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Nicholas W. Miller, J uan J. Sanchez-Gasca, William W. Price Robert W. Delmerico
GE Power Systems GE Research
Schenectady, NY Niskayuna, NY
Abstract - GE Power Systems has an ongoing effort dedicated
to development of models of GE wind turbine generators
(WTG) suitable for use in system impact studies. This paper
documents the present recommendations for dynamic
modeling of the GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW WTG for use in system
impact studies. The paper includes recommended model
structure and data, as well the assumptions, capabilities and
limitations of the resulting model.
1. Introduction
The goal of this effort is the development of a simple model
appropriate for bulk power system dynamic studies. It is
valuable to put the model limitations in the context of what
analysis is required. First and most important, this model is
for positive sequence phasor time-domain simulations, e.g.
PSLF or PSSle. Second, the analysis is mainly focused on
how the wind turbine-generators (WTGs) react to
disturbances, e.g. faults, on the transmission system. Third,
the model provides for calculation of the effect of wind speed
fluctuation on the electrical output of the WTG. Details of the
device dynamics have been substantially simplified.
Specifically, the very fast dynamics associated with the
control of the generator converter have been modeled as
algebraic (i.e. instantaneous) approximations of their response.
Representation of the turbine mechanical controls has been
simplified as well. The model is not intended for use in short
circuit studies.
2. Model Overview and Philosophy
2.1 Fundamentals
A simple schematic of the GE Wind System is shown in
Figure 2-1. The GE WTG generator is unusual from a system
simulation perspective. Physically, the machine is a relatively
conventional technology wound rotor induction (WRI)
machine. However, the key distinction is that this machine is
equipped with a solid-state AC excitation system. The AC
excitation is supplied through an ac-dc-ac converter. For the
GE Power Systems Energy Consulting
IEEE WTG Modeling Panel
Session J uly 2003
GE 3.6 MW WTG the converter is connected as shown
through a transformer at a lower voltage than the stator
winding. For the GE 1.5 MW WTG the converter is
connected at the same volage as the stator winding. Machines
of this structure are termed 'double fed', and have
significantly different dynamic behavior than either
conventional synchronous or induction machines. Modeling
of the GE 1.5 and 3.6 machines with conventional dynamic
models for either synchronous or induction machines is, at
best, highly approximate and should beavoided.
Figure 2-1. GE WTG Major Components.
The fundamental frequency electrical dynamic performance of
the GE WTG is completely dominated by the field converter.
Conventional aspects of generator performance related to
intemal angle, excitation voltage, and synchronism are largely
irrelevant. In practice, the electrical behavior of the generator
and converter is that of a current-regulated voltage source
inverter. Like other voltage source inverters (e.g. a BESS or a
STATCOM), the converter will make the WTG behave like a
voltage behind a reactance that results in the desired active
and reactive current being delivered to the device terminals.
The rotation of the machine means that the ac frequency on
the rotor winding corresponds to the difference between the
stator frequency (60Hz) and the rotor speed. This is the slip
frequency of the machine. In the vicinity of rated power, the
GE 1.5 and 3.6 machines will normally operate at 120%
speed, or -20% slip. Control of the excitation frequency
allows the rotor speed to be controlled over a wide range,
?30%. The rotation also means that the active power is
divided between the stator and rotor circuits, roughly in
proportion to the slip frequency. For rotor speeds above
synchronous, the rotor active power is injected into the
network through the converter. The active power on the rotor
is converted to terminal frequency (60Hz), as shown in Figure
0-7803-7989-6/03/$17.00 02003 IEEE 1977
2-1. The variation in excitation frequency and the division of
active power between the rotor and stator are handled by fast,
high bandwidth regulators within the converter controls. The
time response of the converter regulators are suh-cycle, and as
such can be regarded as instantaneous for simulation of bulk
power system dynamic performance.
