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For frst teaching from September 2010

For frst assessment from Summer 2011


For frst award in Summer 2012
Subject Code: 5010
GCSE English Language
Specimen Assessment Materials
Foreword
The awarding bodies have prepared new specifications to comply with revised GCSE criteria.
The specimen assessment materials accompanying new specifications are provided to give centres
guidance on the structure and character of the planned assessments in advance of the first
assessment. It is intended that the specimen assessment materials contained in this booklet will
help teachers and students to understand, as fully as possible, the markers expectations of
candidates responses to the types of tasks and questions set at GCSE level. These specimen
assessment materials should be used in conjunction with CCEAs GCSE English Language
specification.


GCSE English Language
Specimen Assessment Materials

Contents
Specimen Papers 1
Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading Multi-Modal texts, Foundation Tier 3
Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading Multi-Modal texts, Higher Tier 9
Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading Non-Fiction, Foundation Tier 15
Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading Non-Fiction, Higher Tier 21

Mark Schemes 27
Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading Multi-Modal texts, Foundation Tier 29
Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading Multi-Modal texts, Higher Tier 41
Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading Non-Fiction, Foundation Tier 53
Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading Non-Fiction, Higher Tier 65

















































Subject Code
QAN

5010
500/7934/7
A CCEA Publication 2010

You may download further copies of this publication from www.ccea.org.uk
1

Specimen Papers
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General Certificate of Secondary Education
2011

English Language

Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading
Multi-Modal texts

Foundation Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN PAPER


TIME
1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your Centre Number and Candidate Number on the Answer Booklets provided.
Complete all three tasks.
Section A tests your Writing skills.
Section B tests your Reading skills.
Spend 45 minutes on each section.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
The total mark for this paper is 48.
Figures in brackets printed down the right-hand side of pages indicate the marks awarded
to each question.






4
Section A: Personal Writing

Up to 16 marks are available for an interesting and organised piece of writing.

Up to 8 marks are available for the use of a range of sentence structures and correct spelling,
punctuation and grammar.

TASK 1
Describe, for the reader, a person you admire.

In your answer you might want to:
give the reasons for your choice
describe what this person is like and how he/she has had a positive
influence on your life
explain how you feel about him/her. [24]


Planning your answer

It is suggested that you organise your time like this:
510 minutes planning your response to the task.
2530 minutes writing your response.
5 minutes checking your work.


5
Section B: Reading Multi-Modal texts

The DVD covers of Indiana J ones and The Mummy are designed to create the sense that these
are exciting and action-packed films.

Complete the two tasks below:

TASK 2
Compare how presentational devices have been used in both
DVD covers to build up a sense of excitement.

In your answer comment on:
the use of images and colour; and
the layout. [9]


TASK 3
Compare how language has been used in both texts to suggest that
these are exciting action films.

Comment on the use of words and phrases in:
the titles, headings and sub-headings; and
the language used to promote each film. [15]


Planning your answer

It is suggested that you organise your time like this:
1015 minutes reading the material on pages 6 and 7.
10 minutes responding to Task 2.
20 minutes responding to Task 3.
6



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8
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THIS IS THE END OF THE QUESTION PAPER
___________________________________________

9





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2011

English Language

Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading
Multi-Modal texts

Higher Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN PAPER



TIME
1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your Centre Number and Candidate Number on the Answer Booklet provided.
Complete all three tasks.
Section A tests your Writing skills.
Section B tests your Reading skills.
Spend 45 minutes on each section.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
The total mark for this paper is 48.
Figures in brackets printed down the right-hand side of pages indicate the marks awarded
to each question.







10
Section A: Personal Writing

Up to 16 marks are available for an organised and engaging piece of writing.

Up to 8 marks are available for the use of a range of sentence structures and accuracy in spelling,
punctuation and grammar.

TASK 1
Describe, for the reader, a person you admire. [24]

11
Section B: Reading Multi-Modal texts

Read the DVD covers for Casino Royale and The Bourne Identity on pages 12 and 13.
The language and presentational features of both DVD covers are designed to generate an exciting
and dramatic impression of these action films.

Complete the two tasks below:

TASK 2
Compare and contrast how presentational devices are used in both
DVD covers to make the films appealing to their audience.

Analyse the use of images, colour and layout in your answer. [9]


TASK 3
Compare and contrast how language has been used in both
DVD covers to persuade you that these are exciting action films. [15]


12


M
G
M

13
The Bourne Identity

Due to copyright restrictions, this DVD cover is not published here. However, it is available
in the print version of this publication.

Please go to http://www.freecovers.net/view/2/39566d6025a2685929494f123a9eda2e/cd.html
to view this image online.

Click the image labeled Front, which shows the front and back cover of the DVD sleeve.
Then, click Zoom beneath the image to enlarge it.

To Print
1. Select Print from your dropdown menu under File.
2. Change the page layout from portrait to landscape.
3. Enlarge the image.
4. Press Print.

As this is a low-res image, the text may be slightly blurry.


14
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THIS IS THE END OF THE QUESTION PAPER
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15





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2012

English Language

Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading
Non-Fiction

Foundation Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN PAPER


TIME
1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your Centre Number and Candidate Number on the Answer Booklet provided.
Complete both tasks.
Section A tests your Writing skills.
Section B tests your Reading skills.
Spend 45 minutes on each section.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
The total mark for this paper is 48.
Figures in brackets printed down the right-hand side of pages indicate the marks awarded
to each question.






16
Section A: Functional Writing

Up to 16 marks are available for an organised, appropriate and interesting response.

Up to 8 marks are available for the use of a range of sentences and correct spelling,
punctuation and grammar.

TASK 1
Write a speech for your classmates giving your views on the following issues:


Charity begins at home, but it shouldnt stop there!


You may find some of the facts and opinions from Insert 1 useful in writing your
speech. [24]


Planning your answer

It is suggested that you organise your time like this:
510 minutes planning your response to the task.
2530 minutes writing your response.
5 minutes checking your work.

17
Insert 1



















































Poverty
At home
J ust under 1 in 5 people in the UK or over
13 million people live in poverty, in the UK
according to the latest figures, this includes
nearly 1 in 3 children (almost 4 million).
Over 10.5 million people cant afford to save
or spend even small amounts on themselves.
About 9.5 million cant afford decent
housing heated, free from damp, and in a
reasonable state of decoration.
A child from a poor home is more likely to
die as a baby or a child, and live a shorter
life overall.


Worldwide
The poorest countries pay $100million to the
rich world everyday.
Poor countries spend more on paying off their
debt than on health or education.
Eight million die each year for want of the
funds spent by the rich countries on their
pets.
Half a percent of the US defence budget
would pay for millions of children to go to
school.
The amount spent on alcohol in a week and
a half in Europe would be enough to supply
clean water to half the worlds population.
Charities are precious, and play an
important role. Caring for victims
is essential work. We should
encourage people to give money.
People are losing their jobs,
homes and life savings here at
home. Why should we be giving
money to other countries?

Some Facts:
Some Opinions:
Im a Christian and I believe that
everybody should be helped if they
need it, no matter who they are.
Margaret Courtney-Clarke / Science
Photo Library
Adapted from Jubilee Debt Campaign 2002
www.jubileedebtcampaign.co.uk
Adapted from Oxfam 2008
Hermera / Thinkstock
You should take care of family and
people close to you before you
worry about helping others. I don't
think we should worry so much
about other countries when there
are people in need here.
18
Section B: Reading Non-Fiction

Read the article on page 19.

This article puts forward the very personal views of a mother. She describes the effect that buying
a Nintendo had on her young family. The article is written in a way intended to hold the readers
interest.

Complete the task below:

TASK 2
Your task is to explain how the writer holds the readers interest.

In your answer show how the writer has:
used a style of writing that is lively and personal
made use of some facts as well as her own opinion
selected words and phrases for effect
made use of sentence structuring and paragraphing. [24]


Planning your answer

It is suggested that you organise your time like this:
10 minutes reading the article.
2530 minutes writing your response.
5 minutes checking your work.

19
NINTEN DONT!
As my eight-year son J amie hit his five-year old sister Amy on the head, ten-year old Melissa
started yelling and the youngest, three-year old Luke, joined in. It was eight in the morning. No one
had eaten breakfast. The curtains had not been opened. The beds had not been made. The dog had
not been walked. The entire mood was one of anger, pain and frustration.
Welcome to a family of Nintendo-users!!
I had finally given in and bought a Nintendo DS Lite after non-stop pressure from my children.
What finally did it was a suggestion from my oldest child that without a Nintendo in her schoolbag,
she would be unable to fit in at school. (Yes I know oldest trick in the book. And I fell for it!)
When the pale blue, 150 Nintendo finally arrived, crammed with a bundle of 20 games including
Brain Trainer, Fifa 09 and Nintendogs, my children hugged me tightly. Thank you, thank you,
mummy, they chorused. We LOVE you!
J amie soon became obsessed with playing the football game Fifa 09: over meals, on the loo, in bed
at midnight. Melissa just took virtual dogs for walks, while Amy zoned in big time on the My Little
Pony game. Some people call this constructive.
Except, its not! What is constructive about playing football on a tiny screen, or washing a virtual
dog, or watching a hideous pink pony trot around a hideous pink palace decorated with shells??
The toy caused endless rows. It was removed and placed in my desk. The children found it and
hid it in their bedroom. I put it into my bag. They discovered it again. Then we lost the charger.
What a great week that was!
Then we found the charger again. The children wept with joy. Youd better behave with it his
time, I warned. Otherwise
Yeah, yeah, they shouted, skipping off happily. How long did that last? How long do you think
20 minutes tops!!!
Our Nintendo became a toxic drug which, little by little, was poisoning my children. Interestingly,
Dr Susan Greenfield, a specialist in brain degeneration, predicts that young people are headed for a
mass loss of personal identity, thanks to the amount of time they spend in the interactive realms of
things like Nintendo. Its time, she said, for people to understand the destructive impact of these
technologies.
Well, I know what the impact was on my children! I have first-hand evidence that using a Nintendo
turned my delightful, funny children into argumentative demons full of aggression, totally
uninterested in anything apart from playing, and then playing some more.
The Nintendo had to go. In the end, I walked into a charity shop and gave it away.
I returned to stunned disbelief from the children You did what? followed by floods of real
tears.
Since then, however, life has returned to normal. The children have swung back into their old habits
of reading, playing music, walking the dog, occasionally fighting, cooking and making things.
Do they miss the lost screen-based world of the Nintendo? Actually, I think theyve forgotten all
about it!
Adapted from Ninten-DontHow I watched my children turn into monsters the minute I bought them a computer
game by Rosie Millard, Daily Mail, 1 May 2008
20
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THIS IS THE END OF THE QUESTION PAPER
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21





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2012

English Language

Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading
Non-Fiction

Higher Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN PAPER

TIME
1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your Centre Number and Candidate Number on the Answer Booklet provided.
Complete both tasks.
Section A tests your Writing skills.
Section B tests your Reading skills.
Spend 45 minutes on each section.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
The total mark for this paper is 48.
Figures in brackets printed down the right-hand side of pages indicate the marks awarded
to each question.








