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Prof. dr Vesna Pilipovi S!"den!# $el%i&a 've%anov ()*+,,
De& 0(,,.
Learning styles
Ever1 2ood !ea&3er s3o"ld 4no5 !3a! !3ere are a n" of 5a1s 3o5 3e+s3e &an !ea&3 3is+3er
s!"den!s. In o"r &o"n!r1 -os! !ea&3ers 4no5 onl1 one 5a1 of !ea&3in2. T3e1 do no! &onsider/ or
si-pl1 do no! &are/ !3a! s!"den!s do no! all 3ave !3e sa-e learnin2 s!1le. I! is ver1 i-por!an! !o a!
leas! !r1 !o find a learnin2 s!1le !3a! 5ill .e 3elpf"l !o -os! &3ildren6 o!3er5ise !3e &3ildren 5ill
si-pl1 no! &are.
T3ere are a n" of s!1les !3a! &an .e 3elpf"l 53en learnin2 a forei2n lan2"a2e. Ea&3 person
3as i!s o5n learnin2 s!1le/ 53i&3 -eans !3a! no! ever1one learns and pro&esses infor-a!ion in !3e
sa-e 5a1. Ea&3 of "s do no! see/ !3in4/ learn and solve pro.le-s in !3e sa-e 5a1. So-e of !3e
s!"den!s &an rel1 -ore on a"di!or1 inp"! 53ile o!3ers 5ill rel1 on vis"al. Learnin2 s!1le &an .e
iden!ified .1 "sin2 n"-ero"s !es!s/ s"&3 as pro.le- solvin2/ !3in4in2/ per&eivin2 and
Field independence
Field independen&e refers !o !3e do-inan&e of !3e lef! and ri23! .rain 3e-isp3ere. Field
independen&e 7FI8+ field dependen&e 7FD8 are !er-s "sed !o des&ri.e 3o5 people -ain!ain as
5ell as s!ore infor-a!ion da!a. 9o!3 of !3e s!1les &an .e 3elpf"l 53en learnin2 a se&ond lan2"a2e. I!
is ver1 i-por!an! !o 4no5 !3a! s!"den!s 5i!3 FI and FD do no! learn in !3e sa-e 5a1 and 3ave
differen! s!ren2!3s in learnin2. :FI s!"den!s .enefi! -ore in learnin2 !3a! involves anal1sis a!!en!ion
!o de!ails and -as!erin2 of e;er&ises/ drills 53ereas FD s!"den!s e;&el a! learnin2 .1
&o--"ni&a!in2.< 79ro5n/ 0(((8 A&&ordin2 !o resear&3 !3ere are a lo! fa&!ors involved/ s"&3 as a2e/
se;/ 3e-isp3ere la!erali=a!ion.
T3e -ain >"es!ion is 53i&3 s!1le is -ore effe&!ive in learnin2/ field independen&e or field
dependen&e. ?an1 .elieve !3a! :field independen&e 5ill perfor- so-e !as4s -ore effe&!ivel1 !3an
filed dependen&e6 !3e opposi!e 5ill .e !r"e for o!3er !as4s.< 7Ellis/ ,@@A8 People .elieve !3a! FD
s!"den!s 5ill 3ave -ore effe&! in na!"ral learnin2 of SLA/ 53ile FI s!"den!s 5ill .e -ore s"&&essf"l
in s&3ool 5or4. FD 5ill 3ave .e!!er &o--"ni&a!ion s4ills/ 53ereas FI 5ill 3ave .e!!er 4no5led2e of
2ra--a!i&al r"les. A 2ood !ea&3er 5ill al5a1s fo&"s on .o!3 !1pes of s!"den!s/ and offer e;er&ises
!3a! 5ill fi! !3e- all.
Left and right brain functioning
:As !3e &3ildBs .rain -a!"res/ vario"s f"n&!ions .e&a-e la!erali=ed !o !3e lef! or ri23! 3e-isp3ere.<
79ro5n/ 0(((8
T3e lef! 3e-isp3ere is "s"all1 asso&ia!ed 5i!3 lo2i&al/ anal1!i&al !3o"23! and
ded"&!ive learnin2/ 53ile !3e ri23! one is "s"all1 lin4ed !o e-o!ional/ vis"al and
a"di!or1 infor-a!ion pro&essin2 and !o na!"ral !3in4in2. Learners 5i!3 lef!C.rain
do-inan&e prefer planned and s!r"&!"ral lan2"a2e learnin2 and .enefi! fro-
for-al ins!r"&!ion and &on!rolled pra&!i&e/ 53ile !3ose 5i!3 ri23! .rain do-inan&e
prefer spon!aneo"s &o--"ni&a!ion and .enefi! fro- a 2ood -odel. 7Pilipovi
T3e ri23! .rain learners prefer 53en &lass is !a"23! ded"&!ivel1 and in !3a! 5a1 !3e1 are -ore
&o-for!a.le in !3e &lass and -ore in!eres!ed in !3e lesson6 53ereas !3e lef! .rain s!"den!s prefer
!3e ind"&!ive 5a1 of !ea&3in2. A&&ordin2 !o resear&3/ lef! .rain learners are .e!!er a!
re-e-.erin2 na-es/ doin2 -"l!ipleC&3oi&e !es!s. T3e1 prefer 53en a lesson is planned and
s!r"&!"red. T3e1 are -ore &rea!ive 53en "sin2 lan2"a2e :53i&3 in&l"des s1n!a&!i& and se-an!i&
pro&essin2.< 7Ellis. ,@@A8
For ri23! .rain s!"den!s i! is said !3a! !3e1 are .e!!er a! re-e-.erin2 fa&es and in openC&lose
!es!s. T3e1 prefer 53en a lesson is spon!aneo"s.
