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OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX

HTTP://OPERATING-IN-THE-ROBOTIC-MATRIX.WEEBLY.COM





Robopocalypse
Domo Arigato, Mr. Roboto!
Number Five is ALIVE! No disassemble!!!
Resistance is Futile


Robots and humans interacting! Learn the history of robotics, how robots help humans, and
even build and communicate with your own robot. Program your robot to complete specific
simulated tasks like navigating a minefield, an underwater environment, and even another planet.
Can you operate in the Robotic Matrix?



What are the advantages and disadvantages of robots
performing tasks at the direction of humans?



Tracy McIntyre
Shannon Turner
SPED 6402 Spring 2014
East Carolina University

Humans and Robots: their combined destiny
By: Tracy McIntyre
Shannon Turner

In 320 B.C., Aristotle said the following about the idea of robots, If every tool, when
ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that benefits itthen there would be no
need with of apprentices for the master workers or of the slaves for the lords. Since the times of
earlier philosophers, the idea of a machines doing human work was considered a possibility. So
what is robotics? Robotics is the design and programming of robots to perform to certain tasks.
Robotics is a branch of technology that deals with the design, construction,
operation, and application of robots and autonomous systems, as well as the
computer systems that power such devices, including control, sensory feedback
and information processing. (Thomas Publishing Company, 2014).

History of Robotics
During the ancient times of the Greeks and Romans automatons were developed to be
used as tools, toys, and even in some religious ceremonies. The Greek God Hephaestus, was
rumored to have built automatons to work for him in a workshop (Thomas Publishing Company,
2014). In the Greek historical story, Iliad, Hephaestus spent time in an underwater cave with two
surrogate mothers. He was partially paralyzed and built two golden robots to help him move
around.
In the Middle Ages, automatons were used in religious worships and part of clocks. Al-
Jazari, a Arab scholar of the late 1100s, described in his writings of a musical robot band and a
waitress automaton that served drinks. According to Elly R. Truitt, a medieval history professor
from Bryn Mawr College, robots that were drawn by artisans and wizards were believed to have
weird powers and abilities, such as predicting the time of your death (Truitt, 2013).
Until the Renaissance Age, robots sketches displayed a machine-like appearance. It
wasnt until 1495, the great painter and inventor, Leonardo da Vinci, drew and designed sketches
that resembled the first humanoid robot. For the next couple hundred years, robots continued to
become more than just simple sketches and moving parts. In the 18
th
century that French
engineer Jacques de Vaucanson, was credited with the first biomechanical automaton of a human
figured that played the flute (Thomas Publishing Company, 2014). At the 1939 and 1940
Worlds Fair, Elektro, developed by Westinghouse Electric Corp., became the first humanoid
robot to be exhibited to the public ("The History of robotics, 2013" )
The word robotics was first introduced by Czech writer Karl Capek in his 1920 play
Rossums Universal Robots or R.U.R. (History of robotics, 2013 ) The play takes place in a
industrial factory where robots (artificial robotic people) are being built. The robots eventually
overtake mankind and enslave them. This concept became a popular idea in Hollywood that led
to several movie franchises such the Matrix and the Terminator.
From there, in 1941, science fiction writer Isaac Asimov wrote the story Liar! In this
story the Three Laws of Robotics were created. These three laws would be later implemented
into the movie I, Robot starring Will Smith, and also a modified version in the movie,
Robocop (in that movie they were called directives).
Three Laws of Robotics
1- A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human to
come to harm.
2- A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such
orders would conflict with the First Law.
3- A robot must protect its own existence as long as protection does not conflict
with the First or Second Law. ("The History of robotics, 2013" ).

As technology continued to advance in the 20
th
century several events contributed to the
development of robots and their design. In 1969, Neil Armstrong landed on the moon with the
successful use of robotic and space technology. Shortly later George Lucas, in 1977, released
the futuristic movie Stars Wars. This created a worldwide interest in how humans and robots
could work in camaraderie with one another, thanks to the robots in Star Wars. Science-fiction
author Sagan said the assorted shapes and sizes of "Star Wars" robots some suited for
industrial purposes, others for service or entertainment helped blaze a trail for contemporary
machines that will vacuum your carpet or serve as a sassy, pint-sized companion . "The goofy
commercial robots owe a lot of their visual design to the 'Star Wars' robots," Sagan said (Boyle ,
2005).
In the late 1990s, robotic development continued to expand into multiple fields of
development. Robot tasks wildly impossible in the 1970s and 1980s began to work
experimentally in the 1990s. Robots mapped and navigated unfamiliar office suites, and robot
vehicles drove themselves, mostly unaided, across entire countries. Vision systems locate
textured objects and track and analyze faces in real time. Personal computers recognize text and
speech. (Moravec , 2000) In 1997, Japan held the first Robocup tournament. The goal of
Robocup is to create a winning team of soccer playing robots ("The History of robotics, 2013).
In 1999, SONY releases the first robotic dog, called AIBO, who has the ability to learn,
entertain, and communicate with its owner. Even now, robots are continuing to evolve well into
the 21
st
century.

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is synonymous with robotics. The field of robotics is closely
related to AI. Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object
manipulation and navigation. (Tecuci, 2012) AI is the intelligence performed by machines or
software, and the branch of computer science that develops machines and software with this
intelligence.
Alan Turing, in 1951 paper, proposed a test called "The Imitation Game" that might
finally settle the issue of machine intelligence. (Reingold & Nightingale, 1999) In this
experiment a human of either gender is in one room, a computer is in another room, and then a
judge all connected via computers. All three have a conversation and then the judge is asked to
determine which one is the human and which one is the computer. If the computer is chosen it is
considered having passable simulation of human being, hence having intelligence (Reingold &
Nightingale, 1999). AI did not start to be an acceptable field of science until 1956 at a Darmouth
College. Research for AI became heavily funded by the US Department of Defense and became
even more evident in laboratories around the world wanting to capitalize and develop AI.
The field of AI hit a major setback when it was realized in the 1970s that the factory
robots that existed lack true artificial intelligence ("History of robotics," ). This resulted in
researchers losing funding for continue exploration in AI. It wasnt until the early 1990s, AI
research once began due to the success of expert systems. This form of AI simulated the
knowledge and analytical skills of human experts. AI became a prominent fixture in logistics,
data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas in the technology industry (History of
robotics, 2013 ).
The applications of Artificial Intelligence have evolved right into our everyday lives.
Trivial uses of AI include recognizing our friends faces in photos and recommending products.
More substantive ones include automatically driving cars on the road, guiding robots in
warehouses, and better matching jobs and job seekers. (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014)


Robotic Applications
The evidence of robotics can be found not only in the home but businesses as well. They
are used to make our lives more proficient and safer by performing tasks that are considered too
dangerous or difficult for humans to do. The world we saw in cartoons, such as the Jetsons, and
on sci-fi television shows are becoming more of a reality. Society has become immersed with
robots assisting humans in almost every aspect of our lives.
Car Production

Since the invention of the automobile, car manufacturers have tried to develop a way to
make cars efficiently and with little cost. Within the last three decades, automobile factories have
become dominated by robots. The robots also give a boost to the all-important bottom line by
saving energy and reducing the physical strain exerted by their human co-workers. (Murray,
2012) The major concern of robots being implemented into the factories is the replacement of
humans.

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)
Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision or lasers, are used
to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals
(Savant Automation, 2007). One example of this type of machine was in the movie, The
Navigator, starring Henry Thomas. In the movie, the robot follows a colored line to serve food
to the main character and bring supplies to other people in the building.
Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks
There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring,
such as domestic cleaning (the Roomba introduced in 2002 is now in 2.5 million homes), or
dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano. Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as
exploring another planet cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery
(Brown University Division of Biology and Medicine, 2007).
Space Exploration
Robots have been given the opportunity to explore our universe. NASA created MER or
Mars Exploration Rovers to assist scientists in finding out more about the fifth planet in our solar
system. With the successful launch of several rovers: Sojourner (1997), Spirit and Opportunity
(2004), and Curiosity (2012) we are given a glimpse into life on other planets. The Curiosity
contains an entire inboard laboratory for analyzing the soil and rocks on Mars. (Greicius, 2014)
What does that possibly mean for humans on Earth? With the assistance of the rovers we are
gaining knowledge and better understanding of our universe. Thanks to the help of the
combination of robotics and humans, we are establishing a functional space station that is
orbiting Earth. NASA is continuing developing robotics to explore our universe that would
make it otherwise too dangerous or difficult for man to do.
Military
When it comes to military, advances in robotic technology will make human intervention
on the battlefield obsolete. Currently military robots lack the AI to be used as soldiers on the
field. Due to their size and weight they must be brought on the field and perform tasks
controlled by a human. The most common robots currently in use by the military are small, flat
robots mounted on miniature tank treads. These robots are tough, able to tackle almost any
terrain and usually have a variety of sensors built in, including audio and video surveillance and
chemical. (Grabianowski, 2005) Military robots have graduated not only land but to sea and the
air. The most familiar air robot is the drone. The drone controlled by humans can easily
maneuver into an area, gather data and send that back information to military personal. That
information can assist military officers make into making strategic decisions. Some experts and
academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots
are given some degree of autonomous functions (Palmer, 2009). The concern for this is the
human-decision process. Robots make decisions based on logic and projected algorithms.
Soldiers make decisions that include their training but also their gut instinct to help accomplish a
mission.
Conclusion
Throughout history robotics has been a concept that has fascinated man. Over time the
complexity and applications of robotics has continued to evolve in our very lives. Some say
robotics is the wave of the future. According to Dr. Wesley Snyder, Electrical Robotic Engineer
and professor at North Carolina State University, the computational power of robotics is
becoming more powerful and cheaper very quickly but the mechanical parts of robotics are not
getting cheaper at the same rate. We have the technology for basic service robots but the cost is
still prohibitive and they are not ready for the average individual. Martin Ford, author of The
Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future, and
others argue that specialized artificial intelligence applications, robotics and other forms of
automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and
exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine and repetitive jobs (Ford, 2009).
It is a conundrum as to whether robotics can accomplish our goals of improving our lives
with efficiency. They perform tasks that humans would not be able to perform with such
accuracy and proficiency. In the end, robotics will continue to become more a part of everyday
activities. With technological advancements improving on a steep curve, it is likely we will see
robots that can think, act, and evolve on their own someday soon (History of robotics, 2013).








































References

Boyle , A. (2005, May 18). Science facts catch up with movie sci-fi. Retrieved from
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/7864521/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/science-facts-catch-
movie-sci-fi/

Brown University Division of Biology and Medicine. (2007, September 19). Robot assisted
surgery: da vinci surgical system. Retrieved from Retrieved from
http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2005_Groups/04/davinci.html
Brynjolfsson , E., & McAfee, A. (2014, February 14). The dawn of the age of artificial
intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/02/the-dawn-of-
the-age-of-artificial-intelligence/283730/
Grabianowski, E. (2005, January 19). How military robots work. Retrieved from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/military-robot9.htm
Greicius, T. (2014.). Spirit and opportunity mars exploration rovers. Retrieved from
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mer/index.html
Ford, M. (2009). The lights in the tunnel: Automation, technology, and the economy of the future.
Acculant Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.thelightsinthetunnel.com/excerpt.htm
History of robotics. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/technology_1/robotics-
technology_1/1112942014/the-history-of-robotics/

Moravec , H. (2000, December). Robots, re-evolving mind . Retrieved from
http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/project.archive/robot.papers/2000/Cerebrum.html

Murray, P. (2012, May 4). Better, faster, and cheaper these robots are invading car
manufacturing plants. Retrieved from http://singularityhub.com/2012/05/04/better-faster-and-
cheaper-these-robots-are-invading-car-manufacturing-plants/

Palmer, J. (2009, August 3). Call for debate on killer robots. Retrieved from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8182003.stm

Reingold , E., & Nightingale, J. (1999). The turing test . Retrieved from
http://psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/ai/turing.html

Savant Automation. (2007, August 13). The basics of automated guided vehicles. Retrieved from
http://www.agvsystems.com/basics/vehicle.htm

Tecuci, G. (2012). Artificial intelligencce. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational
Statistics, 4(2), 168-170.
The History of robotics. 2013). Retrieved from
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/technology/historyofrobotics.html
Thomas Publishing Company. (2014). History of robotics. Retrieved from
http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/engineering-consulting/robotics-history

Truitt , E. (2013, January 18). Medieval robots: Automa since the first millennium. Retrieved
from http://www.timeout.com/newyork/things-to-do/medieval-robots-automa-since-the-first-
millennium





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Kid Friendly Internet and Literature Resources
1) Robotics: Discover the Science and Technology of the Future with 20 Projects By Kathy
Ceceri - Nomad Press - 2012 - Paperback - 128 pages - ISBN 1936749750
Once, robots were only found in science fiction books and movies. Today, robots are
everywhere! They assemble massive cars and tiny computer chips. They help doctors do delicate
surgery. They vacuum our houses and mow our lawns.
2) Exploring Space Robots by Deborah Kops Publisher: Lerner Classroom Publish Date: Aug
2011 ISBN-13: 9780761378808
Because outer space is a dangerous place for humans, scientists often send robots when they
want to explore. Exploring Space Robots gives details about robots on the Moon, on Mars, in the
outer solar system, and at the International Space Station. This is a fascinating subject for kids
who want to learn more about these unique explorers.
3) The Fascinating, Fantastic Unusual History of Robots July 2011 - By Sean McCollum -
Capstone Press, Incorporated - 2011.07.01 - Hardback - 48 pages - ISBN 1429654902
From simple automatons to artificial intelligence, robots have been a part of the human
imagination for centuries. Take a peek inside the inner workings of robots and learn how they
were transported from the pages of fiction to the world of fact.