22
Section A: Functional Writing

Up to 16 marks are available for an organised, appropriate and interesting response.

Up to 8 marks are available for the use of a range of sentences and correct spelling, punctuation
and grammar.


TASK 1
Discuss your reaction to the following statement in a discursive essay:

Charity begins at home, and it should stop there!

Consider other viewpoints and give your own opinion.

You may find some of the facts and opinions presented in Insert 1 useful in developing
your response.










[24]


23
Insert 1























































At home
J ust under 1 in 5 people in the UK or over 13
million people live in poverty, in the UK
according to the latest figures, this includes
nearly 1 in 3 children (almost 4 million).
Over 10.5 million people live in financial
insecurity: they cant afford to save, insure their
house contents, or spend even small amounts
on themselves.
About 9.5 million cant afford adequate
housing heated, free from damp, and in a
decent state of decoration.
A child from a poor home is more likely to
die as a baby or a child, and live a shorter
life overall.
Worldwide
The poorest countries pay $100million to the
rich world everyday.
Poor countries spend more on paying off their
debt than on health or education.
Eight million die each year for want of the
funds spent by the rich countries on their
pets.
Millions of children stay out of school for
want of half a percent of the US defence
budget.
The amount spent on alcohol in a week
and a half in Europe would be adequate to
provide sanitation to half the worlds
population.

Charities are precious, and play a
vital and unique role. Caring for
victims is essential work. We
should encourage generosity.

Im a Christian and, as it says in the
parable of The Good Samaritan, I
believe that everybody should be
helped if they need it, no matter
who they are.
People are losing their jobs,
homes and life savings here at
home. Why should we be giving
handouts to other countries?

You should take care of family and people
close to you before you worry about helping
others. I don't think we should worry so
much about a foreign relief fund when
there are people in need right here in our
own country.
Poverty

Margaret Courtney-Clark / Science
Photo Library
Adapted from Oxfam 2008
Adapted from Jubilee Debt Campaign 2002
www.jubileedebtcampaign.co.uk
Some Opinions:
Some Facts:
Hermera / Thinkstock
24
Section B: Reading Non-Fiction

Read the article on page 25.

The writer has expressed his very personal views on mobile phones in a manner which sustains
the readers interest.

Complete the task below:

TASK 2
Your task is to analyse how the writer holds the readers interest.

In your answer discuss how the writer has:
used a style and tone that are lively and personal
made use of fact and opinion
selected words and phrases for effect
used sentence structuring and paragraphing to sustain the readers interest. [24]




















25
This is never an easy sentence to write, but here goes anyway: I was wrong! For the past 15 years or
so I have refused to join the mobile phone revolution. I tried one when they were the size of house
bricks and then again when the pocket-sized phones appeared a few years later. I carried it around
for a while but unloved, unwanted and in my opinion unnecessary, I abandoned it.
Of course I know what a benefit mobiles have been in the Third World. Six out of ten people
around the globe now use one and there are countless examples of lives being changed for the better
in countries where the poorest had no access to any form of telephone network.
So, how and when did I finally admit defeat in my solitary war against mobiles? It all happened one
searingly hot afternoon when I found myself stranded at Athens airport. My son, Christopher, had
promised to leave his car for me to collect and drive to our holiday villa. I couldnt find it.
For an hour I tramped around the vast car park, dragging my suitcases and smallest child with me,
wilting in the heat as we inspected every blasted car there and drew a blank. There was no other
way to complete our journey. It had to be found.
I went back to the terminal building to try to phone him on his mobile of course but the only
payphones required special tokens and there was nowhere to buy any. So I had to ask another
passenger if I could use his mobile phone. And, yes, this was humiliating!!
Mercifully, Christopher answered his phone within seconds and told me where the car was. I found
it and drove off into the sunset. My hostility to mobiles had been overcome. It was clear that I
needed one and it was silly to pretend otherwise.
So, yes, I carry a mobile with me these days if I think I might need one, but I switch it on only if I
have to make an urgent call. Furthermore, I can be contacted only if I choose to be.
You see, what to me is utterly baffling and alarming is that so many people have willingly
sacrificed their freedom. They meekly accept that they must and I emphasise must be
available to whoever cares to call them all day and every day. Why?
Let us accept that some employers may insist on it during working hours and that there is a sizeable
percentage of people who must be in touch when they are on duty: doctors on call; plumbers out on
the road; parents waiting for their children to call to be picked up; paparazzi waiting to be tipped off
about likely prey, and wannabe celebrities hoping to be papped.
Lets also accept that teenagers have a biological need to conform and would no more walk around
without a mobile clutched in their sweaty hands than they would be seen in kipper ties or hooped
skirts. That still leaves a lot of people the vast majority of the population who have allowed
themselves to become the servants of a useful gadget rather than its master.
I need hardly rehearse the reasons why people shouldnt obey the constant demands of their
mobiles: a backdrop of ring tones has to be the ultimate irritation; the way people will glance down
at their phone to read a text message when youre talking to them or those self-important
conversations at full volume in a train carriage. Then theres the fact that no one bothers to meet
you on time any longer because they can always phone to tell you theyll be late. And so on.
The sad truth is that mobiles are the perfect excuse for people to be rude. Thats a pity. But its
pointless whining about it. We might as well try to ban television! Like it or not, there is no going
back.
And, I admit, there is no going back for me! The gee-whiz factor of my new iPhone is undeniable
and the technology quite extraordinary. Its a great toy. But do you know what? I own this gizmo.
It does not and never will own me!
'OK, I admit it. I was wrong. I've finally fallen in love with the mobile phone' by John Humphrys (freelance writer),
Daily Mail, 7 March 2009
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Mark Schemes
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28
29






General Certificate of Secondary Education
2011

English Language

Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading
Multi-Modal texts

Foundation Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN

MARK
SCHEME
30
A General Introduction to the Assessment of CCEAs GCSE English Language

The style of assessment
The exams will be marked using positive assessment; crediting what has been achieved.

The mark schemes emanate from the Assessment Objectives and are designed to support this
positive approach.

The relationship between questions, mark schemes and Levels of Competence.
Each task is designed to test a specified series of Assessment Objectives and every task has an
individual mark scheme.

The mark scheme for each task comprises a task specific checklist as well as Competence Levels;
each of which details an increasing level of proficiency. Each level of competence is made up of a
series of brief statements which, together, describe the essential characteristics of a response at that
level.

The job for each examiner is to identify positively what has been achieved and then match the
candidates level of proficiency to the appropriate level of competence.

AO3: Studying Written Language (Reading): the marking process
The first stage in the assessment of an individual response begins with the examiner highlighting
what, within an answer, is creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, very brief, marginal comments taken from the descriptors for the
Competence Levels.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner is required to select and write down the two/three
phrases from the Competence Level descriptors that best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of assisting the marker to assess
which level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within the mark range for that
level top, middle or bottom.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

31
AO4: Writing: the marking process

The marking process is slightly different for the assessment of writing.

Two discrete assessments have to be made.

The first assessment will be used to gauge the candidates performance in the first two of the
Assessment Objectives for Writing: AO4 (i) and (ii). The second assessment is measured against
the final Assessment Objective for Writing: AO4 (iii).

These two assessments will be made discretely. They will be reached employing a similar
Competence Level approach to that used in the assessment of AO3: Studying Written language
(Reading). The process of awarding marks will be broadly similar to that outlined above.

There is one additional element that makes the assessing of Writing different from that employed
in the assessment of Studying Written Language (Reading). Inaccuracies in secretarial skills of
writing will be highlighted by the examiner in this section of the exam as they are an integral
element within the Assessment Objectives.

The first stage in the assessment of an individual task begins with the examiner highlighting what is
creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, brief, marginal comments taken from the Competence Level descriptors;

Additionally, the examiner will highlight:
errors in spelling, syntax, punctuation and paragraphing each error only to be circled/noted
once.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner will then select and write down two/three phrases
from each of the two sets of Competence Level descriptors (AO4 (i) and (ii) and AO4 (iii)). These
will be selected to best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of helping the marker to assess
which Competence Level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within it.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded in each case.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

These procedures which have been summarised above are described in detail overleaf.
32
Paper 1

Section A: Personal Writing

The Assessment Objectives

AO4 Writing

AO4 (i) Write to communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, using and adapting forms
and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader.

AO4 (ii) Organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts, using a variety of linguistic and structural features to support cohesion and
coherence.

AO4 (iii) Use a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate
punctuation and spelling.

All are being assessed.

The examiner will be required to make two distinct assessments: one for AO4 (i) and (ii) and a
second assessment for AO4 (iii).

The two required assessments

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments to highlight positive achievement, for example
Simple dev., Broad sense purpose. or Incr. fluent.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Circle individual spelling errors circle the same error only once.

Use continuous wavy underlining to highlight failings in grammar and syntax.

One-off errors in punctuation should be noted by writing p in the margin.

Consistent omissions or errors in punctuation should be signalled by writing p in the
margin, using arrows to highlight the extent of the problem.

Failings in paragraphing should be flagged up by writing para in the margin.







33
2. Using the descriptors from the competence levels for AO4 (i) and (ii) as sources, summarise
briefly (in two/three phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use
snippets from the descriptors for these summaries. (This process of summarising achievement
is very important because in making this assessment it becomes clear as to where exactly the
answer sits within the appropriate Competence Level.)

3. Next, on the principle of best fit, select in turn from the competence levels from AO4 (i) and
(ii) the one that comes closest to encapsulating the overall achievement in each case.

4. Decide upon a final mark for each of these two AOs by assessing the extent to which a
candidate has met all of the requirements of the particular competence levels. This will
determine the point that has been reached within each at the top, in the middle or at the lower
end of the mark range. Only after these comments have been noted should the two marks be
awarded.











5. In order to assess AO4 (iii), the same process (step 2 above) is used to make the second
assessment only using the Competence Levels that relate to the AO4 (iii).
























For example, an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in terms
of development and sense of audience but is more Competence Level 2 in relation
to style, could be summarised as follows:

AO4 (i) and (ii)
uncomplic dev
Gen sense purpose CL3 10
Elem style

For example, for an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in
terms of sentence structuring and punctuation but is more Competence Level 2 in
relation to spelling, the following would offer an adequate summary:

(iii)
Controlled sf sentences
Gen.secure bas punct CL3 5
Basic voc sp acc
34
Writing at Foundation Tier

AO4 (i)
Communicating clearly, effectively and imaginatively:
This will range from a brief attempt to respond with occasional clarity, to a response that
communicates clearly in an uncomplicated manner, presenting relevant personal development.

Using and adapting forms and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose:
This will range from few signs that vocabulary and form have been consciously adapted to a
generally appropriate match of vocabulary and form to task and purpose.

Engaging the reader:
This will range from writing that makes engagement difficult, to work that is appropriate and
straightforward and thus has some success in engaging the reader.

AO4 (ii)
Organising information and ideas into well structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts:
This will range from a flow of comments that appear somewhat disjointed to use of a range of
straightforward sentences.

At paragraph and text level this will range from an arbitrary use of paragraphs that display little
sense of organisation to an uncomplicated grouping of sentences that demonstrate progression.
Some use of links will be evident.

AO4 (iii)
Using a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect:
This will range from a somewhat random or repetitious approach to an increasing control and
variation in sentence construction. At the lower end of the mark range the conventions of
written English will be largely ignored whilst at top of the mark range these will be handled
with a straightforward competence that mainly supports clarity.

Using punctuation and spelling accurately:
This will vary from a haphazard approach to punctuation to a generally sound handling of the
more common forms of punctuation.

Spelling will range from generally accurate spelling of basic words through to a generally sound
handling of most words in a more extended vocabulary.



35

FOUNDATION Task 1 Personal Writing. Testing AO4 (i) and (ii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 16 marks
Describe, for the reader, a person you admire. In your answer you might want to: give reasons for your choice/describe this person and how he/she has a positive influence on
your life/explain how you feel about him/her.


How AO4 (i) and (ii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: write to
communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively; use and adapt forms and select vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader;
organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts; use a variety of linguistic and structural features to support
cohesion and overall coherence.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to award a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills associated with AO4 (i) and (ii) that candidates
at all competence levels may be expected to attempt to employ in their responses. Credit any other
valid strategies used that are not mentioned below.

Communicate clearly and effectively and imaginatively, demonstrating:
a handling of the topic in such a way as to attempt to positively develop the readers interest
use of a style that endeavours to build a positive relationship with the target audience
possible use of anecdotes/humour to engage the audience

Adapting form and vocab to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader, demonstrating:
an awareness of the reader as audience
a use of tone that is meant to engage and sustain the audiences attention
use of a straightforward vocabulary that is in keeping with the task and audience and that, occasionally, may enliven
the writing

Organise info and ideas into structured, sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts
demonstrating:
a sense of progression the reader being taken through the writers experience
an awareness of opening and closing paragraphs
some use of topic sentences for different paragraphs
development that uses organisation in an attempt to hold the audiences interest

Use a variety linguistic and structural features for cohesion and coherence demonstrating:
some variety of sentence length for effect
occasional use of connectives to give coherence to paragraphing
the use of rhetorical devices the rule of three, questions, hyperbole, etc.

Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [14]
Characterised by:
some general, rather sketchy development
an unconvincing grasp of purpose and audience
some attempt at simple structuring using a
rudimentary style

Competence Level 2 [58]
Characterised by:
a simple development, relating events in a
elementary manner
a broad sense of purpose and/or audience that
may be sustained
a basic structure and an elementary style

Competence Level 3 [912]
Characterised by:
an uncomplicated development, relating the
incident in a deliberate fashion
a general sense of purpose and audience
a logical structure and a straightforward style

Competence Level 4 [1316]
Characterised by:
a generally effective development that maintains
the readers interest
a recognition of purpose and audience
a clear structure and an increasingly fluent style
36
FOUNDATION Task 1 Testing AO4 (iii) Task Response time: 45 minutes Max. 8 marks

How AO4 (iii) feeds through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: use a range sentence
structures for clarity, purpose and effect; use accurate punctuation and spelling.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills associated with
AO4 (iii) that candidates at all competence levels may be expected to
attempt to employ in their responses.
Credit any other valid strategies used that are not mentioned below.

The range and effectiveness of sentence structuring:
The wider the range and greater the control in structuring sentences, the more
opportunity the candidate gives him/herself to attempt to sustain the readers
interest.
More assured control of sentences and variety in their structuring demonstrates a
higher level of competence and will be rewarded accordingly.

The use made of accurate punctuation and spelling:
Linked to the control of sentence structure is the control of a variety of appropriate
punctuation. Here, too, competence usage can help to maintain the readers interest.
The greater the control the higher will be the reward.
Accuracy in spelling, in isolation, can be misleading; it needs to be viewed beside
the range of the vocabulary utilised.
A limited vocabulary spelt accurately is unlikely to capture the examiners attention.
Examiners should credit ambitious use of vocabulary, where the word may not
always be accurately spelt but has been chosen carefully.


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response
Competence Level 1 [12]
Characterised by:
little control of sentence structuring instead, simple connectives used to link
ideas; verbs often repeated
occasional use of full stops and commas tends to be the limit of punctuation
some accuracy in the spelling of simple words
the range of vocabulary is narrow
Competence Level 2 [34]
Characterised by:
a use of basic sentence structuring that offers little variation in construction or
length
generally correct use of full stops and the use of some other forms of punctuation
basic vocabulary is usually spelt accurately
a limited vocabulary
Competence Level 3 [56]
Characterised by:
a controlled use of straightforward sentence structuring there will be evidence
of some variety in sentence construction and length
a generally secure use of basic punctuation to support structure
generally accurate spelling of straightforward, regular vocabulary
an uncomplicated vocabulary will be evident
Competence Level 4 [78]
Characterised by:
increasingly sustained competence in the handling of a variety of sentence
structures occasionally these may be used for effect
the basics of punctuation full stops, commas, exclamation and question marks
used accurately, adding clarity to the work
generally accurate spelling including some words with irregular patterns
a greater precision in the use of a widening vocabulary
37
Section B: Reading Multi-Modal Texts

The Assessment Objectives for AO3:

AO3 (i) Read and understand texts, selecting material appropriate to purpose, collating from
different sources and making comparisons and cross-references as appropriate.

AO3 (ii) Develop and sustain interpretations of writers ideas and perspectives.

AO3 (iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic, grammatical structural and
presentational features to engage and influence the reader.

The two tasks and how they meet specific elements of the Assessment Objectives:

Task 2 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose/collating & making c-refs
AO3 (ii): dev. and sustain interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how structural and presentational features achieve
effects and engage and influence the reader

Task 3 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose/collating & making c-refs
AO3 (ii): dev. and sustain interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how a writer uses linguistic, grammatical and
structural devices to achieve effects

The examiner will be required to make one assessment in respect of each of the two tasks.

The required process of assessment

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments drawn from the Competence Levels descriptors to
summarise positive achievement, for example a sf. understanding, comp.
comparison or assured eval.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Use underlining to highlight significant strengths in a response.

Ignore all errors in punctuation, syntax and spelling as they are not being assessed.

2. Using the descriptors from the Competence Levels as a source, summarise briefly (in two/three
phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use snippets from the
descriptors for this summary.





38
3. On the principle of best fit select the competence level that comes closest to encapsulating the
overall achievement of the answer.

4. Decide upon a final mark by assessing the extent to which a candidate has met all of the
requirements of that particular level. This will determine the point that has been reached within
it at the top, in the middle or at the lower end of the mark range. Only after these comments
have been noted should a mark be awarded.








For example, a response to Task 2 that is Competence Level 2 could be
summarised as follows:

Comp explan
Range approp evid
CL2 6
39

FOUNDATION Task 2 Focus: Reading Multi-Modal texts. Presentational devices: Testing AO3 (i) & (ii) Response time: 10 minutes Max. 9 marks
The DVD covers of Indiana Jones and The Mummy are designed to create the sense that they are exciting and action-packed films. Compare how presentational devices have
been used in both DVDs to build up a sense of excitement in your answer comment on: the use of images and colour and the layout.

How AO3 (i) & (ii) feed through to marks: Use the question specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to explain how
structural and presentational features achieve effects and engage and influence the reader. The overall performance is then assessed against the four Competence Levels
(drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that reflects the candidates achievement.

Task specific checklist of evidence outlining the material that candidates at all competence levels
may be expected to include in their responses. Credit fully any other valid suggestions/comment.

The use made of images and colour:
given the highly visual nature of both covers, they naturally rely heavily on image and colour to create impact
both front covers are built around a central image of the hero with the title clearly displayed
both heroes strike action poses indicating the style of film that can be expected the similarity continues in the use
of dramatic backgrounds suggesting excitement and danger
some of the action from each is featured giving a glimpse at what the buyer can expect on the front and back
covers of Indiana Jones we see images of love interest and violent action which are mirrored in The Mummy
the spine of both DVDs are very similar in layout; they are fairly functional, like a book end, mainly featuring the
title and head shots of Harrison Ford and Brendan Fraser
describing Indiana Jones as Digitally Mastered and in widescreen endeavours to add to its appeal; this strategy
is also used in The Mummy where it is advertised as widescreen and as a Collectors Edition
the use of strong colours is evident in both covers, linking front and back as well as leading through to text

The layout:
the layout of the covers is very similar major images and titles dominate the front covers and the back covers.
Both follow very similar formats: a collage of images the biggest of which features the main character
the titles of both are emblazoned in distinctive fonts above an image of the hero.
the fonts used for the titles in Indiana J ones and The Mummy feature a style employed in all of these movie titles
the layouts of the back of the DVDs are again very similar: interwoven smaller images add snippets from the movie
to enhance their appeal. Both feature quite dense paragraphs of text as well as an extensive credits section.
The Mummy employs a much more user friendly layout for its text which includes special features as well as the
use of bullet points
there is a profusion of logos all adding to the authenticity of the products but not really of significance in promoting
them
dense technical text is featured at the bottom of both. It is not very user-friendly and does not impact on the
potential audience

Competence Level 0 [0] No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [13]
Characterised by:
a basic recognition that use has been made of
presentational devices
some reference to a few of the most obvious
examples
a very general linking of the examples of these
devices to their purpose

Competence Level 2 [46]
Characterised by:
an understanding of how some of these
presentational devices generate excitement
reference to a series of examples, some of which will
be supported by straightforward comment
some appropriate use of comparison and contrast at a
straightforward level

Competence Level 3 [79]
Characterised by:
a sound overall consideration of how some of the
presentational devices generate excitement
a straightforward explanation and comparison of how
these devices have been used to engage and
influence the reader
the development of an appropriate interpretation of
the stimulus materials through an uncomplicated
drawing together of mainly appropriate evidence
from both sources

40
FOUNDATION Task 3 Focus: Language. Testing AO3 (i), (ii) & (iii) Response time: 20 minutes Max. 15 marks
Compare how language has been used in both texts to suggest that these are exciting action films. Comment on the use of words and phrases in: the titles, headings and
sub-headings/the language used to promote each film.

How AO3 (i), (ii) & (iii) feed through to marks: Use the question specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to develop
and sustain interpretations that explain how a writer uses linguistic and structural effects to achieve effects. The overall performance is then assessed against the four
Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that reflects the candidates achievement.

Task specific checklist of evidence that outlines the material candidates across the
competence levels may be expected to include in their responses. Credit fully any other
valid suggestions/comment.

How words and phrases create excitement:

The Mummy uses a series of flattering quotations from film critics: Mile-a-Minute Chills and Thrills/
Big-Time Fun!. Indiana J ones uses the technique of drawing in the reader we are invited to
J oin the legendary hero/ Explore the darkest jungles

dramatic superlatives and persuasive language abound: Indiana J ones: one of the greatest screen
adventures of all time/ embarks on a thrilling quest/ with Indiana J ones as your guide to adventure/
This classic treasure; The Mummy; combining the thrills of a rousing adventure/ a true nonstop
action epic/ dazzling visual effects/ superb story telling

they both use the back of the case to present a synopsis of the film to whet the appetite of potential
buyers. Both begin by outlining in the context of the adventures; Indiana J ones: the two-fisted
archaeologist embarks on a thrilling quest; The Mummy; unearthed a 3000 year old legacy of terror

the readability of the Indiana J ones text is less inviting than that of The Mummy

the technical and legal information has to be there but has no real function as far as promoting either
product is concerned this is evident from the minuscule size of the font and the less than generous
spacing are ample evidence that the designers of the covers are not placing too much emphasis on this
section as a means of selling their product

the Special Features section of The Mummy offers an insight into the creative process of the movie;
in-depth look heart-stopping visual effects which appeals to film enthusiasts


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [15]
Characterised by:
some basic sense of how language and/or structure have been
used positively
reference to a few obvious examples
a very general linking of the examples of these devices to their
purpose of reinforcing a sense of excitement

Competence Level 2 [610]
Characterised by:
an understanding of how some of these linguistic and structural
effects can be employed to generate excitement
reference to a series of examples, some of which will be
supported by straightforward comment
some appropriate use of comparison and contrast at a
straightforward level

Competence Level 3 [1115]
Characterised by:
a sound overall consideration of how some of the linguistic and
structural devices achieve their effects
a straightforward explanation and comparison of how these
effects have been used to support a sense of excitement
the development of an appropriate interpretation of the stimulus
materials through an uncomplicated drawing together of mainly
appropriate supporting evidence from both sources


41





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2011

English Language

Unit 1: Personal Writing and Reading
Multi-Modal texts

Higher Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN

MARK
SCHEME
42
A General Introduction to the Assessment of CCEAs GCSE English Language

The style of assessment
The exams will be marked using positive assessment; crediting what has been achieved.

The mark schemes emanate from the Assessment Objectives and are designed to support this
positive approach.

The relationship between questions, mark schemes and Levels of Competence.
Each task is designed to test a specified series of Assessment Objectives and every task has an
individual mark scheme.

The mark scheme for each task comprises a task specific checklist as well as Competence Levels;
each of which details an increasing level of proficiency. Each level of competence is made up of a
series of brief statements which, together, describe the essential characteristics of a response at that
level.

The job for each examiner is to identify positively what has been achieved and then match the
candidates level of proficiency to the appropriate level of competence.

AO 3: Studying Written Language (Reading): the marking process
The first stage in the assessment of an individual response begins with the examiner highlighting
what, within an answer, is creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, very brief, marginal comments taken from the descriptors for the
Competence Levels.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner is required to select and write down the two/three
phrases from the Competence Level descriptors that best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of assisting the marker to assess
which level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within the mark range for that
level top, middle or bottom.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

43
AO4: Writing: the marking process

The marking process is slightly different for the assessment of writing.

Two discrete assessments have to be made.

The first assessment will be used to gauge the candidates performance in the first two of the
Assessment Objectives for Writing: AO4 (i) and (ii). The second assessment is measured against
the final Assessment Objective for Writing: AO4 (iii).

These two assessments will be made discretely. They will be reached employing a similar
Competence Level approach to that used in the assessment of AO3: Studying Written language
(Reading). The process of awarding marks will be broadly similar to that outlined above.

There is one additional element that makes the assessing of Writing different from that employed
in the assessment of Studying Written Language (Reading). Inaccuracies in secretarial skills of
writing will be highlighted by the examiner in this section of the exam as they are an integral
element within the Assessment Objectives.

The first stage in the assessment of an individual task begins with the examiner highlighting what is
creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, brief, marginal comments taken from the Competence Level descriptors;

Additionally, the examiner will highlight:
errors in spelling, syntax, punctuation and paragraphing each error only to be circled/noted
once.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner will then select and write down two/three phrases
from each of the two sets of Competence Level descriptors (AO4 (i) and (ii) and AO4 (iii)). These
will be selected to best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of helping the marker to assess
which Competence Level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within it.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded in each case.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

These procedures which have been summarised above are described in detail overleaf.
44
Paper 1

Section A: Personal Writing

The Assessment Objectives

AO4 Writing

AO4 (i) Write to communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, using and adapting forms
and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader.

AO4 (ii) Organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts, using a variety of linguistic and structural features to support cohesion and
coherence.

AO4 (iii) Use a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate
punctuation and spelling.

All are being assessed.

The examiner will be required to make two distinct assessments: one for AO4 (i) and (ii) and a
second assessment for AO4 (iii).

The two required assessments

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments to highlight positive achievement, for example
approp. sense of audience, competent dev. or well organised.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Circle individual spelling errors circle the same error only once.

Use continuous wavy underlining to highlight failings in grammar and syntax.

One-off errors in punctuation should be noted by writing p in the margin.

Consistent omissions or errors in punctuation should be signalled by writing p in the
margin, using arrows to highlight the extent of the problem.

Failings in paragraphing should be flagged up by writing para in the margin.








45
2. Using the descriptors from the competence levels for AO4 (i) and (ii) as sources, summarise
briefly (in two/three phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use
snippets from the descriptors for these summaries. (This process of summarising achievement
is very important because in making this assessment it becomes clear as to where exactly the
answer sits within the appropriate Competence Level.)

3. Next, on the principle of best fit, select in turn from the competence levels from AO4 (i) and
(ii) the one that comes closest to encapsulating the overall achievement in each case.

4. Decide upon a final mark for each of these two AOs by assessing the extent to which a
candidate has met all of the requirements of the particular competence levels . This will
determine the point that has been reached within each at the top, in the middle or at the lower
end of the mark range. Only after these comments have been noted should the two marks be
awarded.











5. In order to assess AO4 (iii), the same process (step 2 above) is used to make the second
assessment only using the Competence Levels that relate to the AO4 (iii).
For example, an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in terms
of purposeful development and sense of audience but is more Competence Level 2
in relation to style, could be summarised as follows:

AO4 (i) and (ii)
Comp dev
Prof struct CL3 10
Increas fluent style

For example, for an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in
terms of sentence structuring and punctuation but is more Competence Level 2 in
relation to spelling, the following would offer an adequate summary:

(iii)
Del Manip
Prof punct CL3 6
Gen acc sforward sp/w voc
46
Writing at Higher Tier

AO4 (i)
Communicating clearly, effectively and imaginatively:
This will range from a competent if predictable attempt at logical development and sequencing
of material into a straightforward piece of writing, to a fluent and assured development that
demonstrates a confident, personal manipulation of material in order that the writing has a
striking impact upon the reader.

Using and adapting forms and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose:
This will range from a recognition and deployment of appropriate forms and a clear attempt to
try to tailor responses accordingly, to a confident handling of forms so that they are seamlessly
integrated into the work.

The use of task-appropriate language will range from that which is generally suitable and
fitting, to precise use of language that is clearly and accurately matched to task and
demonstrates a much more subtle understanding of purpose.

Engaging the reader:
This will range from writing that, because it is appropriate and straightforward, will have some
success in engaging the reader, to work that entertains, developing a rapport with the reader and
is a pleasure to read.

AO4 (ii)
Organising information and ideas into well structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts:
This will range from controlled development of straightforward sentences to a fluently
constructed conscious crafting of sentences. As the responses become increasingly competent,
there will be an increasing range of appropriate linguistic devices in use.

At paragraph and text level this will range from an uncomplicated grouping of sentences that
demonstrate progression to a strikingly structured consideration.

Generally appropriate paragraphing and some use of links will be evident at one end of the
spectrum, whilst at the top of the mark range these will be used to add to the fluency and
coherence of the writing.

AO4 (iii)
Using a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect:
This will range from an increasing control and variation in sentence construction to an assured
control and manipulation for effect. At the lower end of the mark range the conventions of
written English will be handled with a straightforward competence that mainly supports clarity,
whilst at top of the ability range sentence structuring will be handled confidently, in order to
enhance the purpose and effect of the writing.

Using punctuation and spelling accurately:
This will vary from generally sound handling of the more common forms of punctuation to a
more complete range accurately used to enhance meaning. This will range from the use of
complex regular words generally spelt accurately to the accurate spelling of an extended
vocabulary.

47
HIGHER Task 1 Personal Writing. Testing AO4(i) and (ii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 16 marks
Describe, for the reader, a person you admire.


How AO4 (i) and (ii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: write to
communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively; use and adapt forms and select vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader;
organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts; use a variety of linguistic and structural features to support
cohesion and overall coherence.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to award a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills associated with AO4 (i) & (ii) that
candidates at all competence levels may be expected to attempt to employ in their
responses.
Credit any other valid strategies used that are not mentioned below.

Communicate clearly and effectively and imaginatively, demonstrating:
a handling of the topic in such a way as to positively develop the readers interest
use of a style that builds a positive relationship with the target audience
possible use of anecdotes/humour to enliven the writing and so engage the audience.

Adapting form and vocab to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader,
demonstrating:
a conscious awareness of the reader as audience
a use of tone that is designed to engage and sustain the audiences attention
use of vocabulary that is in keeping with the task and audience to enhance, enrich and enliven
the writing

Organise info and ideas into structured, sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts demonstrating:
a sense of logical progression the reader being led through the writers experience
the use of opening and closing paragraphs
the deployment of topic sentences for different paragraphs
development that uses conscious organisation to sustain the audiences interest.

Use a variety linguistic and structural features for cohesion and coherence
demonstrating:
a conscious varying of sentence length for effect
the use of connectives to give coherence to paragraphing
the use of rhetorical devices such as the rule of three, questions, hyperbole, etc. to develop
interest and a rapport with the audience.

Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [14]
Characterised by:
an uncomplicated development, relating the incident in a
deliberate fashion
a general sense of purpose and audience
a logical structure and a straightforward style

Competence Level 2 [58]
Characterised by:
a generally effective development that maintains the readers
interest
a recognition of purpose and audience
a clear structure and an increasingly fluent style

Competence Level 3 [912]
Characterised by:
a competent development that clearly interests the reader
a confident awareness of purpose and audience
proficiently structured with evidence of a developing, lively style

Competence Level 4 [1316]
Characterised by:
a poised and sophisticated development that commands the
readers attention throughout
a positive rapport with the audience
assured competence in terms of structure underpinned by a
confident style
48
HIGHER Task 1 Personal Writing. Testing AO4 (iii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 8 marks


How AO (iii) feeds through to marks: use the question specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: use a range sentence
structures for clarity, purpose and effect; use accurate punctuation and spelling.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills
associated with AO4 (iii) that candidates at all competence
levels may be expected to attempt to employ in their
responses. Credit any other valid strategies used that are
not mentioned below.

The range and effectiveness of sentence structuring:
The wider the range and greater the degree of originality and
control used in sentence structuring, the more opportunity the
candidate gives him/herself to establish a positive rapport with the
reader.
More assured and varied manipulation of sentence structuring
demonstrates higher levels of competence and is to be rewarded
accordingly.

The use made of accurate punctuation and spelling:
Linked to the control of sentence structure is the control of a
variety of appropriate punctuation. Here too there is scope for
creativity that can help to engage the readers interest.
The greater the control and innovation in the use of punctuation
the higher will be the reward.
Accuracy in spelling, in isolation, can be misleading; it needs to be
viewed beside the range and precision of the vocabulary used.
A limited vocabulary spelt accurately is unlikely to capture the
readers attention. Examiners should credit ambitious use of
vocabulary, where the word may not always be accurately spelt
but has been chosen with care to capture the essence of a situation.


Competence Level 0 [0] No creditworthy response
Competence Level 1 [12]
Characterised by:
a controlled use of straightforward sentence structuring there will be evidence of some variety in
sentence construction and length
a generally secure use of basic punctuation to support structure
generally accurate spelling of straightforward, regular vocabulary
an uncomplicated vocabulary will be evident
Competence Level 2 [34]
Characterised by:
increasingly sustained competence in the handling of a variety sentence structures occasionally
these may be used for effect
the basics of punctuation full stops, commas, exclamation and question marks used accurately,
adding clarity to the work
generally accurate spelling including some words with irregular patterns
a greater precision in the use of a widening vocabulary
Competence Level 3 [56]
Characterised by:
a deliberate manipulation of a range sentence structures conscious control of sentence variety
for effect
a proficiently handled range of punctuation that enhances the writing
accurate spelling of most words
an extended vocabulary which is employed with increasing precision
Competence Level 4 [78]
Characterised by:
an assured use of a wide range of sentence structures that enhances the overall effect of the
writing in terms of clarity, purpose and audience
confident deployment of a full range of punctuation that facilitates fluency and complements
meaning
an extended, apposite vocabulary used with precision errors will be one-off mistakes or,
occasionally, the outcome of ambitious attempts to use complex language
49
Section B: Reading Multi-Modal texts

The Assessment Objectives for AO3:

AO3 (i) Read and understand texts, selecting material appropriate to purpose, collating from
different sources and making comparisons and cross-references as appropriate.

AO3 (ii) Develop and sustain interpretations of writers ideas and perspectives.

AO3 (iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic, grammatical structural and
presentational features to engage and influence the reader.

The two tasks and how they meet specific elements of the Assessment Objectives:

Task 2 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose/collating & making c-refs
AO3 (ii): dev. and sustain interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how structural and presentational features achieve
effects and engage and influence the reader

Task 3 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose/collating & making c-refs
AO3 (ii): dev. and sustain interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how a writer uses linguistic, grammatical and
structural devices to achieve effects

The examiner will be required to make one assessment in respect of each of the two tasks.

The required process of assessment

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments drawn from the Competence Levels descriptors to
summarise positive achievement, for example a sf. understanding, comp.
comparison or assured eval.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Use underlining to highlight significant strengths in a response.

Ignore all errors in punctuation, syntax and spelling as they are not being assessed.

2. Using the descriptors from the Competence Levels as a source, summarise briefly (in two/three
phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use snippets from the
descriptors for this summary.






50
3. On the principle of best fit select the competence level that comes closest to encapsulating the
overall achievement of the answer.

4. Decide upon a final mark by assessing the extent to which a candidate has met all of the
requirements of that particular level. This will determine the point that has been reached within
it at the top, in the middle or at the lower end of the mark range. Only after these comments
have been noted should a mark be awarded.











For example, a response to Task 2 that is Competence Level 2 could be
summarised as follows:

Comp explan
Range approp evid
CL2 6

51

HIGHER Task 2 Reading Multi-Modal texts: Presentational devices: Testing AO3 (i) & (ii) Response time: 10 minutes Max. 9 marks
Compare and contrast how presentational devices are used in both DVD covers to make the film appealing? Analyse the use made of: images and colour/layout.


How AO3 (i) and (ii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to explain how
structural and presentational features achieve effects and engage and influence the reader. The overall performance is then assessed against the four Competence Levels
(drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that that reflects the candidates achievement.


Task specific checklist outlining material that candidates at all competence levels may be
expected to include in their responses. Credit fully any other valid suggestions/comment.

Presentational devices:
given the visual nature of DVDs both covers naturally rely heavily on image/colour to create their impact
both front covers are built around a central image with the title prominently featured
both characters are carrying guns indicating the style of film that can be expected the similarity continues
in the use of the dark blue background indicative of trauma and danger. Behind Damon on the left
appears to be a flash of light perhaps an explosion, whereas to the right of Bond we see the outline of an
exciting looking location through the silhouette of a glamorous woman these set the mood/tone for the
DVDs and heighten expectations
some of the action from each DVD is featured giving an anticipatory glimpse at what the buyer can
expect on the front cover of the Bourne cover we see images of love interest and violent action which
are mirrored in the smaller, very similar snatches of the movie presented in a montage on the back of both
DVDs
the use of yellow/gold on the front cover of Bourne for some of the featured images as well as Damons
name and then on the back cover for its quotes from reviews and the reference to Incredible Action-
Packed Special Features all tie in and stand out
the layout of the covers is very similar major images and titles dominate the front covers and the back
covers both follow very similar formats: bar codes; the use of phrases from favourable reviews; a collage
of images the biggest of which features the star; a segment given over to special features
in the case of Bourne the title is emblazoned across the hero whilst in Casino it is set around the
picture of the character. The font used for the title on Casino features the visual pun 007 in its title
whereas the cross hairs of a telescopic sight centre on the O of Bourne and Bourne is emboldened
both point clearly to the action that features strongly in both
the layouts of the back of the DVDs are again very similar: interwoven smaller images add snippets from
the movies to enhance their appeal. They also feature quite a dense paragraph of text as well as a section
on special features that once more are designed to tempt the potential purchaser
the spine of both DVDs are very similar in layout, they are fairly functional, like a book end, featuring the
title and a head shot of the star of the movie. By describing the Bourne DVD as Collectors Edition
they are endeavouring to add to its appeal
there is concentrated technical text at the bottom of both. It is not very user-friendly there is a profusion
of logos all adding to the authenticity of the products but not really of significance in promoting them


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [13]
Characterised by:
a sound overall evaluation of how some of the presentational
devices achieve their effects
a straightforward explanation and comparison of how these
devices have been used to engage and influence the reader
the development of an appropriate interpretation of the
stimulus material through an uncomplicated drawing together
of mainly appropriate evidence from both sources

Competence Level 2 [46]
Characterised by:
a clear evaluation of how the presentational devices have been
deployed to achieve their effects
a competent explanation and comparison of how these
devices have been manipulated to engage/influence the reader
positively
the development of an accurate interpretation of the stimulus
materials through a drawing together of a range of appropriate
evidence from both sources

Competence Level 3 [79]
Characterised by:
an assured evaluation of how the presentational devices have
been deployed to achieve their particular effects
a confident explanation and comparison of how these devices
interact to positively influence and generate engagement
within the target audience
the development of a perceptive interpretation of the stimulus
materials through a purposeful comparison, drawing together
of a range of precisely selected, supporting evidence

52


HIGHER Task 3 Language. Testing AO3 (i), (ii) & (iii) Response time: 20 minutes Max. 15 marks
Compare and contrast how language has been used in both DVD covers to persuade you that these are exciting action films.


How AO3 (i), (ii) and (iii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to develop and
sustain interpretations that explain how a writer uses linguistic and structural devices to achieve effects. The overall performance is then assessed against the four
Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that that reflects the candidates achievement.


Task specific checklist outlining material candidates across the
competence levels may be expected to include in their responses.
Credit fully any other valid suggestions/comment.

Language:
Bourne is marketed more aggressively than Casino in that three hugely
enthusiastic reviews are spread across the front and back covers quoted: An
adrenaline rush! Joel Siegel, Good Morning America; Mind-Blowing J im
Ferguson, Fox-TV and Heart-Pounding! Access Hollywood. By contrast Casino
is more restrained and relies on a single quote: The best Bond for decades.
the expected use of dramatic language and superlatives to engage the reader:
Bourne explosive action-packed hit/incredible fight sequences/Super-
charged, thrill-a-minute spectacular/loaded with Non-stop action! Casino does
not go in for such a hard sell brave danger together/Le Chiffres cunning and
cruelty
naturally both use the front cover to focus the readers attention on the films title
they both use the back of the DVD to present a synopsis of the movie to whet the
appetite of potential buyers. Both begin by outlining the predicament that the hero
finds himself in
Bournes synopsis opens with a quote that contains a predictable pun whilst
Casino focuses on putting this prequel in its context amongst the other Bond movies
the Bourne synopsis starts by using another review as it reaches a frenzy of
excitement, this technique is not employed for the Bond film which by contrast
attempts to build a sense of threat and tension to finish: Trust no one.
the technical and legal information has to be there but has no persuasive function
this is evident from the minuscule size of the font and the less than generous spacing
are evidence that the designers of the covers are not placing emphasis on this section
as a means of selling their DVDs

Competence Level 0 [0] No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [15]
Characterised by:
a sound overall evaluation of how some of the linguistic and structural devices
achieve their effects
a straightforward explanation and comparison of how these devices have been used
to engage the audience and develop a positive and exciting mood
the development of an appropriate interpretation of the stimulus materials through an
uncomplicated drawing together of mainly appropriate supporting evidence from
both sources

Competence Level 2 [610]
Characterised by:
a clear evaluation of how the bulleted linguistic, grammatical and structural devices
have been deployed to achieve their effects
a competent explanation and comparison of how these devices have been used in
an attempt to engage and manipulate the audience as well as generating a positive
and exciting mood
the development of an accurate interpretation of the stimulus materials through a
drawing together of a range of a range of appropriate supporting evidence from both
sources

Competence Level 3 [1115]
Characterised by:
an assured evaluation of how the bulleted linguistic, grammatical and structural
devices have been deployed to achieve their particular effects
a confident explanation of how these devices interact to positively influence and
generate engagement within the target audience
the development of an perceptive interpretation of the stimulus materials through a
purposeful comparison, drawing together of a range of precisely selected, supporting
evidence
53





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2012

English Language

Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading
Non-Fiction

Foundation Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN

MARK
SCHEME
54
A General Introduction to the Assessment of CCEAs GCSE English Language

The style of assessment
The exams will be marked using positive assessment; crediting what has been achieved.

The mark schemes emanate from the Assessment Objectives and are designed to support this
positive approach.

The relationship between questions, mark schemes and Levels of Competence.
Each task is designed to test a specified series of Assessment Objectives and every task has an
individual mark scheme.

The mark scheme for each task comprises a task specific checklist as well as Competence Levels;
each of which details an increasing level of proficiency. Each level of competence is made up of a
series of brief statements which, together, describe the essential characteristics of a response at that
level.

The job for each examiner is to identify positively what has been achieved and then match the
candidates level of proficiency to the appropriate level of competence.

AO3: Studying Written Language (Reading): the marking process
The first stage in the assessment of an individual response begins with the examiner highlighting
what, within an answer, is creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, very brief, marginal comments taken from the descriptors for the
Competence Levels.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner is required to select and write down the two/three
phrases from the Competence Level descriptors that best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of assisting the marker to assess
which level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within the mark range for that
level top, middle or bottom.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

55
AO4: Writing: the marking process

The marking process is slightly different for the assessment of writing.

Two discrete assessments have to be made.

The first assessment will be used to gauge the candidates performance in the first two of the
Assessment Objectives for Writing: AO4 (i) and (ii). The second assessment is measured against
the final Assessment Objective for Writing: AO4 (iii).

These two assessments will be made discretely. They will be reached employing a similar
Competence Level approach to that used in the assessment of AO3: Studying Written language
(Reading). The process of awarding marks will be broadly similar to that outlined above.

There is one additional element that makes the assessing of Writing different from that employed
in the assessment of Studying Written Language (Reading). Inaccuracies in secretarial skills of
writing will be highlighted by the examiner in this section of the exam as they are an integral
element within the Assessment Objectives.

The first stage in the assessment of an individual task begins with the examiner highlighting what is
creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, brief, marginal comments taken from the Competence Level descriptors;

Additionally, the examiner will highlight:
errors in spelling, syntax, punctuation and paragraphing each error only to be circled/noted
once.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner will then select and write down two/three phrases
from each of the two sets of Competence Level descriptors (AO4 (i) and (ii) and AO4 (iii)). These
will be selected to best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of helping the marker to assess
which Competence Level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within it.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded in each case.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

These procedures which have been summarised above are described in detail overleaf.
56
Paper 2

Section A: Functional Writing

The Assessment Objectives

AO4 Writing

AO4 (i) Write to communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, using and adapting forms
and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader.

AO4 (ii) Organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts, using a variety of linguistic and structural features to support cohesion and
coherence.

AO4 (iii) Use a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate
punctuation and spelling.

All are being assessed.

The examiner will be required to make two distinct assessments: one for AO4 (i) and (ii) and a
second assessment for AO4 (iii).

The two required assessments

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments to highlight positive achievement, for example
Simple dev., Broad sense purpose. or Incr. fluent.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Circle individual spelling errors circle the same error only once.

Use continuous wavy underlining to highlight failings in grammar and syntax.

One-off errors in punctuation should be noted by writing p in the margin.

Consistent omissions or errors in punctuation should be signalled by writing p in the
margin, using arrows to highlight the extent of the problem.

Failings in paragraphing should be flagged up by writing para in the margin.


57
2. Using the descriptors from the competence levels for AO4 (i) and (ii) as sources, summarise
briefly (in two/three phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use
snippets from the descriptors for these summaries. (This process of summarising achievement
is very important because in making this assessment it becomes clear as to where exactly the
answer sits within the appropriate Competence Level.)

3. Next, on the principle of best fit, select in turn from the competence levels from AO4 (i) and
(ii) the one that comes closest to encapsulating the overall achievement in each case.

4. Decide upon a final mark for each of these two AOs by assessing the extent to which a
candidate has met all of the requirements of the particular competence levels. This will
determine the point that has been reached within each at the top, in the middle or at the lower
end of the mark range. Only after these comments have been noted should the two marks be
awarded.











5. In order to assess AO4 (iii), the same process (step 2 above) is used to make the second
assessment only using the Competence Levels that relate to the AO4 (iii).

For example, an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in terms
of development and sense of audience but is more Competence Level 2 in relation
to style, could be summarised as follows:

AO4 (i) and (ii)
uncomplic dev
Gen sense purpose CL3 10
Elem style

For example, for an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in
terms of sentence structuring and punctuation but is more Competence Level 2 in
relation to spelling, the following would offer an adequate summary:

(iii)
Controlled sf sentences
Gen secure bas punct CL3 5
Basic voc sp acc
58
Writing at Foundation Tier

AO4 (i)
Communicating clearly, effectively and imaginatively:
This will range from a brief attempt to respond with occasional clarity, to a response that
communicates clearly in an uncomplicated manner, presenting relevant personal development.

Using and adapting forms and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose:
This will range from few signs that vocabulary and form have been consciously adapted to a
generally appropriate match of vocabulary and form to task and purpose.

Engaging the reader:
This will range from writing that makes engagement difficult, to work that is appropriate and
straightforward and thus has some success in engaging the reader.

AO4 (ii)
Organising information and ideas into well structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts:
This will range from a flow of comments that appear somewhat disjointed to use of a range of
straightforward sentences.

At paragraph and text level this will range from an arbitrary use of paragraphs that display little
sense of organisation to an uncomplicated grouping of sentences that demonstrate progression.
Some use of links will be evident.

AO4 (iii)
Using a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect:
This will range from a somewhat random or repetitious approach to an increasing control and
variation in sentence construction. At the lower end of the mark range the conventions of
written English will be largely ignored whilst at top of the mark range these will be handled
with a straightforward competence that mainly supports clarity.

Using punctuation and spelling accurately:
This will vary from a haphazard approach to punctuation to a generally sound handling of the
more common forms of punctuation.

Spelling will range from generally accurate spelling of basic words through to a generally sound
handling of most words in a more extended vocabulary.

59

FOUNDATION Task 1 Functional writing. Testing AO4 (i) and (ii) Response time: 30 minutes Max. 16 marks
Write a speech for your classmates giving your views on the following issue: Charity begins at home, but it shouldnt stop there!

How AO4 (i) and (ii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: write to
communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively; use and adapt forms and select vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader;
organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts; use a variety of linguistic and structural features to support
cohesion and overall coherence.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to award a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills associated with
AO4 (i) & (ii) that candidates at all competence levels may be expected to
attempt to employ in their responses. Credit any other valid strategies
used that are not mentioned below.

Communicate clearly and effectively and imaginatively, demonstrating:
a handling of the topic in such a way as to attempt to positively develop the readers
interest
use of a style that endeavours to build a positive relationship with the target audience
possible use of anecdotes/humour to engage the audience
Adapting form and vocab to task and purpose in ways that engage the
reader, demonstrating:
an awareness of the reader as audience
a use of tone that is meant to engage and sustain the audiences attention
use of a straightforward vocabulary that is in keeping with the task and audience and
that, occasionally, may enliven the writing
Organise info and ideas into structured, sequenced sentences,
paragraphs and whole texts demonstrating:
a sense of progression the reader being taken through the writers experience
an awareness of opening and closing paragraphs
some use of topic sentences for different paragraphs
development that uses organisation in an attempt to hold the audiences interest
Use a variety linguistic and structural features for cohesion and
coherence demonstrating:
some variety of sentence length for effect
occasional use of connectives to give coherence to paragraphing
the use of rhetorical devices the rule of three, questions, hyperbole etc

Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response
Competence Level 1 [14]
Characterised by:
some general, rather sketchy development of his/her views on the role of
charity today
an unconvincing grasp of purpose and audience
some attempt at simple structuring using a rudimentary style

Competence Level 2 [58]
Characterised by:
a simple development, relating his/her views about charity in a elementary
manner
a broad sense of purpose and/or audience that may not be sustained
a basic structure and an elementary style

Competence Level 3 [912]
Characterised by:
an uncomplicated development, relating his/her point of view in a deliberate
fashion
a unsophisticated understanding of purpose and audience
a logical structure and a straightforward style

Competence Level 4 [1316]
Characterised by:
a generally effective development that maintains the readers interest in the
subject
a recognition of purpose and audience
a clear structure and an increasingly fluent style
60

FOUNDATION Task 1 Functional writing. Testing AO4 (iii) Max. 8 marks

How AO4 (iii) feeds through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: use a range sentence
structures for clarity, purpose and effect; use accurate punctuation and spelling.
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills
associated with AO4 (iii) that candidates at all
competence levels may be expected to attempt to employ
in their responses. Credit any other valid strategies used
that are not mentioned below.

The range and efficacy of sentence structures:
The wider the control that a candidate exhibits with regard to
sentence structuring, the greater is his/her ability to sustain
interest and establish a rapport with the reader. The more
competent and varied that manipulation of sentence structure is,
the higher will be the mark awarded.

The use made of accurate punctuation and spelling:
Inextricably woven into the fabric of sentence structure is the
control that comes from the accurate use of appropriate
punctuation. Here too, there is scope for variety that can help to
engage the reader. The greater the range of punctuation
appropriately used, the higher will be the reward.
Accuracy in spelling is, in isolation, potentially misleading; it
needs to be viewed in conjunction with the range and precision
of the vocabulary that a candidate draws upon. A limited
vocabulary spelt accurately is unlikely to capture the readers
attention. Credit attempts to use vocabulary ambitiously, where
the word may not always be accurately spelt but has been
chosen with care.


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [12]
Characterised by:
little control of sentence structuring instead, simple connectives used to link ideas;
verbs often repeated
occasional use of full stops and commas tends to be the limit of punctuation
some accuracy in the spelling of simple words
the range of vocabulary is narrow

Competence Level 2 [34]
Characterised by:
a use of basic sentence structuring that offers little variation in construction or length
generally correct use of full stops and the use of some other forms of punctuation
basic vocabulary is usually spelt accurately
a limited vocabulary

Competence Level 3 [56]
Characterised by:
a controlled use of straightforward sentence structuring there will be evidence of some variety in
sentence construction and length
a generally secure use of basic punctuation to support structure
generally accurate spelling of straightforward, regular vocabulary
an uncomplicated vocabulary will be evident

Competence Level 4 [78]
Characterised by:
increasingly sustained competence in the handling of a variety sentence structures occasionally
these may be used for effect
the basics of punctuation full stops, commas, exclamation and question marks used accurately,
adding clarity to the work
generally accurate spelling including some words with irregular patterns
a greater precision in the use of a widening vocabulary
61
Section B: Reading Non-Fiction

The Assessment Objectives for AO3:

AO3 (i) Read and understand texts, selecting material appropriate to purpose, collating from
different sources and making comparisons and cross-references as appropriate.

AO3 (ii) Develop and sustain interpretations/of writers ideas and perspectives.

AO3 (iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic, grammatical, structural and
presentational features to engage and influence the reader.

The task and how it meets specific elements of the Assessment Objectives:

Task 2 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose
AO3 (ii): developing and sustaining interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how a writer uses linguistic, grammatical and
structural devices to achieve effects

The examiner will be required to make one assessment in respect of the task.

The required process of assessment

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments drawn from the Competence Levels descriptors to
summarise positive achievement, for example a sf. understanding, comp.
comparison or assured eval.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Use underlining to highlight significant strengths in a response.

Ignore all errors in punctuation, syntax and spelling as they are not being assessed.

2. Using the descriptors from the Competence Levels as a source, summarise briefly (in two/three
phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use snippets from the
descriptors for this summary.

3. On the principle of best fit select the competence level that comes closest to encapsulating the
overall achievement of the answer.

62
4. Decide upon a final mark by assessing the extent to which a candidate has met all of the
requirements of that particular level. This will determine the point that has been reached within
it at the top, in the middle or at the lower end of the mark range. Only after these comments
have been noted should a mark be awarded.











For example, a response to Task 2 that is Competence Level 2 could be
summarised as follows:

Comp explan
Range approp evid
CL2 6
63

FOUNDATION Task 2 Reading Non-Fiction. Testing AO3 (i), (ii) & (iii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 24 marks
Your task is to explain how the writer holds the readers interest. In your answer show the writer has: used a style of writing that is likely and personal; made use of some facts as
well as her own opinion; selected words and phrases for effect; and made use of sentence structuring and paragraphing.

