Sources: 1. Booth, Geofrey, et al. Ten Principles for Reinventing America’s Suburban Business Districts. Washington D.C.

: ULI-the Urban Land Institute, 2002. 2. Marshall, W., Garrick, N., Hansen, G., Reassessing On-Street Parking. Journal of the Transportation Research Board: Transportation Research Record, 2008
3. DMJMHarris, AECOM, Framework for a rational Downtown Parking Policy, Trenton Downtown Parking Policy & Sidewalk Design Standards, 2008. 4. Ewing, R., Pedestrian & Transit-friendly Design: A Primer for Smart Growth. APA-American Planning Association. 5. Parking Management Best
Practices. 6. EPA, smart growth, http://www.epa.gov/dced/publications.htm
Parking
2
On-Street Parking
Individual
Private Surface Lot
On-Street
Parking Options
Angled Parking
Parallel Parking
Back In Angeled Parking
PARALLEL
PARKING
ANGLED-IN
PARKING
BACK-IN
PARKING
User Familiarity
Parking Difficulty HIGH LOW MODERATE
Convenient Vehicle Entry
Safest Vehicle/Bicycle Conflict
Convenient Vehicle Exit
Safest Vehicle/Bicycle Exit
Driver Exiting Visibility MODERATE LOW HIGH
No Cyclist/Car Door Conflict
Least Required Space
Causes Traffic Congestion
Safe Trunk Loading of Goods
On-street parking is most often found within the
public right of way. Three types are explained in
the box below - parallel, angled & back-in angled
parking. Following are general pros and cons for
on-street parking:
Pros
● Provides shared parking
● Cheapest per space parking option
● Uses 1/4 land of off-street parking
● One space equivalent to 2-3 off-street spaces
● Patrons' most valued parking space -
convenient, direct access
● Often in higher demand than off-street parking
● Encourages park-once vehicular activity
● Can help stimulate more pedestrian
activity compared with private parking
● Provides safety buffer for pedestrian realm
● Calms traffic
● Reduces roadway fatalities by 1/2 compared
with roads without on-street parking
Cons
● Safety concerns adjacent to roadway
● Can generate congestion
● Does not provide site specific ADA accessibility
● Takes up space within the public right of way
Individual private surface lots are parking lots that
are dedicated to one specific site. Following are
pros and cons for individual private surface lots:
Parallel
Back-in Angled
Angled
Parking Options
Parking can be divided into five categories:
on-street, individual surface lot,
shared surface lot, garage and
underground.
Sources: 1. G. Rolof, USDA Forest Service, www.treelink.org 2. www.state.sc.us/forest/urbben.htm 3. Coder, Dr. Kim D., “Identifed Benefts of Community Trees and Forests”, University of Georgia, October, 1996.

Land Cost/Space Const. Cost/Space
Annual O&M
Cost/Space
Total Annual
Cost/Space
Daily Cost/Space
On-Street $8,000 $3,000 $300 $1,338 $4.46
Surface $15,385 $3,000 $300 $2,035 $6.78
4-Level Structure $3,846 $20,000 $400 $2,179 $7.26
Underground $0 $35,000 $500 $2,645 $8.82
Pros
● Serves site specific needs
● Convenient for vehicles
● Reduced conflict points with travel way
● Usually provides ADA accessibility
Cons
● Parking spaces and access to the spaces take
up a large portion of developable land
● Encourages lower density development
● Only used for specific business, unoccupied
otherwise
● Auto-oriented detracting from use of other
modes of transportation
* ‘Park once vehicular activity’ occurs when a vehicles parks once to visit multiple places on one visit as opposed to driving to many diferent places with individual surface lots.
N
N
N
N
1
5
3
2
2
2
5
3.,5
2,3
2
*,2
2,4
3
3
2
N
N
N
N
Sources: 1. Booth, Geofrey, et al. Ten Principles for Reinventing America’s Suburban Business Districts. Washington D.C.: ULI-the Urban Land Institute, 2002. 2.Marshall, W., Garrick, N., Hansen, G., Reassessing On-Street Parking. Journal of the Transportation Research Board:
Transportation Research Record, 2008. 3. DMJMHarris, AECOM, Framework for a rational Downtown Parking Policy, Trenton Downtown Parking Policy & Sidewalk Design Standards, 2008. 4. Ewing, R., Pedestrian & Transit-friendly Design: A Primer for Smart Growth.
APA-American Planning Association. 5. Parking Management Best Practices. 6. EPA, smart growth,http://www.epa.gov/dced/publications.htm
Shared Surface Lot
Garage Parking
Underground Parking
B
L
D
G
B
L
D
G
B
L
D
G
B
L
D
G
ROADWAY
PARKING
P
A
R
K
IN
G
B
L
D
G
B
L
D
G
B
L
D
G
ROADWAY
Shared surface lots are lots that serve multiple
properties. The three diagrams (right) illustrate
strategies for shared surface lot development.
Following are pros and cons for shared surface
lots:
Garage parking is a building or portion of a building
designated to parking. Following are pros and cons
for garage parking:
Underground parking is located under buildings designed for
office, retail and residential uses as part of the overall building
amenities. Topography, acces and site size may discourage
this type of parking development. Following are pros and cons
for underground parking:
BIG BOX DEVELOPMENT
PARKING
BLDG BLDG
ROADWAY
Pedestrian Route
*
*,3
* ‘Park once vehicular activity’ occurs when a vehicles parks once to visit multiple places on one visit as opposed to driving to many diferent places with individual surface lots.
Pros
● Stimulates pedestrian activity when
strategically located
● Enhance economy of retail development
● More effectively uses property so more
development area is available
● Reduced conflict points with travel way
● Encourages park-once vehicular activity
● Usually provides ADA accessibility
● Can stimulate use of transit system when
incorporated
● Overall reduction of costs for construction and
maintenance of parking areas
● 10-30% reduction in parking per business
Cons
● Shared parking agreements are required
● Shared access agreements are required
● Reduced convenience for individual businesses
Pros
● Stimulates pedestrian activity when
strategically located
● Enhance economy of retail
● More effectively uses property so more
development area is available
● Reduced conflict points with travel way
● Encourages park-once vehicular activity
● Usually provides ADA accessibility
● Can stimulate use of transit system when
incorporated
● Overall reduction of costs for construction and
maintenance of parking areas
● 10-30% reduction in parking per business
● Aesthetic contribution to streetscape
● Possible incorporation of street level retail
Cons
● Parking structures viable when price of land
for development is reasonable
● Expensive to construct and maintain structures
● Shared parking agreements are required
● Shared access agreements are required
● Reduced convenience for individual businesses
Pros
● Serves site specific needs
● More effectively uses property so more
development area is available
● Minimal detraction from developable land
● Usually provides ADA accessibility
● Reduced conflict points with travel way
● Can stimulate use of transit system when
incorporated
● Does not aesthetically detract from streetscape
Cons
● Parking structures viable when price of land
for development is reasonable
● Expensive to construct and maintain structures
● Shared parking agreements are required
● Shared access agreements are required
● Reduced convenience for individual businesses
1
2
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
1
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
1
N
N
N
N
3
3
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

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