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Linear wave theory

By G. Moe,

NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.

Contents

6.6.1 Linear Wave Theory

6.6.2 Wave Forces

6.6.2.1 Introduction

6.6.3. Potential Theory

6.6.3.1 In General

6.6.3.2 Potential Theory for a Cylinder in a Steady Current

6.6.3.3 Potential Theory for a Cylinder in Oscillating Flow (/D >5)

6.6.3.4 Potential Theory for an Oscillating Cylinder in Still Water

6.6.4 Empirical Results for Forces in a Viscous Fluid

6.6.4.1 Flow Separation past a Stationary Cylinder in a Steady Flow

6.6.5 Flow Separation past a Stationary Cylinder in an Oscillatory Flow: Morison's Formula

6.6.6 Which Formula to Use to Find the Wave Forces?

6.6.7 Effective Axial Tension

6.6.8 References

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 236

6.6.1 Linear Wave Theory

The profile, dynamic pressure and particle velocities and accelerations in a regular, harmonic wave is

summarised in Table 6.23. Please note that the waves are propagating in the direction of the positive

x-axis. It should also be noted that the phase above is arbitrary, thus a phase angle of

0

could be

added in all expressions for =t-kx above. For instance, if

0

=/2, then and sin(+/2)=cos.

Hence, in the expressions above, the potential, vertical velocity etc. may instead be expressed through

-sin(t-kx)) and the wave profile, horizontal velocity, etc. through cos(t-kx). Complex notation in

which the harmonic functions are expressed through real or imaginary parts of exp(t-kx) may also be

used.

Table 6.23. The profile, dynamic pressure, particle velocities and accelerations in a regular, harmonic

wave.

6.6.1.1.1 Linear Theory of Regular Waves Review

Wave property

SHALLOW WATER

(d / < 1 / 20)

INTERMEDIATE WATER

(1 / 20 < d / < 1 / 2)

DEEP WATER

(d / > 1 / 2)

Velocity potential

(u = )

=

ag k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

cosh

cosh

cos

=

ag k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

cosh

cosh

cos

=

ag

e t kx

kz

cos( )

Dispersion relation

2 2

= g k d

2

= gk kd tanh

2

= gk

Wavelength - wave

period relation

= T gd

=

g

2

T

2 d

2

tanh

=

g

2

T ( 1.56 T )

2 2

Waveprofile = a ( t - kx) sin = a ( t - kx) sin = a ( t - kx) sin

Dynamic pressure

d

p = ga ( t - kx) sin

d

p = ga

k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

cosh

cosh

sin p ga e t kx

d

kz

= sin( )

Horizontal

particlevelocity

u =

a

kd

( t - kx)

sin u = a

k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

cosh

sinh

sin

u ae t kx

kz

= sin( )

Vertical

particlevelocity

w = a

z + d

d

( t - kx) cos w = a

k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

sinh

sinh

cos

w ae t kx

kz

= cos( )

Horizontal

particleacceleration

cos u =

a

kd

( t - kx)

2

cosh

sinh

cos u = a

k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

2

cos( ) u a e t kx

kz

=

2

Vertical

particleacceleration

sin w = - a

z + d

d

( t - kx)

2

sinh

sinh

sin w = - a

k(z + d)

kd

( t - kx)

2

sin( ) w a e t kx

kz

=

2

Group velocity c c

g

= c c

kd

kd

g

= +

1

2

1

2

2

(

sinh

) c c

g

=

1

2

=2 / T, k = 2 /

T =waveperiod

=wavelength

a =waveamplitude

g =acceleration of gravity

c = / T =phasespeed

t =time

x =direction of propagation

z =vertical co-ordinate

positiveupward, origin

at still water level

d =water depth

pd =dynamic pressure

d o

p - gz + p = total pressurein

thewater ( -gz =hydrostatic pressure,

o

p =atmospheric pressure).

E = g a

1

2

2

=waveenergy (per unit

surfacearea)

P Ec

g

= =waveenergy flux (per unit

width along thewavecrest)

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 237

6.6.2 Wave Forces

6.6.2.1 Introduction

Offshore structures in the Arctic may be exposed to various kinds of loads, such as gravity and

hydrostatic pressure, and environmental loads caused by waves, currents, wind, ice and snow and

finally some accidental loads such as e.g. earthquake, collision (ship and aircraft) or fire. We will in

this part of the course limit ourselves to forces caused by waves and currents. For most offshore

structures, apart from ice loads, these will constitute the most important part of the total loading.

When water moves relatively to a submerged body there will be created forces on the body. These

may be of several types. Some of those may be simple to envision and analyse, but others may be

more elusive and any analysis may have to be based on results from experiments.

It is obvious that even the sharpest thinkers have had problems understanding the phenomena that

takes place in hydrodynamics. One of the first who made an effort here, Leonardo da Vinci, wrote

"Remember, when discoursing about water, to induce first experience, then reason". Let us follow this

advice and take as a starting-point, Fig. 6.26 showing a cylinder in water that suddenly is exposed to a

steady flow velocity u

o

.

