You are on page 1of 11

LIMITS # 1

L I MI T OF FUNCTI ON
DEFI NI T I ONS AND
RE S U L T S
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as , x a when ,
Left hand limit = Right hand limit
Limit
h 0
f (a h) =
Limit
h 0
f (a + h) = some finite value M .
Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a . Also note that
if L.H.L. &

R.H.L.

are both tending towards '


' then it is said to be infinite limit .
Remember ,
Limit
x a
x = a
2. Fundamental Theorems On Limits :
Let
Limit
x a
f

(x) = l &
Limit
x a
g

(x) = m . If l & m exists then :
(i)
Limit
x a
f

(x) g

(x) = l

m (ii)
Limit
x a
f(x)

.

g(x) = l .

m
(iii)
Limit
x a

f x
g x
( )
( )
=
l
m
, provided m = 0
(iv)
Limit
x a
k

f(x) = k
Limit
x a
f(x) ; where k is a constant .
(v)
Limit
x a
f

[g(x)] = f

Limit g x
x a
|
\

|
.
| ( )
= f

(m) ; provided f is continuous at g

(x) = m .
For example let us assume that g (x)

=

sgn (x)

&

f (x) = c . Then
Limit
x 0
f [

g (x)

] = c
even if

'

g

' is discontinuous at x = 0 .
3. Standard Limits :
(a)
Limit
x0

sinx
x
= 1 =
Limit
x0

tanx
x
=
Limit
x0
tan
1
x
x
=
Limit
x0
sin
1
x
x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]
(b)
Limit
x0
(1 + x)
1/x
= e =
Limit
x

1
1
+
|
\

|
.
|
x
x
note however that
Limit
n
(1 h)
n
= 0 &
Limit
n
(1 + h)
n
, where h >

0 .
(c) If
Limit
x a
f(x) = 1 &
Limit
x a
| (x) = , then ;
Limit
x a

| | f x e
x
Limit
x f x
x a
( )
( )
( )[ ( ) ]
|
|
=

1
(d) If
Limit
x a
f(x) = A > 0 &
Limit
x a
| (x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;


Limit
x a
[f(x)]
|(x)
= e
z
where z =
Limit
x a
| (x) . ln[f(x)] = e
BlnA
= A
B
(e)
Limit
x0

a
x
x
1
= 1n a (a > 0). In particular
Limit
x0

e
x
x
1
= 1
(f)
Limit
x a

x a
x a
na
n n
n

=
1
.
General Note :
All the above standard limits can be generalized if '

x

' is replaced by f (x) .
LIMITS # 2
e.g.
Limit
x a

sin ( )
( )
f x
f x
= 1 provided
Limit
x a
f

(x) = 0

&

so

&

so on .
4. Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem :
If f(x) s g(x) s h(x) x &
Limit
x a
f(x) = l =
Limit
x a
h(x) then
Limit
x a
g(x) = l .
5. Indeterminant Forms :

0
0
0 0 1 , , , , ,



x and .
Note :
(i) Note here that '

0

' doesn't means exact zero but represent a value approaching towards
zero similary fo '

1

' and infinity .
(ii) + = (iii) x = (iv) (a/) = 0 if a is finite
(v)
a
0
is not defined for any a e R .
(vi) a

b = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite .
6. To evaluate a limit, we must always put the value where '

x

' is approaching to in the
function . If we get a deterninate form, than that value becomes the limit otherwise if an
indeterminant form comes . This apply one of the following methods :
(a) Factorisation (b) Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(c) Substitution (d) Using standard limits
(e) Expansions of functions . The following expansions must be remembered :
(i) a
x na x n a x n a
a
x
= + + + + > 1
1
1
1
2!
1
3
0
2 2 3 3
! !
......... (ii) e
x x x
x
= + + + + 1
1 2! 3
2 3
! !
............
(iii) ln (1+x) = x
x x x
for x + + < s
2 3 4
2 3 4
1 1 ......... (iv) sin
!
....... x x
x x x
= + +
3 5 7
3 5! 7!
(v) cos
! !
...... x
x x x
= + + 1
2! 4 6
2 4 6
(vi) tan x = x
x x
+ + +
3 5
3
2
15
........
(vii) tan
-1
x = x
x x x
+ +
3 5 7
3 5 7
....... (viii) sin
-1
x = x x x x + + + +
1
3
1 3
5!
1 3 5
7!
2
3
2 2
5
2 2 2
7
!
. . .
.......
(ix) sec
-1
x = 1
2!
5
4
61
6
2 4 6
+ + + +
x x x
! !
......
EXERCISE I
1.
Limit
x
x
x
x
+