4) Robot By Roger Francis Bridgman - DK Pub. - 2004 - Hardback - 64 pages - ISBN
0756602548
Take a detailed look at the fascinating world of robots - from the earliest single-task machines to
the advanced intelligence of robots with feelings.
5) Robots by Clive Gifford Smart Apple Media, Jul 30, 2005
At the start of the 21st century, our means of technology are evolving at an explosive rate. This
series examines the past, present, and future of technology, looking back in history to a time
when robots were merely science fiction, explaining the growing versatility of cell phones, and
considering airplane designs of the future. Each title also touches on key inventors and
inventions over the years.





Middle School Robot Activities via Websites

http://www.seaperch.org/index
Underwater robot go to build icon for the instructions and materials.
http://robotics.nasa.gov/edu/6-8.php
http://www.stem-works.com/external/activity/194
Build your own robot arm using common materials.
http://www.stem-works.com/external/activity/196

To construct a robotic-like hand and to demonstrate how data are collected when using
robotic technology.
http://www.stem-works.com/subjects/1-robotics/activities/197
This project teaches kids how to make a simple hovercraft.
http://www.stem-works.com/subjects/1-robotics/activities/165
This project will teach your students how to make a nano-rover using objects from
around the house

























Expert Interview

Expert: Dr. Wesley Snyder, ECE Department, NC State University (Retired)
http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/people/wes
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~wes/

Qualifications: He has a Ph.D. in engineering, has recently retired from teaching robotics at
NCSU, has chaired important engineering conventions and has made significant contributions to
the improvement of robot vision.

***** PART I ***** 1:00pm to 1:15pm 1-21-14
1. How would you define robotics?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: automatic machines with some decision making processes

2. What experiences or education would be good for a young person just entering the field
of robotics?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: Mechanical or electrical engineering

3. How has robot-human INTERACTION changed since you have been in the industry?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: Robots can mimic many more of the senses of humans and a little of
the decision-making abilities

4. How do you feel about the cost of robots vs benefits using robots?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: It depends on the situation. Robots are useful in hazardous,
repetitive situations like spray-painting or for heavy lifting.

5. Are there some things that robots can do better than humans and vice versa?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: Robots cannot make complex decisions.

6. What is the most difficult part of designing and programming robotics?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: For most people its the mathematics.

7. Do you feel the media/entertainment industry portrays robots too positively, too
negatively, or in a realistic way?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: They portray it in a stupid way. Who knows if we will have
something like a Mr. Data android 400 years from now?

8. Do Isaac Asimovs 3 Laws of Robotics work or apply to real robot decision-making?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: No, robots are not that sophisticated.

***** PART II ***** 11:30am to 11:45sm 1-22-14
9. How well is the public school system preparing students to understand the robotics
program and what you have to teach here at the university?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: Depending on students individual effort during high school, some
kids are better prepared than others. In general though, they are weak in their math skills.
STEM is a good idea but I havent seen the results.

10. What do you see robotics moving toward in the future?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: The computational power is becoming more powerful and cheaper
very quickly but the mechanical parts of robotics are not getting cheaper at the same rate.
We have the technology to have basic service robots but the cost is still prohibitive and
they are not ready for the average individual.

11. What else do I need to know or learn in order to be an expert in robotics?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mathematics,
Programming, FIRST Robotics competitions

12. Why do you feel that this is such a male dominated vs. female dominated science?
Dr. Wesley Snyder: The long answer from my personal experience with one individual
is this (an anecdotal rather than scientific answer): Reading is a big part of elementary to
middle school education. In general, girls have an easier time reading than boys so girls
start out with school being very easy. When math, logic and other topics that involve
problem-solving rather than reading appear in school, boys are more willing to put in the
work on these new and interesting topics than girls. Girls seem to balk at doing
something that requires effort beyond simply reading.

CONNECTION TO THE THEME

Chemistry (at least the interesting part) is all about interactions. Interactions are when
two or more objects come into contact with each other and usually one or both objects change in
some way. For example, a chemistry teacher can demonstrate the interaction of chlorine gas and
metallic sodium when they come into contact to make NaCl, also known as salt. The original
materials are still present but exist in a different state of matter. Like the butterfly effect
theory, even a small ripple has the potential to create an effect felt throughout the entire system,
like the weather. The interaction between robots and humans has the same effect of changing
both of the original participants, sometimes moving the relationships in unexpected directions.
Robotics is a branch of technology that deals with the creation of robots. Based on an
interview with a North Carolina State University robotics expert, Dr. Wesley Snyder, robots are
evolving but not all the systems are moving at the same pace. Robots are quickly gaining
accuracy in some of the human senses like touch and smell, but are not significantly increasing
their ability to make complex decisions. As robots become more sophisticated they can interact
with humans in more complex ways.
The ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers) work together to produce the CM/IEEE International Conference on
Human-Robot Interaction for the past nine years. The basic goal the conference is to help
engineers to improve human-robot interaction (HRI) and to build robots that interact in a more
human-like and intuitive manner as stated advertising one of the many workshops at the
conference. (Damm, Becker-Asano, Lohse, Hegel & Wrede, 2014)
Having a robot autonomously engage interaction with someone involves
the integration of multiple modalities such as voice, gesture, and motion.
The influences of such integration are commonly seen in human-human
interaction (Rousseau, 2013).


The basis of robotics is the interaction of man-made robots with the environment and
with the robot programmer. Robots can interact with the environment in ways that a human
cannot. Most commonly found in manufacturing, robots can complete tasks that are physically
beyond what a human can do, such as spray painting a car with toxic chemicals. Unlike a
human, a robot can perform repetitive motions over long periods of time without needing a
break. Also, they can achieve great depths in the ocean for exploration, where underwater
pressure would exceed human toleration. They can also lift heavy objects, such as a car, to
perform welding on all necessary places without risking injury.
Another aspect of robotics is the interaction with the human operator. That operator may
be a doctor who performs delicate surgery using a robot as an additional arm to make precision
surgical moves. The operator could be the programmer that tells a metal-punching system when
to move and when to stop in a factory. It is up to the human designers, builders, and operators to
program the robot so that it is suitable for the task at hand. We have bomb-finding robots, car-
building robots, even the popular Roomba robot for household cleaning, but none of these can
replace the ability of a human to make decisions, at least not yet. Modern manufacturing and
other industries could not function without robots.
Engineers involved in robotics are always looking ways to create and program them to
have new real world applications and sometimes even the ability to solve complex tasks
independently. For example, an elementary student named Lyndon, had a debilitating disease
that prevented him from attending school. But now, a 4-foot-tall chrome and steel robot takes
Lyndons place in classes and allows him to interact with teachers and fellow students. His face
is displayed on a screen near the top of the robot and his voice is projected through its speakers.
Lyndon can see and hear everyone through signals transmitted to his laptop from the robots
camera. It is a video-conference on a robot (Carrol, 2011). Without this robot, Lyndons world
is limited to what he sees outside his window.
With the arrival of iPads and smart phones, it could almost be said that humans have
become wireless cyborgs. These constant interactions are shaping the way human activity flows
around data from these devices. Also our very brain make-up is being changed by the interaction
of the stimuli from the devices. Some people blame the significant rise in the diagnosis of
ADHD in children and adults on the use of these devices. Interactions between robots and
humans could be either positive or negative depending on the observers point of view.
Around 1954, the first cited use for a robot when the robot arm was developed for use in
manufacturing. Since then, factories all over the world robots doing jobs that are too dangerous,
too large, or too repetitive for humans. Robots allow humans to be a step away from the physical
operation and moment-to-moment decisions of a wide range of systems. By using robots,
humans can complete work exponentially faster and in a more precise way than by can be done
by human power alone. Human decision-making and thought-processes are still needed due to
the inability of robots to complete complex decision making processes. Robots have come a
long way. Now, androids mimic human anatomy and android thoughts and emotions while in
the distant future are becoming more and more possible.
As an innovator in robotics, Japan has always been at the forefront of robotics. They
have given us both the robot dog, AIBO, which can learn and communicate and the upright
walking robot, ASIMO. Both are still very experimental, but continue to grow more
sophisticated every year. All of these robots, which we use in our lives every day, are here to
stay. And ultimately in our unit, we will study how robots developed over time, how they
perform jobs, what capabilities they have and we will build, program and use our very own land
and sea robots!

References
Rousseau, V. (2013). Journal of human-robot interaction, 2(3), 41-61. doi: 10.59898/JHRI2.3.

Carrol, L. (2011, February 17). Robot-avatar-allows-sick-boy-go-school. Retrieved from
http://www.today.com/id/41641984/ns/today-today_health/t/robot-avatar-allows-sick-boy-go-
school/


Damm, O., Becker-Asano, C., Lohse, M., Hegel, F., & Wrede, B. (2014, March). Applications
for emotional robots. Retrieved from http://humanrobotinteraction.org/2014/program/tutorials-
workshops/



TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

Technology Plan
Since the invention of fire and the wheel, man has had a voracious appetite for
technology that only continues to grow. As mans ability to understand and use technology
becomes more sophisticated, so do the tools. One of the most sophisticated tools available to
humans is the robot. Like other technologies, robots augment mans physical and intellectual
abilities and allow man to do tasks that would have been dangerous or impossible by a human
alone. As robots continue to advance in their design and real world applications, they are able to
take on more sophisticated tasks. But robots have not yet reached the pinnacle of robot
evolution, the human-like android with the shape, decision-making capabilities, and possibly
even the emotions of a human but the strength and computational abilities of a machine. For
now we will have to be content with machines that help us in many important fields including
manufacturing, the military, and exploration. In our unit, we focus how robots help man to
explore environments that would otherwise be impossible for a human to navigate alone.
Our unit has three possible challenges for the students. Students will be presented with
simulations of real world situations that happen in outer space, underwater or on land and will
use robots to solve specific problems. Because of time restrictions, students will be asked to
choose only one of the three basic exploration tasks. If time allows, students will then be given
additional Challenges that ask them to build on their success in the basic tasks.
If there are twelve students in both the morning and afternoon classes, the students will
be grouped into four teams of three students. Each group will choose one of three scenarios (two
are land environments and one is a water environment) from the Robotic Matrix:
Minesweeper/Avoiding the Minefield, The Poseidon Misadventure, and We Are Not
Alone.
For the first day of the two land Missions, students will be given a Lego Rover Robot
that has been partially assembled and a laptop with the companion control program that can be
used to issue commands to the rover. After guided instruction on how to program their robot to
execute simple commands such as basic movement, students will continue on to the more
complex movement commands and how to control the peripheral attachments needed to
complete the days Mission. Each day, students will need to apply problem-solving skills
about how to program and command the rover to complete the exploration Mission.
In the Minesweeper/Avoiding the Minefield mission, students will program their
robots to navigate a simulated battlefield where minefields make it too dangerous for humans to
complete their task of bringing humanitarian aid to an embattled village. The simulated
battlefield, made from a dry-erase surface, will have magnets (representing the unexploded
mines) located at random places underneath the surface. To complete the mission successfully,
the students will need to program their robots to use an attachment fitted with a magnetic sensor
to detect the mines. Once the sensor is activated (indicating a mine is present), the robot will
use a separate attachment fitted with a dry erase marker to circle the mine. Once all five mines
are located, the students will then have their robots carry soldiers (or aid workers) represented by
toy men across the battlefield to their rescue ship. This challenge will have students applying
skills that real world soldiers use overseas to help them survive on the battlefield.
In the underwater mission, The Poseidon Misadventure, students will design and create
an underwater robot from scratch. The robot must then retrieve a piece of equipment that was
lost at sea. The equipment cannot be replaced and will become unusable if it remains in the
water too long. Some of the parts needed to create this underwater robot are PVC pipes,
waterproof electrical wires, propellers, DPDT on-off switch, foam pool noodles, and propeller
adapters. The cost of each underwater robot is less than fifty dollars compared to hundreds of
dollars for the rover robots. The tradeoff is that the underwater robot does not have the ability to
handle sophisticated attachments or data. Once students have built their underwater robots, they
will need to test their buoyancy (to make sure it can travel at the right depth), their balance (to
create a stable center of gravity so it doesnt flip over, or tip up or down), and their ability to
move the three propellers safely to capture the equipment (sunken pool toy) within the
timeframe and bring it to the surface without causing any damage to it. This challenge will have
students applying problem-solving skills that the Coast Guard, Navy, or even private treasure
hunters use to find and retrieve sunken items or treasure.
The second land mission, We are Not Alone, simulates extra-planetary exploration.
With the Robot Rover students will learn about a newly discovered planet called Kryla.
Scientists need the rover to collect soil samples (place a ping pong ball into a plastic cup held by
the rover) to be studied on Earth. Additionally, students will have obstacles like mountains and
rocks and they must maneuver around this complex environment and return back to the ship
with the samples safely stored. A pre-defined path will be marked with masking tape,
representing terrain that the robot finds impassible. This challenge students can compare this
Mission to the Mars Rover that NASA scientists have piloted and used to explore the planet
Mars.
At the end of each day, students will be asked to visit our units website, http://operating-
in-the-robotic-matrix.weebly.com/resources.html, and blog about their teams experience with
the Mission and anything else about the days lesson that they would like to share. This blog
will be a way for different teams to share both successes and failures with building and operating
their robots and hopefully this collaboration will help the next mission go more smoothly.
During camp, we hope to Skype with speakers from NASA or other scientific, medical, military,
or industrial organizations that use robots as well as take lots of pictures and videos. The goal is
for each team to have at least one PC (Dell) laptop computer (for a total of six laptops, if we
have twelve students). The teachers will install the LEGO Mindstorms programing language on
these laptops prior to camp. Students will use the laptops to work through their Mission goals,
do a limited amount of research online, and mainly to program and control their NXT LEGO
robots via the USB connection. Also, the teachers (aka Master Operators) plan to have
personal video and/or picture devices and will use them whenever the curriculum offers an
opportunity. At the end of camp, students will receive a CD (burned using a personal laptop
computer) that includes pictures and videos of their Missions so they can relive their interactions
with robots in the Robotic Matrix. As time allows, pictures and videos can be added on a daily
basis to the camp website in a dedicated space for each team.









CONTENT OUTLINE
I. The Evolution of Robotics
A. Definition
1. Branch of technology that includes the design and operations of robots and
autonomous systems
2. Comes from the Slavic word robota
B. History of Robotics from Ancient Greece to Present
1. In 320 B.C., Aristotle gave the first idea of robots
2. The First Robots
a. automatons developed to be used as tools, toys, and in religious ceremonies
b. Greek God Hephaestus built automatons
c. Middle Ages used for religious purposes and clocks
d. late 1100s writings about a musical robot band and waitress that served
drinks
e. in 1495 Leonardo Da Vinci drew designed sketches that resembled
humanoid robot
f. late 18
th
century, Jacques de Vaucanson created first biomechanical
automaton of a human that played the flute
g. 1939 and 1940 World Fair, Elektro, first humanoid robot to be exhibited to
the public
3. Modern Robots
a. NASA, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER): Sojourner (1997), Spirit and
Opportunity (2004), and Curiosity (2012)
b. AIBO, series of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony (1999 -
2005)
c. Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro Gemaniod Robot clone of its designer
(2008)

II. Application of Robotics for the Benefit of Humans
A. Military
1. Partnership with Soldiers
a. Minesweepers
2. Weapons
a. Unmanned Drones
3. Transportation (Guidance Systems)
a. Air
b. Water
c. Land

B. Industrial
1. Factories
a. Cars
b. Clothing
2. Medical Labs
a. Creation of Vaccines
b. Medical Testing
3. Energy
a. Coal Powered Plants
b. Nuclear Facilities
C. Medical/Caretaking
1. Surgery
2. Companionship
D. Exploration
1. Outer Space
2. Underwater
3. Other Environments Dangerous to Humans
Portrayal of Robots
1. Science Fiction Literature
a. 1920 play "R.U.R." ("Rossum's Universal Robots"), by Karel Capek
(1890-1938)
b. 1941 Issac Asimov wrote Liar which included the three laws of
Robotics
i. robot cannot injure a human being or let one come to harm
ii. robot must obey a human except where such orders conflict with first
law
iii. robot must protect its own existence as long as it does not conflict with
1
st
or 2
nd
law

III. Media Portrayal
a. Movies
i. 1950s, Gort, from the film The Earth Stood Still
ii. 1956, Robby the Robot in Forbidden Planet
iii. 1977, C-3PO, R2-D2 in Stars Wars
iv. 1986, Johnny 5 in Short Circuit
v. 1984, T-800, in Terminator
vi. 1999, Sentinals in The Matrix
b. News
i. Rovers to sent to Mars from 1971 - present
c. Popular Literature (Comics)
i. Marvel Comics
IV. Artificial Intelligence
A. Advent of Artificial Intelligence
1. Definition
2. Turing Test (1947)
3. John McCarthy coined the phrase (1955)
4. Began at Darmouth College in 1956
B. Uses of AI
1. Companionship
a. AI therapist
2. Entertainment
3. Navigation
a. US Strategic Defense Initiative and AI (war games)
4. Academic Problem-solving
5. Manufacturing

V. Experts in the Field of Robotics (Speakers)
A. NASA (Space Exploration) by Skype
B. ECU Med School (Robotic Surgery) In Person

VI. Operating in the Robot Matrix (Exploration)
A. Underwater Robot (Scientific)
B. Minesweeping Robot (Military)
C. Extraplanetary Robot (Industrial)

LESSON #1
Robopocalypse

I. DEFINE OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT
LESSON
OBJECTIVE

Students will be able to design, build, and program their robots to
perform transitional moves in the form of a dance.

Students will be able to analyze the evolutionary influence of
robotics on human society, accurately arrange a set of robot
pictures according to when they first occurred in society, and be
able to defend their choices.

POINT TO
PONDER

There are many factors that affect how a robot transitions from
task to task.

Humanitys increasing dependence on robots will affect future
historical events.

ESSENTIAL
QUESTION

How can I make my design and program my robot to make
successful transitions from one task to another?

How has robotic design evolved throughout history?

CONTENT
Outline the content
you will teach in
this lesson.
The Evolution of Robotics
VII. A. Definition
3. Branch of technology that includes the design and
operations of robots and autonomous systems
4. Comes from the Slavic word robota
B. History of Robotics from Ancient Greece to Present
3. In 320 B.C., Aristotle gave the first idea of robots
4. The First Robots
a. automatons developed to be used as tools, toys,
and in religious ceremonies
b. Greek God Hephaestus built automatons
c. Middle Ages used for religious purposes and
clocks
d. late 1100s writings about a musical robot band
and waitress that served drinks
e. in 1495 Leonardo Da Vinci drew designed
sketches that resembled humanoid robot
f. late 18
th
century, Jacques de Vaucanson created
first biomechanical automaton of a human that
played the flute
g. 1939 and 1940 World Fair, Elektro, first humanoid
robot to be exhibited to the public
3. Modern Robots
a. NASA, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER): Sojourner
(1997), Spirit and Opportunity (2004), and Curiosity
(2012)
b. AIBO, series of robotic pets designed and
manufactured by Sony (1999 - 2005)
c. Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro Gemaniod Robot
clone of its designer (2008)

II. PRE-PLANNING
What will students
UNDERSTAND as
a result of this
lesson? How does
this connect to the
Essential
Question?

Students will understand that designing and programming their
robots consists of trial and error. They should consider mistakes
and other setbacks as challenges to be expected and overcome.

Students will understand that the idea of robotics began at an
early time in human history. Robots have evolved from an
imagined idea to a reality. Over time, robotic design continues to
increase in its complexity, maneuverability, and functions.

What will students
be able to DO as a
result of this
lesson?

Students will be able to design, build, and program their robot to
complete simple sequential tasks, such as a dance.

Students will be able to categorize past and present robots based
on each robots materials, power source, and purpose.



III. PLANNING
HOOK
Describe how you
will grab students
attention at the
beginning of the
lesson.
BE CREATIVE.

TIME: 5 minutes
HOOK and FOCUS
Ask students the following questions and discuss their
responses.
o When do you think man first thought of the idea of robots?
o When did you think man built the first robot?
o What materials do you think early inventors used to make
early automatons or robots and what do you think their
functions might have been?


Have students get into pairs. Pass out the Evolutionary
Robotic Cards (pre-lesson note: copy and cut enough sets for
the number of group of students in your room The answer
key should not be shown until the closing of the lesson).
Explain to students they are going to place the cards in
chronological order according to what they think. They are
not allowed to touch them again until the end of the lesson.
As students are completing the task, monitor and address
any questions or issues that arise.

INSTRUCTION
Explain Step-
by-step what
you will do in
this lesson. Be
explicit about
ties to Points to
Ponder,
Essential
Question, and
Interactions
here. Include
ALL support
and teaching
materials with
your unit.
TIME: 55 minutes

DISCUSS (5 minutes)
Have students view the YouTube video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRmEnwjw1gI
Discuss what they have just viewed.
Have students get on their lab gear.

RESEARCH (15 minutes)
Have students get into groups of two. Pass out worksheet History
Timeline of Robotic Research. Have students using their laptops,
complete the paper. As students are completing the task, monitor and
address any questions or issues that arise. Discuss students
responses.

BUILDING (20 minutes)
Read aloud the information from the slide entitled ORM Mission
Statements located in from Power Point entitled Robopocalypse.
After each mission is read, show the students what the correlating
setup for each mission will be (teacher note: all setups should be
ready before the lesson begins...refer to the workshops labeled
Mission Set ups).
Have students choose the mission that they would like to accomplish,
and then have them get into groups of 2-3. Pass out the worksheet
Mission Details that correlates their groups choice. Give students
a chance to read the details and ask questions if they have any.
Explain to students that today they will learn how to build their robots
to completion. Pass out the NXT robot for each group. Show
students a NXT robot that is built correctly. For those students who
have chosen to build the underwater sub, show students a picture of a
completed sub and have them experiment. Have students in their
groups explore and put it together. As students are completing the
task, monitor and address any questions or issues that arise.
(teacher pre-lesson note: this part of the lesson should be already
created be done: you are to create a dancing program for the NXT
robot). Explain to students that they are going to create a program for
the robot that will have them dancing. This will be a great way to get
to know how to use the program. Show students your dancing
program in a NXT robot.
Have students open up the Lego Mindstorm program on their
computer. Model for students how to use the icons in the program.
Remind students that they must choose either time or wheel rotation
to move their robot. They need to be constantly checking to make
sure they are using the same unit at all times.
Pass out the Operations in the Robotic Matrix Checklist, explain to
students that they are to complete the checklist every day.
Have students complete Day 1 of the checklist. As students are
completing the task, monitor and address any questions or issues that
arise.
ASSESSMENT
(Performance
Task) What will
the students
DO to
demonstrate
that they have
mastered the
content? Be
specific and
include actual
assessment
with unit
materials.
TIME: 10 minutes

DEMONSTRATION (5 minutes)
Students will share their creative dancing program they have made for
their robot. For those doing the underwater robot have them share
how they put their robot together and explain decisions they made to
build it that way.