Broadly stated, the objectives of the turbine control are to
maximize power production while maintaining the desired
rotor speed and avoiding equipment overloads. There are two
controls (actuators) available to achieve these objectives:
blade pitch control and torque order to the electrical controls
(the converter). The turbine model includes the relevant
mechanical states and the speed controls. This model, while
relatively complex, is still considerably simpler than the actual
equipment. Losses are not considered throughout the model,
since ''fuel" efficiency is not presently a consideration. These
simplifications are examined in the detailed model discussion
in section 4.
Themodel presented here describes the relevant dynamics of a
single GE WTG. However, the primary objective of this
model is to allow for analysis of the performance of groups of
WTGs and how they interact with the bulk power system.
Wind farms with GE WTGs are normally designed with
supervisory control which interacts with the individual WTGs
through the electrical controls. Representation of all the
individual machines in a large wind farm is inappropriate for
most grid stability studies, so provision is made to allow a
single WTG machine model (suitably sized) to provide a
realistic approximation to the way that an integrated system
will behave. The model implementation allows the user
access to parameters that might reasonably he customized to
meet the particular requirements of a system application.
These parameters all reside in the WTG electrical control
model. and are discussed in more detail below.
2.2 Overall Model Structure
From a loadflow perspective, conventional generator and
transformer are used for initialization of the dynamic
simulation progam. Details are presented in Section 3. The
dynamic models presented here are specific to the GE WTG.
The implementation is structured in a fashion that is somewhat
similar to other conventional generators. To construct a
complete WTG model, four device models are used, as shown
in Figure 2-2:
GeneratorNetwork Interface (equivalent of the generator
plus convener)
WTG Electrical Control (includes closed and open loop
reactive power controls, current limits, and high/low
voltage trips. Provision for other system level features -
e.g. governor function for future applications)
Turbine (mechanical controls, including Blade Pitch
control and overlunder speed trips)
e Wind Power (maps from wind speed to shaft mechanical
power for the turbine)
A fifth model can he used to emulate wind disturbances such
as gusts and ramps by varying input wind speed to the wind
power module. The user can also input wind speed vs. time
sequences, derived from field measurements or other sources.
!Network EquationdStability Model Interface
Figure 2-2. GE W G Bmic Dynamic Models and Data
3. Modeling for Loadtlow
The modeling for load flow analysis is relatively simple. A
conventional generator is connected to an explicitly
represented PV bus, which is connected to the power system
collector PQ bus) through a step-up transformer. Specifically,
for the 60 Hz 1.5 WTG each individual machine is connected
to a 575v bus, and for the 60 Hz 3.6 WTG each individual
machine is connected to a 4160v bus. The generator terminal
bus is then connected to the collector system bus through a
suitably rated transformer. Typical collector system voltages
are at distribution levels (12.5kV and 34.5kV are typical).
Unit transformer will typically have 5.6% leakage reactance.
Each 1.5 WTG has a rated power output of 1.5 MW. The
reactive power capability of each individual machine is 0.9 pf
under-excitied and 0.95 pf over-excited. Each 3.6 WTG
machine has a rated power output of 3.6 MW. The reactive
power capability of each individual machine is 4.9 pf. Since
the impedance of a typical collector system is relatively small
compared to the impedance of the unit transformer,
representation of a single WTG and transformer with MVA
rating of machine and transformer equal to n times the
individual device ratings gives a reasonable equivalent for
bulk system studies.
The supervisory control would typically be structured to
regulate the collector bus voltage to a specified level, possibly
with additional line drop compensation to provide effective
regulation of the point-of-common coupling (PCC) bus (e.g.
I15kV to 345kV) voltage.
4. Dynamic Model
4.1 GeneratortNetwork Interface Model
This model is the physical equivalent of the generator and
converter hardware. It provides the interface between the
WTG electrical controller and the network, and contains no
control functions or user settable functions. As mentioned
above, unlike a conventional generator model it contains no
mechanical state variables.for the machine rotor - these are
included in the turbine model. Further, unlike conventional
generator models, all of the electrical/flux state variables have
been reduced to their algebraic equivalents. The flux
dynamics of the double fed machine with AC excitation are
too fast to have significant impact on system stability. The net
result is an algebraic, controlled current source that injects the
active and reactive power specified by the WTG electrical
control model into the network. Conceptually, the model is
trivial. Details of the implementation of the controlled current
source are unique to each simulation package.