|
\

|
.
|
+
2
2
1
=
(A) e
4
(B) e
4
(C) e
2
(D) none
2.
Limit
x 1

(1 x + [x 1] + [1 x]) = where [x] denotes greatest integer function .
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C)

1 (D) does not exist
3. If , are the roots of the quadratic equation ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 then
Limit
x o
( )
1
2
2
+ +

cos
( )
ax bx c
x o
=
LIMITS # 3
(A) 0 (B)
1
2
(o


|)
2
(C)
a
2
2
(o


|)
2
(D)

a
2
2
(o


|)
2
4.
Limit
n
5 3 2
5 2 3
1 2
2 3
n n n
n n n
+
+
+
+ +
=
(A) 5 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) zero
5.
Limit
x
( )
( ) ( ) x a x b x + + =
(A)
ab
(B)
a b +
2
(C) ab (D) none
6.
Limit
x 1
5 2
2 1


x
x
=
(A) 2 (B) 1/2 (C)

1 (D) none
7.
Limit
x 1
cos cos 2 2
2

x
x x
=
(A) 2 cos

2 (B)

2 cos

2 (C) 2 sin

2 (D)

2 sin

2
8.
Limit
x
x
x
2
2
3 6
+

=
(A) 1/3 (B)

1/3 (C) 0 (D) 3
9. If f(x) =

sin[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
x
x
if x
if x
=
=

0
0 0
where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal
to x, then
Limit
x 0

f(x) equals :
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C)

1 (D) none
10.
Limit
x 0
x
x sin
=
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) none of these
11. The value of
Limit
x 0
1
x
1 2
2
cos x
is :
(A) 1 (B)

1 (C) 0 (D) none
12. +
0 x
Limit
( )
1
2
5
+ tan
/
x
x
=
(A) e
5
(B) e
2
(C) e (D) none
13.
Limit
x 0
e x
x x
x

2
2
3
/
cos
. sin
=
(A) 1/4 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/12 (D) 1/8
14.
Limit
x 0
( ) cos
/
mx
n x
2
=
(A) e
m n
2
4 /
(B) e
m n
2
2 /
(C) e
mn
2
2 /
(D) e
mn
2
4 /
15. If [x] denotes the greatest integer x, then
Limit
n
1
4
n
| | | | | | ( )
1 2
3 3 3
x x n x + + + ...... equals
(A) x/2 (B) x/3 (C) x/6 (D) x/4
LIMITS # 4
16.
Limit
x 0
e e
x x
x x tan
tan

=
(A) 1/2 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) none
17.
Limit
x
x x
x x
x
3
2
1
1
1
. sin + +
+ +
=
(A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none
18. If
Limit
x 0
sin sin 2
3
x a x
x
+
is finite, then the value of

a

is :
(A)

1 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

2
19.
Limit
x 0
tan
/
x
x
x

(
1
2
is :
(A) e (B) e
2/3
(C) e
1/3
(D) none
20.
Limit
x 0
2
3
5
(tan sin ) x x x
x

=
(A) 1/4 (B) 1/2 (C) 1/3 (D) none
21. +
0 x
Limit
cos ( )

1
1 x
x
=
(A)
1
2
(B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 0
22.
Limit
x 3


( ) ( )
( )
log x x
x
3
2
27 2
9
+

=
(A) 8 (B) 8 (C) 9 (D) 9
23.
Limit
x
x
e
n
x
= 0 (n integer) for :
(A) no value of n (B) all values of n
(C) only negative values of n (D) only positive values of n
24.
Limit
x 0
sin
1
(sec

x) .
(A) is equal to t/2 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to zero (D) none of these
25.
Limit
x 5
x x
x x
2
9 20 +
[ ]
where [x] is the greatest integer not greater than x :
(A) is equal to 1 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) none
26. If
Limit
x 0
(1 + a

x + b

x
2
)
2/x
= e
3
, then :
(A) a = 3 , b = 0 (B) a = 3/2 , b = 1 (C) a = 3/2 , b = 4 (D) a = 2 , b = 3
27.
Limit
x 0
sin tan

1 1
3
x x
x
=
(A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none
28.
Limit
x
x x
x x
x
2
2
2 1
4 2
+
+
|
\

|
.
| =
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) e
2
(D) e
29. If
Limit
x a

( ) ( )
( )
/ /
x a
x a
+ +

2 2
5 3 5 3
=
LIMITS # 5
(A)
3
5
(a + 2)
2/3
(B)
5
3
(a + 2)
3/2
(C)
5
3
(a + 2)
2/3
(D)
3
5
(a + 2)
3/2
30. The limiting value of (cos x)
1/sin x


as x 0 is :
(A) 1 (B) e (C) 0 (D) none of these
31. The value of
Limit
x t/ 2
tan
2
x

2 3 4 6 2
2 2
sin sin sin sin x x x x + + + +

(
is equal to :
(A) 1/10 (B) 1/11 (C) 1/12 (D) 1/8
32. The value of
Limit
x 0
cos (sin ) cos x x
x

4
is equal to :
(A) 1/5 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/4 (D) 1/2
33.
Limit
n

( ) ! ( ) !
( ) !
n n
n
+ + +
+
2 1
3
, n N =
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 1
34.
n
Limit
n cos
t
4 n
|
\

|
.
|
sin
t
4 n
|
\

|
.
|
has the value equal to :
(A) t/3 (B) t/4 (C) t/6 (D) none
35.
Limit
x t
x
x
+ t
sin
:
(A) is equal to

1 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to t (D) does not exist
36.
Limit
x

3 5
7 11
x x
x x



=
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) none of these
37.
Limit
x 0
cot
cos
t
4
+
|
\

|
.
|

(
x
ec x
=
(A) e
1
(B) e
2
(C) e
2
(D) e
1
38.
Limit
x 0

( )
sin log
4 1
1
3
3
2
x
x
p
x

|
\

|
.
| +
|
\

|
.
|
=
(A) 9 p (log 4) (B) 3 p (log 4)
3
(C) 12 p (log 4)
3
(D) 27 p (log 4)
2
39.
Limit
y 0

Limit
x n
a y
x
x n
by
x
y x
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| +
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|

(
(
(
(
exp exp 1 1
=
(A) a + b (B) a b (C) b a (D) (a + b)
40.
Limit
x t/4

1 2
4

sin x
x t
=
(A) 2 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) does not exist
LIMITS # 6
41.
Limit
x

x x
x x

+
sin
cos
2
(A) 0 (B) (C) 1 (D) none of these
42.
Limit
x 1

x
x
k
k =

(
(

1
100
100
1
=
(A) 0 (B) 5050 (C) 4550 (D) 5050
43.
Limit
x 0

log ( ) log . 2 0 5 + + x
x
=
(A) 1/2 (B) 1/2 (C) 2 (D) 2
44.
Limit
x 2

( )
sin
log ( )
e
x
x

2
1
1
=
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 1
45.
Limit
x 0

( ) ( ) { }
( )
2 3
6 6
3 3
sin cos
cos sin
t t
+ +

(
(
(
x x
x x x
=
(A) 1/3 (B) 2/3 (C) 4/3 (D) 4/3
EXERCISE II
Level I
Evaluate the following limits :
1.
Limit
x 3