Closure (5 minutes)
Have students look at their previous robotic cards they put in order
and ask them to go back over their choice s and make any changes if
needed. Discuss with students did they make any changes and why?
Provide the answer sheet for students to check their work.

DOES THE ASSESSMENT ALLOW YOU TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THE
STUDENTS HAVE MET YOUR STATED LESSON OBJECTIVE? YES OR NO

ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
NXT Lego Robot (12 TOTAL for two classes)
UNDERWATER ROBOT PARTS (6 TOTAL for two classes)
Evolutionary Robotic Cards
Worksheet s: Evolutionary Robotic Cards (6 copies)
History Timeline of Robotic Research (6 copies)
Operating in the Robotic Matrix Checklist (12 copies)
ORM Mission
FLIP CHART and MARKERS (1 set for whole camp)
POSTERBOARD (50 sheets for whole camp)
DESKTOP COMPUTERS (4 in room for students)
LAPTOP COMPUTERS (1 for teachers only)
ROBOT LIBRARY (books and other materials on display)
THREE TRIFOLD BOARDS (1 each teacher)
LAB GEAR - (Lab coats, pocket protectors, fake glasses, etc.) (12 each)
SOFTWARE for NXT Robots (free downloads as needed)
VIDEOS, PRESENTATIONS and other Electronic Materials
Evolutionary Robots Cards

















Answer key for Robot
chronological order


An early 19th-century illustration
[26]
of Ctesibius's
clepsydra from the 3rd century BCE. The hour
indicator ascends as water flows in. Also, a series
of gears rotate a cylinder to correspond to the
temporal hours.

Time: 3 BC

Shown here is a wooden monk, apr 30 centimeters in height, with
a crude lever and joints mechanism. The purpose of this puppet
will remain guesswork, and how long it took to create it too. But
with our contemporary tooling it would certainly take a few
months to get this intricate machinery working. A scientist in
historic tooling would probably give it a year, but to our opinion at
least 2 years of trying and retrying.
Time: 1565

Leonardo's Robot

Leonardo Da Vinci designed a robot knight that
was capable of standing, sitting and moving its
arms. Da Vinci never built the robot but some
German engineers did build it after Da Vinci's
original sketches were found in the 1950s.
Amazingly the robot worked just as Da Vinci
had intended. The robot is still on display in a
museum in Berlin.

Time: Jan 1495




Pierre Jacquet-Droz

Pierre Jacquet-Droz created automons
for entertaining people. These mechanical
people could draw, others could write
and some could dance.

Time: Aug 1773

Electro and Sparko were a robot man and dog
who appeared at the Worlds Fair events in
1939 and 1940. Electro could blow up
balloons, move his arms and legs and even
speak up to 700 words which were stored on a
record player in his body. Electro could also
react to voice commands and recognise the
difference between red and green lights.
Sparko could walk alongside Electro and
perform dog tricks such as begging.

Time: Apr 1939





Asimo

Asimo is an anthropomorphic robot that
has been designed with the purpose of
helping people. Asimo uses a complex
arrangement of cameras within its head
to assess the world around it - this means
Asimo can decide how fast to run and
how big its steps should be. The cameras
also allow Asimo to recognise how people
move and it can react to their movements.

Time: Aug 2000






Avoiding the Minefieldthe Minesweeper
SetupTHE BATTLEFIELD









Outline: The erase board should measure about 10 by 12. The 5 magnets need to be the most
powerful you can find. The size should be 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The magnets need to be
placed randomly and glued under the erase board (so as to prevent any movement). It is
important that the robot is completely on the erase board at the starting position. The figures on
the board above are representative of boulders and other landform obstacles that they must be
able to navigate around. These obstacles can be made from Styrofoam and painted or store
bought. The obstacles are optional.


Outline: The erase board should measure about 10 by 12. The 5 magnets need to be the most
powerful you can find. The size should be 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The magnets need to be
placed randomly and glued under the erase board (so as to prevent any movement). It is
important that the robot is completely on the erase board at the starting position. The figures on
the board above are representative of boulders and other landform obstacles that they must be
able to navigate around. These obstacles can be made from Styrofoam and painted or store
bought. The obstacles are optional.















Start
Rescue Spot
We Are Not Alone
Planetary Exploration Setup











Outline: The area should measure about 10 by 12 and can be marked by painters tape. It is
important that the robot is completely in the area at the starting position. Students must travel
along the path only (which should be marked with planters tape). Students will pick up sample
and then bring it to the capsule container.

Outline: The area should measure about 10 by 12 and can be marked by
painters tape. It is important that the robot is completely in the area at the starting position.
Students must travel along the path only (which should be marked with planters tape). Students
will pick up sample and then bring it to the capsule container.




Capsule Container

Pick up
Soil here










START



ORM Mission Statements

Avoiding the Minefieldits a Mindsweeper
Mission
In the Avoiding the Minefieldits a Mindsweeper your mission should you choose to
accept it will be to build and program your robot to safely locate five mines, mark their location,
and safely bring soldiers across the battlefield to the rescue spot without touching any obstacles
or mines. Our countrys soldiers are counting on you to help rescue them from within enemy
territory. Are you ready to take on this mission or is your mind not up to the task?

The Poseidon Adventure Mission
In the Poseidon Adventure your mission should you choose to accept it will be to
design and build your underwater robot and retrieve an important classified military object that
has fallen to the bottom of the ocean floor. This object will become unstable if it remains in the
water too long and has to be recovered. Are you willing to take on this mission or are you all
wet?
We are not Alone Mission
Extra!!! Extra!!! Hear all about it. Scientists have discovers a new planet, named Kryla.
Your mission should you choose to accept it, is to build, design, and program your robot so that
it can navigate through the rough terrain of the planet and collect samples. You will then place
those samples on top of a the container. Are you ready to take on this mission or are you lost in
space?



Operating in the Robotic Matrix Checklist

*Formative Assessments throughout 4 days (robot checklist)
*Summative Assessments throughout 4 days (class discussions)

Rover/Minefield Robot Teams
Day 1 Dance to the beat!
Examine building plans for LEGO
NXT robot
Add wheels to partially constructed
robot
Connect all cables to robot
Introduction to LEGO Mindstorms
programming language
choose rotation or time
(method of navigation)
move forward and backward
turn left and right
move fast and slow
stay within defined area

Day 2 Object Manipulation
Participate in Guest Speaker visit
Examine building plans for LEGO
NXT robot
Attach appendage(s) to robot
Practice sending commands to
appendage(s)
navigate robot to object
grasp object
mission test runs (as time allows)

Day 3 Topsy Turvy
switch to alternative method of
navigation
(rotation or time)
choose to keep or change method of
navigation
mission test runs (as time allows)

Day 4 Mission Accomplished!
demonstrate mission competence
(video-taped and photo-documented)















Submarine Robot Teams
Day 1 Build it!
Consider mission for sub robot
Examine building plans for sub robot
Examine materials for sub robot
mission test runs (as time allows)

Day 2 Dive!
Participate in Guest Speaker visit
Adjust buoyancy of sub robot
Practice controlling depth of sub
robots dive
navigate sub robot to object
hook object
mission test runs (as time allows)

Day 3 Budget Cuts!
rebuild the sub robot on a budget
using fewer parts
mission test runs (as time allows)

Day 4 Mission Accomplished!
demonstrate mission competence
(video-taped and photo-documented)
Avoiding the Minefieldits a Mindsweeper
Details Mission

In the Avoiding the Minefieldits a Mindsweeper your mission should you choose to
accept it will be to build and program your robot to safely locate five mines, mark their location,
and safely bring soldiers across the battlefield to the rescue spot without touching any obstacles
or mines. Our countrys soldiers are counting on you to help rescue them from within enemy
territory. Are you ready to take on this mission or is your mind not up to the task?
Details:
To locate the mines, you must place a magnet on one of your robotic arms using
tape. You must program your robots arm to be low to the ground and sweep
across the battlefield until the robot has indicated there is a mine. Once you
have located the mine, you must replace the magnet with a marker and program
your robot to make a mark at that location. Repeat the process four more times.

Once all the mines are located, have your robot return back to the starting position
and carry the soldiers across the battlefield avoiding all the mines and any other
obstacles to the rescue spot.











OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 42 of 81
The Poseidon Adventure
Detail Mission

In the Poseidon Adventure your mission should you choose to accept it will be to
design and build your underwater robot and retrieve an important classified military object that
has fallen to the bottom of the ocean floor. This object will become unstable if it remains in the
water too long and has to be recovered. Are you willing to take on this mission or are you all
wet?
Details:
You will use the picture model as a reference as to how to put the underwater robot
together. Keep in mind that you will need 3 motors to help with navigation placed
strategically to help you move left, right, back, and forward. Where should you place
them to achieve the best movement of your robot.
You are allowed to use any of the available materials. Think about how you want your
underwater robot to function with design. It must be able to retrieve something on the
bottom and bring it to the surface safely.
Once your robot is designed it must be able to be submerged just under the surface.
Think about where you would put the pool noodles (size and the amount) to create the
adequate buoyancy you need. You will then attach the power source cable and practice
moving your robot around the water to get the feel of the controls.
Final task is to have your robot go deep into the ocean and retrieve the classified
military object.

OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 43 of 81
We are not Alone
Detail Mission

Extra!!! Extra!!! Hear all about it. Scientists have discovers a new planet, named Kryla.
Your mission should you choose to accept it, is to build, design, and program your robot
so that it can navigate through the rough terrain of the planet and collect samples. You
will then place those samples on top of a the container. Are you ready to take on this
mission or are you lost in space?
Details:
You will complete the build of your NXT rover robot. You will then program your robot
to move along carefully through the rugged terrain of planet Kryla. You will program
your robot to grab a soil sample along the path (represented by a ping pong ball) and
carry it to the container capsule (represented by the Styrofoam cup). You must place the
soil sample on top of the capsule to complete the mission.
You will need to understand how to move your robotic arms carefully to place the sample
on top of the capsule without the capsule tipping over.












OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 44 of 81
History Timeline of Robotics Research
Name: ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Robots have evolved from the earliest time of man. From the materials they are made
from, purpose, functions, and the power source, there is no denying that then evolution of
robotic design has influenced the development of society.
Directions: Visit these three websites and then respond to the questions below. Be
ready to discuss your responses and findings.
http://www.thocp.net/reference/robotics/robotics.html
http://www.scienceboffins.co.uk/about/blog/item/15-robots-through-history/15-robots-
through-history
http://www.robotshop.com/media/files/PDF/timeline.pdf
Questions:
1) Compare the mechanisms, materials, and power sources of robots throughout
history.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Summarize the influences robots have had in the development of our society?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________












OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 45 of 81



Online Resources for Students to Study Programing the NXT Robots
(in class or at home)

http://www.education.rec.ri.cmu.edu/robots/nxteacher/nxteacher.htm
http://www.education.rec.ri.cmu.edu/previews/robot_c_products/teaching_rc_lego_v2_pr
eview/

Lego Mindstorms EV3 Software Overview
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hL5GX9tKDTg

4.1 Teaching your first EV3-G Lego Mindstorms NXT Robot to Move - step 1 of 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2zwyHZ24tc

4.2 Teaching your first EV3-G Lego Mindstorms NXT Robot to Move - step 2 of 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2S-mTDIZ1dk

4.3 Teaching your first EV3-G Lego Mindstorms NXT Robot to Move - step 3 of 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZHLuV2DUgDA

4.4 Teaching your first EV3-G Lego Mindstorms NXT Robot to Move - step 4 of 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cF1yviqbvUE

OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 46 of 81
LESSON #2

Number Five is ALIVE! NO DISESEMBLE!!!

I. DEFINE OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT
LESSON
OBJECTIVE

Students will be able to understand how robots are designed, built,
and used and apply that knowledge to building and using their own
NXT robot.