4.2 WTG Electrical Controller Model
The WTG Electrical Controller model dictates the active and
reactive power to he delivered to the system based on input
from the turbine model and power system conditions. The
model is greatly simplified, hut maintains those aspects that
are crucial to capturing the dynamic performance of interest to
the system. It is within this model that the power system
planner may select parameter settings in order to meet the
particular requirements of a system application. The control
functions are segregated into two major functional groupings,
executed in sequence: (1) Closed Loop Controls, and ( 2) Open
Loop Controls.
Closed Loop Controls.
The closed loop controller shown in Figure 4-1 includes
voltage regulation and power factor control functions. The
voltage regulation function represents an equivalent of the
supervisory control for the entire farm. It is appropriate to use
this function when using a single WTG model to represent an
aggregation of machines under supervision. The function
monitors the collector bus voltage and compares it against the
reference voltage. Normally this reference voltage is the
initial voltage of the regulated bus (from the load flow). The
reach of the regulator can be modified by inclusion of a
compensating impedance, as shown in Figure 4-1. The
compensating impedance (Rc and Xc) can he omitted or
selected by the user. The regulator itself is a PI controller with
a low pass time constant, Tv. The time constant reflects the
delays associated with cycle time, communication delays and
additional high frequency attenuation needed to maintain
controller stability. Unlike voltage regulators associated with
conventional synchronous machines, this regulator produces a
reactive power command (rather than a field voltage
command) that is imposed very rapidly by the converter. This
provides the potential for very fast and effective voltage
regulation. However, excessively high gains and short time
constants should heavoided.
A provision is shown for adding a reactive power modulation
signal (Q modulation) to the output of the voltage regulator.
This feature could be used for an explicitly modeled
supervisory control. Other signals could be injected here as
Each individual machine is presently equipped with power
factor control. The initial power factor of the WTG is set by
the initial conditions from the loadflow. Subsequent
fluctuations in active power command will result in a
corresponding change in reactive power output, thereby
maintaining the specified power factor. The power factor
control logic is in the box on the right-hand side of Figure 4-1,
When constant power factor control is enabled, as is normally
the case, this simplified model forces the reactive power to
follow changes in active power command thereby maintaining
a nominally constant power factor. Modifications to the
reactive power request from the voltage regulator effectively
change the power factor setting.
Table 4-1 below includes recommended settings for the WTG
electrical controller model. All settings are given in terms of
Open LoopControl
and TripTests
. . ....... . . . ...
Figure 4-1 Closed Loop Electrical Controls
Open Loop Controls functions in the box of Figure 4-1 are shown in detail in
The open loop controls respond to large disturbances and Figure 4-2. These control functions are primarily
include the important protective functions relating to the responsive to large variations in system voltage, and are
electrical aspects of the WTG. The open loop control
usually inactive whenever the terminal voltage is within a
normal range (defined by the limits VLI and VH,).
A principle feature of the converter is that the maximum
current limit must be observed. Under conditions when
both the active and reactive power cannot both he satisfied
without violation of the current limit, the converter control
will give priority to the reactive current.
The terminal voltage and the reactive power order from the
closed loop control are shown entering a function box in the
upper left hand portion of Figure 4-2. When the terminal
voltage falls helow the low voltage trip threshold or above
the high voltage trip threshold, the machine trips following
a delay. The trip sequence is shown on the right-hand side
of the figure. Once the trip flag is set, it will not reset, even
if the voltage recovers. (Implementation of this
instantaneous hip flag requires a minimum of two
successive integration steps in simulations so as to avoid
false trips from numerical aberrations.)