In the first picture (a) we see a flow which is nearly symmetric on the upstream and downstream side.

After a while one can see some small vortices on the downstream side which afterwards grow (picture

a, b, c, d). In picture (e) the vortices have become so large that they may soon be torn loose from the

cylinder, and the last picture shows the situation where the steady flow has acted for a long time, so

that many vortices have been created.

The experiment clearly shows that the flow pattern not only depends on the flow velocity, which is

the same in all pictures. It is obvious that a flow situation is built up over time. To start with, picture

(a), the flow pattern is very similar to the one occurring for an ideal fluid (potential theory). As time

passes, other phenomena turn up and at last we have a pattern where vortices are formed, growing and

alternately loosening from the upper and the lower side of the cylinder. When a vortex sheds a

transversal force and a fluctuation in the longitudinal force will result. Thus we get a time dependent

force even though the flow does not vary with time. So it is obvious that the force on the body does

not only depend on the instantaneous value of the flow velocity, but that also the "flow history" will

have an influence.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 238

Fig. 6.26. Stages in the development of flow (from left to right) past a circular cylinder from the rest.

The speed of the stream has been increased rapidly and then kept constant (Prandtl, 1925).

"Vortex formation" is a common term used to denote what is seen in pictures (a) to (e) and the same

process takes place in (f) while vortex shedding is used about vortices which are torn loose from the

cylinder. The longitudinal force is often termed "drag force".

In basic courses we mostly consider an ideal fluid, that is forces due to viscosity (shear stresses) have

been neglected in comparison with normal stresses which, being equal in all directions, are known as

the pressure of the fluid.

If the fluid also is irrotational, such problems may be solved as a potential problem =

2

0 . This is

the so-called Laplace equation. Irrotational means that infinitesimal elements will not rotate relatively

to for example their own centre of gravity (however, each centre of gravity may move in a circle). An

ideal fluid does not have any shear stresses that can give a fluid particle rotation.

Very often we find good results for the forces acting on a body by means of potential theory, but at

other times this method is completely insufficient. One of the problems with potential theory is that it

is likely to give high velocities at the surface of the body. But at the surface the velocity must be 0 as

a result of adhesion between water molecules and fixed bodies. In many cases it is possible to get a

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 239

correct solution by using a more accurate theory having a thin boundary layer close to the body which

includes viscosity. Outside this layer potential theory is used. Within the boundary the velocities of

the shear deformation are so large that the shear forces are significant even though the viscosity (i.e.

the shear module) is small. This procedure gives good solutions for stream-lined bodies such as ships

and aeroplanes.

If the cross sections are not streamlined, an additional problem will appear, so-called "separation".

This means that the fast flow along the body surface separates from the surface at a so-called "point of

separation". Behind the body there will then be a region with water motion, a so-called "wake" (see

Fig. 6.27). The same phenomenon is shown in Fig. 6.25f. Do also note from Fig. 6.26 that it will take

time before separation is developed. If the flow reveres itself before separation has time to develop,

then solutions based on potential theory plus a boundary layer will be approximately correct.

P

P'

A

Fig. 6.27. Flow around a circular cylinder.

Such phenomena that cannot be described by the theory of ideal fluid are denoted "viscous". For

instance, cases where the internal friction in the fluid viscosity is of significance. For bodies with non-

streamlined area, the direct frictional forces from the fluid action on the surface of the cylinder most

often will give a less important contribution to the viscous force. Such friction forces are present in all

flow situations in Fig. 6.26, also (a), while the largest "viscous contribution" to the longitudinal force

in (f) almost exclusively is due to pressure forces, not shear forces. This applies to all ordinary cases

of engineering interest, but not if the cylinder is very small (hair, straw of grass, etc.).

By using the Bernoulli equation for the flow following the surface from A to P, one will see that the

pressure will be largest where the velocity is 0 and lowest at P where the velocity is largest. All

around the rear side of the cylinder the pressure will be approximately as at P and hence low. This

follows from the balance of the pressure over the layer of separation. As a result of this the cylinder is

exposed to a resultant caused by differences in pressure around the cylinder. This force is often

termed "form drag". Often the transversal forces are termed "lift forces" since they are similar to the

forces lifting the wing of an aeroplane, both being directed transversal to the flow direction. Note that

the lift force on a wing of an aeroplane always is directed towards one side, while the transversal force

on a cylinder alternates in direction, depending on whether the vortex shedding is on the upper and

lower side.

In Marine Technology we rarely consider streamlined bodies, and therefore it is not so often the effect

from the boundary layer has that much importance. The question is then whether the flow is separated

or not. As explained earlier, this depends on how fast the flow changes, and we will later see that with

waves with a given velocity, amplitude and period, the separation will take place for bodies having

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 240

the smallest cross-sections. Therefore cross-sections where the forces in waves can be derived from

potential theory, are customary denoted "large volume structures". It must strongly be emphasised that

there are other decisive factors besides the size of the body. But the expression "large volume

structures" is well established and will be used also in this text to denote cases for which the wave

forces can be found from potential theory.

