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This package contains CUP grammars for the Java programming language.

Copyright (C) 2002 C. Scott Ananian

This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version. See the file COPYING for more details.
Directory structure:
Parse/ contains the Java grammars.
java10.cup contains a Java 1.0 grammar.
java11.cup contains a Java 1.1 grammar.
java12.cup contains a Java 1.2 grammar. [added 11-feb-1999]
java14.cup contains a Java 1.4 grammar. [added 10-apr-2002]
java15.cup contains a Java 1.5 Java grammar. [added 12-apr-2002]
[last updated 28-jul-2003; Java 1.5 spec not yet final.] interface description for a lexer.
Lex/ contains a simple but complete Java lexer. main class a copy of Parse/ containing symbolic constants.
Main/ a simple testing skeleton for the parser/lexer.
The grammar in Parse/ should be processed by CUP into
There are much better ways to write lexers for java, but the
implementation in Lex/ seemed to be the easiest at the time. The
lexer implemented here may not be as efficient as a table-driven lexer,
but adheres to the java specification exactly.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 3-Apr-1998
[revised 12-apr-2002]
[revised 28-jul-2003]
UPDATE: Fixed a lexer bug: '5.2' is a double, not a float. Thanks to
Ben Walter <> for spotting this.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 14-Jul-1998
UPDATE: Fixed a couple of minor bugs.
1) Lex.EscapedUnicodeReader wasn't actually parsing unicode escape sequences
properly because we didn't implement read(char[], int, int).
2) Grammar fixes: int[].class, Object[].class and all array class
literals were not being parsed. Also special void.class literal
inadvertantly omitted from the grammar.
Both these problems have been fixed.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 11-Feb-1999
UPDATE: Fixed another lexer bug: Large integer constants such as
0xFFFF0000 were being incorrectly flagged as 'too large for an int'.
Also, by the Java Language Specification, "\477" is a valid string
literal (it is the same as "\0477": the character '\047' followed by
the character '7'). The lexer handles this case correctly now.
Created java12.cup with grammar updated to Java 1.2. Features
added include the 'strictfp' keyword and the various new inner class
features at
Also added slightly better position/error reporting to all parsers.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 11-Feb-1999
UPDATE: fixed some buglets with symbol/error position reporting.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 13-Sep-1999
UPDATE: multi-line comments were causing incorrect character position
reporting. If you were using the character-position-to-line-number
code in Lexer, you would never have noticed this problem. Thanks to
William Young <> for pointing this out.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 27-Oct-1999
UPDATE: extended grammar to handle the 'assert' statement added in
Java 1.4. Also fixed an oversight: a single SEMICOLON is a valid
ClassBodyDeclaration; this was added to allow trailing semicolons
uniformly on class declarations. This wasn't part of the original
JLS, but was revised in to conform with the actual behavior of the
javac compiler. I've added this to all the grammars from 1.0-1.4
to conform to javac behavior; let me know if you've got a good
reason why this production shouldn't be in early grammars.
Also futzed with the Makefile some to allow building a 'universal'
driver which will switch between java 1.0/1.1/1.2/1.4 on demand.
This helps me test the separate grammars; maybe you'll find a
use for this behavior too.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 10-Apr-2002
NEW: added a grammar for the JSR-14 "Adding Generics to the Java
Programming Language" Java variant. Calling this java15.cup, since
this JSR currently seems to be destined for inclusion in Java 1.5.
This grammar is very very tricky! I need to use a lexer trick to
handle type casts to parameterized types, which otherwise do not
seem to be LALR(1).
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 12-Apr-2002
UPDATE: various bug fixes to all grammars, in reponse to bugs reported
by Eric Blake <> and others.
a) TWEAK: added 'String' type to IDENTIFIER terminal to match Number types
given to numeric literals. (all grammars)
b) BUG FIX: added SEMICOLON production to interface_member_declaration to
allow optional trailing semicolons, in accordance with the JLS (for
java 1.2-and-later grammars) and Sun practice (for earlier grammars).
The 10-Apr-2002 release did not address this problem completely, due
to an oversight. (all grammars)
c) BUG FIX: '<primary>.this(...);' is not a legal production;
'<name>.super(...);' and '<name>.new <identifier>(...' ought to be.
In particular, plain identifiers ought to be able to qualify instance
creation and explicit constructor invocation.
(fix due to Eric Blake; java 1.2 grammar and following)
d) BUG FIX: parenthesized variables on the left-hand-side of an assignment
ought to be legal, according to JLS2. For example, this code is
class Foo { void m(int i) { (i) = 1; } }
(fix due to Eric Blake; java 1.2 grammar and following)
e) BUG FIX: array access of anonymous arrays ought to be legal, according
to JLS2. For example, this is legal code:
class Foo { int i = new int[]{0}[0]; }
(fix due to Eric Blake; java 1.2 grammar and following)
f) BUG FIX: nested parameterized types ought to be legal, for example:
class A<T> { class B<S> { } A<String>.B<String> c; }
(bug found by Eric Blake; jsr-14 grammar only)
g) TWEAK: test cases were added for these issues.
In addition, it should be clarified that the 'java15.cup' grammar is
really only for java 1.4 + jsr-14; recent developments at Sun indicate
that "Java 1.5" is likely to include several additional language changes
in addition to JSR-14 parameterized types; see JSR-201 for more details.
I will endeavor to add these features to 'java15.cup' as soon as their
syntax is nailed down.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 13-Apr-2003
UPDATE: Updated the 'java15.cup' grammar to match the latest specifications
(and their corrections) for Java 1.5. This grammar matches the 2.2
prototype of JSR-14 + JSR-201 capabilities, with some corrections for
mistakes in the released specification and expected future features of
Java 1.5 (in particular, arrays of parameterized types bounded by
wildcards). Reimplemented java15.cup to use a refactoring originally
due to Eric Blake which eliminates our previous need for "lexer lookahead"
(see release notes for 12-April-2002). Added new 'enum' and '...' tokens
to the lexer to accomodate Java 1.5. New test cases added for the
additional language features.
-- C. Scott Ananian <> 28-Jul-2003