Three other voltage thresholds are shown in this function
box. These represent the type of optional open loop
controls than can be implemented to improve system
performance for large voltage deviations resulting from
systems events. These controls force the reactive power to
pre-specified levels as the voltage deviations persist. Table
4-2 gives a summary of the control chronology. For
voltages helow VU, the reactive power command is current
limited. As with all open loop controllers of this type,
hysteresis is needed to avoid hunting. Once the voltage
thresholds are crossed and the open loop reactive power
command is issued, the threshold voltage is shifted up (or
down for high voltage events) by a specified amount, Vhyn.
Following the function box, the reactive power command is
subjected to MVAr limits and a current magnitude limit.
These transient MVAr limits should he set to match the
steady-state MVAr limits used in the loadflow. The
controller responds to the turbine power order, Pd, as a
current order. The active current is limited such that the
reactive current has priority, as shown in the figure.
4.3 Wind Turbine Model
Figure 4-2 Open Loop Electrical Controls
to the reference speed for full power operation, 120% of
synchronous speed. When the available wind power is less
The wind turbine model provides a simplified than rated, the blades are fixed to maximize the mechanical
representation of a very complex electro-mechanical power, and speed control is accomplished by adjusting the
system. The turbine control is designed to deliver power generator electrical power. The dynamics of the pitch
over a range of wind conditions, taking advantage of the control are moderately fast, and can have significant impact
variable speed capability of the machine. The controller on dynamic simulation results.
The block diagram for the model is shown in Figure 4-4. In
simple terms, the function of the wind turbine is to extract
as much power from the available wind as possible without
exceeding the rating of the equipment. There is a
moderately complex relationship governing the mechanical
enforces the power-speed relationship shown in Figure 4-3.
Above ahout 75% rated power, the power levels of primary
interest for stability studies, the controller works in two
distinct regions. When the available wind power is above
the equipment rating, the blades are pitched to reduce the
mechanical power (Pmcrh) delivered to the shaft down to the
equipment rating (l.O-p.u.), thereby returning the machine
shaft power that is dependent on wind velocity, rotor speed
and blade pitch. This algebraic relationship is provided in a
1.0 , /
0.0 :
1.0 1.2
Gen. Speed (P.u.)
Figure 4-3 Open Loop Electrical Controls
separate model, Wind Power Model, described helow. The
wind turbine model represents all of the relevant controls
and mechanical dynamics of the wind turbine. The model
is based on power calculations, rather than torque, for
simplicity. It directly accepts the machine terminal active
power from the WTG Electrical Control Model and the
mechanical power calculated by the Wind Power Model.
The turbine control model simultaneously sends a power
order to the electrical control, requesting that the converter
deliver this power to the grid. The electrical control may or
may not he successful in meeting this power order. The
electric power actually delivered to the grid is returned to
the turbine model, for use in the calculation of rotor speed.
The dynamics of theelectrical controller are extremely fast.
Dynamically, the combination of blade pitch control and
electric power order results in the two distinct operating
conditions. For power levels significantly below nominal
(-75%). the power is controlled so as to reduce the turbine
speed according to Figure 4-3. This is approximated by
adjusting the speed reference. The model does not allow
for motoring of the turbine.
The turbine controller modifies the blade pitch. In this
model the blade position actuators are rate limited and there
is a short time constant associated with the translation of
blade angle to mechanical output. The speed controller
does not differentiate between shaft acceleration due to
increase in wind speed or due to system faults. In either
case, the response is appropriate and relatively slow
compared to the electrical control.
The turbine control acts so as to smooth out electrical
power fluctuations due variations in shaft power. By
allowing the machine speed to vary around nominal rated
(120%1, the inertia of the machine functions as a buffer to
mechanical power variations.
The turbine control model includes protection against over
and underspeed operation. Normally, the turbine controls
will prevent such trips. However excessively high or low
wind speeds, and sustained load rejection may cause a
speed trip. Details of the turbine control actions at these
extremes have been neglected in this model.
The model does not include high and low wind speed cut-
out for the turbine. In situations where system performance
questions hinge on this behavior, the user can simply trip
the machine.