6.6.3 Potential Theory

6.6.3.1 In General

An ideal fluid is incompressible and irrotational. Incompressible means that

u

x

v

y

w

z

+ + = 0 (6.5)

This can easily be realised by considering a small rectangular control surface not obstructing the fluid

motion and then regard the flow in the three directions. In the x-direction the flow into the control

volume per unit time will be udydz and out [ ]dydz dx x u u ) / ( + . The net flux is then

( / ) u x dxdydz for flow in the direction of the x-axis. Furthermore, by regarding all the three

directions and dividing by dx dy dx, we obtain Eq. (6.5). This is also shown in most basic textbooks in

hydromechanics.

y (v)

x (u)

u/y

v/x

Fig. 6.28. Rotation of the sides of a fluid element in the xy-plane.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 241

According to Fig. 6.28, the mean value of the rotations about the z-axis in the point (x, y, z) will be

1 2 / ( / / ) v x u y . No mean rotation about any of the axes then implies

u y v x / / = 0 (6.6a)

v z w y / / = 0 (6.6b)

w x u z / / = 0 (6.6c)

The above represents only 2 independent equations. (E.g. by elimination of v from (6.6a) and (6.6b)

one obtains /y of (6.6c).) Real fluids will very often be irrotational because pressure forces will not

rotate fluid elements, and shear forces tend to be insignificant except at fluid boundaries. Then an

analytic solution can be found by use of a potential chosen as follows

= / x u (6.7a)

= / y v (6.7b)

= / z w (6.7c)

Now Eq. (6.6) will automatically be satisfied, and what remains is to substitute Eq. (6.7) into Eq.

(6.5). This gives

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

x y z

+ + = = (6.8)

This equation is called the Laplace equation. Since Eq. (6.8) is based on Eq. (6.7), which introduced a

potential , we often say that the use of Eq. (6.8) implies solutions with the help of potential theory.

Note that the velocity in an arbitrary directions n is given by /n. For a known potential flow, will

namely have given values throughout the space. If then a new co-ordinate system (, t, s) is

introduced, will not change. But then according to the definition of the potential Eq. (6.7), the

velocities in the three directions are given by /n, /t, /s.

Many nice mathematical techniques to solve Laplace equation have been established. However, in this

compendium we shall only consider those which are most urgently needed. Often we will just present

the solution and show that it is correct.

Problem formulation

The solution for a fixed body in a given, external flow

o

is usually taken as a sum of

o

and a

diffraction potential

1

, i.e. =

o

+

1

. Then the solution (assuming incompressible, irrotational,

inviscid fluid) must satisfy three following 3 requirements:

Laplace-equation

2

=0 must be satisfied throughout the fluid.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 242

The normal component of the particle velocity on the surface of the body (S

B

) must be zero, /n

=0.

The velocity potential far from the body must approach the incoming (undisturbed) potential

o

.

6.6.3.2 Potential Theory for a Cylinder in a Steady Current

The incoming potential for a steady current flowing in the positive x-direction with velocity U

becomes, see Fig. 6.27:

o

Ux Ur = = cos (6.9)

The description using polar co-ordinates is suitable for cylindrical bodies since the boundary

conditions are then more simple to handle.

To satisfy the conditions above there must be added a diffraction potential. For a fixed cylinder with

its longitudinal axis normal to the current, this potential will be:

1

2

= U R r ( / )cos (6.10)

And thus the total potential becomes:

=

o

+

1

This potential satisfies the conditions given above:

In order to show that the Laplace-equation now is satisfied, we may use the formula for polar co-

ordinates:

2

2

2

2

1 1

r r

r

r r

+

=

The velocity component normal to the surface:

U

r

r

= =

0

It may easily be shown that

o

when r .

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 243

The velocity component tangential to the surface will be:

y

v

u

x

R

r

u

r

Dipole

-2 U sin

y

y

x x

Fig. 6.29. Co-ordinate system, flow patterns and velocity at the cylinder surface.

Fig.6.29 shows that the x-component of u

expected. The forces on the circular body at r =R can easily be determined by integrating the x-

component of the pressure.

Actually, we see at once that the current is (double) symmetric since the magnitude of the velocities at

and - are equal. The pressures at and - are equal and the total force on the body will be 0.

This result is known as d'Alambert's paradox.

According to what is said in Chapter 6.6.2, we realise that the assumption on which this result is based

is that the effect both from viscosity and separation can be neglected. When separation occurs the

pressure distribution along the rear side of the cylinder is totally different, as suggested in Section

6.6.2.1. On the other hand, if the velocity is so small that there will not be any separation, then

viscosity will be of paramount importance. The present solution, having neglected friction, will

therefore be completely useless. On the other hand, a very similar solution for an oscillating flow case

(waves) will be quite useful.