x x x
x x x
3 2
4 3
7 15 9
5 27 27
+
+
2.
Limit
x a

a x x
a x x
+
+
2 3
3 2
3.
Limit
y 0

( ) sec ( ) sec x y x y x x
y
+ +
4.
Limit
x
x
tan

+
+
|
\

|
.
|

(
1
1
4 4
x
x
t
5.
Limit
x 0

10 2 5 1
x x x
x x
+
tan
6.
Limit
x
x x x x + +

(
7.
Limit
x t/2

( )
2 1
2

cosx
x x
t
8.
Limit
x


( ) ( ) { }
cos cos x x + 1
9.
Limit
x 0

1 2
2
2
+ x x x
x
sin cos
tan
10. If
Limit
x

x
x
a x b
2
1
1
+
+

|
\

|
.
|
|
= 2 , find values of a & b .
Level II
Evaluate the following limits :
LIMITS # 7
11.
Limit
x 0

1 1 2
2 3
4
2
+
+
x x
x x
12.
Limit
x 0

e x
x
x
+ ( )
tan
/
1
1
13.
Limit
x 0

1 3 1 3
1 2 1 2
1 3 1 3
1 1
+
+


tan sin
sin tan
x x
x x
14.
Limit
x 2

2 2 6
2 2
3
1
x x
x x
+


15.
Limit
x 0

e x
x
x
2
2

|
\

|
.
|
|
cos
16.
Limit
x 0

27 9 3 1
5 4
x x x
x
+
+ cos
17.
Limit
x


x
3
x x x
2 4
1 2 + +


`
)
18.
Limit
x1

( ( ) )( . )
[( ) ( ) ].sin( )
1 1 1 2 3 4 3
7 1 3 1
1
1
3
1
2
n x n x
x x x
x
+
+ +

19.
Limit
n
n
n
2
( ) ....... n n n n
n
n
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|


`
)

1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
20.
Limit
x 0

8
8
x
1
2 4 2 4
2 2 2 2
+

(
(
cos cos cos cos
x x x x
21.
Limit
n
cos
x
2
cos
x
4
cos
x
8
........ cos
x
n
2
22.
Limit
x

x
x
x
x x
5
2
2
3
1
3 7
7 8
tan
t
|
\

|
.
| + +
+ +
23.
Limit
x 0

log cos
log cos ( / )
sec( / )
sec
x
x
x
x
2
2
24.
Limit
x 0

( )
cos cos cos ....... cos ( ) .......
sin
2 2 2 2
1 1
4 2

|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|

(
+
x
x
x
t
25.
Limit
n

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] . . ....... . x x x n x
n
+ + + + 2 3
2 2 2
3
, where [ ] denotes greatest integer
function .
26. Show that
Limit
h0

( ) x h x
h
x h x
+
+
= x
x
. (1

+

l

n

x) .
27. Evaluate
Limit
x
+
0

Limit
x x n x
n
n
x x x

+ + +
|
\

|
.
|
|

[ ] [ ] [ ] (sin ) (sin ) (sin ) ....... 1 2


2 2 2
3
,
where [ . ] denotes the greatest integer function .
28.
Limit
n

x f x g x
x
n
n
( ) ( ) +
+1
x c R
LIMITS # 8
29.
Limit
x
log ( ).log ( ).log ( ).log ( ).....log ( )
x x x x k
x x x x x
+ +
+ + +
1 1 2
5
1 2 3 ; where k = x
5
1 .
30.
Limit
n

1
2

tan
x
2
+
1
2
2
tan

x
2
2
+
1
2
3
tan

x
2
3
+ ...... +
1
2
n
tan

x
n
2
.
31. Find the values of a & b so that :
(i)
Limit
x 0

( ) ( ) sin cos 1
4
+ a x x b x
x
may find to a definite limit .
(ii)
Limit
x
x x a x b
2
1 + +
|
\