How AO3 (i), (ii) and (iii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to develop and
sustain interpretations that explain how a writer uses linguistic and structural features to achieve effects. The performance is then assessed against the five Competence Levels
(drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the achievement.


Task specific checklist outlining material candidates across the competence levels may be expected to include in their
responses. Credit fully any other valid suggestions/comments.
The lively and personal style and tone:
the use of first person narrative helps to sustain the readers interest in the various stages of the writers family story: I had finally given in/I walked
into a charity shop
writer speaks directly to reader engages interest/curiosity: Welcome Nintendo-users!!/How long do you think?
the use of personal details help capture and sustain interest in her personal battle against the Nintendo. She lets the reader into her family life: She would
be unable to fit in at school/Melissa just took virtual dogs for walks
the use of punctuation enlivens the writing and leaves the reader in no doubt as to her feelings: hideous pink palace decorated with shells??/20 minutes
tops!!!
the light-hearted tone conveys a sense of the writers personality: And I fell for it!/What a great week that was!

The use made of fact and opinion:
the writer strongly conveys her thoughts and opinions: The entire mood was one of anger, pain and frustration/Well, I know what the impact was on
my children!
the use of expert opinion to support her views: Dr Susan Greenfield, a specialist in brain degeneration predicts
the blunt factual statement I walked into a charity shop and gave it away surprises the reader
the use of realistic/true life details throughout add to the readers interest in this domestic conflict: The beds had not been made/crammed with a
bundle of 20 games/Then we lost the charger/stunned disbeliefreal tears

The selection of words and phrases for effect:
use of direct speech enhances the readers enjoyment: We LOVE you!/Youd better behavetime/You did what?
the negative language that strongly conveys her disapproval: obsessed/endless rows/mass loss of personal identity/totally uninterested in
anything
the use of emotive language: toxic drug/poisoning my children/argumentative demons full of aggression
the use of sarcasm to make her point: Some people call this constructive
the use of repetition to strengthen her argument: trot around a hideous pink palace/playing, and then playing some more

The use made of sentence structuring and paragraphing:
the unexpected domestic scenario in the form of a long sentence which opens the piece: As my eight-year old son Jamie hit his five-year old sister Amy
on the head
the series of four short sentences, set the stage for the reader: No one had eatenThe dog had not been walked
short emphatic sentences emphasise the writers sense of tension/anxiety: Except its not./The Nintendo had to go.
the use of lists for emphasis: over meals, on the loo, in bed at midnight/reading, playing musicand making things
the use of brackets and dashes add to the liveliness of the style of writing: (Yes I know oldest trick in the book. And I fell for it!)/How long do you
think 20 minutes tops!!!
the question and emphatic statement which effectively conclude the piece: Do they missthe Nintendo? Actually, I think theyve forgotten all about it!

Competence Level 0 [0] No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [16]
Characterised by:
basic comments in relation to some of the features in the
bullet points
reporting that may offer some simple points that may be
supported from the text
a partial and simple interpretation of some features

Competence Level 2 [712]
Characterised by:
a very straightforward consideration of most of the features
highlighted in the bullet points
some basic analysis that may be supported by appropriate
evidence
some development of valid, if simple interpretations
occasionally supported by straightforward evidence

Competence Level 3 [1318]
Characterised by:
a consideration of the features highlighted in the bullet points
in relation to the desired outcome - sustaining the readers
interest
straightforward analysis that will be supported by
uncomplicated explanations
appropriately developed interpretations backed up by mainly
straightforward supporting evidence

Competence Level 4 [1924]
Characterised by:
an analysis of features highlighted in the bullet points
an examination that will be supported by appropriate
explanations
the development of an competent interpretation of the
stimulus material through the presentation of appropriate
supporting evidence

64
BLANK PAGE
65





General Certificate of Secondary Education
2012

English Language

Unit 2: Functional Writing and Reading
Non-Fiction

Higher Tier

[CODE]

SPECIMEN

MARK
SCHEME
66
A General Introduction to the Assessment of CCEAs GCSE English Language

The style of assessment
The exams will be marked using positive assessment; crediting what has been achieved.

The mark schemes emanate from the Assessment Objectives and are designed to support this
positive approach.

The relationship between questions, mark schemes and Levels of Competence.
Each task is designed to test a specified series of Assessment Objectives and every task has an
individual mark scheme.

The mark scheme for each task comprises a task specific checklist as well as Competence Levels;
each of which details an increasing level of proficiency. Each level of competence is made up of a
series of brief statements which, together, describe the essential characteristics of a response at that
level.

The job for each examiner is to identify positively what has been achieved and then match the
candidates level of proficiency to the appropriate level of competence.

AO3: Studying Written Language (Reading): the marking process
The first stage in the assessment of an individual response begins with the examiner highlighting
what, within an answer, is creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, very brief, marginal comments taken from the descriptors for the
Competence Levels.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner is required to select and write down the two/three
phrases from the Competence Level descriptors that best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of assisting the marker to assess
which level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within the mark range for that
level top, middle or bottom.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

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AO4: Writing: the marking process

The marking process is slightly different for the assessment of writing.

Two discrete assessments have to be made.

The first assessment will be used to gauge the candidates performance in the first two of the
Assessment Objectives for Writing: AO4 (i) and (ii). The second assessment is measured against
the final Assessment Objective for Writing: AO4 (iii).

These two assessments will be made discretely. They will be reached employing a similar
Competence Level approach to that used in the assessment of AO3: Studying Written language
(Reading). The process of awarding marks will be broadly similar to that outlined above.

There is one additional element that makes the assessing of Writing different from that employed
in the assessment of Studying Written Language (Reading). Inaccuracies in secretarial skills of
writing will be highlighted by the examiner in this section of the exam as they are an integral
element within the Assessment Objectives.

The first stage in the assessment of an individual task begins with the examiner highlighting what is
creditworthy by:
ticking valid points;
underlining relevant material;
writing positive, brief, marginal comments taken from the Competence Level descriptors;

Additionally, the examiner will highlight:
errors in spelling, syntax, punctuation and paragraphing each error only to be circled/noted
once.

At the conclusion of the response, the examiner will then select and write down two/three phrases
from each of the two sets of Competence Level descriptors (AO4 (i) and (ii) and AO4 (iii)).
These will be selected to best summarise the candidates achievement.

The process of selecting and noting these comments has the effect of helping the marker to assess
which Competence Level best matches the candidates achievement.

Once selected, the extent to which a candidate has met the requirements of that particular
Competence Level will determine the point that has been reached within it.

The final element of the process is then to write down the mark to be awarded in each case.

The required style of marking will be evident from the pre-marked exemplar scripts that will be
distributed to all examiners at every Standardising meeting. These will have been marked and
annotated by the senior examining team prior to each Standardising meeting.

These procedures which have been summarised above are described in detail overleaf.
68
Paper 2

Section A: Functional Writing

The Assessment Objectives

AO4 Writing

AO4 (i) Write to communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, using and adapting forms
and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader.

AO4 (ii) Organise information and ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts, using a variety of linguistic and structural features to support cohesion and
coherence.

AO4 (iii) Use a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate
punctuation and spelling.

All are being assessed.

The examiner will be required to make two distinct assessments: one for AO4 (i) and (ii) and a
second assessment for AO4 (iii).

The two required assessments

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments to highlight positive achievement, for example
approp. sense of audience, competent dev. or well organised.

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Circle individual spelling errors circle the same error only once.

Use continuous wavy underlining to highlight failings in grammar and syntax.

One-off errors in punctuation should be noted by writing p in the margin.

Consistent omissions or errors in punctuation should be signalled by writing p in the
margin, using arrows to highlight the extent of the problem.

Failings in paragraphing should be flagged up by writing para in the margin.


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2. Using the descriptors from the competence levels for AO4 (i) and (ii) as sources, summarise
briefly (in two/three phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use
snippets from the descriptors for these summaries. (This process of summarising achievement
is very important because in making this assessment it becomes clear as to where exactly the
answer sits within the appropriate Competence Level.)

3. Next, on the principle of best fit, select in turn from the competence levels from AO4 (i) and
(ii) the one that comes closest to encapsulating the overall achievement in each case.

4. Decide upon a final mark for each of these two AOs by assessing the extent to which a
candidate has met all of the requirements of the particular competence levels. This will
determine the point that has been reached within each at the top, in the middle or at the lower
end of the mark range. Only after these comments have been noted should the two marks be
awarded.











5. In order to assess AO4 (iii), the same process (step 2 above) is used to make the second
assessment only using the Competence Levels that relate to the AO4 (iii).

For example, an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in terms
of purposeful development and sense of audience but is more Competence Level 2
in relation to style, could be summarised as follows:

AO4 (i) and (ii)
Comp dev
Prof struct CL3 10
Increas fluent style

For example, for an answer that is judged to be mainly Competence Level 3 in
terms of sentence structuring and punctuation but is more Competence Level 2 in
relation to spelling, the following would offer an adequate summary:

(iii)
Del Manip
Prof punct CL3 6
Gen acc sforward sp/ w voc
70
Writing at Higher Tier

AO4 (i)
Communicating clearly, effectively and imaginatively:
This will range from a competent if predictable attempt at logical development and sequencing
of material into a straightforward piece of writing, to a fluent and assured development that
demonstrates a confident, personal manipulation of material in order that the writing has a
striking impact upon the reader.

Using and adapting forms and selecting vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose:
This will range from a recognition and deployment of appropriate forms and a clear attempt to
try to tailor responses accordingly, to a confident handling of form so that they are seamlessly
integrated into the work.

The use of task-appropriate language will range from that which is generally suitable and
fitting, to precise use of language that is clearly and accurately matched to task and
demonstrates a much more subtle understanding of purpose.

Engaging the reader:
This will range from writing that, because it is appropriate and straightforward, will have some
success in engaging the reader, to work that entertains, developing a rapport with the reader and
is a pleasure to read.

AO4 (ii)
Organising information and ideas into well structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and
whole texts:
This will range from controlled development of straightforward sentences to a fluently
constructed conscious crafting of sentences. As the responses become increasingly competent,
there will be an increasing range of appropriate linguistic devices in use.

At paragraph and text level this will range from an uncomplicated grouping of sentences that
demonstrate progression to a strikingly structured consideration.

Generally appropriate paragraphing and some use of links will be evident at one end of the
spectrum, whilst at the top of the mark range these will be used to add to the fluency and
coherence of the writing.

AO4 (iii)
Using a range of sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect:
This will range from an increasing control and variation in sentence construction to an assured
control and manipulation for effect. At the lower end of the mark range the conventions of
written English will be handled with a straightforward competence that mainly supports clarity,
whilst at top of the ability range sentence structuring will be handled confidently, in order to
enhance the purpose and effect of the writing.

Using punctuation and spelling accurately:
This will vary from generally sound handling of the more common forms of punctuation to a
more complete range accurately used to enhance meaning. This will range from the use of
complex regular words generally spelt accurately to the accurate spelling of an extended
vocabulary.