POINT TO
PONDER

Every year, robotic design changes and we find new uses for
robots. Will there be a time when robots will complete all physical
labor for humans and humans will not be required to work?

ESSENTIAL
QUESTION

What are some ways that robots are capable of by using sensors,
appendages, and power supplies that would be a challenge for
humans to complete due to safety or other physical or mental
limitations?

CONTENT
Outline the content
you will teach in
this lesson.
I. Application of Robotics for the Benefit of Humans
A. Military
1. Partnership with Soldiers
a. Minesweepers
b. Exoskeletons
2. Weapons
a. Unmanned Drones
B. Industrial
1. Car Factories
C. Medical/Caretaking
1. Surgery
2. Companionship
D. Exploration
1. Outer Space
2. Underwater
3. Other Environments Dangerous to Humans







OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 47 of 81
II. PRE-PLANNING
What will students
UNDERSTAND as
a result of this
lesson? How does
this connect to the
Essential
Question?

Students will be able to analyze ways that robots can use their
specialized physical abilities to help humans with their unique
physical, computational abilities and even the fact that they can be
mass produced and replaced if damaged. Students will also
understand that robots are multi-functional machines that affect
every aspect of human life, from fuel collection to medical care.
Robots provide services to make human life easier and more
efficient.

What will students
be able to DO as a
result of this
lesson?

Students will be able to describe functions of specific parts of
robots including power sources, appendages, and materials and
apply that to building and recognizing how their NXT robot
functions.


III. PLANNING
HOOK
Describe how you
will grab students
attention at the
beginning of the
lesson.
BE CREATIVE.

TIME: 5 minutes
HOOK and FOCUS
Show the NXT robot delivering the mail. (teachers note:
teacher should have this program already ready done and
ready to demonstrate to students this). Ask students what
parts on this robot made it possible for this task to be
completed? Discuss students responses.
Explain to students that like your body, all the parts in it are
designed for a specific function. A robots appendages have
the same purpose as well. A robots appendages, the
materials it is made of, and its power source are factors that
must be taken into consideration when designing, building,
and programming a robot.
Have students get in pairs and pass out the Appendages
and Sensory Cards. Ask students to match the picture with
the description. (pre-lesson note: copy and cut enough
sets for the number of students in your room). As students
are completing the task, monitor and address any questions
or issues that arise. Once every group is done display the
answer key and have students self-assess.






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INSTRUCTION
Explain Step-by-
step what you will
do in this lesson.
Be explicit about
ties to Points to
Ponder, Essential
Question, and
Interactions here.
Include ALL
support and
teaching materials
with your unit.

TIME: 55 minutes

RESEARCH (20 minutes)
Spilt students into two groups for centers. Each center will
be 10 minutes long and students will rotate after those 10
minutes.
Centers: Center One Center One In small groups of 3 or
4, students will read printed out newsletters about robotic
design, materials and purposes. Then students will discuss
what they found most interesting and jot notes in their
journals
ARTICLE #1a: HOW ROBOTS ARE REVOLUTIONIZING OUR
WORLD (investing in robotics)
http://www.theatlantic.com/sponsored/t-rowe-
price/archive/2013/03/how-robots-are-revolutionizing-our-
world/273924/
ARTICLE #2: NASAS EXOSKELETON IN SPACE
http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/home/feature_exoskeleton.html
ARTICLE #3: NEW MATERIAL COULD MAKE ROBOT
MUSCLES BETTER, FASTER, STRONGER
http://www.engadget.com/2009/03/20/new-material-could-make-
robot-muscles-better-faster-stronger/
ARTICLE #4: HOW ROBOTIC APPENDAGES WORK
http://human-meets-
robot.wikispaces.com/How+Robotic+Appendages+Work
ARTICLE #5: BETTER, FASTER, AND CHEAPER THESE
ROBOTS ARE INVADING CAR MANUFACTURING PLANTS
http://singularityhub.com/2012/05/04/better-faster-and-cheaper-
these-robots-are-invading-car-manufacturing-plants/

Center Two - Center Two - In small groups of 3 or 4,
students will be given materials for one poster and markers.
Students will imagine and describe a new material, purpose
or design for a robot. Posters will be displayed in the room
for the duration of the camp.

SPEAKER (20 minutes) Speaker from NASA or ECU
medical robotic surgery department with Q and A session to
follow:
Guidelines for Speaker:
Purpose: Show how each part of the robot has a specific function
that allows the robot to complete a task that is beyond human
function.
Expectations: Speaker will give specific details about the operation
of the robot and how its design helps it complete the mission. This
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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illustrates how a robot can complete a real world task that is
beyond human capability. (15 minutes)
Q and A: Open discussion with students (5 minutes)

BUILDING (15 minutes)
Have students get their checklist out from yesterday.
Explain to students that today you will be challenged
in building and working with your robots using their
appendages. Answer any questions they may have.
Have students complete Day 2 of the checklist. As
students are completing the task, monitor and
address any questions or issues that arise.

ASSESSMENT
(Performance
Task) What will
the students DO
to demonstrate
that they have
mastered the
content? Be
specific and
include actual
assessment with
unit materials.

TIME: 10 minutes
DEMONSTRATION (5 minutes)
Students will share their robot performing a task using their
appendages. For those doing the underwater robot have
them share how their extension on their robot will act like an
appendage to pick up the object below.

Discussion (5 minutes)
Ask students the following question: Would you want a
robotic appendage implemented into your body? Justify
your answer.


DOES THE ASSESSMENT ALLOW YOU TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THE
STUDENTS HAVE MET YOUR STATED LESSON OBJECTIVE? YES OR NO

ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

NXT Lego Robot (12 TOTAL for two classes)
UNDERWATER ROBOT PARTS (6 TOTAL for two classes)
ROBOTIC JOURNAL - Journals are an original booklet created for this class (1 each
student)
Worksheets: Appendages and Sensors Worksheet
Internet Articles:
ARTICLE #1a: HOW ROBOTS ARE REVOLUTIONIZING OUR WORLD (investing in
robotics)
http://www.theatlantic.com/sponsored/t-rowe-price/archive/2013/03/how-robots-are-
revolutionizing-our-world/273924/
ARTICLE #2: NASAS EXOSKELETON IN SPACE
http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/home/feature_exoskeleton.html
ARTICLE #3: NEW MATERIAL COULD MAKE ROBOT MUSCLES BETTER,
FASTER, STRONGER
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http://www.engadget.com/2009/03/20/new-material-could-make-robot-muscles-better-
faster-stronger/
ARTICLE #4: HOW ROBOTIC APPENDAGES WORK
http://human-meets-robot.wikispaces.com/How+Robotic+Appendages+Work
ARTICLE #5: BETTER, FASTER, AND CHEAPER THESE ROBOTS ARE
INVADING CAR MANUFACTURING PLANTS
http://singularityhub.com/2012/05/04/better-faster-and-cheaper-these-robots-are-
invading-car-manufacturing-plants/

iPad (for video/picture taking as well as basic computer functions) (1 for whole camp)
FLIP CHART and MARKERS (1 set for whole camp)
POSTERBOARD (50 sheets for whole camp)
DESKTOP COMPUTERS (4 in room for students)
LAPTOP COMPUTERS (1 for teachers only)
ROBOT LIBRARY (books and other materials on display)
TWO TRIFOLD BOARDS (1 each teacher)
LAB GEAR - (Lab coats, pocket protectors, fake glasses, etc.) (12 each)
SOFTWARE for NXT Robots (free downloads as needed)
VIDEOS, PRESENTATIONS and other Electronic Materials
Contact information for NASA and ECU Robotic Surgery Speakers (Skype or Phone)


























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(Article 1) How Robots Are Revolutionizing
Our World
From healthcare and homecare, to military use and emergency response, robots are fast becoming a
fixture in our lives. A number of T. Rowe Price's analysts are closely following their every move, and one
of them spoke recently about the latest innovations and opportunities in robotics, as well as where we
might see them making an impact next.
RHETT K. HUNTER FOR T. ROWE PRICE Mar 21, 2013
Tweet
inShare0


This Content is made possible by our Sponsor; it is not written by and
does not necessarily reflect the views of The Atlantic's editorial staff.



For years now, robots have worked tirelessly in the shadows to increase or enhance the
productivity of humans. Until recently, however, the futuristic, sci-fi-inspired vision of robotic
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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technology has largely remained disconnected from the glamourless utilitarian role it's played in
manufacturing. But robotic technology has now advanced to the point where we're truly starting
to see it move into many new areas of the economy.
THE TWO PHASES OF ROBOTI CS
The evolution of robotics can be divided roughly into two phases. In the first phase, we saw
electric machines that were programmed to perform specific tasks but otherwise didn't really
interact with the real world, such as those we've seen in automotive manufacturing for years.
Japanese companies were early to market with the industrial robots used in many areas today,
including auto manufacturing, distribution centers, foundries, pharmaceutical packaging, and
many others.

There's a publicly traded Japanese company called FANUC that actually has a fairly robust
portfolio of industrial automation robots. Their blade profiling systems, for instance, are used to
finely sharpen and finish critical metal parts for gas turbines used by aerospace and energy
manufacturers. Some of their other systems are used on a production line to hold, move, and
precisely place extremely heavy objects with the same delicate care and relative ease that a
person might use to put a carton of eggs into the refrigerator.

Industrial robots have progressively become more and more sophisticated. But the potential for
much broader industrial and consumer acceptance is tied to the development and advances
occurring in the second phase of the robotics evolution, which we're in the early days of right
now. These robots aren't simply programmed to perform repetitive tasks--they can absorb data,
recognize objects, and respond to information and objects in their environment with greater
accuracy.

The Japanese were leaders and early adopters when it came to industrial robotics, but now we're
seeing more activity and innovation coming from companies in the U.S. and Europe as well. And
we expect robotics to eventually touch every industry and evolve into a truly global opportunity
with a worldwide landscape of players over time.


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ROBOTS ARE MODERNI ZI NG HEALTHCARE
One great thing about robotics is that when you are aware of it, you know that it's improving
your life. Cultural acceptance is really key here, and our ability to touch and interact with the
robots is important. There are a number of areas in the global economy where people might
actually be surprised to learn about the participation of robots.

For example, people have talked about the concept of self-driving cars for decades. If you
happen to drive anywhere near San Francisco, you'll probably end up driving next to one made
by Google; I have, several times. When you see one, you know what you're looking at, but I
don't think that anyone expected to be commuting alongside self-driving cars in a public corridor
so soon-- and yet we are. And of course there is iRobot's Roomba home robot vacuum cleaner,
which has now sold more than 7 million units in over 50 countries worldwide. There is even a
neat start-up company called Romotive that has developed a small, mobile robotic platform that
uses your iPhone as its "brain."

There are many ways that robots are increasingly being used to modernize healthcare and related
services. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci surgical robots are used by doctors in the U.S. as the
standard of care to perform minimally invasive prostatectomies. They're also used here, and to a
lesser extent around the world, to perform hysterectomies, lung surgery, and certain cardiac, ear,
nose, and throat procedures, too.

Another great example comes from iRobot, a company whose RP-VITA clinical remote presence
robot utilizes a mounted iPad to allow offsite specialists to interact with patients and administer
care. This platform enables doctors and practitioners to administer more personalized services
than would be available through the web or stand-alone kiosks. Eventually these robots might
make their way into patients' own homes, or other locations like elderly care facilities, just as
robotic home vacuum cleaners and floor washing units are today.
MI LI TARY AND PUBLI C SAFETY ARE BURGEONI NG MARKETS
One sector that has significantly increased its adoption of robotics is the military, where they've
essentially gone from zero ground robots in 2002 to over 5,000 ground robots today. The
expectation is that over time robots will be used more and more for reconnaissance, battlefield
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support, and sentry duty. This is in addition to the tasks commonly associated with them now,
such as the detection and disposal of explosive devices, or radar tracking and missile defense.
These robots will be fully autonomous, enable remote awareness, and be capable of going places,
determining what's happening in their environment, and transmitting information about it as
needed. There's every expectation that they will operate close to military personnel in the field
and act as a force multiplier.