|
.
| = 0 .
Evaluate the following limits :
32.
Limit
x 0

sin
sin
sin
x
x
x
x x
|
\

|
.
|

33.
Limit
x

x
x
x
2
2
+
|
\

|
.
|
34.
Limit
x 7 2 /

( )
2 9 8
2
2 7
x x
x
+
cot ( )
35.
Limit
x

1

( )
1
2
1
1


x
x log ( )
36.
Limit
x 0

x x
x
x
+ |
\

|
.
|
1
1
cos
/
37.
Limit
x
+
0


x
m


(log x)
n
m

, n e N
38.
Limit
x

3 4
3 6
2
2
9 4
2
x
x
x
+
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
+
39.
Limit
x

t
2
(sec x)
cot x
40.
Limit
x 0

( ) 1
1
1
+
|
\

|
.
|
|
x
e
x
x
/
/
41.
Limit
x

log
/
x
x
x
|
\

|
.
|
1
42.
Limit
x 0
(1 + tan 2

x)
cot 3 x
43.
Limit
x 0
sin
sec
2
2
2
2
t
t

|
\

|
.
|

(

|
\

|
.
|
a x
bx
44.
Limit
x 1
tan log
log
t
4
1
+
|
\

|
.
|

(
x
x
45.
Limit
x 1
tan ( ) .

(
1
1
4
2
1
x
x
t
46.
Limit
x a
2
2

|
\

|
.
|
x
a
x
a
tan
t
47.
Limit
x 0

a b c
x x x
x
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
|
3
2/
, where a , b , c > 0
48.
Limit
x

a a a a
n
x x x
n
x
nx
1
1
2
1
3
1 1 / / / /
....... + + + +
|
\

|
.
|
|
, where a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, ....... , a
n


>

0 .
From Q. Nos. 49 61 , evaluate the following limits without using L` Hospital rule and
series expansion .
49.
Limit
x 0

tan sin x x
x

3
50.
Limit
x 0

tan
tan
2 2
2 2
x x
x x

LIMITS # 9
51.
Limit
x 0

( ) n x
x
x
x
1 1
1
2
+

(
(
+ ( )
52.
Limit
x 0

tan sin
sin

1 1
3
x x
x
53.
Limit
x 0

x x
x
sin
3
54.
Limit
x 0

e x
x
x
1
2
55.
Limit
x 0

e e
x x
x x x

+
cos
sin
56.
Limit
x
+
1

t
+

cos
1
1
x
x
57.
Limit
x t/4

( ) 4 2
1 2
5
+

cos sin
sin
x x
x
58.
Limit
x 4

(cos ) (sin ) cos o o o
x x
x

2
4
, a

e 0
2
,
t |
\

|
.
|
59.
Limit
x 0

e e x
x x
x x

2
sin
60.
Limit
x
x x
2
l n
1
1
+
|
\

|
.
|
x
61.
Limit
x 0

x n x x
x
+ +
|
\

|
.
| 1
2
3
62. Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is
taken such that AT = AP . If TP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that
the limiting value of AQ when P moves upto A is double the diameter of the circle .
63. If s
n
be the sum of

n

terms of the series, sin

x + sin

2x + sin

3x + ..... + sin

nx then show
that
Limit
n
s s s
n
n 1 2
+ + + ......
=
1
2
cot
x
2
(x = 2

kt , k e I)
64. Let f(x) =
sin ( { }). cos ( { })
{ } . ( { })

1 1
1 1
2 1
x x
x x
then find
Limit
x
+
0
f(x) and
Limit
x

0
f(x) ,
where {.} denotes the fractional part function .
65. Let f

(x)

=
Limit
m

( )
Limit
n
m
n x


`
)
cos ( !
2
t where x

e

R . Prove that
f

(x)

=
1
0
if x is rational
if x is irrational

.
66. Let P
n


=
2 1
2 1
3
3

+
.
3 1
3 1
3
3

+
.
4 1
4 1
3
3

+
. ........

