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A Comparative Study of Consumer Preference for Various Bread Brands

Available in Ghazipur City


SUV!" P#$!C% !P#%
Submitted to
Veer Bhadur Sin&h Purvanchal University' $aunpur
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of Degree of
BAC(!)# #* BUS+,!SS A-.+,+S%A%+#,
Submitted By: Under the Supervision of:
Pritee Mrs. Fati Shafaat
BBA.4th Semester Senior Lecturer
Roll No.5460045 e!artment of Business Administration
/012
%echnical !ducation 3 esearch +nstitute
Post"#raduate $olle%e& Ra'indra!uri
#ha(i!ur " )**00+
Certificate
,his is to certif- that Pritee !ursuin% BBA 2
th
Semester from this .nstitute&
has !re!ared the Sur'e- !ro/ect re!ort entitled 0Comparative study of
consumer preference for various Bread brands available in Ghazipur city
in !artial fulfillment of the re1uirements of the de%ree of Bachelor of
Business Administration from 2eer Bhadur Sin%h Pur'anchal 3ni'ersit-&
4aun!ur& for durin% the session of )0+*")0+4.
,his re!ort is based on sur'e- !ro/ect underta5en b- Pritee under m-
su!er'ision durin% the course of fourth semester and fulfills the re1uirements of
re%ulations relatin% to the nature and standard of BBA course 2.B.S.
Pur'anchal 3ni'ersit-.
. recommend that this Sur'e- !ro/ect re!ort ma- be sent for e'aluation.
ahul Anand Sin&h *ati Shafaat
Associate Professor 6 7ead& Senior )ecturer
-ept4 of Business Administration
'


-eclaration
.& Pritee' hereb- declare that this sur'e- !ro/ect re!ort entitled
Comparative Study of Consumer Preference for Various Bread Brands
Available in Ghazipur City has been !re!ared b- me on the basis of sur'e-
done the course of m- fourth semester of BBA !roramme under the su!er'ision of
.rs4 *ati Shafaat' Senior )ecturer' e!artment of Business Administration&
,8R.& #ha(i!ur.
,his sur'e- !ro/ect re!ort is m- bonafide 9or5 and has not been submitted in
an- from to an- 3ni'esit- or .nstitute for the a9ard of an- de%ree or di!loma !rior
to the under mentioned date. . bear the entire res!onsibilit- of submission of this
!ro/ect re!ort.
*0
th
Ma- )0+4
Pritee
BBA. 4th Semester
e!artment of Business Administration
,echnical 8ducation 6 Research .nstitute
P.#. $olle%e #ha(i!ur
+,-!5 #* C#,%!,%S
Preface
Ac5no9led%ement
C(AP%! 61
.ntroduction to Bread
:b/ecti'es
.m!ortance
Sco!e

C(AP%!6/
Research Methodolo%-
C(AP%!67
ata Anal-sis 6 .nter!retations
C(AP%!62
Findin%s
Recommendations
C(AP%!68
$onclusion
Limitation
;uestionnaire
Biblio%ra!h-

P!*AC!
,he first real insi%ht of an or%ani(ation for mana%ement student comes onl- durin% his
!re!aration of !ro/ect 9or5 because student first interacts 9ith real !ractical 9or5. ,his is first
introduction to industr- and its 9or5in%. ,his !ro/ect 9or5 s-nthesi(e the theoretical conce!t
learn in the class room and its !ractical orientation in or%ani(ation.
.n m- !ro/ect . ha'e studied the Comparative study of consumer preference for various
Bread brands available in Ghazipur city
,he First cha!ter deals 9ith the introduction of the to!ic& .t also describes the !rofile and histor-
of Bread4
.n first cha!ter . ha'e mentioned introduction. ,his cha!ter also describes the 2arious Bread
$om!anies Product.
,he Second cha!ter deals 9ith research methodolo%-. ,he !rocess of carr-in% out the 9hole
research !roblem is defined in it. .t contains information about the ob/ecti'e of the research&
methods of data collection& sam!lin% and sam!le desi%n.
,he ,hird cha!ter deals 9ith research methodolo%-. ,he !rocess of carr-in% out the 9hole
research !roblem is defined in it. .t contains information about the ob/ecti'es of the research&
methods of data collection& sam!lin% and sam!le desi%n.
Fourth cha!ter is data anal-sis and inter!retation. ,his is the most im!ortant section of the
!ro/ect 9or5. ,his section contains the anal-sis of all the data collected so far and the- are
inter!reted to !roduce the final conclusion. .t contains all the tables and charts 9hich de!icts the
result.
$ha!ter Fifth contains the findin%s and recommendations of the sur'e-. ,his is based on the
data anal-(ed and inter!reted in the !re'ious cha!ter. ,his is the most im!ortant section of the
research re!ort for a re!ort is e'aluated on the 'alidit- ad correctness of findin%s and
recommendations de!icted conclusion and 1uestionnaires and reference of this !ro/ect.
And later contain biblio%ra!h-. <hich describes the list of sources from 9here the matter and
information is collected= .t contains the list of boo5s& authors& 9eb sites use etc.
Pritee
BBA 2
th
semester

AC9,#:)!-G!.!,%
Man- than5s to the #od& 9ho has sent me on this earth and b- merc- of him& . 9ould be able to
accom!lish this research.
A !erson 9ho has al9a-s encoura%ed me to9ards !ositi'e and used to sa- ,othin& can be
impossible if you are ;or<in& hard ;ith heart and soul4 ,he <ord re%ard is 'er- small for
him and . don>t 5no9 9hat 9ord 9ill be a!!ro!riate for him& that !erson is m- elder Brother .r4
ahul4
. e?!ress m- dee! sense of %ratitude and re%ards to .rs4 *ati Shafaat =Senior lecturer@ -ept4 of
mana&ement studies' %4!44+4' P4G4 Colle&e affiliated to Veer Bahadur Sin&h Purvanchal
University> under 9hose %uidance . com!leted this !ro/ect& . am than5ful to her 'aluable
%uidance& %entle encoura%ement and !ains she too5 in %uidin% me throu%hout the stud-.
Some of m- Friend& Chetn and .anish 9hose su%%estion for ?;hat is i&ht or :ron&@ has
sho9n m- aim and ob/ecti'es of life.
A%ain& . heartil- e?!ress m- re%ard to all the abo'e !erson mentioned and !ra- to the #od ?.ay
live them lon&@4
Pritee
BBA4 2th Sem4
C(AP%! A 1
+,%#-UC%+#,
+ntroduction
Bread .
Bread is a sta!le food !re!ared from a dou%h of flour and 9ater& usuall- b- ba5in%. ,hrou%hout
recorded histor- it has been !o!ular around the 9orld and is one of humanit-As oldest foods&
ha'in% been of im!ortance since the da9n of a%riculture.
,here are indefinitel- man- combinations and !ro!ortions of t-!es of flour and other in%redients&
and also of radicall- different traditional reci!es and modes of !re!aration of bread. As a result
one finds 9ide 'arieties of t-!es& sha!es& si(es& and te?tures of breads in 'arious re%ions. Bread
ma- be lea'ened b- man- different !rocesses ran%in% from reliance on naturall- occurrin%
microbes Bfor e?am!le in sourdou%h reci!es@ to hi%h"!ressure artificial aeration durin%
!re!aration andCor ba5in%. 7o9e'er& some !roducts sim!l- are left unlea'ened& either for
!reference& or for traditional or reli%ious reasons. Man- non"cereal in%redients ma- be included&
ran%in% from fruits and nuts to 'arious fats. $ommercial bread in !articular commonl- contains
additi'es& some of them non"nutritional& to im!ro'e fla'or& te?ture& colour& or shelf life.
e!endin% on local custom and con'enience& bread ma- be ser'ed in 'arious forms at an- meal
of the da-. .t also is eaten as a snac5& or used as an in%redient in other culinar- !re!arations& such
as fried items coated in crumbs to !re'ent stic5in%& or the bland main com!onent of a bread
!uddin%& or stuffin%>s desi%ned to fill ca'ities or retain /uices that other9ise mi%ht dri! a9a-.
Partl- because of the immemorial 9orld9ide im!ortance of bread as a basic foodstuff&
traditionall- a food often hard come b-& bread has ta5en on a social and emotional si%nificance
be-ond its im!ortance in nutritionD it !la-s essential roles in reli%ious rituals and secular culture.
.ts !rominence in dail- life is reflected in lan%ua%e& 9here it a!!ears in !ro'erbs BEBread falls on
the buttered side.E@ collo1uial e?!ressions BE7e stole the bread from m- mouth.E@ in !ra-er
BE#i'e us this da- our dail- bread.E@ and e'en in the et-molo%- of 9ords such as Ecom!anionE
and Ecom!an-E Bliterall- those 9ho eatCshare bread 9ith -ou@.
!tymolo&y
,he 9ord itself& :ld 8n%lish bread& is common in 'arious forms to man- #ermanic lan%ua%es&
such as Frisian brae& utch brood& #erman Broth& S9edish brood& and Nor9e%ian and
anish broodD it has been claimed to be deri'ed from the root of bre9. .t ma- be connected 9ith
the root of brea5& for its earl- uses are confined to bro5en !ieces or bits of bread&
the Latin crustum& and it 9as not until the +)th centur- that it too5 the !laceFas the %eneric
name for breadFof half Bhairs in #othicG modern 8n%lish loaf@& 9hich a!!ears to be the
oldest ,eutonic name. :ld 7i%h #erman heli?H+I and modern #erman Lab deri'e from
this Proto"#ermanic 9ord for EloafE& 9hich 9as borro9ed into Sla'ic
BPolish chleb&Russian 5ale@ and Finnie BFinnish lea!& 8stonian lei@ lan%ua%es as 9ell.
.n man- cultures& bread is a meta!hor for basic necessities and li'in% conditions in %eneral. For
e?am!le& a Ebread"9innerE is a householdAs main economic contributor and has little to do 9ith
actual bread"!ro'ision. ,his is also seen in the !hrase E!uttin% bread on the tableE. ,he Roman
!oet 4u'enal satirised su!erficial !oliticians and the !ublic as carin% onl- for E!anem et
circensesE Bbread and circuses@. .n Russia in +J+K& the Bolshe'i5s !romised E!eace& land& and
bread.EH)IH*I ,he term Ebreadbas5etE denotes an a%riculturall- !roducti'e re%ion.