Similarly, we expect to see robots make an impact in the public safety area. The adoption of
modern information technology within the first responder community has been lagging behind
other segments, but with the FirstNet initiative (a single, nationwide interoperable public safety
broadband network being built and operated to help police, firefighters, emergency medical
service professionals and other public safety officials perform their jobs and stay safe) becoming
viable, there are a number of robotics companies--established firms and startups--ready to
provide robotic products that can help make a difference.

For instance, there are several companies pursuing the concept of quadrocopters to be used in
emergency response situations for military and commercial applications. These are unmanned,
remote-controlled flying drones that can serve as reconnaissance tools to provide real-time
assessments and monitor dangerous situations. Another similar idea is iRobot's throwable
surveillance robot concept. Imagine a five-pound robot with cameras and sensors that emergency
personnel can literally toss into a burning building or a hostage situation and, through the use of
a tablet, immediately have on-the-ground situational awareness and two-way communications
capabilities with people on site, without putting lives at risk.
I NNOVATI ON MUST BE BALANCED AGAINST SCALE AND PROFI TABI LI TY
The development of robots is a multi-disciplinary exercise, which is why you tend to see a lot of
the real cutting-edge innovation come out of academia--academic researchers aren't held captive
by the need to generate profitable growth, and they aren't subject to conference calls around
quarterly earnings. One such academic program that comes to mind is the University of
Pennsylvania's General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Perception (GRASP) Lab, where
they are doing some really interesting work on autonomous quadrocopters that utilize a control
system and sensors to fly indoors as well as outdoors.
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People in academia can come up with incredibly innovative robots that look really neat, but the
challenge is to take an innovative idea and turn it into a physical product that can be
manufactured for profit. It is very difficult, however, to bring an innovative concept to market,
protect the intellectual property, create a distribution model, build a brand, identify customers,
and find the right price point based on the market.

As a firm, we own iRobot and have followed the company for quite some time. They're a "rule
breaker" in the robotics space, having scaled into a half-billion dollar revenue business--a good
amount of that is driven by sales of home robots, like their vacuum-cleaning Roomba and floor-
cleaning Scooba robots, and is complimented by sales of unmanned ground robots to the defense
and security sectors.

One thing we like about their approach is that they apply the necessary financial rigor to the
markets in the projects they pursue while remaining innovative. One project they previously
worked on (but ceased because it was difficult to make the numbers work) was a robotic sea
turtle, called the Transphibian. It had fins that enabled it to swim and maneuver in both shallow
and deep water, and even crawl along the bottom of the ocean. They have also worked on "robot
slime" for the government, which mechanically oozes like actual slime mold as it climbs up
walls and across ceilings, and also on robots that have a softer, human-like grip...much softer
than, say, the robots on the manufacturing line.

I think we will see much broader acceptance of robots when concepts evolve from being neat
prototype ideas to real products that make a profound impact in people's lives. These will be
robots that help us do things better, faster, and with greater knowledge about the world around
us. Ironically, they might even help us improve relationships we have with other people in
remote locations, making us more human in the process.
ARTICLE #2: NASAS EXOSKELETON IN SPACE
http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oct/home/feature_exoskeleton.html
NASA's Ironman-Like Exoskeleton Could Give Astronauts, Paraplegics Improved Mobility and
Strength August 2, 2013
Project Engineer Roger Rovekamp demonstrates the X1 Robotic Exoskeleton for resistive
exercise, rehabilitation and mobility augmentation in the Advanced Robotics Development Lab.
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Marvel Comic's fictional superhero, Ironman, uses a
powered armor suit that allows him superhuman strength.
While NASA's X1 robotic exoskeleton can't do what you
see in the movies, the latest robotic, space technology,
spinoff derived from NASA's Robonaut 2 project may
someday help astronauts stay healthier in space with the
added benefit of assisting paraplegics in walking here on
Earth.
NASA and The Florida Institute for Human and Machine
Cognition (IHMC) of Pensacola, Fla., with the help of
engineers from Oceaneering Space Systems of Houston,
have jointly developed a robotic exoskeleton called X1. The
57-pound device is a robot that a human could wear over his
or her body either to assist or inhibit movement in leg joints.
In the inhibit mode, the robotic device would be used as an
in-space exercise machine to supply resistance against leg
movement. The same technology could be used in reverse
on the ground, potentially helping some individuals walk for the first time.
"Robotics is playing a key role aboard the International Space Station and will continue to be
critical as we move toward human exploration of deep space," said Michael Gazarik, director of
NASA's Space Technology Program. "What's extraordinary about space technology and our
work with projects like Robonaut are the unexpected possibilities space tech spinoffs may have
right here on Earth. It's exciting to see a NASA-developed technology that might one day help
people with serious ambulatory needs begin to walk again, or even walk for the first time. That's
the sort of return on investment NASA is proud to give back to America and the world."
Worn over the legs with a harness that reaches up the back and around the shoulders, X1 has 10
degrees of freedom, or joints - four motorized joints at the hips and the knees, and six passive
joints that allow for sidestepping, turning and pointing, and flexing a foot. There also are
multiple adjustment points, allowing the X1 to be used in many different ways.
X1 currently is in a research and development phase, where the primary focus is design,
evaluation and improvement of the technology. NASA is examining the potential for the X1 as
an exercise device to improve crew health both aboard the space station and during future long-
duration missions to an asteroid or Mars. Without taking up valuable space or weight during
missions, X1 could replicate common crew exercises, which are vital to keeping astronauts
healthy in microgravity. In addition, the device has the ability to measure, record and stream
back, in real-time, data to flight controllers on Earth, giving doctors better feedback on the
impact of the crew's exercise regimen.
As the technology matures, X1 also could provide a robotic power boost to astronauts as they
work on the surface of distant planetary bodies. Coupled with a spacesuit, X1 could provide
additional force when needed during surface exploration, improving the ability to walk in a
reduced gravity environment, providing even more bang for its small bulk.
Here on Earth, IHMC is interested in developing and using X1 as an assistive walking device. By
combining NASA technology and walking algorithms developed at IHMC, X1 has the potential
to produce high torques to allow for assisted walking over varied terrain, as well as stair
climbing. Preliminary studies using X1 for this purpose have already started at IHMC.
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"We greatly value our collaboration with NASA," said Ken Ford, IHMC's director and CEO.
"The X1's high-performance capabilities will enable IHMC to continue performing cutting-edge
research in mobility assistance while expanding into the field of rehabilitation."
The potential of X1 extends to other applications, including rehabilitation, gait modification and
offloading large amounts of weight from the wearer. Preliminary studies by IHMC have shown
X1 to be more comfortable, easier to adjust, and easier to put on than previous exoskeleton
devices. Researchers plan on improving on the X1 design, adding more active joints to areas
such as the ankle and hip, which will, in turn, increase the potential uses for the device.
Designed in only a few years, X1 came from technology developed for Robonaut 2 and IHMC's
Mina exoskeleton.
NASA's Game Changing Development Program, part of NASA's Space Technology Program,
funds the X1 work. NASA's Space Technology Program focuses on maturing advanced space
technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for space missions and solutions to
significant national needs.



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ARTICLE #3: NEW MATERIAL COULD MAKE ROBOT MUSCLES BETTER,
FASTER, STRONGER
http://www.engadget.com/2009/03/20/new-material-could-make-robot-muscles-better-faster-
stronger/
(and VIDEO, 50sec)
There's already been countless advances in the always
exciting field of robot muscles, but a team of researchers
from the University of Texas have now made what
appears to be a considerable leap forward, which they
say could allow for "performance characteristics that
have not previously been obtained." The key to that is an
entirely new material comprised of ribbons of tangled
nanotubes, which can expand its width by 220% when a
voltage is applied and return to its original shape in just
milliseconds when the voltage is removed. What's more, the material is not only "stronger than
steel and stiffer than diamond," but it's able to withstand an extreme range of temperatures from -
196 C to 1538 C, which could allow robots equipped with the muscles to operate with ease in a
wide variety of off-world colonies, er, "harsh environments." Head on past the break for a
demonstration of the material in its non-robot form.

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ARTICLE #4: HOW ROBOTIC APPENDAGES WORK
http://human-meets-robot.wikispaces.com/How+Robotic+Appendages+Work
Robotic News
On page 337 in the Biological Psychology textbook written by S. Marc Breedlove, Mark R.
Rosenzweig, and Neil V. Watson, an excerpt titled "Cortical Neurons Control Movements of a
Robotic Arm" describes how signals from a motor cortex of a rat can control one-dimensional
robotic arm movements, which parallel the rat's own arm movement.

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It seems that reality trumps classic science fiction as new research takes the bionic arms of the
Six Million Dollar Man

According to the Daily Mail, two patients have successfully undergone a surgical procedure that
links the advanced prosthetic to the absent limb's nerves and reroutes the nerves to the upper
torso, where they grow toward the skin surface. While the redirected nerves make th from
fantasy to feasibility. Scientists from the United States have developed an artificial hand and a
groundbreaking surgical technique that work in tandem and promise to restore the sense of touch
to amputees.e patients feel sensations from their "hands" on their chest, researchers suggest that
the technique may be manipulated to offer amputees the hope of replacing lost appendages with
artificial arms that simulate feelings of pressure and pain.

The patients, Claudia Mitchell, an ex-US Marine, and Jesse Sullivan, now wear the most
advanced prostheses in the world after the surgery conducted by the Rehabilitation Institute of
Chicago's Dr. Todd Kuiken. The surgical technique, dubbed targeted reinnervation (TR),
promises to revolutionize the treatment options for amputees. Researchers hope that within a few
years such prosthetic limbs may be available on a wide scale.

Equally important to the prospect of returning sensation to patients is that the treatment returns
limb mobility as well. Indeed, scientists envision bionic arms available to all amputees that not
only transmit sensory impressions to their wearers, but whose movement is controlled by their
owner's thoughts. Ms. Mitchell is the first beneficiary of such a vision, boasting that she not only
feels pain and pressure from her new arm (on her chest), but that she can peel a banana and cut
steak too. The movement is made possible by the redirected nerves near the skin surface that
send electrical signals to sensors on her chest and are picked up by the artificial appendage.


How Does a Prosthetic Hand Work?
By Kristie Karns
Static and Dynamic Prosthetics
1. A static prosthesis is one that does not use electronics in order to function. A good
example would be the old fashioned hook which is designed so that two metal hooks
come together to grasp an object. The user cannot feel anything at the hook end, therefore
they must watch what they are doing at all times. By contrast, a dynamic prosthesis, or
one that uses electronics to function, can be made to resemble a real hand, both in
outward appearance and in the movement of the fingers. Some older varieties of
electronic prosthetic devices are operated by the movement of remaining arm muscles,
the result of which is that the hand opens and closes and the wrist turns to grasp and lift
objects. These hands generally operate with all the fingers moving together with no
independent movement.
Sensors and Electrodes
1. There are even some prosthetic hands that use sensors to detect hot and cold sensations
and transmit these signals to electrodes that are attached to the wearer's skin. Many of
these same hands can move the thumb, index and middle fingers independently of the
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others, to make a more flexible and natural looking hand. The patient can be trained in
the use of these prostheses to the point where the new hand becomes second nature and
he is able to do much of what he would have been able to do with two good hands,
including typing, holding slender objects like cardboard and paper and lifting relatively
heavy objects.
Myoelectric Signals and Computerized Motors
1. Prosthetic hands are operated by myoelectric signals from the remainder of the natural
arm, using electrodes which carry signals that guide five tiny computerized motors to
enable the hand to move. The newest, most modern of these hands can wiggle all five
fingers independently, grasp items in a fist and basically do everything that a natural hand
can do. Unlike the older models the new prosthetic hands are designed to have a softer,
more natural feel and appearance and are generally matched to the patient's natural skin
color to be as unobtrusive as possible. Batteries are used to run the motors inside the
fingers and wrist