.

n
n
3
3
1
1

+
. Prove that
Limit
n
P
n
=
2
3
.
67. A sequence of numbers x
n
is determined by the equality x
x x
n
n n
=
+
1 2
2
& the values
x
0
and x
1
Prove that
n
Limit
x
n
=
x x
0 1
2
3
+
.
LIMITS # 10
EXERCISE III
1. ABC is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle of radius r . If AB = AC & h is the
altitude from A to BC then the triangle ABC has perimeter P = 2 2 2
2
[ ] hr h hr + &
area A = ______ . Also
Limit
h0

A
P
3
= ______ . [ JEE 89 , 2 ]
2.
Limit
x

x
x
x
+
+

(
+
6
1
4
[ JEE 90 , 2 ]
3. The value of
Limit
x0

1
2
1 2 ( cos ) x
x
is :
(A) 1 (B) -1 (C) 0 (D) none of these
[ JEE 91 , 2 ]
4. Find
Limit
x0

( ) | |
tan
t
4
1
+ x
x
[ JEE 93 , 2 ]
5.
Limit
x0

1 5x
1 3
2
2
1
2
+
+

(
x
x
= ________ . [ JEE 96, 1 ]
6.
Limit
x1

1 2 1
1

cos ( ) x
x
[ JEE 98, 2 ]
(A) exits and it equals 2 (B) exits and it equals 2
(C) does not exist because x 1 0
(D) does not exist because left hand limit is not equal to right hand limit .
7.
Limit
x 0
x x x x
x
tan tan
( cos )
2 2
1 2
2

is :
(A) 2 (B)

2 (C)
1
2
(D)

1
2
[ JEE '99, 2 ]
8. For x e R

,
Limit
x

x
x
x

+
|
\

|
.
|
3
2
=
(A) e (B) e
1
(C) e
5
(D) e
5
[ JEE 2000, Screening 1 ]
9.
Limit
x 0

sin cos ( ) t
2
2
x
x
=
(A) t (B) t (C) t/2 (D) 1
10. The integer '

n

'

for which

Limit
x 0

( ) ( ) cos cos x x e
x
x
n
1


is a finite non-zero number is :
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
[ JEE 2002, Screening 3 ]
LIMITS # 11
ANSWER SHEET
EXERCISE I
1. A 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. C
8. B 9. D 10. B 11. D 12. A 13. C 14. B
15. D 16. C 17. C 18. D 19. C 20. A 21. B
22. C 23. B 24. D 25. D 26. BC 27. B 28. C
29. C 30. A 31. C 32. B 33. A 34. B 35. D
36. B 37. C 38. B 39. B 40. D 41. C 42. B
43. A 44. D 45. C
EXERCISE II
1.
2
9
2.
2
3 3
3. x tan x

sec x + sec x 4.
3
2
5. log5 log 2
6.
1
2
7.
2 2 n
t
8. zero 9. 6 10. a = 1 , b = 3 11.
1
2
12.
e
2
13. 1 14. 8 15.
3
2
16. 8 5 (log

3)
2
17.
1
4 2
18.
9
4
1
4
n
e
19. e
2
20.
1
32
21.
sin x
x
22.
1
t
23. 16 24.

2
25.
x
3
27.
1
3
28. f

(x) when |x|> 1 ; g(x) when |x| < 1 ;
g x f x ( ) ( ) +
2
when x = 1 & not defined when x = 1
29. 5 30.
1
x
cot x 31. (i) a =
1
2
, b = 1 (ii) a = 1 , b =
1
2
32. e
1
33. e
4
34. e
5/2
35. e
1
36. e
1/2
37. 0 38. e
6
39. 1
40. e
1/2
41. 1 42. e
2/3
43.
e
a
b

2
2
44. e
2
45. e
1/t
46. e
2/t
47. (a b c)
2/3
48. (a
1
a
2
a
3
....... a
n
) 49.
1
2
50.
2
3
51.
1
2
52.
1
2
53.
1
6
54.
1
2
55. 0 56.
1
2t
57. 5 2
58. cos
4
o l

n (cos o) sin
4
o l

n (sin o) 59. 2 60.
1
2
61.
1
6
64.
t t
2
2 2
,
EXERCISE III
1. A=
h rh h 2
2

,
Limit
h0
A
P r
3
1
128
=
2. e
5
3. D 4. e 5. e
6. D 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. C