6.6.3.3 Potential Theory for a Cylinder in Oscillating Flow (/D > 5)

A vertical cylinder in waves is shown in Fig. 6.30. The force per unit length of the cylinder shall be

calculated. It is assumed that the pile diameter is small compared to the wave length . At first we will

consider the force which occurs in an undisturbed wave, a so-called Froude-Krylof-force. In reality

the pile will change the flow patterns around it, so the Froude-Krylof-force must only be considered

as a first estimate.

This force may be determined by integrating the ent of the pressure around the surface of the cylinder,

but we shall manage without recourse to a formal integration. Consider a fluid element limited by the

same cylindrical surface. It may then be seen that the horizontal force on the surface of the fluid

element must be large enough to give it a horizontal acceleration ( ) u z as given in Table 6.23.

Its mass is D

2

4 / . Thus, according to Newton's 2. Law, the total force on the fluid element will be:

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 244

f D u

FK

=

2

4 /

e j

(6.11)

Of course both f

FK

and u are functions of z while x may be chosen freely without any loss of

generality, e.g. x =0. Assuming the flow pattern for an undisturbed wave around the cylindrical pile,

it will therefore be exposed to the same force as the fluid-element of identical shape.

We shall now find a more accurate solution where the influence on the flow pattern from the pile is

included. The undisturbed wave potential is according to Table 6.23:

o o

o

a

g t kx

g

g k z d

kd

=

=

+

cos

cosh ( )

cosh

b g

(6.12)

The horizontal co-ordinate x occurs in the argument to the cosine function only, and with kx <<1, this

leads to coskx 1, sinkx kx =kr cos, so that Eq. (6.12) may be written:

o o

g t t kr = + cos sin cos l q (6.13)

In the steady flow case the undisturbed wave potential was equal to Ur cos. In this case, with a small

cylinder in an oscillating flow given by Eq. (6.13) the r, -dependency will be just the same. (In

addition we have obtained a contribution which is constant in r and ).

Remembering that the calculation of

2

and the velocities only involves derivation with respect to r

and , it is seen that the constant will not contribute to

2

. Then in analogy to the steady flow case

Eq. (6.9), a total potential =

o

+

1

may then be postulated.

= + +

F

H

G

I

K

J

R

S

T

U

V

W

g t t k r

R

r

o

cos sin cos

2

(6.14)

Similar to the steady flow case

2

=0 will be satisfied throughout the fluid while u

r

=/r =0 on

the cylinder surface. Finally, the part which is added compared to the undisturbed wave,

g

o

sintk (R

2

/r)cos, will be negligible for large r.

The dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder becomes:

p

t

g t t kR

D o

= = +

The x-component of the force per unit length of the cylinder may now be determined by integration,

see Fig. 6.29.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 245

f p Rd

D

o

=

z

2

cos (6.16)

By putting Eq. (6.15) into Eq. (6.16) we will have a component with cos and another with cos

2

.

The first integrates to 0 may be disregarded. Then we have:

f g t kR d

R k g t R u

x

=

= =

z

=

0

2 2

0

2

2

0

2

0

2

2 2

cos cos

cos

(6.17)

y

x

d

D

z

x

F P

d

cos q

P

d

q

Fig. 6.30. Vertical cylinder in waves.

This result is exactly the double of that obtained from an undisturbed wave Eq. (6.11). The result is

applicable to potential flow and for a cylinder that is small compared to the wave length. It turns out

that /D >5 is sufficient. However, if D becomes very small the fluid particles may in many cases

move many diameters during each half oscillation, and separation will take place. Then, the potential

solution does not apply any more. We shall return to this later on.

From (6.14) is found

u

r

kg k z d

kd

t

R

r

u

r

kg k z d

kd

t

R

r

r

a

a

=

=

+

=

=

+

+

cosh ( )

cosh

sin { }cos

cosh ( )

cosh

sin { }sin

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

(6.14b)

(6.14c)

6.6.3.4 Potential Theory for an Oscillating Cylinder in Still Water

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 246

A long, horizontal cylinder oscillates in still water with frequency and velocity amplitude U

o

. The

momentary velocity is U

o

cos t. We have earlier considered an oscillating flow around a fixed

cylinder, and this is a closely related case. The potential for the cylinder now becomes

( )

2

1 0

cos cos U R r t = (6.18)

when using cylindrical co-ordinates. As a matter of fact, in analogy with Eq. (6.6) for a fixed cylinder,

1

will satisfy Laplace equation, and the velocity normal to the surface of the cylinder will be

u

r

U t

r r R r R o

| | cos cos

= =

= =

1

(6.19)

It is immediately seen that for =0 and , we have the wanted translational velocity. Furthermore, at

a general point on the periphery the fluid velocity must be equal to the velocity component in the

direction normal to the surface. This becomes (U

o

cos t) cos (x, n) and since the angle between the x-

axis and the normal n is we can see that Eq. (6.19) is correct.

y

x

q

t

n

uq

ur

Velocity

U

0

cos wt

Fig. 6.31. Cylinder which oscillates with axis normal to the flow direction.