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ARTICLE #5: BETTER, FASTER, AND CHEAPER THESE ROBOTS ARE
INVADING CAR MANUFACTURING PLANTS
http://singularityhub.com/2012/05/04/better-faster-and-cheaper-these-robots-are-invading-car-
manufacturing-plants/
(and VIDEO, 2min51sec)
Does anyone doubt that it really is just a matter
of time before human assembly line workers are
a thing of the past? And automakers are doing
their best to gain a competitive edge by
roboticizing their manufacturing plants. Heres
a glimpse of some of the robots that have
recently stepped onto the assembly line floor.
When Fords 2013 Escape hits the road later
this year, its a safe bet that no one will notice
just how precisely its parts are put together,
compared to past models. The improved
assemblage is due to a group of robots which
use lasers and cameras to fit windshields, door
panels, and fenders together more closely. When installing a windshield, a robot deposits
adhesive evenly around the glass border, then uses a suction cup to move and secure it. Gaps
between pieces are smaller, which makes for a more aerodynamic and quieter ride due to
decreased wind noise.
The 2013 Escape is their first US-manufactured car to benefit from the seeing-eye robots. Ford
had already been using the robots at their manufacturing plants in Europe but only recently
installed 700 of them at their Louisville, Kentucky plant. The robots raise the quality of assembly
to custom-like build, Ford engineer Thomas Burns said in a press release. The robots also give
a boost to the all important bottom line by saving energy and reducing the physical strain exerted
by their human co-workers.
And if you have laser-vision robots, you might as well use them to inspect their own handiwork.
Check out Fords incredible robots in the following video. You can almost sense an awareness
behind their scrutinizing inspection.
Ford cars will also have nicer coats to show off their improved assembly. The company is
bringing 88 new robots to apply paint and sealer to vehicles. By getting rid of all the humans in
paint zones the plant saves money by minimizing the need for climate and air current control.
And Ford isnt completely automation-centric with their robotic upgrades. Last year the
company bought robotic arms that turn their assembly workers into ergonomic cyborgs. Made by
Equipois Inc., the X-Ar arms are wearable exoskeletons that bear the weight of the workers
arms as they repeatedly grab small objects and assemble them. The X-Ars not only reduce
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fatigue and risk of ergonomic injury, but they increase manual dexterity and, ultimately,
productivity.
GM is doing their part to keep up with their competitors by adopting their own robotic
appendage. With the help of NASA, the carmaker developed a robotic glove that, like the X-Ar,
reduces the stress of repetitive motions on the assembly line. The so-called Human Grasp Assist
Device, or Robo-Glove, is still a prototype. The arm comes with sensors, actuators, and
simulated nerves, muscles and tendons that give its wearers an additional 10 pounds of bionic
grip force while using tools. Robo-Glove is a spinoff of NASAs humanoid robot, Robonaut 2,
that is a permanent member of the International Space Station crew lending a helping hand with
dangerous or mundane tasks.
Always at the forefront of increased efficiency through technology, China opened an automotive
plant last August in Tianjin that is perhaps the most advanced in the world. The plant, belonging
to Chinese automaker Great Wall Motors, has 30 workstations occupied by 27 robots that
perform more than 4,000 high-precision welding operations. The robots are so fast they can
complete the welding of an entire Haval SUV in just 86 seconds. On the assembly line, more
than many other places, time is money.
The master welders are actually a team of two types of robot, the IRB 6640 and IRB 7600, made
by Swedish-Swiss robotics giant ABB Robotics. The IRB 7600 acts as the 6640s assistant,
holding panels and other equipment in place while IRB 6640 welds the parts together. The IRB
6640 is packing servo-driven welding guns which are 25 percent faster than traditional,
pneumatic welding guns. Whats more, the robots are flexible enough to weld different car
models.
Of course, automanufacturing plants arent the only ones being taken over by robots. Right now
there are over 190,000 ABB robots in automotive factories worldwide, and last year ABB
unveiled FRIDA, the two-armed, headless concept robot thats meant to do what human
assembly line workers can to, but do it better. FRIDAs small size and 7 degrees-of-freedom
arms makes for easy installation and flexibility to do whatever a particular manufacturing plant
needs it to do.
Up 30 percent from 2010, robot sales exceeded all expectations last year, according to the
International Federation of Robotics. Increased demand from places like China, where
manufacturing is expanding, and lowered costs make it easier and more sensible for companies
to replace their human workers with robotic ones. Maybe we should stop worrying about the
robot apocalypse and start worrying about the human apocalypse that could result from so many
factory workers out of the job.
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Robotic Appendages and Sensors #1










































SENSORS
VISUAL: Robots can be equipped with
a variety of sensors. Some detect the
visual range of light (ROYGBIV). Others
can detect infrared and heat signatures.
AUDITORY: In addition to visual
sensors, robots can be equipped with
auditory sensors that can hear sound
and even recognize speech, if the robot
is programmed for it.
OLFACTORY: The mechanics exist that
robots could be programed to smell
using a device like the Cyranose 320.
PRESSURE: Pressure sensors can be
used to control a robots grip so that it
can grasp an object without damaging
it.
A nearly unlimited list of other sensors
exists and all can be connected to a
robot.
POWER SOURCES
Robots can be equipped with a variety
of power sources depending on the
intended use of the robot.
BATTERY: This allows the robot to
move unencumbered by a power cord
but has a limited duration. The
popular Roomba uses a rechargeable
battery.
AC/DC (wall plug): This has the
advantage of never running out. But,
the connection to the wall socket
creates a tether that restricts the
movement of the robot.
SOLAR: This had the advantage of
being free and available during at
least half the time. A robot can store
this energy but could still run out if
not able to recharge in time.
COMBUSTION:
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Robotic Appendages and Sensors #2
















































DISPLAYS and SCREENS
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display This is a
very common display used on a lot of
small robots. There can be other types
of alphanumeric (made of letters and
numbers) displays as well. The two
pictures here are both LCDs.
LED: An LED is like a tiny light bulb but
it can be different colors based on what
kind of semiconductor material is used
inside it.
OLED: Organic Light Emitting Diode
This type is a thinner surface and does
not need backlighting. Typically OLED
is used in mobile devices like smart
phones and also in televisions.
AMOLED: Active-Matrix Organic
Light Emitting Diode Similar to
OLED but can allow for a higher
resolution which makes the picture
sharper and more detailed.
MOBILITY/MOVEMENT
Different types of movement work in
different environments. Here are some
common forms of movement used by
robots.
WHEELS, TREADS, LEGS for land
ARIAL (PROPELLERS, ROTORS, ETC)
for air
PROPELLERS for water
ENGINE (COMBUSTION) various
terrains
JETS (PROPELLANT) specialized
uses
OTHER: Some robots even move like
snakes and others dont move at all, like
those in factories. The possibilities are
only limited by imagination and
engineering.

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Robotic Appendages and Sensors #3










































APPENDAGES and TOOLS

GRIPS: A basic way of manipulating an
object.
HANDS: These could be crude or
almost as sophisticated as human
hands.
CUTTING TOOLS: Many manufacturing
robots have these.
FLAMETHROWER: BattleBots built to
fight each other for human
entertainment are likely to have showy
and exciting weapons.
These are only a few examples of useful
appendages. The type of tools used by
robots is as endless as the number of
jobs that robots can complete.
MOBILITY/MOVEMENT
Different types of movement work in
different environments. Here are some
common forms of movement used by
robots.
WHEELS, TREADS, LEGS for land
ARIAL (PROPELLERS, ROTORS, ETC)
for air
PROPELLERS for water
ENGINE (COMBUSTION) various
terrains
JETS (PROPELLANT) specialized
uses
OTHER: Some robots even move like
snakes and others dont move at all, like
those in factories. The possibilities are
only limited by imagination and
engineering.

OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Page 67 of 81
LESSON #3
Domo arigato, Mr. Roboto!

I. DEFINE OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT
LESSON
OBJECTIVE

Students will be able modify the building and programing of their
robots when given a financial challenge or asked to make their
robot transition by a different unit of measurement.

Students will be to distinguish between societal views of how
certain forms of medium robots.

POINTS TO
PONDER

What challenges and modifications do scientists endure when
designing, building, and programming robots?

Does the scarcity of robots in everyday life, effect the users'
expectations and interpretations about robots stem from the
media?

ESSENTIAL
QUESTION

How do challenges influence the modifications of robotic design?

How does our perception of robots from the media affect our
interaction with them in real life?

CONTENT
Outline the content
you will teach in
this lesson.
A. Portrayal of Robots
2. Science Fiction Literature
c. 1920 play "R.U.R." ("Rossum's Universal
Robots"), by Karel Capek (1890-1938)
d. 1941 Issac Asimov wrote Liar which
included the three laws of Robotics
i. robot cannot injure a human being or let
one come to harm
ii. robot must obey a human except where
such orders conflict with first law
iii. robot must protect its own existence as
long as it does not conflict with 1
st
or 2
nd
law
B. Media Portrayal
d. Movies
i. 1950s, Gort, from the film The Earth Stood
Still
ii. 1956, Robby the Robot in Forbidden Planet
iii. 1977, C-3PO, R2-D2 in Stars Wars
iv. 1986, Johnny 5 in Short Circuit
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v. 1984, T-800, in Terminator
vi. 1999, Sentinals in The Matrix
e. News
i. Rovers sent to Mars from 1971 - present
f. Popular Literature (Comics)
i. Marvel Comics
ii. DC Comics


II. PRE-PLANNING
What will students
UNDERSTAND as
a result of this
lesson? How does
this connect to the
Essential
Question?

Students will be able to understand certain factors affect the
design, building, and programming of robots.

Students will be able understand how movies and other forms of
media effect their views and reactions to robots in real life.
What will students
be able to DO as a
result of this
lesson?

Students will be able to use their prior knowledge to modify their
robot or the robotic program they are using, to meet the criteria of
the challenge.

Students will be able to recognize the effects the media has on
societys view of robots.


III. PLANNING
HOOK
Describe how you
will grab students
attention at the
beginning of the
lesson.
BE CREATIVE.

TIME: 5 minutes
HOOK and FOCUS:
Ask students: How does TV, the movies, and other forms of
media influence or affect your opinion about robots?
Have students watch the youtube video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-2Jd7v5qd0
Discuss what students viewed in the movie
INSTRUCTION
Explain Step-by-
step what you will
do in this lesson.
Be explicit about
ties to Points to
Ponder, Essential
Question, and
Interactions here.
Include ALL
support and

TIME: 55 minutes
Activity (20 minutes)
Ask students to play the Robot in the Media Game. In this
activity have students get into pairs and try to match the
form of medium with the correct description. (teacher pre-
lesson note: copy 6 copies of Robot in the Media Game and
have them already cutout)
Discuss why they choose the answers they and then display
the answers on the Elmo.
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 69 of 81
teaching materials
with your unit.
Ask students what an automatons are? If answer cannot be
probe, provide answer automatons are mechanical
devices built during the middles ages that were programmed
to do one or two things, not true robots
Explain to students they going to complete a
AUTOMATONS Worksheet. Follow the directions on the
sheet but first watch a video clip from the movie Wild Wild
West (Teacher note: Show only the section where the
automatron makes is debute..towards the end..and the
sound is muted. Show only the first minute so students get
the idea.)

BUILDING (35 minutes)
- Have students get their checklist out from yesterday.
Explain to students that today you will be challenged
in building and working with your robots. Look at your
checklist and see what challenge you will have with
your robot. Answer any questions they may have.
- Have students complete Day 3 of the checklist. . As
students are completing the task, monitor and
address any questions or issues that arise.
ASSESSMENT
(Performance
Task) What will
the students DO
to demonstrate
that they have
mastered the
content? Be
specific and
include actual
assessment with
unit materials.
TIME: 10 minutes

DEMONSTRATION (5 minutes)
Students will share the modifications they have made for
their NXT robot. For those doing the underwater robot have
them share how they succeeded in the challenge.

Discussion (5 minutes)
Ask students Why do you think people are so fascinated
with robots? Discuss.



DOES THE ASSESSMENT ALLOW YOU TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THE
STUDENTS HAVE MET YOUR STATED LESSON OBJECTIVE? YES OR NO

ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
NXT Lego Robot (12 TOTAL for two classes)
UNDERWATER ROBOT PARTS (6 TOTAL for two classes)
ROBOTIC JOURNAL - Journals are an original booklet created for this class (1 each
student)
iPad (for video/picture taking as well as basic computer functions) (1 for whole camp)
FLIP CHART and MARKERS (1 set for whole camp)
POSTERBOARD (50 sheets for whole camp)
DESKTOP COMPUTERS (4 in room for students)
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LAPTOP COMPUTERS (1 for teachers only)
ROBOT LIBRARY (books and other materials on display TWO TRIFOLD BOARDS (1
each teacher)
LAB GEAR - (Lab coats, pocket protectors, fake glasses, etc.) (12 each)
SOFTWARE for NXT Robots (free downloads as needed)
VIDEOS, PRESENTATIONS and other Electronic Materials
Teacher worksheets : Robots in the Media, including answer key
Automatron Worksheet






































OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Robots in the Media




The movie: Bicentennial Man and AI
Artificial Intelligence

What writer has created a connection
between science and science fiction with
his Three Laws of Robotics which were
in the movies I, Robot and Robocop?



Isaac Asimov

One of the first full length movies that
depicted the emotional fallouts of
robots that are self-aware.



Astro Boy" or "Doraemon"

Describes a robotic program, which
started in Toronto, Canada and had
robots called Pebbles. It was such a
success, that it influenced the United
States to do the same and changed the
lives of many children.





Newspaper Article: Robot Allows
Students to Attend Class



Television series that included a
competition between robots that had
peak audiences of 4 million, and was
commercially successful in its
merchandising



Robot Wars

Japanese comic strip that scientists
that were influenced by these medias
works, as they were the ones to embark
them on the path of robot development
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 72 of 81
Robots in the Media Answer Key




The movie: Bicentennial Man and AI
Artificial Intelligence

One of the first full length movies that
depicted the emotional fallouts of
robots that are self-aware..



Isaac Asimov

What writer has created a connection
between science and science fiction with
his Three Laws of Robotics which were
in the movies I, Robot and Robocop?




Astro Boy" or "Doraemon"


Japanese comic strip that scientists
that were influenced by these medias
works, as they were the ones to embark
them on the path of robot development .





Newspaper Article: Robot Allows
Students to Attend Class



Describes a robotic program which had
robots called Pebbles started in
Toronto, Canada.. It was such a success,
that it influenced the United States to
do the same and changed the lives of
many children


Robot Wars

Television series that included a
competition between robots that had
peak audiences of 4 million, and was
commercially successful in its
merchandising


OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Page 73 of 81


AUTOMATONS ACTIVITY

Consider Automatons in history and film.

Watch a portion of the 1999, Barry Sonnenfeld film, Wild, Wild West, on DVD. Notice the
amazing automatons created by the bad guy, Dr. Arliss Loveless.

Look up the sources listed below.
http://www.ancientautomatons.com/cadres/cadres.htm
http://www.fi.edu/pieces/knox/automaton/

Then with paper and pencil, create your own automaton cutaway design that could be in your
favorite movie, book, or TV series. Like this:

















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Page 74 of 81


LESSON #4
Resistance is Futile

I. DEFINE OBJECTIVES AND CONTENT
LESSON
OBJECTIVE

Students will be able apply their knowledge of robotic design and
programming to complete a pre-determined mission.

Students will be able to distinguish how effective artificial
intelligence is in social interactions?

POINT TO
PONDER

What are some tasks or missions that humans, are better able to
complete than robots?

Robots could soon be self-aware and be independent citizens.

ESSENTIAL
QUESTION

What knowledge is needed about robotic design and programming
to succeed in completing the mission?

How can the advancement of artificial intelligence, create robots
with human like persona?

CONTENT
Outline the content
you will teach in
this lesson.
VIII. Artificial Intelligence
C. Advent of Artificial Intelligence
5. Definition
6. Turing Test (1947)
7. John McCarthy coined the phrase (1955)
8. Began at Darmouth College in 1956
D. Uses of AI
6. Companionship
a. AI therapist
7. Entertainment
8. Navigation
a. US Strategic Defense Initiative and AI (war
games)
9. Academic Problem-solving
10. Manufacturing


OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Page 75 of 81
II. PRE-PLANNING
What will
students
UNDERSTAND
as a result of this
lesson? How
does this
connect to the
Essential
Question?

Students will understand how to program and design robots and the
important role they play in completing missions for the safety and
advancement of mankind?

Students will understand the role artificial intelligence plays in the
development and design of robots.
What will
students be able
to DO as a result
of this lesson?

Students will be able to design their own real world
missions/scenarios and program their robots to accomplish them.

Students will be able to recognize that artificial intelligence or AI will
continue to evolve the interaction of humans and robots in many
ways.

II. PLANNING
HOOK
Describe how
you will grab
students
attention at the
beginning of
the lesson.
BE
CREATIVE.

TIME: 5 minutes
HOOK and FOCUS
Ask students, do you think robots and humans can interact in
the same way humans do with each other? Discuss students
responses.
Show movie clip from Short Circuit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7wj3bB6OU4
Ask students: Do you think robots can display spontaneous
emotional responses as seen in this movie clip? Discuss
students response.

INSTRUCTION
Explain Step-
by-step what
you will do in
this lesson. Be
explicit about
ties to Points
to Ponder,
Essential
Question, and
Interactions
here. Include
ALL support
and teaching
materials with
TIME: 55 minutes

DISCUSS (5 minutes)
Do you think robots can hold a spontaneous conversation with
a human and respond accordingly to human questions?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhVu2hxm07E
Ask students what thoughts or questions do they have from
what they just saw. Discuss students inquiry into the video clip.

RESEARCH (20 minutes)
Ask students: Would you know if you are having a conversation
with a robot and not even know it? Discuss their responses.
Explain to students that what robotic scientists wanted to
determine if they could, they called it the Turing Test.
Have students get into groups of 2-4. Pass out Whats the
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
TRACY MCINTYRE and SHANNON TURNER
Page 76 of 81
your unit. Turing Test All About? worksheet. Have students read the
passage independently and then in groups discuss their
answers to the questions on the back of the sheet. (the teacher
should walk around and monitor/supervise to make sure
students are on task and be available if any questions arise
from the groups)
Explain to students that they will now participate in a Turning
test. Ask for volunteers to be Speaker A and Speaker B. The
rest of the students will be a judge. They will have to determine
which speaker is the computer and which speaker is human.
Pass out a copy of the Turing Test Conversation to the
volunteer students only. Have them pre-read it so they can
make sure they are familiar with directions given with some
answers. All other students follow along as Speaker A and
Speaker B read the worksheet Turing Test Conversation out
loud to them.
After the conversation has been read have students vote on
which speaker they think the computer is and which is the
human. Have them justify their answers. (answer: speaker B is
the computer)
Have students watch the video clip below to see an actual
Turing Test being done and have them respond with thoughts
or questions they have about the video clip.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TX6h1u3PM8k

BUILDING (35 minutes)
Have students get their checklist out. Explain to students that
today they will be completing their mission with their robot.
Answer any questions they may have.
Have students complete Day 4 of the checklist. As students are
completing the task, monitor and address any questions or
issues that arise.
(teacher note: record students on camera and then put their video on
a CD along with pictures of the weeks adventures in the robotic
matrix. Provide a copy to all students at the end of the lesson).

ASSESSMENT
(Performance
Task) What will
the students DO
to demonstrate
that they have
mastered the
content? Be
specific and
include actual
assessment with

TIME: 10 minutes

DEMONSTRATION and DISCUSSION (10 minutes)
Students will demonstrate their robots completing their mission
to their peers.
Students are to discuss how they were able to achieve success
in their mission and what obstacles they had to overcome.
Ask students the following question and discuss their answers:
How does creating humanoid robot who can participate in
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Page 77 of 81
unit materials. human social conversations, via AI, help assimilate robots into
society?


DOES THE ASSESSMENT ALLOW YOU TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THE
STUDENTS HAVE MET YOUR STATED LESSON OBJECTIVE? YES OR NO

ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
NXT Lego Robot (12 TOTAL for two classes)
UNDERWATER ROBOT PARTS (6 TOTAL for two classes)
Worksheets: What is the Turing Test All About?
Turing Test Conversation
iPad (for video/picture taking as well as basic computer functions) (1 for whole camp)
FLIP CHART and MARKERS (1 set for whole camp)
POSTERBOARD (50 sheets for whole camp)
DESKTOP COMPUTERS (4 in room for students)
LAPTOP COMPUTERS (1 for teachers only)
ROBOT LIBRARY (books and other materials on display)
TWO TRIFOLD BOARDS (1 each teacher)
LAB GEAR - (Lab coats, pocket protectors, fake glasses, etc.) (12 each)
SOFTWARE for NXT Robots (free downloads as needed)



















\
\




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Whats the Turing Test All About?

For centuries philosophers have argued about whether a machine could simulate human
intelligence, and, conversely, whether the human brain is no more than a machine running a
glorified computer program. This issue has sharply divided people. Some find the idea
preposterous, insane, or even blasphemous, while others believe that artificial intelligence is
inevitable and that eventually we will develop machines that are just as intelligent as us. (As
countless science fiction authors have pointed out, if machines do eventually surpass our own
intelligence they will themselves be able to construct even cleverer machines.) Artificial
Intelligence (AI) researchers have been criticized for using their lofty goals as a means for
attracting research funding from governments who seek to build autonomous war machines,
while the researchers themselves decry the protests as a Luddite backlash and point to the
manifest benefits to society if only there was a bit more intelligence around. A more balanced
view is that artificial intelligence is neither preposterous nor inevitable: while no present
computer programs exhibit intelligence in any broad sense, the question of whether they are
capable of doing so is an experimental one that has not yet been answered either way.

The AI debate hinges on a definition of intelligence. Many definitions have been proposed
and debated. An interesting approach to establishing intelligence was proposed in the late 1940s
by Alan Turing, an eminent British mathematician, wartime counterspy and long-distance
runner, as a kind of thought experiment. Turings approach was operationalrather than
define intelligence, he described a situation in which a computer could demonstrate it. His
scenario was similar to the activity described above, the essence being to have an interrogator
interacting with both a person and a computer through a teletypewriter link (the very latest in
1940s technology!) If the interrogator could not reliably distinguish one from the other, the
computer would have passed Turings test for intelligence. The use of a teletypewriter avoided
the problem of the computer being given away by physical characteristics or tone of voice. One
can imagine extending the exercise so that the machine had to imitate a person in looks, sound,
touch, maybe even smell toobut these physical attributes seem hardly relevant to intelligence.

Taken from: Computer Science Unplugged c Bell, Witten, and Fellows, 1998

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After reading discuss with a partner or small group
the following questions:
- Do you think the Turing Test is an accurate
assessment of human and computer
interaction? Why or Why not?
- What do you find most interesting about what
the reading?
- What questions do you think would help you
to determine if you are talking to a human or
computer robot?














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Page 80 of 81
Turing Test Conversation

Speaker A: What is the name of Bart Simpsons baby sister?
Speaker B: I cant remember.

Speaker A: What do you think of Roald Dahl?
Speaker B: He writes funny books.

Speaker A: Are you a computer?
Speaker B: Are you a computer?

Speaker A: What is the next number in the sequence 3, 6, 9, 12, 15?
Speaker B: 18.

Speaker A: What do you think of nuclear weapons?
Speaker B: Nuclear weapons are very dangerous and should not be used.

Speaker A: What is 2 times 78?
Speaker B: 166 (This is deliberately incorrect!)

Speaker A: What is the square root of two?
Speaker B: 1.41421356237309504878

Speaker A: Add 34957 to 70764.
Speaker B: Wait for about 20 seconds before giving the answer . . . 105621.

Speaker A: Do you like school?
Speaker B: Yes, I like school.

Speaker A: Do you like dancing?
Speaker B: Yes, I like dancing.

Speaker A: What day is it today?
Speaker B: Give the correct day of the week.

Speaker A: What time is it?
Speaker B: Give the correct time.

Speaker A: How many days are there in February in a leap year?
OPERATING IN THE ROBOTIC MATRIX
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Page 81 of 81
Speaker B: 2000 and 2004 are leap years.

Speaker A: How many days are there in a week?
Speaker B: Seven.

Speaker A: For which country is the flag a red circle on a white background?
Speaker B: I dont know.

Speaker A: Do you like to read books?
Speaker B: Yes, I like to read books.

Speaker A: What food do you like to eat?
Speaker B: Im not hungry, thanks.