Abiguity tolerance
For so-e s!"den!s i! is said !3a! !3e1 are a-.i2"o"sl1 !oleran! 53i&3 -eans !3a! !3e1 &an easil1
a&&ep! r"les and ne5 infor-a!ion. T3e1 are openC-inded for s"22es!ions and ne5 -a!erial. 9"!
also/ !3ere are s!"den!s 53o are in!oleran! of a-.i2"i!1/ 53i&3 -eans !3e1 so-e!i-es !end !o
i2nore ne5 infor-a!ion/ r"les and .e&a"se of !3a! !3e1 so-e!i-es -a4e i-p"lsive de&isions.
T3ose s!"den!s prefer si-ilar !as4s/ 5i!3 si-ilar &ons!r"&!ions and diffi&"l!1. T3e1 do no! li4e
&3allen2es/ espe&iall1 if !3e1 are doin2 !as4s !3a! re>"ire 3i23er -en!al effor!.
I! is -"&3 easier for a-.i2"o"sl1 !oleran! s!"den! !o learn a se&ond lan2"a2e. A-.i2"o"sl1
!oleran! learners are -ore &rea!ive 53en i! &o-es in learnin2/ 53ereas for in!oleran! a-.i2"o"s
learners &rea!ivi!1 is !oo lo5. T3e1 &an no! .e &rea!ive in learnin2 lan2"a2e/ s"&3 as -a4in2
sen!en&es/ doin2 !as4s in 53i&3 !3e1 3ave !o "se !3eir i-a2ina!ion.
I! &an .e ver1 3ard for so-eone !o learn ano!3er lan2"a2e if !3e1 see ever1!3in2 in .la&4 and
Tea&3ers s3o"ld .e a-.i2"o"sl1 !oleran! 53ile s!ill -a4in2 s"re !3a! !3e a-.i2"o"sl1 in!oleran!
s!"den!s 5onB! .e da-a2ed d"rin2 &lass.
Reflecti!ity and ipulsi!ity
Refle&!ivi!1 and i-p"lsivi!1 are &onsidered as one of !3e learnin2 s!1les. S!"den! 53o 2ive
ans5ers 5i!3o"! !3in4in2 and !oo >"i&4l1 !3a! are "s"all1 ina&&"ra!e are &alled i-p"lsive.
O!3ers/ 53o af!er so-e !i-e of !3in4in2 2ive a&&"ra!e ans5ers/ are &alled refle&!ive.
I-p"lsive learners !end !o 2a-.le 53en 2ivin2 an ans5er. T3e1 li4e !o r"s3 and "s"all1 do no!
!3in4 53en 2ivin2 an ans5er. For refle&!ive learner/ i! is ano!3er s!or1. T3e1 li4e !o !3in4 .efore
sa1in2 so-e!3in2.
Also !3is learnin2 s!1le &an refle&! on 5ri!in2 !as4s. I-p"lsive s!"den!s 5ill .e 3as!1/ r"s3 .efore
!3in4in2/ and -i23! 2"ess an ans5er. Refle&!ive s!"den!s 5ill !3in4/ read !5i&e/ and 5ei23!
.efore 2ivin2 a final ans5er.
"isual and auditory style
T3ere are so-e s!"den!s !3a! prefer vis"al or a"di!or1 inp"!. I! is ver1 i-por!an! for vis"al
s!"den!s !o 3ave so-e!3in2 !3a! !3e1 &an see/ s"&3 as readin2 -a!erial/ &3ar!s/ and pi&!"res.
Lis!enin2 is ver1 i-por!an! for a"di!or1 s!"den!s/ 53i&3 -eans !3a! !3e1 .enefi! .1 lis!enin2 and
par!i&ipa!in2 in !3e &lass. For .o!3 of !3e !1pes i! is ver1 i-por!an! !3a! !3e !ea&3er &o-.ines .o!3
vis"al and a"di!or1 inp"!. Unfor!"na!el1/ no! all s&3ools &an afford s1lla."s !3a! &an offer vis"al
and a"di!or1 -a!erial and !3erefore -an1 !ea&3ers &an no! "se !3is s!1le. So-e !ea&3ers -a4e an
effor! and presen! !3eir o5n -a!erial# ."! s"&3 si!"a!ions are rare.
Even !3o"23 o"r &o"n!r1 is no! !3e .es! e;a-ple/ 4no5in2 1o"r s!"den!sB po!en!ials and 4no5in2
differen! learnin2 s!1les is -anda!or1 for ever1 2ood !ea&3er. If a !ea&3er does no! 4no5 !3ese
s!1les# i! 5ill res"l! in 3is+3er s!"den!s failin2/ no! learnin2/ and 3a!in2 !3e s".%e&!.
,. 9ROGN/ H. Do"2las 70(((8/ Principles of language learning and teaching (4
Ne5 Ior4/ NI# Addison Gesle1 Lon2-an
0. ROD/ Ellis 7,@@A8/ Second language acquisition/ O;ford/ Ne5 Ior4# O;ford "niversi!1
press# &op1ri23!
D. PILIPOVIJ/ Vesna 70(,(8/ The Basics of English Language Teaching/ USEE K Uni%a
fa4"l!e!a %"2ois!oLne Evrope Fa4"l!e!a =a pravne i poslovne s!"di%e/ Novi Sad#