71

HIGHER Task 1 Functional Writing. Testing AO4 (i) & (ii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 16 marks
Discuss your reaction to the following statement in a discursive essay: Charity begins at home, and it should stop there! Consider other viewpoints and give your own opinion.


How AO4 (i) and (ii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language order to: write to communicate
clearly, effectively and imaginatively; use and adapt forms and select vocabulary appropriate to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader; organise information and
ideas into structured and sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts; use a variety of linguistic and structural features to support cohesion and overall coherence
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to award a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills associated with AO4 (i) & (ii) that candidates at
all competence levels may be expected to attempt to employ in their responses. Credit any other
valid strategies used that are not mentioned below.

Communicate clearly and effectively and imaginatively, demonstrating:
a handling of the topic in such a way as to positively develop the readers interest
use of a style that builds a positive relationship with the target audience
possible use of anecdotal evidence to enliven the writing and so engage the audience

Adapting form and vocab to task and purpose in ways that engage the reader, demonstrating:
a conscious awareness of the reader as audience
a use of tone that is designed to engage and sustain the audiences attention
use of vocabulary that is in keeping with the task and audience to enhance, enrich and enliven the writing

Organise info and ideas into structured, sequenced sentences, paragraphs and whole texts
demonstrating:
a sense of logical progression the reader being led through the writers point of view/thoughts
the use of opening and closing paragraphs
the deployment of topic sentences for different paragraphs
development that uses conscious organisation to sustain the audiences interest

Use a variety linguistic and structural features for cohesion and coherence demonstrating:
a conscious varying of sentence length for effect
the use of connectives to give coherence to paragraphing
the use of rhetorical devices such as the rule of three, questions, hyperbole, etc. to develop interest and a rapport
with the audience.


Competence Level 0 [0] No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [14]
Characterised by:
an uncomplicated development, that presents his/her
point of view on the place of charity in our lives
a general sense of purpose and audience
a logical structure and a straightforward style

Competence Level 2 [58]
Characterised by:
a generally effective development that maintains the
readers interest
a recognition of purpose and audience
a clear structure and an increasingly fluent style

Competence Level 3 [912]
Characterised by:
a competent development that clearly engages with the
reader
a confident awareness of purpose and audience
proficiently structured with evidence of a developing,
lively style

Competence Level 4 [1316]
Characterised by:
a poised and sophisticated development that commands
the readers attention throughout
a positive rapport with the audience
assured competence in terms of structure, underpinned
by a confident style
72


HIGHER Task 1 Functional Writing Testing AO4 (iii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 8 marks


How AO4 (iii) feeds through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has crafted language in order to: use a range sentence structures
for clarity, purpose and effect; use accurate punctuation and spelling
The response is then assessed against the five Competence Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the level of performance.

This task specific checklist outlines the writing skills
associated with AO4 (iii) that candidates at all competence
levels may be expected to attempt to employ in their
responses. Credit any other valid strategies used that are
not mentioned below.

The range and efficacy of sentence structures:
The wider the repertoire and greater the degree of originality and
control that a candidate exhibits with regard to sentence
structuring, the greater is his/her ability to sustain interest and
establish a rapport with the reader. The fresher, the more assured
and varied that manipulation of sentence structure is, the higher
will be the mark awarded.

The use made of accurate punctuation and spelling:
Inextricably woven into the fabric of sentence structure is the
control that comes from the accurate use of appropriate
punctuation. Here too, there is scope for variety and creativity that
can help to engage the reader. The greater the range and
innovation in relation to the use of punctuation the higher will be
the reward.
Accuracy in spelling is, in isolation, potentially misleading; it
needs to be viewed in conjunction with the range and precision of
the vocabulary that a candidate draws upon. A limited vocabulary
spelt accurately is unlikely to capture the readers attention.
Credit ambitious use of vocabulary, where the word may not
always be accurately spelt but has been chosen with care to
capture the essence of a situation.


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [1-2]
Characterised by:
a controlled use of straightforward sentence structuring there will be evidence of some variety in
sentence construction and length
a generally secure use of basic punctuation to support structure
generally accurate spelling of straightforward, regular vocabulary
an uncomplicated vocabulary will be evident

Competence Level 2 [3-4]
Characterised by:
increasingly sustained competence in the handling of a variety sentence structures occasionally these
may be used for effect
the basics of punctuation full stops, commas, exclamation and question marks used accurately,
adding clarity to the work
generally accurate spelling including some words with irregular patterns
a greater precision in the use of a widening vocabulary

Competence Level 3 [5-6]
Characterised by:
a deliberate manipulation of a range sentence structures conscious control of sentence variety for effect
a proficiently handled range of punctuation that enhances the writing
accurate spelling of most words
an extended vocabulary which is employed with increasing precision

Competence Level 4 [7-8]
Characterised by:
an assured use of a wide range of sentence structures that enhances the overall effect of the writing in
terms of clarity, purpose and audience
confident deployment of a full range of punctuation that facilitates fluency and complements meaning
73
Section B: Reading Non-Fiction

The Assessment Objectives for AO3:

AO3 (i) Read and understand texts, selecting material appropriate to purpose, collating from
different sources and making comparisons and cross-references as appropriate.

AO3 (ii) Develop and sustain interpretations of writers ideas and perspectives.

AO3 (iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic, grammatical, structural and
presentational features to engage and influence the reader.

The task and how it meets specific elements of the Assessment Objectives:

Task 2 AO3 (i): selecting material appropriate to purpose
AO3 (ii): developing. and sustaining interpretations
AO3 (iii): explaining and evaluating how a writer uses linguistic, grammatical and
structural devices to achieve effects

The examiner will be required to make one assessment in respect of each of the two tasks.

The required process of assessment

1. The following method of marking is to be used:

Each response will be assessed on the basis of a single reading.

Use brief affirmative comments drawn from the Competence Levels descriptors to
summarise positive achievement, for example a sf. understanding, comp.
comparison or assured eval..

Use ticking to point out creditworthy material.

Use underlining to highlight significant strengths in a response.

Ignore all errors in punctuation, syntax and spelling as they are not being assessed.


74
2. Using the descriptors from the Competence Levels as a source, summarise briefly (in two/three
phrases) the most significant, positive features of the response. Only use snippets from the
descriptors for this summary.

3. On the principle of best fit select the competence level that comes closest to encapsulating the
overall achievement of the answer.

4. Decide upon a final mark by assessing the extent to which a candidate has met all of the
requirements of that particular level. This will determine the point that has been reached within
it at the top, in the middle or at the lower end of the mark range. Only after these comments
have been noted should a mark be awarded.









For example, a response to Task 2 that is Competence Level 2 could be
summarised as follows:

Comp explan
Range approp evid
CL2 6
75

HIGHER Task 2 Reading Non-Fiction. Testing AO3(i), (ii) & (iii) Response time: 45 minutes Max. 24 marks


How AO3 (i), (ii) & (iii) feed through to marks: Use the task specific checklist to ascertain the extent to which a candidate has selected and evaluated evidence to develop and
sustain interpretations that explain how a writer uses linguistic and structural features to achieve effects. The performance is then assessed against the five Competence
Levels (drawn from grade descriptors) in order to determine a mark that matches the achievement.


Task specific checklist outlining material candidates across the competence levels may be expected to include in their
responses. Credit fully any other valid suggestions/comments.

The lively and personal style and tone:
the use of first person narration writer talking directly to his/her reader: Let us accept/I need hardly rehearse
the conversational tone sustains interest in his thoughts and views: So, yes, I carry a mobile/I own this gizmo
the use of exclamation marks add a personal quality as well as liveliness: I was wrong!/this was humiliating!!
scathing remarks are entertaining: wannabe celebrities papped /self-important conversations at full volume
the use of anecdote the personal details sustain interest in how the writers hatred of mobile phones was overcome: For an hour I
tramped/Dragging my suitcases and smallest child with me/Mercifully, Christopher answered

The use made of fact and opinion:
the writer conveys his views in a highly opinionated manner: unloved, unwanted and in my opinion unnecessary/teenagers have a biological
need to conform/They meekly accept
the use of some factual information to demonstrate his broader understanding of the issue: Six out of ten people around the globe now use one/
where the poorest had no access
factual details used to heighten sense of drama/readers sense of empathy regarding the incident at Athens airport: one searingly hot afternoon/I
couldnt find it/nowhere to buy any
the tactic of using emphatic opinions couched in a factual manner: so many people have willingly sacrificed their freedom/The sad truth is that
mobiles are the perfect excuse for people to be rude
the use of exaggeration: when they were the size of house bricks/be available to whoever cares to call them all day and every day/the vast
majority of the population

The selection of words and phrases for effect:
his strong views are reflected in his choice of language: every blasted car/utterly baffling/the ultimate irritation
language is used to emphasise his essentially negative attitude towards mobiles: without a mobile clutched in their sweaty hands/We might as
well try to ban television!
the use of some positive language to chart the moderation of his previous hostile mind-set: what a benefit/It was clearpretend
otherwise/there is no going back for me/The gee-whiz factoris undeniable
the rule of three for impact: unloved, unwanted andunnecessary
the use of repetition, combined with italics, parenthesis and quotation marks, for emphasis: only if I have to makeonly if I choose to be/must
and I emphasise must be available

The use made of sentence structuring and paragraphing:
the intriguing opening that immediately draws in the reader: This is never an easy sentence to write...wrong!
use of a question as a link to 2
nd
paragraph helps the reader to share in his experience: So howagainst mobiles?
the personal, conversational nature is reinforced by the use of short paragraphs generally 3-5 lines in length
paragraphs mostly begin with engaging or challenging opening sentences: Of course I know/For an hour I tramped/And, I admitfor me
the use of repetition in two consecutive opening paragraphs: Let us accept that some employers/Lets also accept that teenagers effectively
takes reader through his line of reasoning
short sentences deliver tension or emphasis: It had to be found/I couldnt find it./Why?/Its a great toy.
the use of conjunctions to open sentences adds to the engaging style: And, yes, this was humiliating!/But its pointless it


Competence Level 0 [0]
No creditworthy response

Competence Level 1 [16]
Characterised by:
a consideration of the features highlighted in the bullet
points in relation to the desired outcome - sustaining the
readers interest
straightforward analysis that will be supported by
uncomplicated explanations
appropriately developed interpretations backed up by
mainly straightforward supporting evidence.

Competence Level 2 [712]
Characterised by:
an analysis of the features highlighted in the bullet points
an examination that will be supported by appropriate
explanations
the development of an competent interpretation of the
stimulus material through the presentation of appropriate
supporting evidence

Competence Level 3 [1318]
Characterised by:
an evaluation of the features highlighted in the bullet
points
an assessment that will employ a confident explanations
the development of an accurate interpretation of the
stimulus material through the presentation of a range of
valid supporting evidence

Competence Level 4 [1924]
Characterised by:
an assured evaluation of features in the bullet points
a secure explanation that will utilise perceptive
explanations
the development of an assured interpretation through the
drawing together of a range of precisely selected,
accurate, supporting evidence