From potential theory, the tangential fluid particle velocity close to the surface of the cylinder

becomes

u

r

U t

r R r R o

| | sin cos

= =

1

1

(6.20)

This is the velocity at the outer edge of the boundary layer. We also need the tangential velocity of the

body which is given by

U t x t U t

o o

(cos )cos( , ) sin cos = (6.21)

since the angle between the x-axis and the tangent is (/2 +).

The dynamic pressure on the surface of the cylinder may now be determined

p

t

U R t

D o

= =

1

sin cos (6.22)

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 247

By substituting Eq. (6.16) into Eq. (6.22), we obtain:

f L U R L t R UL

h o

= =

2 2

sin

(6.23)

where we have used

o

sin t)

and multiplied by the body length L (neglecting end effects).

Then this represents an external force from the fluid, which resists the motion of the cylinder, and is

proportional to the displaced mass of fluid times acceleration. If the body has a mass M and is

exposed to a mechanical force F

m

that makes it oscillate (in addition to the force from the fluid f

h

L)

one may write Newton's second law on the following form

MU F f L

m h

= (6.24)

or with the use of Eq. (6.23) when assuming that total hydrodynamical force F

h

=f

n

L where L is the

length of the cylinder,

M R L U F

M

+ =

2

e j

(6.25)

Therefore, when dealing with hydrodynamical forces from potential theory in infinite fluid we often

include an "added mass" which for the circular cylinder turned out to be the mass of the quantity of

water displaced by the cylinder.

6.6.4 Empirical Results for Forces in a Viscous Fluid

6.6.4.1 Flow Separation past a Stationary Cylinder in a Steady Flow

Overview - dimensional analysis

Consider the case shown in Section 6.6.1, Fig. 6.26, picture (f), dealing with a circular cylinder, a

"pile". As mentioned, the drag forces on a pile in steady current have two main contributions, namely

friction forces against the surface of the pile and form drag, caused by pressure differences. A pure

case of frictional drag will come about if a thin long plate is set parallel to a steady current, while on

the other hand pure form drag arises if the plate is put at a right angle to the current.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 248

For circular cylinders, in cases of engineering interest, only the form drag will normally be of interest,

and we have that the drag force per unit length of the cylinder, f

d

, is

f C DU U

d d

=

1

2

(6.26)

Here are:

U - velocity of the water particles at right angles to the pile

D - the diameter of the pile

- density of water

C

d

- dimensionless drag-coefficient

The absolute value sign is included to ensure that the force on the cylinder has the same direction as

the velocity of the particles. Often U

2

is written instead of UU . In that case we have to make sure that

the direction of the positive force is defined in the direction of the current. Many reports consider, by

the way, force on an element with infinitesimal length dl, along the axis of the cylinder. We will then

obtain the force df

d

and the right side has to be multiplied with dl:

df C DU U dl

d d

=

1

2

This expression is equivalent to the first one, and we will in this text prefer force per unit length, that

is Eq. (6.25).

The drag coefficient will now depend on the Reynolds number Re, defined as

Re / = UD (6.27)

with being the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Besides, the roughness of the cylinder and the

turbulence level of the incoming current play a part. Loosely speaking, we may put these two together

to one equivalent average roughness k, writing

C C k D

d d

= (Re, / ) (6.28)

It will now be explained why C

d

is dependent on just 2 dimensionless groups. By means of so-called

dimensional analysis, it can be shown that if the force depends on m independent variables and there

are r independent fundamental physical dimensions involved in the problem, then the dimensionless

force will be a function of (m-r) other dimensionless groups.

We assumed that the drag force, f

d

, was dependent on the diameter D and the average roughness k,

current velocity u, the density of the fluid and the kinematic viscosity of the cylinder. The

problem thus involves the drag force f

d

and 5 other physical variables, i.e., m =5.

f f D k U

d

= ( , , , , )

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 249

Further, there are 3 independent dimensions in the problem. For instance length, time and force, that

is r =3. The dimensionless force

C

f

DUU

d

d

=

1

2

is only dependent on m-r =2 independent dimensionless groups, and a possible choice is stated in Eq.

(6.28), where the Reynolds number Re and relative roughness k/D are used. Of course, it is possible to

form other dimensionless groups than these e.g., the products (Re k/D) and (Re D/k), and as long as

we form 2 independent dimensionless groups, these can be chosen freely. But certain choices of non-

dimensional groups may better display the functional relationships than other choices, and may

therefore be preferred by nearly everybody.

So far we have concentrated on circular cylinders in a steady current, but corresponding expressions

can easily be formulated for other bodies. Generalising Eq. (6.25), the drag force at the body may be

written

F C A U U

d d

=

1

2

The symbols are the same as in Eq. (6.25) except for A which stands for the projection of the body on

a plane that is perpendicular to the current and F

D

which indicates the total force, not the force per

unit length.

Flow characteristics

The incompressible viscous flow about a circular cylinder is a complicated function of Reynolds

number (Re).