.n Sla'ic cultures bread and salt is offered as a 9elcome to %uests. .n .ndia& lifeAs basic
necessities are often referred to as Eroti& 5a!ra aur ma5anE Bbread& cloth& and house@. .n .srael& the
most usual !hrase in 9or5"related demonstrations is le5hem& a'oda BEbread& 9or5E@.
,he 9ord bread is commonl- used around the 9orld in 8n%lish"s!ea5in% countries as
a s-non-m for mone- Bas is the case 9ith the 9ord Edou%hE@. A remar5able or re'olutionar-
inno'ation is often referred to in North America and the 3nited Lin%dom as Ethe %reatest thin%
since sliced breadE or Ethe best thin% since sliced breadE. .n $oc5ne- rh-min% slan%&bread means
mone-D this usa%e is deri'ed from the !hrase Ebread and hone-E.H4I urin% the +J50s
the beatni5 communit- used the term bread as a eu!hemism for mone-.
(istory
Bread is one of the oldest !re!ared foods. 8'idence from *0&000 -ears a%o in 8uro!e re'ealed
starch residue on roc5s used for !oundin% !lants.H5I .t is !ossible that durin% this time& starch
e?tract from the roots of !lants& such as cattails and ferns& 9as s!read on a flat roc5& !laced o'er
a fire and coo5ed into a !rimiti'e form of flatbread. Around +0&000 B$& 9ith the da9n of
the Neolithic a%e and the s!read of a%riculture& %rains became the mainsta- of ma5in% bread.
Meast s!ores are ubi1uitous& includin% the surface of cereal %rains& so an- dou%h left to rest 9ill
become naturall- lea'ened.
,here 9ere multi!le sources of lea'enin% a'ailable for earl- bread. Airborne -easts could be
harnessed b- lea'in% uncoo5ed dou%h e?!osed to air for some time before coo5in%. Plin- the
8lder re!orted that the #auls and .berians used the foam s5immed from beer to !roduce Ea
li%hter 5ind of bread than other !eo!les.E Parts of the ancient 9orld that dran5 9ine instead of
beer used a !aste com!osed of %ra!e /uice and flour that 9as allo9ed to be%in fermentin%& or
9heat bran stee!ed in 9ine& as a source for -east. ,he most common source of lea'enin% 9as to
retain a !iece of dou%h from the !re'ious da- to use as a form of sourdou%h starter.HKI
.n +J6+ the $horle-9ood bread !rocess 9as de'elo!ed& 9hich used the intense mechanical
9or5in% of dou%h to dramaticall- reduce the fermentation !eriod and the time ta5en to !roduce a
loaf. ,he !rocess& 9hose hi%h"ener%- mi?in% allo9s for the use of lo9er !rotein %rain& is no9
9idel- used around the 9orld in lar%e factories. As a result& bread can be !roduced 'er- 1uic5l-
and at lo9 costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. 7o9e'er there has been some criticism
of the effect on nutritional 'alue.
Recentl-& domestic bread machines that automate the !rocess of ma5in% bread ha'e become
!o!ular.
Most recentl-& a !rocess of bread ma5in% has become !o!ular in the 3.S. because it in'ol'es
'er- little 9or5. 4im Lace- re!orted that althou%h it ta5es )4 hours to !re!are a loaf it re1uires
'er- minimal effort. Allo9in% +N hours for the dou%h to sit untouched %i'es the %luten molecules
time to fuse as if the- had been needed. ,he dou%h is mi?ed 9ith 4)O 9ater 9hich ma5es the
dou%h 'er- stic5-. After mi?in% is com!leted& the dou%h sits untouched for about +N hours until
the dou%h is read- to be ba5ed. Lon% fermentation %i'es the loaf fla'or 9ith essentiall- no 9or5.
%ypes
Bread is the sta!le food in 8uro!e and in 8uro!ean"deri'ed cultures such as those in
the Americas& the Middle 8ast& North Africa and Southern& in contrast to 8ast Asia 9here rice is
the sta!le. Bread is usuall- made from a 9heat"flour that is cultured 9ith -east& allo9ed to rise&
and finall- ba5ed in an o'en. :9in% to its hi%h le'els of %luten B9hich %i'e the dou%h
s!on%iness and elasticit-@& common 9heat Balso 5no9n as bread 9heat@ is the most common
%rain used for the !re!aration of bread..
Bread is also made from the flour of other 9heat s!ecies
Bincludin% durum& s!elt and emmer@& r-e& barle-&mai(e Bcorn@& and oats& usuall-& but not al9a-s&
in combination 9ith 9heat flour. S!elt bread Bin5elbrot@ continues to be 9idel- consumed in
#erman-& and emmer bread 9as a sta!le food in ancient 8%-!t.$anadian bread is 5no9n for its
heartier consistenc- due to hi%h !rotein le'els in $anadian flour.
Pita is an ancient semi"lea'ened bread 9ides!read in the Middle 8ast& Le'ant and South 8astern
8uro!e.
<hite bread is made from flour containin% onl- the central core of the %rain Bendos!erm@.
Bro9n bread is made 9ith endos!erm and +0O bran. .t can also refer to 9hite bread 9ith added
colourin% Boften caramel colourin%@ to ma5e it bro9nD this is commonl- labeled in America as
9heat bread Bas o!!osed to 9hole"9heat bread@.
<holemeal bread contains the 9hole of the 9heat %rain Bendos!erm& bran& and %erm@. .t is also
referred to as E9hole"%rainE or E9hole"9heat breadE& es!eciall- in North America.
<heat %erm bread has added 9heat %erm for fla'orin%.
<hole"%rain bread can refer to the same as 9holemeal bread& or to 9hite bread 9ith added 9hole
%rains to increase its fiber content& as in E60O 9hole"%rain breadE.
Roti is 9hole"9heat"based bread eaten in South Asia. $ha!atti is a lar%er 'ariant of roti. Naan is
a lea'ened e1ui'alent to these.
#ranar- bread is made from fla5ed 9heat %rains and 9hite or bro9n flour. ,he standard maltin%
!rocess is modified to ma?imi(e the maltose or su%ar content but minimise residual al!ha
am-lase content. :ther fla'or com!onents are im!arted from !artial fermentation due to the
!articular maltin% !rocess used and to Mallard reactions on fla5in% and toastin%.
R-e bread is made 9ith flour from r-e %rain of 'ar-in% le'els. .t is hi%her in fiber than man-
common t-!es of bread and is often dar5er in color and stron%er in fla'or. .t is !o!ular
in Scandina'ia& #erman-& Finland& the Baltic States& and Russia.
3nlea'ened bread or mat(o& used for the 4e9ish feast of Passo'er& does not include -east& so it
does not rise.
Sourdou%h bread is made 9ith a starter.
Flatbread is often sim!le& made 9ith flour& 9ater& and salt& and then formed into flattened dou%hD
most are unlea'ened& made 9ithout -east or sourdou%h culture& thou%h some are made 9ith
-east.
$ris! bread is a flat and dr- t-!e of bread or crac5er& containin% mostl- r-e flour.
7em! bread includes stron%l- fla'ored hem! flour or seeds. 7em! has been used for thousands
of -ears in traditional $hinese medicine.H++I 7em! flour is the b-"!roduct from !ressin% the oil
from the seeds and millin% the residue. .t is !erishable and stores best in the free(er. 7em!
dou%h 9onAt rise due to its lac5 of %luten& and for that reason it is best mi?ed 9ith other flours. A
5G+ ratio of 9heat"to"hem! flour !roduces a heart-& nutritious loaf hi%h in !rotein and essential
fatt- acids.H+)I 7em! seeds ha'e a relati'el- hi%h oil content of )5P*5O& and can be added at a
rate u! to +5O of the 9heat flour. ,he oilAs ome%a"6"to"ome%a"* ratio lies in the ran%e of )G+"to"
*G+& 9hich is considered ideal for human nutrition.
;uic5 breads usuall- refers to a bread chemicall- lea'ened& usuall- 9ith both ba5in% !o9der and
ba5in% soda& and a balance of acidic in%redients and al5aline in%redients. 8?am!les
include !anca5es and 9affles& muffins and carrot ca5e& Boston bro9n bread&
and (ucchini and banana bread.
#luten"free breads ha'e been created in recent -ears due to the disco'er- that celiac
disease sufferers benefit from a %luten"free diet. :ther health benefits ha'e also been attributed
to %luten"free diets. #luten"free bread is made 9ith %round flours from a 'ariet- of materials
such as almonds& rice Brice bread@& sor%hum Bsor%hum bread@& corn Bcornbread@& or le%umes such
as beans Bbean bread@& but since these flours lac5 %luten it can be difficult for them to retain their
sha!e as the- rise and the- ma- be less Efluff-E. Additi'es such as ?anthum %um& %uar %um&
h-dro?-!ro!-l meth-lcellulose B7PM$@& corn starch& or e%%s are used to com!ensate for the lac5
of %luten.
Preparation
A ba5er !re!ares -easted dinner rolls.
ou%h>s are usuall- ba5ed& but in some cuisines breads are steamed Be.%.& mantou@& fried
Be.%.& !uri@& or ba5ed on an uncoiled fr-in% !anBe.%.& tortillas@. .t ma- be lea'ened or unlea'ened
Be.%. mat(o@. Salt& fat and lea'enin% a%ents such as -east and ba5in% soda are common
in%redients& thou%h bread ma- contain other in%redients& such
as mil5& e%%& su%ar& s!ice& fruit Bsuch as raisins@& 'e%etables Bsuch as onion@& nuts Bsuch
as 9alnuts@ or seeds Bsuch as !o!!-@. Referred to collo1uiall- as the Estaff of lifeE& bread has
been !re!ared for at least *0&000 -ears. ,he de'elo!ment of lea'ened bread can !robabl- also be
traced to !rehistoric times. Sometimes& the 9ord bread refers to a s9eetened loaf ca5e& often
containin% a!!ealin% in%redients li5e dried fruit& chocolate chi!s& nuts or s!ices& such as bread&
banana or %in%erbread.
Fresh bread is !ri(ed for its taste& aroma& 1ualit-& a!!earance and te?ture. Retainin% its freshness
is im!ortant to 5ee! it a!!eti(in%. Bread that has stiffened or dried !ast its !rime is said to
be stale. Modern bread is sometimes 9ra!!ed in !a!er or !lastic film or stored in a container
such as a breadbo? to reduce dr-in%. Bread that is 5e!t in 9arm& moist en'ironments is !rone to
the %ro9th of mold. Bread 5e!t at lo9 tem!eratures& in a refri%erator for e?am!le& 9ill de'elo!
mold %ro9th more slo9l- than bread 5e!t at room tem!erature& but 9ill turn stale 1uic5l- due
to retro %radation.
,he soft& inner !art of bread is 5no9n to ba5ers and other culinar- !rofessionals as the crumb&
9hich is not to be confused 9ith small bits of bread that often fall off& called crumbs. ,he outer
hard !ortion of bread is called the crust. ,he crumbAs te?ture is %reatl- determined b- the 1ualit-
of the !ores in the bread.
*ormulation
Professional ba5er reci!es are stated usin% a notation called ba5erAs !ercenta%e. ,he amount of
flour is de'oted to be +00O& and the amounts of the other in%redients are e?!ressed as a
!ercenta%e of that amount b- 9ei%ht. Measurement b- 9ei%ht is more accurate and consistent
than measurement b- 'olume& !articularl- for dr- in%redients.
,he !ro!ortion of 9ater to flour is the most im!ortant measurement in a bread reci!e& as it
affects te?ture and crumbs the most. 7ard 3S 9heat flours absorb about 6)O 9ater& 9hile softer
9heat flours absorb about 56O.H+4I $ommon table breads made from these dou%h result in a
finel- te?tured& li%ht bread. Most artisan bread formulas contain an-9here from 60 to K5O
9ater. .n -east breads& the hi%her 9ater !ercenta%es result in more $:) bubbles and a coarser
bread crumb. :ne !ound B450 %@ of flour 9ill -ield a standard loaf of bread or t9o French
loa'es.
$alcium !ro!ionate is commonl- added b- commercial ba5eries to retard the %ro9th of molds.
*lour
Flour is a !roduct made from %rain that has been %round to a !o9der- consistenc-. Flour
!ro'ides the !rimar- structure to the final ba5ed bread. <hile 9heat flour is most commonl-
used for breads& flours made from r-e& barle-& mai(e& and other %rains are also commonl-
a'ailable. 8ach of these %rains !ro'ides the starch and !rotein needed to form bread.
,he !rotein content of the flour is the best indicator of the 1ualit- of the bread dou%h and the
finished bread. <hile bread can be made from all"!ur!ose 9heat flour& a s!ecialt- bread flour&
containin% more !rotein B+)P+4O@& is recommended for hi%h"1ualit- bread. .f one uses a flour
9ith a lo9er !rotein content BJP++O@ to !roduce bread& a shorter mi?in% time 9ill be re1uired to
de'elo! %luten stren%th !ro!erl-. An e?tended mi?in% time leads to o?idi(ation of the dou%h&
9hich %i'es the finished !roduct a 9hiter crumb& instead of the cream color !referred b- most
artisan ba5ers.H+5I
<heat flour& in addition to its starch& contains three 9ater"soluble !rotein %rou!s
Balbumin& %lobulin& and !roteoses@ and t9o 9ater"insoluble !rotein %rou!s B%luten
in and %liadin@. <hen flour is mi?ed 9ith 9ater& the 9ater"soluble !roteins dissol'e& lea'in% the
%luten in and %liadin to form the structure of the resultin% bread. <hen relati'el- dr- dou%h is
9or5ed b- 5neadin%& or 9et dou%h is allo9ed to rise for a lon% time Bsee no"5nead bread@& the
%luten in forms strands of lon%& thin& chainli5e molecules& 9hile the shorter %liadin forms brid%es
bet9een the strands of %luten in. ,he resultin% net9or5s of strands !roduced b- these t9o
!roteins are 5no9n as %luten. #luten de'elo!ment im!ro'es if the dou%h is allo9ed to autol-sin.
)iBuids
<ater& or some other li1uid& is used to form the flour into a !aste or dou%h. ,he 9ei%ht of li1uid
re1uired 'aries bet9een reci!es& but a ratio of * !arts li1uid to 5 !arts flour is common for -east
breads.
H+6I
Reci!es that use steam as the !rimar- lea'enin% method ma- ha'e a li1uid content in
e?cess of + !art li1uid to + !art flour. .nstead of 9ater& other t-!es of li1uids& such as dair-
!roducts& fruit /uices& or beer& ma- be usedD the- contribute additional s9eeteners& fats& or
lea'enin% com!onents& as 9ell as 9ater.
)eavenin&
A dou%h trou%h once used for lea'enin% bread from Abe dour $astle& Fife& Scotland.
Lea'enin% is the !rocess of addin% %as to dou%h before or durin% ba5in% to !roduce a li%hter&
more easil- che9ed bread. Most bread consumed in the <est is lea'ened. 3nlea'ened breads
ha'e s-mbolic im!ortance in 4udaism and $hristianit-G 4e9s consume unlea'ened bread
called mat(o durin% Passo'er& and Roman $atholic and some Protestant $hristians consume
unlea'ened bread 9hen celebratin% the 8ucharist& a rite deri'ed from the narrati'e of the Last
Su!!er 9hen 4esus bro5e bread 9ith his disci!les& !erha!s durin% a Passo'er Seder. .n
contrast& :rthodo? $hristians al9a-s use lea'ened bread durin% their litur%-.
Chemical leavenin&
A sim!le techni1ue for lea'enin% bread is the use of %as"!roducin% chemicals. ,here are t9o
common methods. ,he first is to use ba5in% !o9der or a self"risin% flour that includes ba5in%
!o9der. ,he second is to include an acidic in%redient such as buttermil5 and add ba5in% sodaD
the reaction of the acid 9ith the soda !roduces %as.
$hemicall- lea'ened breads are called 1uic5 breads and soda breads. ,his method is commonl-
used to ma5e muffins& !anca5es& American"st-le biscuits& and 1uic5 breads such as banana
bread.
"east
Man- t-!es of bread are lea'ened b- -east. ,he -east most commonl- used for lea'enin% bread
is Saccharom-ces cere'isiae& the same s!ecies used for bre9in% alcoholic be'era%es. ,his -east
ferments some of the carboh-drates in the flour& includin% an- su%ar& !roducin% carbon dio?ide.
Most ba5ers in the 3.S. lea'en their dou%h 9ith commerciall- !roduced ba5erAs -east. Ba5erAs
-east has the ad'anta%e of !roducin% uniform& 1uic5& and reliable results& because it is obtained
from a !ure culture. Man- artisan ba5ers !roduce their o9n -east b- !re!arin% a %ro9th culture
that the- then use in the ma5in% of bread. <hen this culture is 5e!t in the ri%ht conditions& it 9ill
continue to %ro9 and !ro'ide lea'enin% for man- -ears.
Both the ba5erAs -east and the sourdou%h methods of ba5in% bread follo9 the same !attern.
<ater is mi?ed 9ith flour& salt and the lea'enin% a%ent Bba5erAs -east or sourdou%h starter@.
:ther additions Bs!ices& herbs& fats& seeds& fruit& etc.@ are not needed to ba5e bread& but are often
used. ,he mi?ed dou%h is then allo9ed to rise one or more times Ba lon%er risin% time results in
more fla'or& so ba5ers often E!unch do9nE the dou%h and let it rise a%ain@& then loa'es are
formed& and Bafter an o!tional final risin% time@ the bread is ba5ed in an o'en.
Man- breads are made from a Estrai%ht dou%hE& 9hich means that all of the in%redients are
combined in one ste!& and the dou%h is ba5ed after the risin% timeD others are made from a E!re"
fermentE in 9hich the lea'enin% a%ent is combined 9ith some of the flour and 9ater a da- or so
ahead of ba5in% and allo9ed to ferment o'erni%ht. :n the da- of the ba5in%& the rest of the
in%redients are added& and !rocess continues as 9ith strai%ht dou%h. ,his !roduces a more
fla'orful bread 9ith better te?ture.
Man- ba5ers see the starter method as a com!romise bet9een the hi%hl- reliable results of
ba5erAs -east and the fla'or and com!le?it- of a lon%er fermentation. .t also allo9s the ba5er to
use onl- a minimal amount of ba5erAs -east& 9hich 9as scarce and e?!ensi'e 9hen it first
became a'ailable. Most -easted !re"ferments fall into one of three cate%oriesG E!olishE or
E!oulicheE& a loose"te?tured mi?ture com!osed of rou%hl- e1ual amounts of flour and 9ater Bb-
9ei%ht@D Ebi%aE& a stiff mi?ture 9ith a hi%her !ro!ortion of flourD and E!Qte fermentReE& 9hich is
sim!l- a !ortion of dou%h reser'ed from a !re'ious batch. Sourdou%h Balso 5no9n as Ele'ainE or
Enatural lea'enE@ ta5es the !re"ferment method a ste! further& mi?in% flour and 9ater to allo9
naturall- occurrin% -east and bacteria to !ro!a%ate Busuall- Saccharom-ces e?i%uus& 9hich is
more acid"tolerant than S. cere'isiae and 'arious s!ecies of Lactobacillus@.
ou%h before first risin%. ou%h after first risin%.
ou%h after !roofin% in tin& read- to
ba5e.
Sourdou&h
Sourdou%h loa'es
Sourdou%h is a t-!e of bread !roduced b- a lon% fermentation of dou%h usin% naturall- occurrin%
-easts and lactobacilli. .n com!arison 9ith breads made 9ith culti'ated -east& it usuall- has a
mildl- sour taste because of the lactic acid !roduced b- the lactobacilli.
Sourdou%h breads are made 9ith a sourdou%h starter B9hich differs from starters made 9ith
ba5erAs -east@. ,he starter culti'ates -east and lactobacilli in a mi?ture of flour and 9ater&
ma5in% use of the microor%anisms alread- !resent on flourD it does not need an- added -east. A
starter ma- be maintained indefinitel- b- re%ular additions of flour and 9ater. Some ba5ers ha'e
starters se'eral %enerations old& 9hich are said to ha'e a s!ecial taste or te?ture. .t is !ossible to
obtain e?istin% starter cultures to be%in a ne9 one.
At one time& all -east"lea'ened breads 9ere sourdou%hs. ,he lea'enin% !rocess 9as not
understood until the +Jth centur-& 9hen -east 9as first identified. Since then& strains of
Saccharom-ces cere'isiae ha'e been bred for their reliabilit- and s!eed of lea'enin% and sold as
Eba5erAs -eastE. Ba5erAs -east 9as ado!ted for the sim!licit- and fle?ibilit- it introduced to bread
ma5in%& ob'iatin% the len%th- culti'ation of a sourdou%h starter. <hile sourdou%h breads
sur'i'ed in some !arts of 8uro!e& throu%hout most of the 3.S.& the- 9ere re!laced b- ba5erAs
-east. Recentl- there has been a re'i'al of sourdou%h bread in artisan ba5eries.
,here are other 9a-s of sourdou%h ba5in% and culture maintenance. A more traditional one is the
!rocess that 9as follo9ed b- !easant families throu%hout 8uro!e in !ast centuries. ,he famil-
Busuall- the 9oman 9as in char%e of bread ma5in%@ 9ould ba5e on a fi?ed schedule& !erha!s
once a 9ee5. ,he starter 9as sa'ed from the !re'ious 9ee5As dou%h. ,he starter 9as mi?ed 9ith
the ne9 in%redients& the dou%h 9as left to rise& and then a !iece of it 9as sa'ed Bto be the starter
for ne?t 9ee5As bread@. ,he rest 9as formed into loa'es that 9ere mar5ed 9ith the famil- si%n
Bthis is 9here toda-As decorati'e slashin% of bread loa'es ori%inates from@ and ta5en to the
communal o'en to ba5e. ,hese communal o'ens 9ith time e'ol'ed into the modern ba5er-.
Steam
,he ra!id e?!ansion of steam !roduced durin% ba5in% lea'ens the bread& 9hich is as sim!le as it
is un!redictable. ,he best 5no9n steam"lea'ened bread is the !o!o'er. Steam"lea'enin% is
un!redictable since the steam is not !roduced until the bread is ba5ed.
Steam lea'enin% ha!!ens re%ardless of the risin% a%ents Bba5in% soda& -east& ba5in% !o9der& sour
dou%h& beaten e%% 9hites& etc.@.
,he lea'enin% a%ent either contains air bubbles or %enerates carbon dio?ide.
,he heat 'a!ori(es the 9ater from the inner surface of the bubbles 9ithin the dou%h.
,he steam e?!ands and ma5es the bread rise.
,his is the main factor in the rise of bread once it has been !ut in the o'en.
H+KI
$:
)
%eneration& on
its o9n& is too small to account for the rise. 7eat 5ills bacteria or -east at an earl- sta%e& so the
$:
)
%eneration is sto!!ed.
Bread improvers
Bread im!ro'ers and dou%h conditioners are often used in !roducin% commercial breads to
reduce the time needed for risin% and to im!ro'e te?ture and 'olume. $hemical substances
commonl- used as bread im!ro'ers include ascorbic acid& h-drochloride& sodium met
bisulfate& ammonium chloride& 'arious !hos!hates& am-lase& and !rotease.
Salt is one of the most common additi'es used in !roduction. .n addition to enhancin% fla'or and
restrictin% -east acti'it-& salt affects the crumb and the o'erall te?ture b- stabili(in% and
stren%thenin% H)+I the %luten. Some artisan ba5ers are fore%oin% earl- addition of salt to the
dou%h& and are 9aitin% until after a )0"minute ErestE. ,his is 5no9n as anautol-se H))I and is
done 9ith both refined and 9hole"%rain flours.
Properties
Chemical composition
.n 9heat& !henol com!ounds are mainl- found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic
acid 9here it is rele'ant to 9heat resistance to fun%al diseases.
R-e bread contains !henol acids and ferulic acid deh-drodimers.
,hree natural !henol %l-cosides& secoisolariciresinol di%lucoside& !"coumaric acid
%l-coside and ferulic acid %l-coside& can be found in commercial breads containin% fla?seed.
Servin& and consumption
Salmon cream cheese sand9iches
Bread can be ser'ed at man- tem!eraturesD once ba5ed& it can subse1uentl- be toasted. .t is most
commonl- eaten 9ith the hands& either b- itself or as a carrier for other foods. Bread can be
di!!ed into li1uids such as %ra'-& oli'e oil& or sou!D it can be to!!ed 9ith 'arious s9eet and
sa'or- s!reads& or used to ma5e sand9iches containin% m-riad 'arieties of meats& cheeses&
'e%etables& and condiments.
Bread ma- also be used as an in%redient in other culinar- !re!arations& such as the use
of breadcrumbs to !ro'ide crunch- crusts or thic5en sauces& s9eet or sa'our- bread !uddin%s& or
as a bindin% a%ent in sausa%es and other %round meat !roducts.
,utritional si&nificance
Nutritionall-& bread is 5no9n as an am!le source for the %rains cate%or- of nutrition. Ser'in%
si(e of bread is standard throu%h ounces& countin% one slice of bread B9hite !rocessed bread@ as
+ o(. Also& bread is considered a %ood source of carboh-drates throu%h the 9hole %rains&
nutrients such as ma%nesium& iron& selenium& B 'itamins& and dietar- fiber. As !art of the )0+0
ietar- #uidelines for Americans&
H)6I
it is recommended to ma5e at least half of the
recommended total %rain inta5e as 9hole %rains and to o'erall increase 9hole %rains inta5e.
ifferent t-!es of bread as +00O 9hole %rain& refined"%rain& or !artl- 9hole"%rain !roducts all
e?ist mostl- as a necessar- !art of the diet.
Shelf life
.n )00J& a natural !reser'ati'e for e?tendin% the shelf life of bread for u! to t9o 9ee5s Bas
o!!osed to a fe9 da-s@ had been !atented and licensed to Puratos& a Bel%ium"based ba5in%
in%redients com!an- that su!!lies to more than +00 countries. ,he brea5throu%h 9as !ioneered
b- Prof 8l5e Arendt at the 3ni'ersit- $olle%e $or5 B3$$@ b- incor!oratin% into the bread a
lactic acid bacteria strain 9hich also E!roduces a fine crumb te?tureE and Eim!ro'es the fla'our&
'olume and nutritional 'alue of the food as 9ell.E Prior to this& EAbout )0O of all bread is
thro9n out due to shelf"life issues.E
H)KI
Crust
,he bread crust is formed from surface dou%h durin% the coo5in% !rocess. .t is hardened and
bro9ned throu%h the Mallard reaction usin% the su%ars and amino acids and the intense heat at
the bread surface. ,he nature of a breadAs crust differs de!endin% on the t-!e of bread and the
9a- it is ba5ed. $ommercial bread is ba5ed usin% /ets that direct steam to9ard the bread to hel!
!roduce a desirable crust.
,he crust of most bread is less soft& and more com!le?l- and intensel- fla'ored& than the rest&
and /ud%ments 'ar- amon% indi'iduals and cultures as to 9hether it is therefore the less !alatable
or the more fla'orful !art of a !articular st-le of bread. Some manufacturers& includin% as of
Se!tember )00J Sara Lee& mar5et traditional and crestless breads.
,he first and last slices of a loaf Bor a slice 9ith a hi%h ratio of crust"area to 'olume com!ared to
others of the same loaf@ are sometimes referred to as the heel or the crust of the loaf.H)NI
:ld 9i'es tales su%%est that eatin% the bread crust ma5es a !ersonAs hair curlier. Additionall-& the
crust is rumored to be healthier than the rest. Some studies ha'e sho9n that this is true as the
crust has more dietar- fiber and antio?idants& notabl- !on-"l-sine.H)JIH*0I ,he !on-"
l-sine found in bread crust is bein% researched for its !otential colorectal cancer inhibitor-
!ro!erties.H*+IH*)I
8nou%h !eo!le en/o- eatin% sand9iches 9ithout the crust that the sealed crustless sand9ich 9as
created.
Cultural si&nificance
Bread has a si%nificance be-ond mere nutrition in man- cultures in the <est and Near and
Middle 8ast because of its histor- and contem!orar- im!ortance. Bread is also si%nificant in
$hristianit- as one of the elements Balon%side 9ine@ of the 8ucharistD see sacramental. ,he
9ord com!anion comes from Latin com" E9ithE S !ains EbreadE.H**I
,he !olitical si%nificance of bread is considerable. .n +Jth centur- Britain& the inflated !rice of
bread due to the $orn La9s caused ma/or !olitical and social di'isions& and 9as central to
debates o'er free trade 'ersus !rotectionism.Hcitation neededI ,he Assi(e of Bread and Ale in the
+*th centur- demonstrated the im!ortance of bread in medie'al times b- settin% hea'-
!unishments for short"chan%in% ba5ers& and bread a!!eared in the Ma%na $arat a half"centur-
earlier.
Li5e other foods& choosin% the Eri%htE 5ind of bread is used as a t-!e of social si%nallin%& to let
others 5no9& for e?am!le& that the !erson bu-in% e?!ensi'e bread is financiall- secure& or the
!erson bu-in% 9hate'er t-!e of bread that the current fashions deem most healthful is a health"
conscious consumer.H*4I
... bread has become an article of food of the first necessit-D and !ro!erl- so& for it constitutes of
itself a com!lete life"sustainer& the %luten& starch& and su%ar& 9hich it contains& re!resents
a(otised and h-dro"carbonated nutrients& and combinin% the sustainin% !o9ers of the animal and
'e%etable 5in%doms in one !roduct. Mrs Beaton B+N6+@H*5I
As a sim!le& chea!& and ada!table t-!e of food& bread is often used as a s-necdoche for food in
%eneral in some lan%ua%es and dialects& such as #ree5 and Pun/abi. ,here are man- 'ariations on
the basic reci!e of bread 9orld9ide&
includin% !i((a& cha!atis& tortillas& bocadillo& ba%uettes& brioche& !itas& la'ash& biscuits& !ret(els&
naan& ba%els& !uris& and man- others. ,here are different t-!es of traditional Echeese breadsE in
man- countries& includin% Bra(il& $olombia& .tal-& and Russia.
,he Biscuit mar5et in .ndia is estimated to be +.* million tons !er annum 'alued at Rs. *J
billion. ,he mar5et has been %ro9in% 6"K O !er annum. Per $a!ita consum!tion of biscuit in
.ndia is a!!ro?imatel- +.5 L.#. And it has 'aried hu%e !otential of %ro9th. Biscuit industr- 9as
treated as small scale industr- u! to +JJK 9hich 9as disad'anta%e for lar%e in'estors. .n .ndia
Britannia and Parle are the ma/or share holders of Biscuit mar5et. Parle commands a 40 !er cent
mar5et share in the Rs *5 billion biscuit mar5ets in .ndia. Britannia has maintained mar5et
leadershi! 9ith 40O 'olume share and 4N O 'alue mar5et share. :ther or%ani(ed domestic
!la-ers li5e Bra5eman>s& Pri-a& L9alit-& $ham!ion etc and Multinationals li5e SmithLline&
Saralee& 7ein( & Nastle and 3nited Biscuits.
Britannia is the lar%est manufacturer& mar5et leader in or%ani(ed biscuit and ba5er- !roduct
mar5et in .ndia. Biscuit contribute to more than N0O of Britannia>s total turno'er. :ther
!roducts include bread and ca5es. Britannia di'ersified into dair- !roducts in +JJK 9ith
!rocessed cheese and dair- 9hitener. <ith 9as e?tended 9ith launch of butter& fla'ored mil5.
,he other %lobal biscuit brands include :reo from Nabisco and Mc 2ities from 3L"based 3nited
Biscuits amon% others. Accordin% to :R#"MAR# re!orts& Parle # commands a %ood 65 !er
cent mar5et share in the domestic biscuit mar5et. ,he %lucose biscuits cate%or- in .ndia is
estimated at Rs +5 billion. ,he Parle # brand faces com!etition from BritanniaAs ,i%er brand of
biscuits.
,he com!an-As fla%shi! brand& Parle #& contributes more than 50 !er cent to the com!an-As total
turno'er. ,he other biscuits in the Parle Products> bas5et include Monaco& Lrac5 4ac5& Marie&
7ide n See5& $heeslin%s& 4effs& Si?er and Fun $entre.
,he entries of MN$>s ha'e not !osted a different thereat to both com!an- as theses MN$>s ha'e
!ositioned their brand in !remium se%ment. Both the com!an- are a%%ressi'e in ne9 launches
and mar5etin% durin% last t9o -ear antici!atin% the com!etition. Britannia has also ac1uired
L9alit- Biscuits& %ainin% a stron% foothold in the southern mar5et& 8ffecti'e and inno'atin%
ad'ertisin% strate%- has hel!ed Britannia to boost their to! line %ro9th.
A brand is a collection of e?!eriences and associations connected 9ith a ser'ice& a !erson or an-
other entit-. Brands ha'e become increasin%l- im!ortant com!onents of culture and the
econom-& no9 bein% described as Ecultural accessories and !ersonal !hiloso!hiesE.
Some !eo!le distin%uish the !s-cholo%ical as!ect of a brand from the e?!eriential as!ect. ,he
e?!eriential as!ect consists of the sum of all !oints of contact 9ith the brand and is 5no9n as the
brand eCperience. ,he !s-cholo%ical as!ect& sometimes referred to as the brand ima&e& is a
s-mbolic construct created 9ithin the minds of !eo!le and consists of all the information and
e?!ectations associated 9ith a !roduct or ser'ice.
Peo!le en%a%ed in brandin% see5 to de'elo! or ali%n the e?!ectations behind the brand
e?!erience Bsee also brand !romise@& creatin% the im!ression that a brand associated 9ith a
!roduct or ser'ice has certain 1ualities or characteristics that ma5e it s!ecial or uni1ue. A brand
is therefore one of the most 'aluable elements in an ad'ertisin% theme& as it demonstrates 9hat
the brand o9ner is able to offer in the mar5et!lace. ,he art of creatin% and maintainin% a brand is
called brand mana%ement.
$areful brand mana%ement& su!!orted b- a cle'erl- crafted ad'ertisin% cam!ai%n& can be hi%hl-
successful in con'incin% consumers to !a- remar5abl- hi%h !rices for !roducts 9hich are
inherentl- e?tremel- chea! to ma5e. ,his conce!t& 5no9n as creatin% 'alue& essentiall- consists
of mani!ulatin% the !ro/ected ima%e of the !roduct so that that the consumer sees the !roduct as
bein% 9orth the amount that the ad'ertiser 9ants himCher to see& rather than a more lo%ical
'aluation that com!rises an a%%re%ate of the cost of ra9 materials& !lus the cost of manufacture&
!lus the cost of distribution. Modern 'alue"creation brandin%"and"ad'ertisin% cam!ai%ns are
hi%hl- successful at inducin% consumers to !a-& for e?am!le& 50 dollars for a ,"shirt that cost a
mere 50 cents to ma5e& or 5 dollars for a bo? of brea5fast cereal that contains a fe9 centsA 9orth
of 9heat.
A brand 9hich is 9idel- 5no9n in the mar5et!lace ac1uires brand reco&nition. <hen brand
reco%nition builds u! to a !oint 9here a brand en/o-s a critical mass of !ositi'e sentiment in the
mar5et!lace& it is said to ha'e achie'ed brand franchise. :ne %oal in brand reco%nition is the
identification of a brand 9ithout the name of the com!an- !resent. For e?am!le& isne- has
been successful at brandin% 9ith their !articular scri!t font Bori%inall- created for <alt isne-As
Esi%natureE lo%o@& 9hich it used in the lo%o for %o.com.
$onsumers ma- loo5 on brandin% as an im!ortant 'alue added as!ect of !roducts or ser'ices& as
it often ser'es to denote a certain attracti'e 1ualit- or characteristic Bsee also brand !romise@.
From the !ers!ecti'e of brand o9ners& branded !roducts or ser'ices also command hi%her !rices.
<here t9o !roducts resemble each other& but one of the !roducts has no associated brandin%
Bsuch as a %eneric& store"branded !roduct@& !eo!le ma- often select the more e?!ensi'e branded
!roduct on the basis of the 1ualit- of the brand or the re!utation of the brand o9ner.
). ,he biscuit .ndustr- in .ndia accounts for a total turno'er of T *000crores. .ndia is
considered to be the third lar%est biscuit manufacturer in the 9orld onl- after 3SA and $hina.
.ndia>s biscuit industr- is cate%ori(ed into the or%ani(ed and unor%ani(ed sectors. ,he or%ani(ed
sector of the .ndian biscuit industr- accounts for 65O and the unor%ani(ed sector accounts for
*5O of the total turno'er
*. Based in Ban%alore Britannia .ndustries Ltd is re!uted as bein% one of the to! biscuit brands in
.ndia. ,he com!an- 9as established 9a- bac5 in +NJ) and till toda- has mana%ed to maintain a
distincti'e !osition in the .ndian biscuit industr- s!eciall- 9ith its most !o!ular brand called
,i%er. Britannia holds a *NO mar5et share in the biscuit industr- in .ndia. Britannia .ndustries
Ltd. G Net sales for FM )00N"0J are Rs *&++).) $r. For FM 0K"0N biscuits recorded sales of Rs.
)&*)J.J $r.Le- Products ,i%er& #ood a-& Bourbon& 50"50& ,reat& Mil5 Bi5is&Marie #old&
Nutri$hoice& ,ime !ass& Little 7earts
4. Founded in +J)J& Parle Products P't. Ltd ran5s amon% the to! biscuit brands in .ndia. ,he
com!an- has K manufacturin% units of its o9n and5+ manufacturin% units on contract.
Accountin% for about *0"*5O of mar5et share in the biscuit industr- . Le- Products G Parle " # &
7ide and See5 &Lrac5/ac5 &7ide 6 See5 Milano& Ma%i? &i%esti'e Marie &Monaco &Parle
Marie &Lreams &Mil5 Sha5ti &Parle)0")0 $oo5ies &#olden arcs &Nim5in &Lreams #old &$ho?
&Monaco 4eera
5. Sur-a Food 6 A%ro Ltd manufacturin% and sells biscuits under the brandPri-a%old. $ounted
as amon% the to! biscuit brands in .ndia Pri-a%old isconsidered to be one of the best e'enin% tea
biscuits. ,he $om!an- hasthree manufacturin% units located in #reater Noida& Luc5no9 and
Surat.Le- Products G $lassic $ream & Butter Bite &Lids $ream &Bourbon &Bi%Boss &Marie Lite
&Ma%ic #old &$N$ &$heese $rac5er &Snac5s Ui% Ua% &on&$oconut $runch &$hee( Bit $lassic
Salt &$hat!ata
6. ,he famous .,$ #rou! 'entured into the biscuits mar5et in 4ul- )00*9ith the introduction of
the Sunfeast ran%e of biscuits. Sunfeastcurrentl- holds a mar5et share of V+0O is surel- on its
9a- to becomin% ato! biscuit brand in .ndiaLe- Products G Sunfeast Mil5- Ma%ic &Sunfeast
Marie Li%ht &Sunfeast#olden Ba5er- &Sunfeast ar5 Fantas- &Sunfeast ream $ream
&SunfeastSnac5- &Sunfeast s9eet n salt &Sunfeast Nice &Sunfeast Benne 2itaFla?seed Biscuits
&Sunfeast S!ecial
K. Anmol Biscuits Ltd G Anmol is a !o!ular brand of eastern 6 northernre%ion& ha'in%
manufacturin% facilities in <.B 6 3.P. Le- Products G Lemon Ma(aa & Funfill $hoco 2anilla &
Mumm- " Mil5$ream & ,i! ,o! La/oo Lur5ure Masala& $oconutt- & ,hin Arro9root &Marie&) in
+& Butter Ba5e & $ream $rac5er & il Lhush & ream Lite & 8",ime& Funfill :ran%e & Funfill Rich
$hocolate &#olmol &4adoo &Marie ,ime &Snac5les &Mil5 Made
N. +5O )O4O KO *NO *4O
J. Bread is a h-%ienicall- manufactured and !ac5ed snac5 food !roducta'ailable at
com!arati'el- chea! !rices. Ma/or consumers of bread are!eo!le from the lo9er middle class
and economicall- 9ea5er se%mentsconsumin% more than J0 !er cent of the bread industr-s
total!roduction. Bread is lo9 mar%in"hi%h 'olume based !rocessed food andbread ma5in% is a
labor intensi'e !rocess
+0. ,he t9o ma/or !la-ers i.e. B.L 6 MF.L are ha'in% a mar5et share of +0"+) !ercent and K"N
!ercent res!ecti'el-. A!art from these t9o& there arefe9 lar%e re%ional !la-ers such as S!encers
in South .ndia& 2ibbs inMaharashtra& Litt- and Bonn in Pun/ab& *65da-s in elhiN$R& 7ar-ana&
etc and 7ar'est #old and Perfect in elhi 6 N$R
*amily
s!ecifications throu%h our combination of local mar5et 5no9led%e& 9orld9ide tradin% s5ills
and technical resources.
:ur ran%e of oils includes +00O Sunflo9er& $anola& 2e%etable :il amon%st others 9hich can all
be used for coo5in%& ba5in%& fr-in%& salads and sauce. All our oil is cholesterol free& %mo free&
rich in ome%a three& as 9e 'alue the im!ortance of nutritional benefits& ma5in% ,he Famil- :il a
health- and 9holesome choice.
:ur ran%e of breads include $hallah& Me(onos <hite& Me(onos Bro9n& Me(onos Round Rolls&
Me(onos Lon% Rolls amon%st others. :ur bread is ba5ed fresh dail-& contains no obser'ati'es&
hi%h in 1ualit- and is also nice and soft.
<e offer custom !ac5a%in% labels to all our clients. Additionall- 9e of a 'ariet- of
different !ac5a%in% o!tions 9hich consist of +l& 5l& or container c-lindersCtan5s& to suit out
clients re1uirements. All +l bottles are !ac5ed in stron% cardboard cases of +5. 8'er- !allet
carries KN cases& totalin% )) !allets !er container and can be shi!!ed directl- to customers in
container& !allet or bo? 1uantities. <e also ha'e a 'ariet- of attracti'e !ac5a%in% o!tions for our
bread.
:ur bottles are stron% and durable and been created 9ith the consumers comfort in mind. ,he
detachable scre9 to! lid is desi%ned for ease of !ourin%& 5ee!in% both lid and bottle clean and
%rease free.
<e aim to set our !roducts at the most com!etiti'e !rices on the mar5et& ensurin% the Famil-
Bread and Famil- :il to be an economicall- 'iableC9orth9hile choiceC!roduct.

.issions 3 .ethods
<e are on a mission to re'i'e the art of artisan ba5in% for our communit-. :ur <hole <heat
flour is %ro9n at Fair'ie9& :5lahoma on 4ohn>s Farm& a $ertified :r%anic farm !roducin%
se'eral %rains& as 9ell as or%anic beef. ,he miller then %entl- %rinds the %rains& !reser'in% man-
of the nutrients. <e recei'e the flour 9ithin da-s of millin% and store it in our free(er.
,he dou%h 9e ma5e is minimall- mi?ed& and all loa'es are +00O hand"formed. #entle hand
sha!in% %i'es our loa'es 'ar-in% holes inside& and a more com!le? fla'or than an- other method.
Slo9& cool fermentation allo9s the dou%h to de'elo! fla'or naturall-& 9ithout added su%ars or
fla'orin% a%ents. Ne?t& our hearth o'en!roduces a cris!- and carameli(ed crust b- in/ectin% li'e
steam durin% ba5in%.
,he loa'es are cooled and distributed the same mornin% to ensure that all our customers ha'e
access to the best& freshest breads a'ailable.
,hese ste!s are nearl- identical to the !rocess handed do9n b- %enerations of ba5ers. Since the
ancient 8%-!tians first de'elo!ed lea'ened Bor EraisedE@ breads& communities ha'e made breads
b- these methods. <e tr- to faithfull- re!roduce the most ancient breads& and ba5e modern
breads Bli5e Ba%uettes@ 9ith a rustic flair
Pari;ar
Pari;ar Bread& in all its 'arious forms& is the most 9idel- consumed food in the 9orld. Not
onl- is it an im!ortant source of carboh-drates& it>s also !ortable and com!act& 9hich hel!s to
e?!lain 9h- it has been an inte%ral !art of our diet for thousands of -ears. .n fact& recent
scholarshi! su%%ests humans started ba5in% bread at least *0&000 -ears a%o.
Prehistoric man had alread- been ma5in% %ruel from 9ater and %rains& so it 9as a small /um! to
startin% coo5in% this mi?ture into a solid b- fr-in% it on stones. A )0+0 stud- b- the National
Academ- of Sciences disco'ered traces of starch Bli5el- from the roots of cattails and ferns@ in
!rehistoric mortar and !estle"li5e roc5s. ,he roots 9ould ha'e been !eeled and dried before the-
9ere %round into flour and mi?ed 9ith 9ater. Finall-& the !aste 9ould be coo5ed on heated
roc5s.
But ho9 did humanit- %et from this !rehistoric flatbread to a fluff-& %rocer- store loaf= ,here
9ere three !rimar- inno'ations that created 0modernW bread.
%ypes
:hite bread =left> and bro;n bread.
Bread is the sta!le food in 8uro!e and in 8uro!ean"deri'ed cultures such as those in
the Americas& the Middle 8ast& North Africa andSouthern Africa& in contrast to 8ast Asia
9here rice is the sta!le. Bread is usuall- made from a 9heat"flour dou%h that is cultured 9ith
-east& allo9ed to rise& and finall- ba5ed in an o'en. :9in% to its hi%h le'els of %luten B9hich
%i'e the dou%h s!on%iness and elasticit-@& common 9heat Balso 5no9n as bread 9heat@ is the
most common %rain used for the !re!aration of bread.
Classic *rench bread' boule4
Bread is also made from the flour of other 9heat s!ecies
Bincludin% durum& s!elt and emmer@& r-e& barle-&mai(e Bcorn@& and oats& usuall-& but not al9a-s&
in combination 9ith 9heat flour. S!elt bread Bin5elbrot@ continues to be 9idel- consumed in
#erman-& and emmer bread 9as a sta!le food in ancient 8%-!t.$anadian bread is 5no9n for its
heartier consistenc- due to hi%h !rotein le'els in $anadian flour.
Pita is an ancient semi"lea'ened bread 9ides!read in the Middle 8ast& Le'ant and South 8astern
8uro!e.
<hite bread is made from flour containin% onl- the central core of the %rain Bendos!erm@.
Bro9n bread is made 9ith endos!erm and +0O bran. .t can also refer to 9hite bread 9ith added
colourin% Boften caramel colourin%@ to ma5e it bro9nD this is commonl- labeled in America as
9heat bread Bas o!!osed to 9hole"9heat bread@.H+0I
<holemeal bread contains the 9hole of the 9heat %rain Bendos!erm& bran& and %erm@. .t is also
referred to as E9hole"%rainE or E9hole"9heat breadE& es!eciall- in North America.
<heat %erm bread has added 9heat %erm for fla'orin%.
<hole"%rain bread can refer to the same as 9holemeal bread& or to 9hite bread 9ith added 9hole
%rains to increase its fibre content& as in E60O 9hole"%rain breadE.
Roti is a 9hole"9heat"based bread eaten in South Asia. $ha!atti is a lar%er 'ariant of
roti. Naan is a lea'ened e1ui'alent to these.
#ranar- bread is made from fla5ed 9heat %rains and 9hite or bro9n flour. ,he standard maltin%
!rocess is modified to ma?imise the maltose or su%ar content but minimise residual al!ha
am-lase content. :ther fla'our com!onents are im!arted from !artial fermentation due to the
!articular maltin% !rocess used and to Maillard reactions on fla5in% and toastin%.
R-e bread is made 9ith flour from r-e %rain of 'ar-in% le'els. .t is hi%her in fiber than man-
common t-!es of bread and is often dar5er in color and stron%er in fla'or. .t is !o!ular
in Scandina'ia& #erman-& Finland& the Baltic States& and Russia.
3nlea'ened bread or mat(o& used for the 4e9ish feast of Passo'er& does not include -east& so it
does not rise.
Sourdou&h bread is made ;ith a starter 4
Flatbread is often sim!le& made 9ith flour& 9ater& and salt& and then formed into flattened dou%hD
most are unlea'ened& made 9ithout -east or sourdou%h culture& thou%h some are made 9ith
-east.
$ris! bread is a flat and dr- t-!e of bread or crac5er& containin% mostl- r-e flour.
7em! bread includes stron%l- fla'ored hem! flour or seeds. 7em! has been used for thousands
of -ears in traditional $hinese medicine.H++I 7em! flour is the b-"!roduct from !ressin% the oil
from the seeds and millin% the residue. .t is !erishable and stores best in the free(er. 7em!
dou%h 9onAt rise due to its lac5 of %luten& and for that reason it is best mi?ed 9ith other flours. A
5G+ ratio of 9heat"to"hem! flour !roduces a heart-& nutritious loaf hi%h in !rotein and essential
fatt- acids.H+)I 7em! seeds ha'e a relati'el- hi%h oil content of )5P*5O& and can be added at a
rate u! to +5O of the 9heat flour. ,he oilAs ome%a"6"to"ome%a"* ratio lies in the ran%e of )G+"to"
#bDective
+. ,o determine the 'arious bread brands a'ailable in #ha(i!ur
). ,o find out the factore influencin% breads !reference.
*. ,o anal-(e the le'el of satisfaction 9ith !rice 6 1ualit-.
4. ,o find out ho9 much !romotion schemes of 'arious breads brands influences to
customer
5. ,o find out the stren%th & 9ea5ness &o!!ortunit- 6 stren%th of the beards brands
+mportance
+. ,hrou%h mar5et research 9e can found out ho9 much res!ondent use bread brands.
). .n this 9a- 9e can found out 9hich bread brands are more !refer b- the res!ondent.
*. ,hrou%h sur'e- 9e can find out 9hat factors influence on customer for !urchase bread
brands .
4. ,hrou%h sur'e- !ublisher can found ho9 to de'elo! ne9 mar5et.
5. ,hrou%h mar5etin% research the !ublisher can found the better ser'ice !ro'ided to their
customer.
6. ,he stud- sho9s the !o!ularit- in the t-!e of celebrities Be.%. s!ort man etc.@ home
!eo!le 9ant them in the ad'ertisement for the bread brands the- are usin%.
K. ,he researcher 5no9s the needs of bread brands.
Scope
,he term consumer beha'ior refers to the beha'ior that consumes dis!la- in searchin%
for& !urchasin%& usin%& e'aluatin% and dis!osin% of !roduct and ser'ices that the- e?!ect&
9ill satisf- their needs. $onsumers are hi%hl- com!le? indi'iduals& sub/ect to 'ariet- of
!s-cholo%ical and sociolo%ical needs a!art from their sur'i'al needs. Needs and !riorities
of different consumes se%ment differ drasticall-.
A brand is a collection of e?!eriences and associations connected 9ith a ser'ice& a
!erson or an- other entit-. Brands ha'e become increasin%l- im!ortant com!onents of
culture and the econom-& no9 bein% described as Ecultural accessories and !ersonal
!hiloso!hiesE.
Peo!le en%a%ed in brandin% see5 to de'elo! or ali%n the e?!ectations behind the brand
e?!erience Bsee also brand !romise@& creatin% the im!ression that a brand associated 9ith
a !roduct or ser'ice has certain 1ualities or characteristics that ma5e it s!ecial or uni1ue.
A brand is therefore one of the most 'aluable elements in an ad'ertisin% theme& as it
demonstrates 9hat the brand o9ner is able to offer in the mar5et!lace. ,he art of creatin%
and maintainin% a brand is called brand mana%ement.
