巴 拉 克 ‧歐 巴 馬 總 統 在 與 中 國 未 來 領 袖 直 接 對 話 會 上 的 演説

OT-0925C | 日期: 11/16/2009 2009 年 11 月 16 日, 於中國上海, 中國上海科技博物館, 當地時間下午 1:18
http://www.ait.org.tw/zh/news/officialtext/viewer.aspx?id=2009111602

歐巴馬總統:你們好。能夠有機會在上海跟你們大家交談,我深感榮幸。我要感 謝復旦大學的楊校長,感謝他的款待和熱情的歡迎。 我還要感謝美國出色的大使 洪博培 (Jon Huntsman),他代表了我們兩國之間的深遠聯繫和相互尊重。我不知 道他剛才 説 什麼,但是希望他 説 得不錯。(笑聲) 我今天準備先做一個開場白,但我真正希望做的是回答問題,不但回答在座學 生提出的問題,同時也回答從網上提出的一些問題,這些問題由在座的一些學 生和洪博培大使代為提出。 很抱歉,我的中文不如你們的英文,但我期待著這個 和你們對話的機會。 這是我首次訪問中國,看到你們壯麗雄偉的國家,我感到很興奮。 在上海,我們 看到了全球矚目的發展——高聳的大廈、 繁忙的街道、 創業的動態。 這些都是中國 步入 21 世紀的跡象,讓我感到讚嘆。同時,我也期盼看到展現中國悠久歷史的 古蹟。 明天和後天我會在北京,希望有機會看到壯觀的故宮和令人嘆為觀止的長 城。的確,這是一個既有豐富歷史,又對未來的希望充滿信心的國家。 我們兩國的關係也是如此。 毫無疑問,上海在美中關係史上是一個具有重大意義 的城市。 正是在這裡,37 年前發佈的 《上海公報》 (Shanghai Communiqué)開啟 了我們兩國政府和兩國人民接觸交往的新頁。 然而,美國與這個城市及這個國家 的關係可以追溯到更久遠的過去,直至美國獨立初期。 1784 年,美國的國父喬治‧華盛頓主持了「中國女皇號」(Empress of China)的 下水儀式。這艘船前往中國海岸,尋求與清朝通商。華盛頓希望看到這艘懸掛美 國國旗的船前往世界各地,與像中國這樣的國家締結新的關係。 這是美國人共同 的願望——希望航向新的地平線,建立新的、互利的夥伴關係。 在此後的兩個世紀中,歷史洪流使我們兩國關係朝向許多不同的方向發展,但 即使在動蕩的歲月中,兩國人民也抓住機會發展了深入的、 甚至極不平凡的關係。 例如,美國人民永遠不會忘記,二戰期間,美國飛行員在中國上空被擊落後,

中國公民冒著失去一切的危險護理他們。 參加過二戰的中國老兵仍然熱情歡迎故 地重遊的美國老兵,他們曾經在那裏作戰,幫助中國從佔領中獲得解放。 近 40 年前,簡單的乒乓球比賽帶來了兩國關係的解凍,使我們兩國建立起另一 種聯繫。 這種接觸令人意外,但卻恰恰促成了其成功,因為儘管我們之間存在許 多分歧,但是我們共同的人性和共同的好奇心得以從中顯現。 正如一位美國乒乓 球隊員在回憶對中國的訪問時所 説 : 「那裏的人民和我們一樣……這個國家和美 國有許多相似之處,但也有很大差別。」 無須贅言,這個小小的契機帶來了《上海公報》的問世,並最終促使美中兩國在 1979 年建立正式外交關係。請看在此後的 30 年,我們取得了多麼長足的進展。 1979 年,美中貿易額約為 50 億美元,今天,年度貿易額已經超過 4000 億美元。 貿易在許多方面影響著兩國人民的生活,美國電腦中的許多元件以及我們身穿 的服裝都是從中國進口的,我們向中國出口中國工業需要的機械。 這種貿易可以 在太平洋兩岸創造更多的就業機會,讓我們的人民過著更高品質的生活。 隨著需 求趨於平衡,繁榮的範圍將進一步擴大。 1979 年,美中之間的政治合作主要奠基於雙方共同面對的競爭對手蘇聯。如今 我們享有積極、具建設性、 且全面的關係,為我們在當今重要的全球問題上建立 夥伴關係打開了大門,這些問題包括:經濟復甦和潔淨能源開發,防止核武擴 散和氣候變遷的影響,在亞洲及全球各地促進和平與安全。 所有這些問題都是我 明天與胡主席會談的內容。 1979 年,我們兩國人民的聯繫十分有限。今天,我們看到當年乒乓球隊員的好 奇心已經化為許多領域的聯繫,中國留學生在美國的人數名列第二,而在美國 學生當中,學中文的人數增加了 50%。 我們兩國有近 200 個友好城市,把我們的 社會聯結在一起。美中科學家合作進行新的研究與發現。而姚明是我們兩國人民 都熱愛籃球的其中一個象徵而已——令我遺憾的是,此行我不能觀看上海鯊魚 隊的比賽。 我們兩國之間的關係伴隨著一個積極變化的時期,這絕非偶然。 中國使得億萬人 民脫貧,這一成就史無前例,同時,中國在全球問題上也在發揮更大的作用。 美 國在促使冷戰順利結束的同時,也看見自我經濟的起飛,連帶也提高了人民的 生活水準。 中國有句名言: 「溫故而知新。 當然,過去 30 年中我們也曾遇到挫折和挑戰, 」 我們的關係不是沒有分歧和困難。 但是, 「我們必然是對手」 的概念並非是注定不 變的——回顧過去,情況並非如此。由於我們的合作,美中兩國都更加繁榮、更

加安全。 我們已經看到我們本著共同的利益和相互的尊重去努力所能獲得的成果。 可是,這種接觸的成功取決於理解,取決於繼續進行開誠佈公的對話,相互了 解,相互學習。 正如前面提到的那位美國乒乓球隊員所 説 的 ——身為人類,我們 有著許多共同之處,但是我們兩國在某些方面仍存在著差異。 我認為每個國家都必須規劃自己的方向。中國是一個文明古國,文化悠久深遠。 而美國相對而言是一個年輕的國家,它的文化由來自許多不同國家的移民,以 及引導美國民主制度的建國綱領所形塑而成。 這些綱領中提出了對人群事務簡單明瞭的願景,並包含了一些核心原則——不 論男女人人生而平等,都享有某些基本權利;政府應當反映民意,並對人民的 願望作出回應;商業應該是開放的,資訊應該自由流通;司法保障應該來自法 治而不是人治。 當然,美國歷史也不是沒有遇到困難的時候。 在很多方面,很長的一段時間裏, 我們要透過衝突去促進並實踐這些原則對全體人民的承諾,締造一個更趨完善 的聯邦。 我們曾打過一場很痛苦的南北戰爭,將我國的一部分人口從奴役中解放 出來。 婦女獲得投票權、 勞工贏得組織權、 來自世界各地的移民得到完全的接納— —這些都是經過了一段時間才實現的。 非洲裔美國人即使在獲得自由後依然生 活在被隔離和不平等的條件下,他們努力不懈,最終才贏得全面、平等的權利。 這一切全都得來不易。 但是,由於我們對這些核心原則的堅定信念,我們獲得進 展,這些原則指引我們通過了最黑暗的風暴。這就是為什麼林肯( Lincoln)能 在南北戰爭中挺身而出並宣佈,這是一場考驗一個孕育於自由之中, 「忠實於人 人生而平等這一原則」的國家能否永存的戰爭。這也就是為什麼馬丁‧路德‧金恩 (Martin Luther King)博士能夠站在林肯紀念堂(Lincoln Memorial)的臺階上, 要求美國實踐自身信仰的真正含義。 這也就是為什麼來自中國到肯亞的各國移民 能夠在美國的土地上安身立命;為什麼所有努力尋求機會的人都能獲得機會; 為什麼像我這種不到 50 年前在美國某些地方連投票都有問題的人,現在能夠出 任這個國家的總統。 這就是為什麼美國一直在全世界為這些核心原則而大聲疾呼。 我們不尋求把任何 政治體制強加給任何其他的國家,但是我們也不認為我們主張的這些原則是我 們國家所獨有的。 表達自由和宗教信仰自由——獲得資訊和參政的自由——我們 認為這些自由都是普世的權利,所有人都應當享有,包括少數民族和宗教少數 團體,不管是在美國、中國還是在任何其他國家。正是對普世權利的尊重引導著 美國向其他國家開放,尊重各種不同的文化,致力於遵守國際法,並對未來抱 持信念。

這些都是你們應當了解的美國的情況。 我也知道中國有很多有待我們了解的情況。 環顧一下這座偉大的城市——環顧一下這個大廳——我確信我們兩國有一個很 重要的共同點,那就是我們對未來的信念。 美國和中國都不想滿足於既有的成就, 而止步不前。雖然中國是一個古老的國家,但你們顯然也對未來滿懷信心、雄心, 和使下一代能比這一代人更有作為的決心。 我們不但欽佩中國日益成長的經濟,也佩服你們在科學研究方面非凡的努力— —從你們建設的基礎設施到你們使用的技術,均展現出這種努力。中國現在是世 上最大的網際網路使用國——這也是我們今天很高興能把網際網路作為此次活 動的一部分的原因。 中國目前擁有世界上最大的行動電話網路,它正在投資發展 既能維持永續成長,又能因應氣候變遷的新型能源——我期待明天在這個至關 重要的領域中深化兩國的合作關係。 然而,最重要的是,我在你們身上看到了中 國的未來——年輕一代的聰明才智、奉獻精神和夢想,將為塑造 21 世紀發揮很 大的作用。 我已 説 過許多次,我相信我們現在的世界是緊密相連的。我們所做的工作、我們 建設的繁榮、我們保護的環境、 以及我們追求的安全——所有這一切都是眾人共 享的。有鑑於這種相互聯繫,在 21 世紀,權力不應再成為一場零和遊戲;一國 的成功發展不應以他國為代價。 這也就是為什麼美國堅決表示我們不謀求遏制中 國的崛起。 恰恰相反,我們歡迎中國成為國際社會中一個強大、 繁榮、 成功的成員 ——一個靠著像你們這樣的中國人身上所具有的權利、實力和創造力所建立的中 國。 回到前面提到的那句古語——回顧過去。 我們知道,大國之間選擇合作而非對抗 會帶來更大的利益。 這是人類不斷學習到的一個教訓,我們兩國的關係史中也不 乏其例。我深信,合作必須不限於政府間的合作。 合作必須植根於我們的人民— —植根於我們共同進行的研究、我們的商業活動、我們所學到的知識、乃至我們的 體育運動。這些橋樑必須由你們這樣的年輕人和美國的年輕人共同構築。 因此,我高興地宣佈,美國準備把在中國留學的美國學生人數大幅度提高到 10 萬人。 這種交流是對我們兩國人民之間建立聯繫的明確承諾,而且毫無疑問,你 們將協同決定 21 世紀的命運。我完全相信,對美國來 説 ,最好的特使莫過於我 們的年輕人。 因為他們和你們一樣,才華洋溢,充滿活力,對未來即將寫下的歷 史無比樂觀。 那麼,就讓此一做法成為我們穩步尋求合作的下一步,這種合作有利於我們兩 國乃至整個世界。 如果能從今天的對話中得到一點啟示的話,我希望那就是承諾 今後將繼續進行這種對話。

非常感謝各位。現在我希望回答大家提出的一些問題。非常感謝。(掌聲。) 我只想確定活動進行得順利。 順便提一句,這是在美國這類直接對話會中十分常 見的一種傳統做法。 我們要做的是——如果你想提問,就請舉手。 我會叫到你。 我 會交替回答現場觀眾的問題和學生代為提出的網際網路問題,還有,我想洪博 培大使可能會提一個我們透過大使館網站蒐集到的問題。 讓我們開始吧,先看看——我來採取這樣的做法:先叫一位男生,再叫一位女 生,然後——這樣輪流,以示公平。好嗎?首先我要請前排這位年輕女士提問。 請等一下拿到麥克風再講,讓大家都能聽到。你叫什麼名字? 問:我的名字叫(聽不清),我是復旦大學的學生。自 1985 年以來,上海與芝 加哥就結為姐妹市,兩座城市在經濟、 政治和文化方面進行了各種廣泛的的交流 活動。 那麼,您將採取什麼措施來加深美國與中國各城市間的這種緊密聯繫?上 海將於明年舉辦世界博覽會。您會帶著您的家人來參觀世博會嗎?謝謝。 歐巴馬總統: 十分感謝你提出這個問題。我來這裡之前才剛跟上海市長共進午餐, 他告訴我,他與芝加哥市——我的家鄉——有著極好的關係,他已經到芝加哥 市訪問過兩次。我認為城市之間進行交流是非常好的事。 我與上海市長討論的內容之一是,兩座城市如何能夠在潔淨能源策略上彼此學 習,因為把中國與美國聯結在一起的問題之一是:隨著人口成長和對氣候變遷 的擔憂,我們如何能夠減少我們兩國的碳足跡。 顯然,在美國和許多已開發國家 中,按人口、 按每個人平均計算,他們使用的能源比起在中國這裡的每個人使用 的能源要多得多。但隨著中國的成長和發展,它也將使用更多的能源。 因此兩國 都十分想要找到新的策略。 我們談到了公共交通及上海正在發展的絕佳的軌道路線。 我認為我們在芝加哥和 美國可以從正在建造的精良高速軌道工程中學習到一些東西。 在美國,我想我們正在學習建造使用更少能源、節能效率更高的建築。而我知道, 就上海來 説 —— 我一路過來看到那麼多起重機和那麼多正在建造中的新大樓, 我們開始吸收這些新技術十分重要,從而將使每幢大樓在照明方面、 取暖方面都 做到節能。因此我認為這是一個向彼此學習的很好的機會。 我知道,潔淨能源將成為上海世界博覽會的一個主要焦點——我從上海市長那 裏了解到這一點。因此我將樂於出席。我現在還無法確定我未來的行程安排;但 我感到十分高興的是,在上海世博會裏將有一個十分精彩的美國館。 我聽 説 預計 將有多達 7000 萬人來參觀。因此這裡將會人山人海,而且將十分令人雀躍。

芝加哥在歷史上曾舉辦過兩次世博會,那兩次世博會都給芝加哥帶來了很大的 推進力。我確信同樣的情況會出現在上海。 謝謝。(掌聲) 讓我們從網上的提問中選一個問題吧。請介紹你自己,萬一 …… 問:我先 説 中文,再 説 英語,好嗎? 歐巴馬總統:好的。 問:我提的這個問題來自網際網路。 我要謝謝總統先生在您任內第一年就訪問中 國,在中國與我們交換意見。 我想知道您這次訪問中國為中國帶來什麼,您又將 帶什麼回美國?(掌聲) 歐巴馬總統:我這次訪問的主要目的是,加深了解中國以及中國對未來的展望。 我與胡主席已經有多次會晤。我們共同參加了應對經濟金融危機的 20 國集團會 議。我們就一系列廣泛議題進行了磋商。但是我認為,美國繼續加深對中國的了 解非常重要,正如中國也同樣需要繼續加深了解美國。 至於我希望從這次會晤或從這次訪問中看到什麼成果,除了藉由這個絕佳的機 會參觀故宮和長城,並與在座的各位見面——這些都是主要內容——我還打算 與胡主席討論一個要點,也就是洪博培大使前面談到的,沒有美國和中國的共 識,就無法戰勝許多全球性的挑戰。 我來舉一個具體實例,這就是我們剛剛談到的氣候變遷問題。 美國和中國是世界 上最大的兩個溫室氣體排放及碳排放國,這種排放導致地球暖化。 如我在前面所 説 , 美國作為一個高度開發的國家,人均能源消耗量和溫室氣體排放量比中國 高得多。另一方面,中國的成長速度更快,人口更多。 因此,除非我們兩國有意 願在這個問題上採取重要步驟,否則我們就無法解決這個問題。 在訂於 12 月舉行的哥本哈根會議上,世界領導人將努力尋找一項方案,使我們 大家都能夠作出各自不同的承諾,對各國承擔的義務有所區分——顯然,因為 中國貧困人口多得多,因此不必採取與美國完全相同的行動——但是,在計劃 如何減少溫室氣體方面,我們大家都應承擔一定的義務。 這個例子 説 明了我希望在這次會晤中看到什麼成果——我將與胡主席交換想法 , 討論美中兩國如何能夠共同發揮領導作用。 因為,我可以告訴各位,世界上其他 國家將等著看我們如何行動。 如果他們認為美國和中國並不認真看待這個問題, 那麼他們也就不會認真面對它。這是我們兩國現在肩負的領導責任。我的希望是,

透過越來越多的討論和對話,我們能夠向世界進一步展現我們在這許多重要問 題上的領導作用。好不好?(掌聲) 好吧,下面該輪到男生了,對嗎?我來請這位小夥子提問。 問:總統先生,午安。 我來自同濟大學。 我想引用孔子的一句話: 「有朋自遠方來, 不亦樂乎」 在 。 《論語》 中有一句名言叫 「和而不同」 中國倡導一個和諧世界。 。 我們 知道美國形成了以多元化為特點的文化,請問您的這屆政府會採取哪些措施來 建設一個由不同文化組成的多元化世界?您會採取哪些措施尊重其他國家不同 的文化和歷史?我們將來能進行哪些合作? 歐巴馬總統:這一點提得非常好。 美國的優勢之一就是我們擁有非常多元的文化。 美國有來自世界各地的人。因此,對於美國人長什麼樣不能一言以蔽之。以我自 己的家庭為例,我父親來自肯亞,我母親來自美國中西部的堪薩斯州,我妹妹 有一半的印尼血統,她又嫁給了一位華裔加拿大人。 因此,我們歐巴馬的家族聚 會就像聯合國一樣。(笑聲) 而這就是美國的力量所在,因為它意味著我們從不同的文化、 不同的飲食和不同 的想法中學到東西,這使我們的社會變得更加生氣勃勃。 與此同時,每個國家在相互聯結的世界中都擁有自己的文化、 自己的歷史和自己 的傳統。 因此,我認為對於美國來講重要的一點是,不能自認為對我們有利的東 西也一定會給其他人帶來好處。我們在對待其他國家時態度應當謙虛。 但我必須 説 明,正如我在開場白中所 説 的那樣,我們確實認為一些基本原則是 人類所共有的,不論文化背景為何。 例如,在聯合國,我們非常積極地努力確保 世界各地的兒童都享有某些基本權利——如果兒童受到剝削,如果他們被強迫 做童工,儘管以前在包括美國在內的許多國家都可能發生過這樣的事情,但是 世界上所有的國家現在都應當發展到能以比過去更好的方式對待兒童的程度。 這 是一種普世價值觀。 我相信在對待婦女的態度上也是如此。 我在來這裡之前與上海市長共進午餐並進 行了很有意思的討論,他告訴我現在中國大專院校中有很多專業的在校女生實 際上比男生多,而且她們學得非常好。 我認為這是一個很好的進步指標,因為綜 觀世界各地的發展就會看到,一個國家的發展是否成功最重要的指標之一,就 是該國女童受教育的情況以及婦女享有的待遇。 而那些能夠發揮婦女的聰明才智 和能量,並能為她們提供良好教育的國家,通常比那些沒有這麼做的國家有更 好的經濟發展。

當然,不同的文化對男性和女性之間的關係可能會有不同的態度,不過我認為 美國的觀點是,我們必須申明全世界婦女的權利。 如果我們看到女性在一些社會 中受到壓迫,得不到機會,或遭受暴力,我們將大聲疾呼。 有些人可能不同意我們的觀點,我們可以就此展開對話。 但我們認為有必要恪守 我們的理念和價值觀。 當然,我們在這樣做的時候必須謙遜,必須認識到我們自 己並非十全十美,在很多問題上還有待進步與加強。 如果你們問一問美國婦女, 她們會告訴你,有一些男性對婦女在社會中的地位還抱著老觀念不放。 因此,我 們不能 説 美國解決了全部問題,但我們認為必須為這些普世理念和這些普世價 值觀大聲疾呼。 好吧。下面要回答一個透過網際網路提出的問題。 問:您好,總統先生。我非常榮幸能來到這裡見到您本人。 歐巴馬總統:謝謝你。 問:我將讀一個從網上選出的對您的提問,這個問題是一個台灣人提出的。 他在 提問時 説 :我來自台灣,現在在大陸做生意。 由於兩岸關係近年來不斷改善,我 現在在大陸的生意做得很好。 因此,當我聽到美國有人要提議——繼續向台灣出 售武器的消息時,我開始感到非常擔心。我擔心這會破壞海峽兩岸的關係。 因此, 總統先生,我想知道您是否支持改善兩岸關係。 當然,這個問題雖然是一位商人 提出的,但所有年輕的中國學生其實都非常關心這個問題,所以我們特別希望 了解您在這個問題上的立場。謝謝。(掌聲) 歐巴馬總統:謝謝你。 我一貫明確表示,本屆政府完全支持一個中國的政策,亦 即幾十年前發佈的三個聯合公報所闡明的,美國與中華人民共和國的關係以及 美國與台灣的關係。我們不想改變這項政策和這項方針。 我非常高興看到緊張局勢的緩解和海峽兩岸關係的改善,而且我非常盼望和希 望我們能繼續看到台灣和中華人民共和國其他地區在解決很多這類問題時顯著 改善關係。 我認為,美國對外政策中,也包括在對中國的政策中,一直尋求的是透過對話 和談判解決問題的途徑。我們一貫認為這是最好的途徑。而且我認為,這個地區 正在建立的經濟和商務聯繫有助於緩解很多在你們出生前,甚至在我出生前就 已形成的緊張關係。 但有些人在考慮這些問題時仍然向後看,而不是展望未來。我更願意展望未來。 就像我剛才 説 的,我認為正在建立的商務關係——當人們認為他們能夠做生意

賺錢時,有些因素會使他們的想法變得非常清楚,而不致過分擔心意識形態的 問題。我認為這個地區已經開始出現這種變化,而且我們非常支持此一進程。 好吧,該輪到女生了,是吧?就是這一位。 等一下,讓我們——哎呦,對不起, 他們把麥克風拿回到這邊了。下一個問題我再請你提。 請講,我一會兒到這邊來。請講。 問:謝謝您。 歐巴馬總統:我過一會兒再請你提問。我要先叫她,然後再叫你。 請講。 問:好的,謝謝您。總統先生,我是上海交通大學的學生。我想請問一個關於諾 貝爾和平獎的問題。 依您之見,您獲得諾貝爾和平獎的主要原因是什麼?它會給 您更多責任和壓力來促進世界和平嗎?它會對您處理國際事務的想法産生影響 嗎?非常感謝。 歐巴馬總統:謝謝。這個問題提得很好。我必須 説 ,沒有人比我對我贏得諾貝爾 和平獎更感到吃驚。這當然是一項殊榮。 基於過去獲獎者的輝煌歷史,我不認為 我獲獎是完全實至名歸的。 但是,我只能謙卑地接受這一事實,也就是,使委員 會受到感動的是美國民眾以及那種不僅讓美國發生改變、 而且讓美國對世界的方 針發生改變的可能性。 因此我想,以某種方式 説 ,雖然他們頒給我這個獎,但我 只是一個象徵,代表了我們在處理國際事務方面改變做法的努力。 至於我所感受的重擔,我能擔任總統一職著實為莫大的榮幸。 每當我抱怨工作太 繁重時,我的妻子總是提醒我: 「你可是自願要做這份工作的。 (笑聲)我不知 」 道中國是否有類似的諺語,但是我們美國人會説:「你鋪了床,就得在上面睡 覺。」大意是,你在許願時要當心,因為你可能真的會如願。 我們大家都有促進世界和平的義務。這並非總是易事。世界上依然存在很多幾世 紀以來尚未解決的衝突。看看中東,有些戰爭和衝突是基於千年之前的爭論。在 全球的很多地方,例如非洲,還有一些難以解決的民族和部落衝突。 顯然,目前我身為美國總統,職責之一是擔任三軍統帥,而我的首要任務是保 護美國人民。 由於 911 攻擊事件和世界各地的恐怖攻擊造成無辜人民的傷亡,我 的責任就是確保我們鏟除這些恐怖組織,並且和其他國家合作解決這類暴力問 題。 然而,儘管我不認為我們可以完全消弭國家或民族之間的暴力,我還是認為我

們肯定可以減少民族之間的暴力——透過對話、 交換意見,以及增進民族和文化 之間的理解。 特別是在今天,只要一個人引爆一顆炸彈就能造成大規模的破壞,因此我們比 以往任何時候都要更加努力推動促進和平的策略。 科技可以是為人類造福的強大 工具,但是也能讓少數人有機可乘,造成極大的傷害。 所以我衷心希望在我和胡 主席會面時以及雙方的持續交往中,美中兩國能夠攜手合作,設法減少正在發 生的種種衝突。 然而,我們要在這樣做,在我們動用軍隊的時候,還需想到,因為我們是如此 強而有力的大國,因此必須時刻反省我們的作為,檢視我們的動機和自身的利 益,確保我們不會僅僅因為沒有人能夠阻止我們就使用武裝力量。 大國強國的責 任之一就是,在國際社會中以負責任的態度行事。 我希望美中兩國能夠合作創立 一個減少全球衝突的國際規範。(掌聲) 好。怎麼樣?Jon——我將讓我的大使提問,我想他有一個透過使館網站提的問 題。這是個挑選出來的問題,我想是是由我們美國記者團成員挑選的, 所以… … 洪博培大使:對。 而且毫不奇怪: 「在一個有 3 億 5 千萬網民,6 千萬部落格的國 家,你聽 説 過防火牆嗎?」 第二, 「我們該不該能夠自由使用 Twitter(推特)?」 ——就是這個問題。 歐巴馬總統:首先,我要 説 ,我從沒用過 Twitter。 我注意到,年輕人他們都忙著 這些電子玩意兒。我的指頭在電話上打字有些不靈活。但是,我對科技深信不疑, 我深信資訊交流的開放性。 我以為,資訊交流得越自由,社會就越強大,因為這 樣世界各國的公民可以向自己的政府問責。 他們會開始獨立思考,從而産生新思 想,鼓勵創造性。 所以,我向來都是一個網際網路公開使用的支持者。我大力支持資訊不受管制。 這也是我剛才所 説 的美國傳統的一部分,我認識到不同的國家有不同的傳統。 我 可以告訴你們,在美國,我們具有自由的網際網路——或者 説 上網無限制,是 我們力量的一個來源,我覺得應該得到鼓勵。 我應該告訴你們,我應該坦誠地 説 ,作為美國總統,有時候我倒希望資訊傳播 沒有這麼自由,因為這樣我就不會老是聽到別人批評我。 我覺得人很自然地—— 當他們在有權有勢的時候就會想,那個人怎麼能那樣 説 我,或者,那是不負責 任的,等等。 然而事實是,由於在美國資訊是自由交流的,在美國有許多人批評 我, 説 我什麼的都有,我其實認為這讓我們的民主體制更強大,也讓我成為一

個更好的領導人,因為這種做法迫使我傾聽那些我不想聽的意見,迫使我審視 我每天的所作所為,看一看我是否為美國人民盡了全力。 我認為網際網路成了這種公民參與的更強大的工具。 其實,我能當選總統的原因 之一,就是因為我們能夠透過網際網路動員像你們這樣的年輕人的參與。 開始的 時候,誰也不認為我們能贏,因為我們沒有所需的金主,也沒有最有勢力的政 治掮客。 但透過網際網路,人們對我們的競選活動産生了熱情,他們開始組織起 來,聚會,安排競選活動、 事項和集會,最後成了真正由下而上的運動,使我們 能夠有好的成績。 而這並不僅是政府和政治事務的情形,商業也是如此。大家想想,像谷歌 (Google)這樣一個公司,僅在 20 年前——不到 20 年前,出自兩位不比你們 大多少的人的念頭想法。當時它是一個科學研究案。但突然間,因為網際網路的 緣故,他們能夠創立起一個給世界各地商務帶來變革的新産業。 所以説,若不是 有了網際網路的自由和開放,就不會有谷歌。 因此,我大力支持不對網際網路使用、 網際網路上網、 以及 Twitter 等資訊技術設 限。我們越開放,就越能夠溝通,這也將有助於讓世界更為緊密。 想一想——在我想到我的女兒瑪莉亞(Malia)和莎夏(Sasha)的時候,她倆一個 11 歲,一個 8 歲,她們可以從自己的房間上網,遊歷到上海。 她們可以到世界任 何一個地方,可以學習了解任何她們想了解的事情。 她們擁有的是一種多麼大的 力量。我認為,這有助於推進我們剛才談到的那種理解。 如我剛才所説,科技總有不利的一面。 它也意味著恐怖分子能夠以過去也許不可 能的方式在網上組織起來。極端分子可以進行動員。 所以,開放是有一些代價的, 這點不容否認。但是,我認為,好處遠遠超過壞處,還是保持開放為好。這是我 對這個論壇有網際網路的部分感到高興的原因。 我再回答兩個問題,下一個問題來自一位男士,我想是。對,就在這裡。 給你麥 克風。 問:首先,我想説,我非常榮幸能站在這裡向您提問,我覺得我的運氣太好了 , 您的演 説 如此清楚,我都用不著這樣一個耳機。(笑聲) 我的問題是這樣的。 我的姓名是(聽不清),我是復旦大學管理學院的學生,我 想問您這個問題——有人已經問過您有關諾貝爾和平獎的事情,我不想再問同 一方面的問題,我想要問:贏得這樣崇高的榮譽是非常不容易的——我想要知 道,我們都想知道,您是如何爭取到的?您得到的是什麼樣的大學教育,幫助

您獲得了如此殊榮? 我們都很好奇,我們想請您分享您的大學教育經歷,以便 走上成功之路。 歐巴馬總統:首先,我要告訴你,我並不知道有一個能指引你贏得諾貝爾和平 獎的教學大綱或者課程。(笑聲)所以我不能給你保證。但是我想,獲得成功的 訣竅其實就是你現在已經在實踐的。 毫無疑問,你們都十分努力,你們在努力學 習,你們有好奇心,你們願意思考新的想法,並且自己作思考。 你們知道,我現 在所碰到的最激勵我的成功典範,是那些不僅願意十分努力工作,而且總是在 自我提升的人,他們不斷探索新思路,而不是僅僅墨守成規。 當然,通向成功的道路各不相同,你們之中的一些人將進入政府機構;有些可 能想成為教師或教授;也有些人可能想成為商人。 但是我想,無論你進入哪個領 域,如果你能持續不斷地提升自己,不盡全力絕不滿足,而且不斷提出新問題 — 「我是否還能用不同的方式來做?」無論是在科學技術還是藝術領域,「是否還 有沒人想到過的新的解決問題的途徑?」——我想這樣的人通常能夠超群出眾。 我還有最後一點建議,這個建議曾經使我受益匪淺,那就是我最敬仰的那些成 功人士們,他們不是僅為自己著想,而是還考慮超越個人範圍的事情。 他們希望 為社會作出貢獻。 他們希望為自己的國家、 自己的民族、 自己的城市作出貢獻。 他 們希望能夠發揮超出自己個人生活以外的影響力。 我想,我們許多人都會忙於為自己賺錢,買一輛好車,買一棟舒適的房子—— 所有這些都重要,但是那些真正對世界産生永久性影響的人是因為他們有遠大 的理想。 他們問自己:我該如何幫助更多的人免於饑餓?我如何幫助沒上過學的 兒童接受教育?我如何幫助以和平方式化解衝突?我認為只有這樣的人才能最 終對世界産生重大影響。 我相信,只要像你們這樣的年輕人繼續努力下去,就能 夠産生這樣的影響。 還有問題嗎?好,這是最後一個問題。 很遺憾,時間過得真快,最後回答一個網 友的提問,因為我希望確保我們這三位出色的學生都有機會提問。 問:總統先生,很榮幸能提最後一個問題。 我是復旦大學的學生,今天我也是中 國青年[聽不清]的代表。我想這是一個來自北京的問題:非常關注您的阿富汗政 策。 他想知道,恐怖主義是否仍然是美國最大的安全威脅?您如何評估在阿富汗 的軍事行動?它是否會演變成另一場伊拉克戰爭?非常感謝您。 歐巴馬總統:我認為這是一個非常好的問題。 首先,我依舊認為美國安全面臨的 最大威脅是像 「基地」 組織那樣的恐怖主義網絡。 原因是,雖然他們人數很少,但 他們已經顯示他們毫無人性,不惜濫殺無辜民眾。 由於今天的技術,如果一個這

樣的組織得到大規模毀滅性武器——例如核武、 化學武器或生物武器——並且在 一個城市使用,無論是在上海還是紐約,少數幾個人就可能殺害數萬人甚至數 十萬人。因此,這的確構成極大的威脅。 我們最初進入阿富汗的原因是因為當地有 「基地」 組織,塔里班接納了他們。 現在 他們已經越過阿富汗邊界進入巴基斯坦,但他們在該地區保持了與其他極端主 義組織建立的網絡。 我確信,我們有必要維持阿富汗的穩定,使阿富汗人民能夠 保護自己,同時作為夥伴來幫助削弱這些極端主義網絡的力量。 顯然這是非常困難的事情——在我的工作中,最難做的決定之一就是命令年輕 人奔赴戰場。我經常要會見那些陣亡官兵的父母親,那些軍人再也無法回家。這 對我是一個精神重擔,我為此感到沉痛。 幸運的是,我們的武裝部隊——這些從軍的年輕人——他們對於為國奉獻有堅 定的信仰,自願上前線。 我相信,透過更廣泛的聯盟,包括我們的北約盟國和其 他貢獻力量的盟友——如澳洲——我們有可能幫助訓練阿富汗人,使他們有一 個能夠發揮作用的政府,擁有自己的安全部隊,然後我們可以逐步撤回我們的 部隊,因為到那時已經不存在塔里班下臺後所形成的真空。 但這是一項艱鉅的任務,並不容易。 我認為,要最終擊敗這些恐怖主義極端分子, 我們必須理解這不僅僅是一項軍事行動。 我們還要知道是什麼驅使年輕人變成恐 怖分子,他們為什麼願意充當自殺炸彈客。 顯然,這有很多不同的原因,其中包 括對宗教的曲解,使人們誤認為這種暴力行為是正當的。 巴基斯坦和阿富汗等地 之所以發生那些事件,原因之一是那些年輕人沒有受過教育,也沒有機會,所 以他們在生活中看不到出路,這使得他們以為那樣做是唯一的選擇。 因此,我們在阿富汗要做的事情之一是尋找途徑來培訓教師,建立學校,改善 農業,給人民更大的希望。這樣做不會改變奧薩瑪‧賓‧拉登(Osama bin Laden) 之流的想法,他們的意識形態是根深蒂固的,就是要打擊西方。 但這樣做會改變 那些他們想要招募的年輕人,這很重要。 從長遠來看,這至少和我們所能採取的 任何軍事行動同等重要,甚至更為重要。好嗎? 好。 我感到非常愉快。 非常感謝各位。 首先我想説我非常欽佩你們每一個人的英語 水準,顯然你們都很用功。 有機會和大家見面使我感到美中關係的未來充滿希望。 我希望你們很多人有機會來美國旅行和訪問。你們會受到歡迎。我相信你們會發 現美國人民對中國人民是很熱情的。 我深信,有了你們這些年輕人和我所知道的 美國年輕人,我們兩個偉大的國家將繼續繁榮昌盛,並幫助創造一個更和平、 安 全的世界。

因此,非常感謝各位。謝謝你們。(掌聲) 中國當地時間下午 2:08 (完) REMARKS BY PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA AT TOWN HALL MEETING WITH FUTURE CHINESE LEADERS OT-0925E | Date: 11/16/2009 Museum of Science and Technology Shanghai, China http://www.ait.org.tw/en/news/officialtext/viewer.aspx?id=2009111601 TRANSCRIPT PRESIDENT OBAMA: Good afternoon. It is a great honor for me to be here in Shanghai, and to have this opportunity to speak with all of you. I'd like to thank Fudan University's President Yang for his hospitality and his gracious welcome. I'd also like to thank our outstanding Ambassador, Jon Huntsman, who exemplifies the deep ties and respect between our nations. I don't know what he said, but I hope it was good. (Laughter.) What I'd like to do is to make some opening comments, and then what I'm really looking forward to doing is taking questions, not only from students who are in the audience, but also we've received questions online, which will be asked by some of the students who are here in the audience, as well as by Ambassador Huntsman. And I am very sorry that my Chinese is not as good as your English, but I am looking forward to this chance to have a dialogue. This is my first time traveling to China, and I'm excited to see this majestic country. Here, in Shanghai, we see the growth that has caught the attention of the world -- the soaring skyscrapers, the bustling streets and entrepreneurial activity. And just as I'm impressed by these signs of China's journey to the 21st century, I'm eager to see those ancient places that speak to us from China's distant past. Tomorrow and the next day I hope to have a chance when I'm in Beijing to see the majesty of the Forbidden City and the wonder of the Great Wall. Truly, this is a nation that encompasses both a rich history and a belief in the promise of the future.

The same can be said of the relationship between our two countries. Shanghai, of course, is a city that has great meaning in the history of the relationship between the United States and China. It was here, 37 years ago, that the Shanghai Communique opened the door to a new chapter of engagement between our governments and among our people. However, America's ties to this city -- and to this country -stretch back further, to the earliest days of America's independence. In 1784, our founding father, George Washington, commissioned the Empress of China, a ship that set sail for these shores so that it could pursue trade with the Qing Dynasty. Washington wanted to see the ship carry the flag around the globe, and to forge new ties with nations like China. This is a common American impulse -- the desire to reach for new horizons, and to forge new partnerships that are mutually beneficial. Over the two centuries that have followed, the currents of history have steered the relationship between our countries in many directions. And even in the midst of tumultuous winds, our people had opportunities to forge deep and even dramatic ties. For instance, Americans will never forget the hospitality shown to our pilots who were shot down over your soil during World War II, and cared for by Chinese civilians who risked all that they had by doing so. And Chinese veterans of that war still warmly greet those American veterans who return to the sites where they fought to help liberate China from occupation. A different kind of connection was made nearly 40 years ago when the frost between our countries began to thaw through the simple game of table tennis. The very unlikely nature of this engagement contributed to its success -- because for all our differences, both our common humanity and our shared curiosity were revealed. As one American player described his visit to China -- "[The]people are just like us…The country is very similar to America, but still very different." Of course this small opening was followed by the achievement of the Shanghai Communique, and the eventual establishment of formal relations between the United States and China in 1979. And in three decades, just look at how far we have come. In 1979, trade between the United States and China stood at roughly $5 billion -today it tops over $400 billion each year. The commerce affects our people's lives in so many ways. America imports from China many of the computer parts we use, the clothes we wear; and we export to China machinery that helps power your industry. This trade could create even more jobs on both sides of the Pacific, while allowing

our people to enjoy a better quality of life. And as demand becomes more balanced, it can lead to even broader prosperity. In 1979, the political cooperation between the United States and China was rooted largely in our shared rivalry with the Soviet Union. Today, we have a positive, constructive and comprehensive relationship that opens the door to partnership on the key global issues of our time -- economic recovery and the development of clean energy; stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and the scourge of climate change; the promotion of peace and security in Asia and around the globe. All of these issues will be on the agenda tomorrow when I meet with President Hu. And in 1979, the connections among our people were limited. Today, we see the curiosity of those ping-pong players manifested in the ties that are being forged across many sectors. The second highest number of foreign students in the United States come from China, and we've seen a 50 percent increase in the study of Chinese among our own students. There are nearly 200 "friendship cities" drawing our communities together. American and Chinese scientists cooperate on new research and discovery. And of course, Yao Ming is just one signal of our shared love of basketball -- I'm only sorry that I won't be able to see a Shanghai Sharks game while I'm visiting. It is no coincidence that the relationship between our countries has accompanied a period of positive change. China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty -- an accomplishment unparalleled in human history -- while playing a larger role in global events. And the United States has seen our economy grow along with the standard of living enjoyed by our people, while bringing the Cold War to a successful conclusion. There is a Chinese proverb: "Consider the past, and you shall know the future." Surely, we have known setbacks and challenges over the last 30 years. Our relationship has not been without disagreement and difficulty. But the notion that we must be adversaries is not predestined -- not when we consider the past. Indeed, because of our cooperation, both the United States and China are more prosperous and more secure. We have seen what is possible when we build upon our mutual interests, and engage on the basis of mutual respect. And yet the success of that engagement depends upon understanding -- on sustaining an open dialogue, and learning about one another and from one another. For just as that American table tennis player pointed out -- we share much in common as human

beings, but our countries are different in certain ways. I believe that each country must chart its own course. China is an ancient nation, with a deeply rooted culture. The United States, by comparison, is a young nation, whose culture is determined by the many different immigrants who have come to our shores, and by the founding documents that guide our democracy. Those documents put forward a simple vision of human affairs, and they enshrine several core principles -- that all men and women are created equal, and possess certain fundamental rights; that government should reflect the will of the people and respond to their wishes; that commerce should be open, information freely accessible; and that laws, and not simply men, should guarantee the administration of justice. Of course, the story of our nation is not without its difficult chapters. In many ways -over many years -- we have struggled to advance the promise of these principles to all of our people, and to forge a more perfect union. We fought a very painful civil war, and freed a portion of our population from slavery. It took time for women to be extended the right to vote, workers to win the right to organize, and for immigrants from different corners of the globe to be fully embraced. Even after they were freed, African Americans persevered through conditions that were separate and not equal, before winning full and equal rights. None of this was easy. But we made progress because of our belief in those core principles, which have served as our compass through the darkest of storms. That is why Lincoln could stand up in the midst of civil war and declare it a struggle to see whether any nation, conceived in liberty, and "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal" could long endure. That is why Dr. Martin Luther King could stand on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and ask that our nation live out the true meaning of its creed. That's why immigrants from China to Kenya could find a home on our shores; why opportunity is available to all who would work for it; and why someone like me, who less than 50 years ago would have had trouble voting in some parts of America, is now able to serve as its President. And that is why America will always speak out for these core principles around the world. We do not seek to impose any system of government on any other nation, but we also don't believe that the principles that we stand for are unique to our nation. These freedoms of expression and worship -- of access to information and political participation -- we believe are universal rights. They should be available to all people, including ethnic and religious minorities -- whether they are in the United

States, China, or any nation. Indeed, it is that respect for universal rights that guides America's openness to other countries; our respect for different cultures; our commitment to international law; and our faith in the future. These are all things that you should know about America. I also know that we have much to learn about China. