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G:\KISSDOKU\Beschreibungen\Weitere\Anleitungen\KISSsoft-Tutorials\Rel-2008-10\kisssoft-tut-005-E-shaftanalysis.doc



KISSsoft Tutorial: Shaft analysis
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For release 10/2008
kisssoft-tut-005-E-shaftanalysis.doc
Last modification 27.10.2008 15:45:00
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1 Starting KISSsoft
1.1 Starting KISSsoft
Start KISSsoft using Start/Program Files/KISSsoft 10-2008/KISSsoft. The following window
will appear:

Figure 1.1-1: KISSsoft start window.
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1.2 Starting the Shaft Calculation Module
Choose the Shaft Calculation from the Modules tree window.

Figure 1.2-1: Modules tree window including the Shaft calculation module.
2 Analysing a Shaft
2.1 Example Problem, Starting the Example
An example shaft, see Figure 2.1-1, shall be analysed. The following criteria are relevant:
- Deformation of the shaft
- Critical speed (bending frequency)
- Static and fatigue strength

Figure 2.1-1: Shaft to be analysed.
Pinion (helical gear with
helix angle)


Roller bearings, supported on
the left or right side


Key (notched shaft section)


Shaft


Coupling to motor
The shaft is driven by a motor attached via the coupling. The nominal power is 75kW at a speed
of 980 rpm. This power is taken from the system at the helical gear, meaning that this pinion
drives an application or a second shaft.

This example shaft is included in KISSsoft as an example file. Open it via the menu File->
Open and selection of Shafts 1.w10 followed by Open (see Figure 2.1-2).

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Figure 2.1-2: Opening the example file.
Upon opening the file the shaft (for a detailed description of shaft modelling see
tutorials 03-006) is displayed in the tab Shaft editor (see Figure 2.1-1Figure 2.1-1) and
calculated with the given parameters. By clicking the !-icons from the tool bar (or by pressing
F5) a new calculation is carried out. Results are given numerically and graphically (see following
sections).
2.2 Results
The Results window lists the most important magnitudes obtained from the calculation.
Undock and resize this window either by double-clicking the title bar or by clicking the
button in the upper right corner of the window.

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Figure 2.2-1: Results window in the shaft module main window.
2.3 Shaft Deformation
The deformation of the shaft can be obtained via the menu Graphics ->Shaft-
>Displacement (bending curves etc.), or by choosing the option Displacement (bending
curves etc.) from the dropdown-list in the Graphics window. Note that the shaft modules
standard configuration provides a Graphics window in the lower right corner of the main
window (see Figure 2.3-1).

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Figure 2.3-1: Graphics window in the shaft module main window.
As a first step, the user must define in which way the gears are to be considered in the analysis.
To do so, activate the input window Basic data by clicking the appropriate tab in the main
window (see Figure 2.3-2). Choose the desired option from the dropdown-list Gears (see
Figure 2.3-3):
" Gears as load applications only: Mass and stiffness of gears are not considered.
" Consider gears as masses: Gears are to be considered as masses only. The gear is attached to
the shaft such that it transfers the external loads and its own mass onto the shaft but does not
stiffen the shaft.
" Consider gears as mass and as stiffness: Gears are considered as a mass and also to increase
the stiffness of the shaft. The gear is rigidly fixed to the shaft and forms a single unit with the
shaft.

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Figure 2.3-2: Input window active tab Basic data in the shaft module main window.

Figure 2.3-3: Options in the dropdown-list Gears.
The maximum deflection is given in the Results window and accounts for ux=18.55m. The
Graphics window also shows the plane which this value refers to: =-63.53. Where is the
angle enclosed by the planes normal and the z-axis. Note that by convention the positive sense
of rotation is counter-clockwise with respect to the y-axis.

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Figure 2.3-4: Property browser options in the Graphics window.
Additionally, a list of the strain/stress results can be obtained via the menu Reports
->Diagrams of bending.

2.4 Natural Frequencies
In the following, the first three critical frequencies are determined (chose the option consider
gears as masses). Enter the value into the input field Number of eigenfrequencies. You can
find it in the input window tab Basic data, as depicted in Figure 2.4-1. Carry out the
calculation once more (either by pressing ! from the tool bar or by pressing F5) and choose
the option Natural frequencies from the dropdown-list in the Graphics window.

Figure 2.4-1: Evaluation of natural frequencies.

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Clicking the button in the Graphics window opens the property browser which enables
you to show/hide curves in the diagram. Figure 2.4-2 shows a sequence of Eigenmodes evaluated
by KISSsoft. For a better understanding of the solutions the Eigenfrequencies are listed in the
Results window with their physical interpretations (Figure 2.4-3).

Additional help can be found in the KISSsoft help by pressing F1 while the cursor is in the
input field Number of Eigenfrequencies.

Figure 2.4-2: Graphical results of the natural frequencies calculation.

Figure 2.4-3: Physical interpretations of the first three Eigenfrequencies in the Results window.
2.5 Strength Analysis of Shafts
KISSsoft comes with three different strength calculation methods:

1. Hnchen & Decker
2. FKM-Guideline, Edition 2002
3. DIN 743 (2000)

They are available via the tab Strength in the shaft module main window (see Figure 2.5-1).
Throughout this tutorial we will limit ourselves to the use of the strength calculation method DIN
743 (2000).
The strength calculation requires the definition of cross-sections. Right-clicking the Cross
sections element in the Elements-tree opens a context menu. Left-click the option Sizing to have
KISSsoft automatically choose another four critical cross-sections (see Figure 2.5-2).