The rotational model of the machine is approximated as a
single rotational inertia, representing the total inertia of the
machine, gearbox and turbine. This is a similar
approximation to that used for conventional thermal and
hydro generation. However, the relatively low natural
torsional frequencies typical of wind systems make this
approximation somewhat less valid here. Further
investigation of this approximation is planned.
Table 4-1 WTG Electrical Controller Parameters
I Parameter I Recommended I UserAdiustoble? 1 Reouired? I
Nome I Value I I
T" I 0.5 Yes I Yes, i / Kp or Ki
Table 4-2 WTG Open Loop Reactive Controller
I Voltope Condition I For lime durotion I Omn Lo00 Reactive
Parameter values for the wind turbine model are shown in
Table 4-3. None of these values should be modified by the
Table 4-3 Turbine Parameters
Kb 56.6
4.4 Wind Power Model
For power system simulations involving grid disturbances,
it is a reasonable approximation to assume that wind speed
remains uniform for the 5 to 30 seconds typical of such
cases. However, the mechanical power delivered to the
shaft is a complex function of wind speed, blade pitch angle
and shaft speed. Further, with wind generation, the impact
of wind power fluctuations on the output of the machines is
of interest. The turbine model depends on the wind power
model to provide this mapping.
The function of the wind power module is to compute the
wind turbine mechanical power (shaft power) from the
energy contained in the wind. The well-known relationship
is used for this purpose. P is the mechanical power
extracted from the wind, pi s the air density in kg/m', A, is
the area swept by the rotor blades in mz, v is the wind speed
in ds e c , and C, is the is the power coefficient and is a
function of 1 and 8. 1 is the ratio of the rotor blade tip
speed and the wind speed ( vri p/ v) , 8i s the blade pitch angle
i n degrees. For the rigid shaft representation used in this
model, the relationship between blade tip speed and
generator rotor speed, w , is a fixed constant, &. The
calculation of 1 becomes:
a =K~ ( wl v) ( 2)
For the GE WTGs, parameters given in Table 4-4 will
result in Pmh in p.u. on the MW base.
Table 4-4. U'TG Mechanical Constants
I ! R /
i I / I
Speed Trip
speed >mm
a p e d <mi"
P, " J
Figure 4-4. Wind Turbine Model Block Diagram
C, is a characteristic of the wind turbine and is usually
provided as a set of curves (C, curves) relating C, to 1, with
8 as a parameter. The C, curves for the GE wind turbine
used in this model shown in Figure 4-5 are fit with a fourth
order polynomial on Band 1.
Initialization of the wind power model for simulations
requires care. There are two distinct states of interest: 1)
initial electrical power (from the loadflow) is less than
rated, or 2) initial electrical power equal to rated. For each
condition, Pmuh is known from the loadflow and w equal to
%r as a dynamic input parameter. From these two
quantities, the C, can becalculated. For the fust condition,
the turbine control will initially he at minimum pitch, and
therefore B is known. From this information the 1
necessary to produce the required C, can he calculated.
Notice from Figure 4-5, that two values of 1 will generally
satisfy the required C, for a given 0. The wind speed v,
corresponding to the higher Ais used to calculate the initial
wind speed. When P,I, is initially equal to the rated power,
then B is not necessarily at minimum and B and v are not
uniquely defined for the C,. In this case, one of these two
quantities, B or Y, must he specified.
The wind turbine model presented in this paper is based on
presently available design information, test data and
extensive engineering judgment. This model was
developed specifically for the GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW WTGs.
This model is not designed for, or intended to he used as, a
general purpose WTG. There are substantial variations
between models and manufacturers.
The modeling of wind turbine generators for hulk power
system stability studies is the focus of intense activity in
many parts of the industry. This model is expected to give
realistic and correct results when used for hulk system
performance studies. It is expected that these model
components will continue to evolve, in terms of parameter
values and structure, as experience and additional test data
are obtained.