$onsumers ma- loo5 on brandin% as an im!ortant 'alue added as!ect of !roducts or
ser'ices& as it often ser'es to denote a certain attracti'e 1ualit- or characteristic Bsee also
brand !romise@. From the !ers!ecti'e of brand o9ners& branded !roducts or ser'ices also
command hi%her !rices. <here t9o !roducts resemble each other& but one of the !roducts
has no associated brandin% Bsuch as a %eneric& store"branded !roduct@& !eo!le ma- often
select the more e?!ensi'e branded !roduct on the basis of the 1ualit- of the brand or the
re!utation of the brand o9ner.
.n this com!etiti'e era& a lar%e number of biscuits brands are a'ailable to consumers and
the stud- e?amines ho9 consumers choose brand bet9een breads brands.
esearch .ethodolo&y
Research is a common lan%ua%e refers to a search of 5no9led%e. Research is scientific 6 s-stematic
search for !ertinent information on a s!ecific to!ic& infect research is an art of scientific in'esti%ation.
Research Methodolo%- is a scientific 9a- to sol'e research !roblem. .t ma- be understood as a science of
stud-in% ho9 research is don>t scientificall-. .n it 9e stud- 'arious ste!s that are %enerall- ado!ted b-
researchers in stud-in% their research !roblem. .t is necessar- for researchers to 5no9 not onl- 5no9
research method techni1ues but also technolo%-.
,he sco!e of Research Methodolo%- is 9ider than that of research methods.
,he research !roblem consists of series of closel- related acti'ities. At times& the first ste! determines the
nati'e of the last ste! to be underta5en. <h- a research has been defined& 9hat data has been collected
and 9hat a !articular methods ha'e been ado!ted and a host of similar other 1uestions are usuall-
ans9ered 9hen 9e tal5 of research methodolo%- concernin% a research !roblem or stud-. ,he !ro/ect is a
stud- 9here focus is on the follo9in% !oints.

A research desi%n is defined& as the s!ecification of methods and !rocedures for
ac1uirin% the .nformation needed. .t is a !lant or or%ani(in% frame9or5 for doin% the stud- and
collectin% the data. esi%nin% a research !lan re1uires decisions all the data sources& research
a!!roaches& Research instruments& sam!lin% !lan and contact methods.
Research desi%n is mainl- of follo9in% t-!esG "
+. 8?!lorator- research.
). escri!ti'e studies
*. 8?!erimental research
!5P)#A%#" !S!AC(
,he ma/or !ur!oses of e?!lorator- studies are the identification of !roblems& the
more !recise Formulation of !roblems and the formulations of ne9 alternati'e courses of action.
,he desi%n of e?!lorator- studies is characteri(ed b- a %reat amount of fle?ibilit- and ad"hoc
'eracit-.
-!SC+P%+V! S%U-+!S
escri!ti'e research in contrast to e?!lorator- research is mar5ed b- the !rior
formulation of s!ecific research ;uestions. ,he in'esti%ator alread- 5no9s a substantial
amount about the research !roblem. Perha!s as a Result of an e?!lorator- stud-& before the
!ro/ect is initiated. escri!ti'e research is also characteri(ed b- a Pre!lanned and structured
desi%n.
!5P!+.!,%A) -!S+G,
A casual desi%n in'esti%ates the cause and effect relationshi!s bet9een t9o or more
'ariables. ,he h-!othesis is tested and the e?!eriment is done. ,here are follo9in% t-!es of casual
desi%nsG
.. After onl- desi%n
... Before after desi%n
.... Before after 9ith control %rou! desi%n
.2. Four %rou!s& si? studies desi%n
2. After onl- 9ith control %rou! desi%n.
2.. $onsumer !anel desi%n
2... 8?!osit facto desi%n
+n this survey + done a -escriptive Study4
B> -A%A C#))!C%+#, .!%(#-
P+.A" S!C#,-A"

irect !ersonal .nter'ie9
.ndirect !ersonal .nter'ie9
.nformation from corres!ondents #o't. !ublication
Mailed 1uestionnaire Re!ort $ommittees 6 $ommissions
;uestion filled b- enumerators. Pri'ate Publication
Research .nstitute
P+.A" -A%A
Published Sources
3n!ublished
Sources
,hese data are collected first time as ori%inal data. ,he data is recorded as obser'ed or
encountered. 8ssentiall- the- are ra9 materials. ,he- ma- be combined& totaled but the- ha'e
not e?tensi'el- been statisticall- !rocessed. For e?am!le& data obtained b- the !eo!les.
S!C#,-A" DATA
Secondar- data are those data 9hich are collected from other sources.
Sources of Secondar- ata
Follo9in% are the main sources of secondar- dataG
14 #fficial Publications4
). Publications elatin& to %radeG
*. $ournalE ,e;spapers etc.G
4. -ata Collected by +ndustry AssociationsG
5. Unpublished -ataG ata ma- be obtained from se'eral com!anies& or%ani(ations&
9or5in% in the same areas li5e ma%a(ines.
Period of StudyG ,his stud- has been carried out for a ma?imum !eriod of 4 9ee5s.
Area of studyG ,he stud- is e?clusi'el- done in the area of mar5etin%. .t is a !rocess re1uirin%
care& so!histication& e?!erience& business /ud%ment& and ima%ination for 9hich there can be no
mechanical substitutes.
Samplin& -esi&nG ,he con'enience sam!lin% is done because an- !robabilit- sam!lin%
!rocedure 9ould re1uire detailed information about the uni'erse& 9hich is not easil- a'ailable
further& it bein% an e?!lorator- research.
Sample ProcedureG .n this stud- 0/ud%mental sam!lin% !rocedure is used. 4ud%mental sam!lin% is
!referred because of some limitation and the com!le?it- of the random sam!lin%. Area sam!lin% is used
in combination 9ith con'enience sam!lin% so as to collect the data from different re%ions of the cit- and
to increase reliabilit-.
Samplin& SizeG ,he sam!lin% si(e of the stud- is +00 users.
.ethod of the Samplin&F
Probability Samplin&
.t is also 5no9n as random sam!lin%. 7ere& e'er- item of the uni'erse has an e1ual chance or !robabilit-
of bein% chosen for sam!le.
Probabilit- sam!lin% ma- be ta5en inform ofG
Simple andom Samplin&
A sim!le random sam!le %i'es each member of the !o!ulation an e1ual chance of bein% chosen. .t is not
a ha!ha(ard sam!le as some !eo!le thin5X :ne 9a- of achie'in% a sim!le random sam!le is to number
each element in the sam!lin% frame Be.%. %i'e e'er-one on the 8lectoral re%ister a number@ and then use
random numbers to select the re1uired sam!le.
Random numbers can be obtained usin% -our calculator& a s!readsheet& !rinted tables of random numbers&
or b- the more traditional methods of dra9in% sli!s of !a!er from a hat& tossin% coins or rollin% dice.
Systematic andom Samplin&
,his is random sam!lin% 9ith a s-stemX From the sam!lin% frame& a startin% !oint is chosen at random&
and thereafter at re%ular inter'als.
Stratified andom Samplin&
<ith stratified random sam!lin%& the !o!ulation is first di'ided into a number of !arts or AstrataA accordin%
to some characteristic& chosen to be related to the ma/or 'ariables bein% studied. For this sur'e-& the
'ariable of interest is the citi(enAs attitude to the rede'elo!ment scheme& and the stratification factor 9ill
be the 'alues of the res!ondentsA homes. ,his factor 9as chosen because it seems reasonable to su!!ose
that it 9ill be related to !eo!leAs attitudes
Cluster and area Samplin&
Cluster samplin& is a sam!lin% techni1ue used 9hen EnaturalE %rou!in%s are e'ident in a statistical
!o!ulation. .t is often used in mar5etin% research. .n this techni1ue& the total !o!ulation is di'ided into
these %rou!s Bor clusters@ and a sam!le of the %rou!s is selected. ,hen the re1uired information is
collected from the elements 9ithin each selected %rou!. ,his ma- be done for e'er- element in these
%rou!s or a sub sam!le of elements ma- be selected 9ithin each of these %rou!s.
,on Probability Samplin& .t is also 5no9n as deliberate or !ur!osi'e or /ud%e mental sam!lin%. .n this
t-!e of sam!lin%& e'er- item in the uni'erse does not ha'e an e1ual& chance of bein% included in a
sam!le.
.t is of follo9in% t-!eG
Convenience Samplin&
A convenience sample chooses the indi'iduals that are easiest to reach or sam!lin% that is done eas-.
$on'enience sam!lin% does not re!resent the entire !o!ulation so it is considered bias.
Guota Samplin&
.n 1uota sam!lin% the selection of the sam!le is made b- the inter'ie9er& 9ho has been %i'en 1uotas to
fill from s!ecified sub"%rou!s of the !o!ulation.
$ud&ment Samplin&
,he sam!lin% techni1ue used here in !robabilit- Y Random Sam!lin%.
,he total sam!le si(e is +00 !rofiles.
+ have selected Probability samplin& method for this survey study4
-ata CollectionF " ata is collected from 'arious customers throu%h !ersonal interaction. S!ecific
1uestionnaire is !re!ared for collectin% data. ata is collected 9ith more interaction and formal
discussion 9ith different res!ondents and 9e collect data about preference of bread product by face
to face contact 9ith the !ersons from 9hom the information is to be obtained B5no9n as informants@.
,he inter'ie9er as5s them 1uestions !ertainin% to the sur'e- and collects the desired information.
%his is a descriptive research ;ith sample size 1004
-ata analysis 3 interpretation
;u.+ them 9hich !ac5a%ed bread brand do -ou li5e most=
a@ Famil-
b@ Pari9ar
c@ ,ast-",ast-
d@ Mil5 made
e@ Morden
Particular Percenta%e
Famil- ))
Pari9ar +N
,ast-",ast- )0
Mil5 made )*
Morden +K
Analysis6
After the sur'e-& the researcher found that famil-)0O& the res!ondent of !ari9ar+NO& ,aste-"
,ast-)0O& the res!ondent of mil5 made is)*O& the res!ondent of modern+KO.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made. ,ast-",ast-&
Famil- 6 Pari9ar Modern !ac5a%ed bread brand li5e most.