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Figure 2.5-1: Input window Strength in the shaft module main window.

Figure 2.5-2: Definition of additional cross-sections in the Elements-tree
2.5.1 General Data
The group General data can be found in the Strength input window. Here, information on the
type of load and the desired calculation (static proof only or also fatigue proof) is to be given.
For shafts which are loaded with different frequency for bending and torsion (e.g. continuosly
rotating shafts which are stopped and started once in a while), it must first be decided whether a
constant load for torsion or a pulsating load is to be assumed. Alternatively, both combinations

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(alternating bending and constant torque or alternating bending and pulsating torque) can be
analysed. The smaller resulting saftey factor is then to be used.

Figure 2.5-3: Group General data in the tab Strength.
The Maximal load factor is used for the static proof and scales the actual loads.
2.5.2 Information on Material
The shaft material and surface roughness has already been defined and may be altered in the
Elements-editor (see Figure 2.5-5). For the strength analysis however, further information is
necessary to calculate certain factors (e.g. technological size coefficient). Figure 2.5-4 shows the
group Material which can be found in the input window tab Strength.

Figure 2.5-4: Group Material in the tab Strength.

Figure 2.5-5: Shaft parameters in the Elements-editor.
Raw diameter
Diameter of the raw material at which the last heat treatment occured which is responsible for
the final material properties.

State during heat treatment
Select the desired option from this dropdown-list for the calculation of the technological size
coefficient and the part yield and ultimate strength:
" Pre-turned on actual diameter: No influence of the raw diameter, the technological size
coefficient K
1,deff
is calculated for each cross section based on the effective diameter.
" Raw diameter: The technological size coefficient is calculated for the whole shaft and is
used for all cross-sections.

Material characteristic values

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This dropdown-list offers a variety of options how KISSsoft is to determine the critical material
characteristics:
" with reference diameter: Values are taken from database (at reference diameter) and
multiplied with K1 (technological size coefficient)
" R
m
, R
p
acc. database,
W
for reference diameter: Yield and ultimate strength are taken
from database (for respective diameter, without adding K1), alternating strength is taken for
reference diameter and multiplied with K1.
" R
m
, R
p
acc. database,
W
constant: As above, but alternating strength taken from database
for respective diameter, without adding K1.
" R
m
, R
p
acc. database,
W
calculated from R
m
: Alternating strength is calculated from
ultimate strength (according to formulas given in DIN/FKM), ultimate strength is taken from
database for respective diameter.
2.5.3 Definition of Cross Sections for Analysis
KISSsoft can analyse a total of 20 cross-sections. All the cross-sections listed in the Elements-
tree will be evaluated. Besides having KISSsoft choose the critical cross-sections automatically
(using the von Mises stress criterion and the notch factor) they can also be defined manually.
Basically there are two kinds of cross-sections available:


Figure 2.5-6: Choosing a cross-section from the Cross sections context menu.

Limited cross section
This cross-section enables you to choose the position (y-coordinate) freely. Any other data
concerning the shaft will be taken from the model as seen in the active tab Shaft editor. If more
than one notch factor is defined for a single cross-section you may choose it from the dropdown-
list Effect of notch
1
.


1
KISSsoft considers only one notch factor per cross-section. Combined notch factors must be treated manually.

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Figure 2.5-7: Elements-editor for the Limited cross section.
Free cross section
This cross-section empowers you to set any value concerning the strength calculation at a given
y-position. Every pre-defined shaft parameter and calculated load can be ignored and newly
defined.

Figure 2.5-8: Elements-editor for the Free cross section.
Effect of notch
Choose the kind of notch factor from a list. If set to Own Input the notch factor has to
be given explicitly, otherwise the parameters of the notch have to be defined (e.g. key).

Notch factor
If Effect of notch is not set to Own Input the computed notch factors will be
displayed in these fields upon calculation.

Bending moment, Torque,
Place a checkmark in the checkbox next to the input fields to alter these values.

2.5.4 Analysis and Results
Once all cross sections are defined, click ! in the tool bar or press F5 to execute the strength
calculation. The results are shown in the Results window as a quick reference (see Figure 2.5-9).
According to the german standard DIN 743 the minimal required safety factor is 1.20. However,
this value is to be increased if the effect of a failure is high or if the load assumptions are
uncertain.

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Figure 2.5-9: Quick referenced safety results for the given cross-sections.

2.6 Reports
For a detailed description of the calculation results click in the tool bar or press F6 to obtain
the report.
3 Further Calculations
3.1 Other Analysis Modules
! Critical speeds, torsion: included in the computation of natural frequencies, see section
2.4
! Buckling: Calculation of buckling load (axial pressure) or safety factor
! Calculation of crowning: The analysis returns a proposal for the crowning of a pinion to
compensate the deformation of the shaft due to bending and torsion
! Calculation using load spectra: finite life analysis using load spectra and different
modifications of Miners rule can be performed
3.2 Calculation of Hydrodynamic Bearings and Roller Bearings
Using KISSsoft, it is possible to calculate the lifetime of the bearings modelled on the shaft. The
loads acting on the bearings are calculated automatically, even for statically overdetermined
shafts. See Tutorial 007 on bearing analysis.