Re / = UD (6.29)

here D- diameter of the cylinder

- kinematic viscosity of fluid

U- free stream velocity, unaffected by the cylinder, often denoted U

The flow is also sensitive to cylinder roughness and free-stream turbulence. In the absence of these

effects, the main flow regions around a circular cylinder described in terms of the Reynolds number

are shown in Fig. 6.32. Flows for Re <150 are of minor interest for offshore applications. We still

note in passing that for Re <5, the Navier Stokes equation can be solved analytically by neglecting

the inertia terms and allowing the viscous terms to dominate. Please consult Fig. 6.32 for other cases.

At a Reynolds number of almost 150, the far wake starts to become turbulent. At still higher Reynolds

numbers, the point of transition from laminar wake to turbulence moves upstream. At a Reynolds

number of about 300, the entire vortex street is turbulent, though the flow on the cylinder is laminar.

Throughout the subcritical region (300 <Re <210

5

) the flow conditions are very stable. At a

Reynolds number around 210

5

, the point of transition to turbulence in the separated free shear layers

moves upstream. When it is very close to the cylinder surface, the laminar separation points move

back (upstream) slightly and, with a further slight increase in Reynolds number, a separation bubble is

formed, Fig. 6.33.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 250

Fig. 6.32. Regions of fluid flow across circular cylinders (Lienhard, 1966).

Fig. 6.33. Formation of separation bubble at critical Reynolds numbers.

Turbulent flow is now established along the surface of the cylinder behind the bubble, and the vortex

street becomes quite irregular. The wake width decreases. This is called the critical flow region (210

5

<Re <710

5

). Above the critical region, the laminar separation bubble decreases with increasing

Reynolds numbers, and the wake begins to widen. This is the supercritical flow region where the

shedding is not regularly periodic (0.710

6

<Re <3.510

6

). Regular shedding occurs again at Re >

3.510

6

, with a fully turbulent wake, turbulent separation and the entire boundary layer having become

turbulent ahead of separation. As the separation point moves upstream, the bubble disappears and the

wake is widened. When this is fully developed, we are in the hypercritical, transcritical or post-

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 251

supercritical flow region. At even higher Reynolds number little is known of what is happening, but it

is unlikely that any dramatic change will occur in the flow patterns.

The drag and lift coefficient and the Strouhal number

When fluid is flowing about a cylinder forces are induced on the cylinder. The fluid dynamic forces

may be divided into the time averaged and fluctuating forces along and across the direction of the

flow. The transversal forces are often called lift forces, while in-line forces are denoted drag forces.

As discussed earlier the flow about a cylinder is a function of Reynolds number, and consequently so

are the fluid forces. The steady in-line force normalised with respect to 1 2

2

/ U DL is called the

drag coefficient (C

d

). The drag coefficient is shown in Fig. 6.34.

Fig. 6.34. Drag coefficient for circular cylinders as a function of Reynolds number (Sarpkaya and

Isaacson, 1981).

Another parameter which characterises the flow conditions and hence the fluid forces is the vortex

shedding frequency. Strouhal as early as in 1878 discovered a relationship between the vortex

shedding frequency, cylinder diameter, and velocity of the ambient flow. The relationship, denoted by

S

f D

U

o

o

= (6.30)

is known as the Strouhal number, where f

o

is the vortex shedding frequency i.e. the number of vortex

pairs per second. In Fig. 6.35 the Strouhal number is shown as a function of Reynolds number.

As observed from Figs. 6.34 and 6.35 a similar behaviour is observed both for the C

d

and 1/S

o

throughout the Reynolds number range. In the subcritical region the flow conditions are very stable,

and so are the values of C

d

and S

o

, approximately 1.1 and 0.2, respectively.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 252

Fig. 6.35. Strouhal number versus Reynolds number for a smooth cylinder (Sarpkaya and Isaacson,

1981).

In the critical region, with the laminar separation, the formation of the separation bubble, the

reattachment and a new turbulent separation followed by a narrowing of the vortex street, the drag

decreases, and the vortex shedding covers a broad band of frequencies. A high value of S

o

is obtained

if the most dominant frequency in the spectrum is taken as the Strouhal frequency.

In the supercritical region the turbulent separation point moves upstream, and the wake becomes

broader. This in turn leads to a continuous increase in the drag coefficient. The vortex shedding still

covers a broad band of frequencies, and the wake is highly turbulent.

In the hypercritical region the entire boundary layer is turbulent, the vortex wake has broadened and

the C

d

-value reaches a constant value of approximately 0.6-0.8. The vortex shedding again becomes

periodic, and the Strouhal number is approximately 0.24-0.30. At higher Reynolds numbers it is

believed that no dramatic change in the C

d

and S

o

-values will happen.

The alternate shedding of vortices from a cylinder in a flow produces unsteady forces with alternating

directions on the cylinder at the vortex shedding frequency in the transversal direction, and at twice

this frequency in the in-line direction (parallel to the flow). A number of investigations have been

directed towards determining the magnitudes of the coefficients associated with these forces. There is

considerable spread in the results, partly due to the fact that the forces are very dependent on the

correlation length of vortex shedding, which is again dependent upon end effects, cylinder length,

free-stream turbulence, any shear in the flow, and above all whether any slight motion of the pile can

take place, in response to the vortex shedding.

These coefficients are made non-dimensional in the same way as the drag force and are termed C

L

and

C'

d

for the unsteady lift and drag, respectively. For Re =10

4

10

5

, C

L

is an order of magnitude greater

than C'

d

(C

L

0.6 - 1.2).

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 253

6.6.5 Flow Separation past a Stationary Cylinder in an Oscillatory Flow: Morison's

Formula

Going back to the example in the beginning of this Section, namely a cylinder in an impulsively

started, steady flow, Fig. 6.26, it is recalled that one of the key observations was that "vortex

formation takes time". In the first pictures there was small deviations form a flow pattern in which

there was perfect symmetry between the upstream and downstream side of the cylinder. Then

gradually, as time passed, the boundary layer rolled up into vortices, and the vortices were eventually

shed, creating a "wake".

For cylinders in waves the situation is similar. Now the question is whether vortices can be formed

and shed before the flow reverses itself. If no vortices are formed, then the solution can to a good

approximation, be represented by potential theory. If a very large number of vortices are formed per

half cycle of the flow, then the problem can to a good approximation be assumed to be quasi-steady,

i.e., it may be considered as a case of several successive steady flow situations.

Between these two limiting cases is the complicated situation for which Morison's formula applies.

Morison et al. suggested that for the wave case, where there is both acceleration and flow separation,

the total force could be written as the sum of a drag term and an acceleration term. They thus

suggested that the following empirical formula, now known as "Morison's formula", could be used

f D C U D C UU

m d

= +

1

4

1

2

2

(6.31)

in which as before f is the fluid force per unit length of the cylinder. This formula has been used in

virtually all investigations since then.

NOTE: It is very unfortunate that Morison et al. chose the same names on the coefficients C

m

and C

d

as those used for the limiting situations (i.e. the unseparated flow case and steady flow case,

respectively).

It has earlier been explained that the drag coefficient in steady flow depends on D,K,U,,, so that

two non-dimensional numbers (Re, k/D) could be formed. The behaviour in oscillatory flow will in

addition depend on the wave period T, and therefore an additional non-dimensional parameter must be

introduced. This is customarily the Keulegan-Carpenter number K, defined as

K

U T

D

m

= (6.32)

in which U

m

is the amplitude of the oscillatory flow. Also the oscillatory Reynolds number

Re=

U D

m

(6.33)

will be used. The coefficients in the Morison formula (6.31) depends on the following 3 parameters:

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 254

C C K k D

d d

= (Re, , / ) (6.34)

C C K k D

m m

= (Re, , / ) (6.35)

One has a choice of non-dimensional numbers. Sarpkaya often uses (Re, , k/D) instead of

(Re, K, k/D) in which is a frequency parameter defined as

= =

Re

K

D

T

2

(6.36)

Experimental results on C

d

and C

m

for smooth cylinders in oscillatory flows

Sarpkaya conducted a series of experiments with smooth cylinders in oscillatory flows. From these

experiments the drag and inertia coefficients were calculated.

These data are shown as a function of Re for constant values of K in Fig. 6.35. It is seen that C

d

decreases with increasing Re to a value of about 0.5 (depending on K) and then gradually rises to a

constant value (hypercritical value) within the range of Reynolds numbers encountered.

The inertia coefficient increases with increasing Re, reaches a maximum, and then gradually

approaches a value of about 1.85. The smallest K-values exhibit decreasing C

d

values and C

m

approaching 2.0.

Fig. 6.36. C

d

versus Reynolds number for various values of K (Sarpkaya and Isaacson, 1981).

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 255

Fig. 6.37. C

m

versus Reynolds number for various values of K (Sapkaya and Isaacson, 1981).

From Fig 6.36 can be seen that the drag coefficient for a cylinder in harmonically oscillating flow is

larger than that for the steady flow case at subcritical Reynolds number (say, for Re smaller than

about 20 000) and again at critical Reynolds numbers (say larger than about 400 000). In the range of

Reynolds numbers between the two values cited above, the drag coefficient for the oscillating flow is

considerably lower than that for steady flow. The reason for this is the earlier transition to turbulence

in the boundary layers, i.e. critical flow conditions are reached earlier in oscillatory flows.

Roughness effects on C

d

and C

m

in harmonic flow

It is a fact that structures in the marine environment become gradually covered with rigid as well as

soft marine growth. Thus, the fluid loading and the structural response due to identical ambient flow

conditions may be significantly different from that experienced when the structure was clean. This is

primarily because of the roughness effect on the excrescences on the flow (the boundary layer) and

the secondary because of the increase of the effective diameter.

For rough cylinders often it is more relevant to consider the flow around the roughness elements of

size k and use it as a basis for a Roughness Reynolds number

Re

k

m

U k

=

(6.37)

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 256

Figs. 6.38 and 6.39 show curves for recommended values of C

d

and C

m

for rough cylinders.

Fig. 6.38. Recommended drag and inertia coefficients for rough cylinders, K =20 (Sarpkaya and

Isaacson, 1981).

Fig. 6.39. Recommended drag and inertia coefficients for rough cylinders, K =100 (Sarpkaya and

Isaacson, 1981).

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 257

6.6.6 Which Formula to Use to Find the Wave Forces

Fig. 6.40 shows how to decide whether the flow is separated or whether potential theory can be

applied. For the latter case the mass coefficient C

m

is 2 if the diameter is less than 0.2 times the

wavelength. Otherwise C

m

may be determined from Fig. 6.41.

Wave force,

cylinder

K>2?

Morison formula

Eq. (6.31)

Potential theory

Smooth D/L<0.2

C

m

, see

Fig. 6.41

C

m

=2

Figs. 6.36

and 6.37

Figs. 6.38

and 6.39

No Yes, separation

No Yes No Yes

Fig. 6.40. Wave force on a vertical cylinder.

Fig. 6.41. Inertia coefficient C

m

in unseparated flow as a function of diameter to wave length,

potential theory.

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 258

6.6.7 Effective Axial Tension

In the present section emphasis has been on hydrodynamic forces, i.e. forces associated with flowing

water. However the forces due to water at rest will often be the dominant external influences on a

structure in the ocean, and can therefore by no means be neglected, but it has been assumed herein

that this topic is known from earlier courses. In the present section an expose will be given of the

effect of hydrostatic pressure on a line-like body that undergoes deformations while being submerged

in still water. This topic is not covered in beginners courses in hydromechanics, and may yet be quite

important in many ocean engineering applications. The resultant of the water pressures acting at the

surface of a pipe of constant cross-section will change when the body shape changes, and this will

influence the behaviour of the structure. For instance e.g. the natural vibration frequency, and the

buckling load, will be modified.

(p

e

A

e

)

2

ds

p

w

ds

(p

e

A

e

)

1

g

e

A

e

ds

Fig. 6.42. Hydrostatic forces acting on a water element shaped as the pipe element.

The hydrostatic pressure against the riser wall can be replaced by equivalent contributions to the axial

force and the pipe weight as follows:

The effects of the fluid pressure on the exterior on a pipe element of length ds can be found by

considering the forces acting on a fluid element of the same shape, see Fig. 6.41. The resultant of the

force on the exterior surface of the fluid element is ( ) P ds

w

. This force, the hydrostatic forces at the

fluid element ends and the fluid element weight are in equilibrium, i.e. ( ) P ds

w

can be replaced by

( )

e e

A ds plus ( ) P A P A

e e e e 1 1 2 2

. (Positive directions are indicated in Fig. 6.42).

Consider now the riser element in water with (dry) weight per unit length equal to w, axial tension

T

w

in the pipe wall and subjected to the external pressure force ( ) P ds

w

. Using the above

replacements this situation is (statically) equivalent to the same cable element in air (i.e. without the

pressure force), but subjected to a wet weight w w g A

w e e

= and an adjusted, effective tension

T T P A

e w e e

= + . (T

e

is positive in tension, thus ( ) P A

e e

in Fig. 6.42 represents a positive addition

to T

w

).

Part II Chapter 6 Section 6 - Linear wave theory 259

The resultant pressure force against the internal surface of the pipe may in an analogous manner be

replaced by two axial forces, plus a weight term. This time the force on the interior wall of the pipe is

equal to the weight of the content ( )

i i

gA ds plus the axial compressive terms ( ) P A P A

i i i i 1 1 2 2

+ .

A situation with internal and external pressures and a pipe wall tension T

w

will then be statically

equivalent to a situation with no external and internal pressures, but with the following adjusted axial

tension and weight:

T T P A PA

e w e e i i

= + (6.38)

w w g A g A

w e e i i

= + (6.39)

T

e

is denoted effective tension or in many references tension while w

w

is called wet weight

and w is the riser weight per unit length in air. Here P

e

is the external hydrostatic pressure and P

i

is

the internal pressure in the pipe, and

e

and

i

are the densities of the external and internal fluids

respectively. T

w

is the axial tension force in the pipe wall. Actually Eq. (6.38) is quite general, and

permits gradual as well as sudden changes of the pipe cross section, and is valid regardless of the

inclination angle between the pipe axis and the vertical.

6.6.8 References

Lienhard, J . H. (1966): Synopsis of Lift, Drag and Vortex Trail Dynamics. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31,

pp. 991-998.

Prandtl, L. (1925): ber die Ausgebildete Turbulenz. ZAMM 5:136. (See also Schlichting, H. (1955):

Boundary Layer Theory. Pergamon Press. Chapter XIX.

Sarpkaya, T. and M. Isaacson (1981): Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures. Van

Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York, 651 p.

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