;u.) 9hich brand is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit-=
a@ Famil-
b@ Pari9ar
c@ ,ast-",ast-
d@ Mil5 made
e@ Morden
Particular Percenta%e
Famil- )0
Pari9ar +N
,ast-",ast- +0
Mil5 made )N
Morden )4
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found that )0Ores!ondents Famil-& +NO Pari9ar and +0O ,ast-"
,ast-&)N O Mil5 made.6 )4O Morden brand is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit-.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made.
,ast-",ast-& Famil- 6 Pari9ar Morden brand is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit-
;u.*. 9hich medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade -ou most=
a@ ,2
b@ Ne9s !a!er
c@ 8lectronic media
d@ <ords of mouth
Particular Percenta%e
,2 )5
Ne9s !a!er )0
8lectronic media *5
<ords of mouth )0
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found that )5O of res!ondents ,2& )0O Ne9s !a!er *5O
8lectronic media&6 )0O <ords of mouth medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade most.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& 8lectronic media&& ,2 &
Ne9s !a!er <ords of mouth medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade most.
;u.4 9hich fla'or do -ou li5e most=
a@ S9eet
b@ Ma55han Pmalai
c@ Plain
d@ :thers
Particular Percenta%e
S9eet *0
Ma55han Pmalai )0
Plain *5
:thers +5
Analysis6
After the sur'e- researcher found that **O res!ondents <hite bread & )K Bro9n bread
)+O R-e bread&6 +JO Seed bread the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& <hite bread & Bro9n
bread &R-e bread& Seed bread the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers.
;u.5 9hich of the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers=
a@ <hite bread
b@ Bro9n bread
c@ R-e bread
d@ Seed bread
Particular Percenta%e
<hite bread **
Bro9n bread )K
R-e bread )+
Seed bread +J
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found that *0O res!ondents S9eet& )0O Ma55han Pmalai
*5O Plain&6 +5O Plain fla'or li5e most.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Plain& S9eet& Ma55han P
malai 6 other fla'or li5e most.
.
;u.6 9hich bread brand 9ill -ou !refer better !rice=
a@ Stron%l- satisfied
b@ Satisfied
c@ Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
d@ Stron% desire
Particular Percenta%e
Stron%l- satisfied +0
Satisfied 50
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied *0
Stron% desire +0
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found+0O res!ondents Stron%l- satisfied& 50O of res!ondents
Satisfied and *0O of res!ondents Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied&+0 O of res!ondents& Stron%
desire bread brand 9ill -ou !refer better !rice.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Satisfied Neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied& Stron%l- satisfied Stron% desire bread brand 9ill -ou !refer better !rice
.
;u.K 9hich bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant=
a@ Famil-
b@ Pari9ar
c@ ,ast-",ast-
d@ Mil5 made
e@ Morden
Particular Percenta%e
Famil- ))
Pari9ar )0
,ast-",ast- +N
Mil5 made )0
Morden )0
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found that ))O res!ondents of Famil-& )0O Pari9ar and +NO
,ast-",ast-&)0 O Mil5 made.6 )0O Morden bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant.
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made. ,ast-",ast-& Famil-
6 Pari9ar Morden bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant
;u.N ho9 9ould -ou describe -our bread brand=
a@ 8?cellent
b@ #ood
c@ A'era%e
d@ Poor
e@ can>t sa-
Particular Percenta%e
8?cellent +5
#ood 55
A'era%e +0
Poor +5
can>t sa- 5
Analysis6
After the sur'e- the researcher found that +5O of res!ondents sa-s 8?cellent& 55O #ood
+0O A'era%e&+5O Poor &5O can>t sa- describe -our bread brand
+nterpretation6
From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& #ood & 8?cellent
A'era%e& Poor & can>t sa- describe -our bread brand
*indin&s
:ut of +00 res!ondents ))O Famil-& +NO Pari9ar and )0O ,ast-",ast-&)* O Mil5
made.6 +KO Morden !ac5a%ed bread brand li5e most
:ut of +00 res!ondents )0O Famil-& +NO Pari9ar and +0O ,ast-",ast-&)N O Mil5
made.6 )4O Morden brand is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit-.
:ut of +00 res!ondents )5O ,2& )0O Ne9s !a!er *5O 8lectronic media&6 )0O <ords
of mouth medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade most.
:ut of +00 res!ondents **O <hite bread & )K Bro9n bread )+O R-e bread&6 +JO Seed
bread the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers
:ut of +00 res!ondents *0O S9eet& )0O Ma55han Pmalai *5O Plain&6 +5O Plain fla'or
li5e most.
:ut of +00 res!ondents +0O Stron%l- satisfied& 50O Satisfied and *0O Neither satisfied
nor dissatisfied& +0 O Stron% desire bread brand 9ill -ou !refer better !rice.
:ut of +00 res!ondents ))O Famil-& )0O Pari9ar and +NO ,ast-",ast-&)0 O Mil5
made.6 )0O Morden bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant
ecommendations
ecommendation refers to the outcome of the research ;or< done and the
su&&estions for implementation i4e4 findin&s4
+. .t is su%%ested that manufacturer should ma5e all efforts to control cost.
). ,he com!an- should im!ro'e the 1ualit- of the !roduct.
*. Pro'ide 'arious schemes 9hich attract the customers.
4. Brand !reference should be created throu%h feel %ood !ublicit-.
5. Mar5et strate%- should fallo9 the discount schemes.
Conclusion
Bread is a sta!le food !re!ared from dou%h of flour and 9ater& usuall- b- ba5in%. ,hrou%hout
recorded histor- it has been !o!ular around the 9orld and is one of humanit-As oldest foods&
ha'in% been of im!ortance since the da9n of a%riculture. ,here are indefinitel- man-
combinations and !ro!ortions of t-!es of flour and other in%redients& and also of radicall-
different traditional reci!es and modes of !re!aration of bread. As a result one finds 9ide
'arieties of t-!es& sha!es& si(es& and te?tures of breads in 'arious re%ions. Bread ma-
be lea'ened b- man- different !rocesses ran%in% from reliance on naturall- occurrin% microbes
Bfor e?am!le in sourdou%h reci!es@ to hi%h"!ressure artificial aeration durin% !re!aration andCor
ba5in%. 7o9e'er& some !roducts sim!l- are left unlea'ened& either for !reference& or for
traditional or reli%ious reasons. Man- non"cereal in%redients ma- be included& ran%in% from
fruits and nuts to 'arious fats. $ommercial bread in !articular commonl- contains additi'es&
some of them non"nutritional& to im!ro'e fla'or& te?ture& color& or shelf life.
.n this stud- descri!ti'e research desi%n is used. ata is collected !rimar- as 9ell as
secondar- sources. B- usin% non"!robabilit- con'enience sam!lin% this sur'e- is done in
#ha(i!ur $it- ta5in% the sam!le si(e of +00 !eo!le.
Ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made. ,ast-",ast-& Famil- 6 Pari9ar Morden !ac5a%ed bread
brand li5e most ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made. ,ast-",ast-& Famil- 6 Pari9ar Morden brand
is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit- From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum
res!ondent& 8lectronic media&& ,2 & Ne9s !a!er <ords of mouth medium of ad'ertisement does
!ersuade most. From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& <hite
bread & Bro9n bread &R-e bread& Seed bread the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers. From the
abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent& Plain& S9eet& Ma55han Pmalai 6
other fla'or li5e most. From the abo'e table researcher has found that ma?imum res!ondent&
satisfied neither satisfied nor dissatisfied& stron%l- satisfied Stron% desire bread brand 9ill -ou
!refer better !rice ma?imum res!ondent& Mil5 made. ,ast-",ast-& Famil- 6 Pari9ar Modern
bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant. Ma?imum res!ondent& #ood& 8?cellent A'era%e& Poor&
can>t sa- describe -our bread brand
)+.+%A%+#,S
%here are some limitations in this research proDect reportH these
limitations are as follo;sF6
,ime limitation.
8?!enditure on research.
Area of sur'e- is limited.
Mostl- res!ondents are biased 9ith their 'ie9 at the time of
sur'e-.
Guestionnaire
"our respondent ;ill be used <ept confidential and ;ill be used for academic purposes only'
for the completion of esearch eport4 +' pritee o;n a deep sense of &ratitude for your cooperation
and support4

NameZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ
A%eZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ...#enderZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ.
.ncomeZZZZZZ.Area BMohalla 6 $it-@ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ...
;u.+ them 9hich !ac5a%ed bread brand do -ou li5e most=
f@ Famil-
%@ Pari9ar
h@ ,ast-",ast-
i@ Mil5 made
/@ Morden
;u.) 9hich brand is easil- a'ailable in #ha(i!ur cit-=
f@ Famil-
%@ Pari9ar
h@ ,ast-",ast-
i@ Mil5 made
/@ Morden
;u.*. 9hich medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade -ou most=
e@ ,2
f@ Ne9s !a!er
%@ 8lectronic media
h@ <ords of mouth
;u.*. 9hich medium of ad'ertisement does !ersuade -ou most=
a@ ,2
b@ Ne9s !a!er
c@ 8lectronic media
d@ <ords of mouth
;u.4 9hich fla'or do -ou li5e most=
e@ S9eet
f@ Ma55han Pmalai
%@ Plain
h@ :thers
;u.5 9hich of the follo9in% bread does -ou !refers=
e@ <hite bread
f@ Bro9n bread
%@ R-e bread
Seed bread
;u.6 9hich bread brand 9ill -ou !refer better !rice=
e@ Stron%l- satisfied
f@ Satisfied
%@ Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Stron% desire
;u.K 9hich bread brand is a'ailable in lar%e 'ariant=
f@ Famil-
%@ Pari9ar
h@ ,ast-",ast-
i@ Mil5 made
/@ Morden
;u.N ho9 9ould -ou describe -our bread brand=
f@ 8?cellent
%@ #ood
h@ A'era%e
i@ Poor
/@ can>t sa-
B+B)+#GAP("
:ebsites6
+. 999.bread.com
). 999.famil-.com
3. 999.%oo%le.co.in
Survey6
+ Businessman
) S!orts man
* Students
4 ,eachers
5 Self and others !ersons of #ha(i!ur.
Boo<s6
+ Lrishna s9ami& :. R. D Research methodolo%- in social science
) Lrishna s9ami& L. N. D Mana%ement research methodolo%-
* Lothari& $. R. D Research methodolo%-
Ma%a(ines"
+ Business 6 economics
) Business .ndia
* Business toda-
4 .ndia toda-
5 ,he Sunda- .ndian
Ne9s !a!ers"
+ aini5 /a%aran
) 7industan
4ournals"
+ ,he .ndian national /ournal