
1

3
ψ
ϕ
Detector 1
Detector 3
Detector 2
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Dantec 57X40 FiberPDA
U
1
U
2 Front lens
Composite lens
Aperture plate
Measurement
volume
Multimode
fibres
Detector Unit
with PMTs.
U
3
• Easy setup and alignment
• Three receivers in one probe
• Exchangeable aperture masks
• Up to three velocity components
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Size range adaptation
• For a given optical configuration, the distance between the receiving
apertures can be changed to adapt the size range.
• This can be achieved by exchanging the aperture mask in the receiving
probe.
• The Dantec FiberPDA has a set of three different masks:
A: small size range B: medium size range C: large size range
U1
U2
U3
A B C
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• the diameter of the intersection volume
of the transmitting beams
• the width of the projection of the slit
shaped spatial filter which is mounted in
front of the receiving fibers
The effective PDA measurement volume is much
smaller than the intersection volume of the
transmitting laser beams.
The effective size of the
measurement volume is
determined by:
Effective PDA measurement volume
U
1
U
2
U
3
Slit aperture
Projected slit
Intersection
volume
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Sources for measurement uncertainties
• Oscillations in phasediameter curve
• Low SNR due to low intensity or extinction
• Phase changes due to
 surface distortions
 inhomogeneous particles
 multiple scattering effects
• Gaussian intensity profile in the measurement volume
• Slit effect
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Trajectory effect / Gaussian beam effect
• Depending on the trajectory of the particle, the detected scattered light
is dominated either by refraction or reflection. This is caused by the
Gaussian intensity profile across the measurement volume.
• This effect becomes noticeable for large transparent particles
(d
p
> ca. 50% of meas. vol. diameter)
Y
Y
Z
Gaussian
Intensity
Projected slit
Intersection volume
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Slit effect
• Due to the projection of the receiving slit aperture, the unwanted
scattering mode becomes dominating for particle trajectories at one
edge of the slit projection.
Y
Z
Projected slit
Intersection volume
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The DualPDA
• Measurement errors due
to trajectory and slit
effects are eliminated.
• Particularly optimized for
applications to sprays
with transparent droplets.
• Enables improved
concentration and mass
flux measurements.
• Provides the ability to
reject nonspherical
droplets.
X
Y
Z
ϕ
U1
U2
V1
V2
Scattering
plane
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Components of the DualPDA
Planar PDA
X
Y
Z
Main Flow
Direction
Receiving
Apertures
Transmitting
Optics
(Beams are in
the yz plane)
ϕ
Transmitting
Optics
(Beams are in
the xz plane)
X
Y
Z
Main Flow
Direction
Receiving
Apertures
ϕ
Conventional PDA
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Configuration of the DualPDA
U1
U2
V1 V2
A
B
C
Transmitting
Optics (2D)
X
Y
Z
Main Flow
Direction
Receiving
Apertures
ϕ
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Comparison measurements
Measurement with a standard PDA
Measurement with a DualPDA
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Improved mass flux measurements
• The DualPDA can
measure volume and
mass flux with better
accuracy.
This is confirmed by
comparing the
results from a
patternator and the
DualPDA.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Posi ti on i n Spray Cone [mm]
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[

]
DualPDA
Patternator
pressure swirl atomizer
Traversing
direction
30°
Patternator tubes
D
u
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l
P
D
A
FiberFlow
85 mm
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Applications
• Sprays and liquid atomization processes
 Water sprays
 Fuel, diesel injection
 Paint coating
 Agricultural sprays
 Medical, pharmaceutical sprays
 Cosmetic sprays
• Powder production
 Spray drying
 Liquid metal atomization
• Bubble dynamics
 Cavitation
 Aeration
 Multiphase mass transfer
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Automotive Fuel Injection
Photo: AVL, Graz, Austria
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Nozzle Design
Photo: Gustav Schlick GmbH & Co., Untersiemau, Germany
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Aircraft Engine Fuel Injection
Photo: DLR, Institut für Antriebstechnik, Köln, Germany
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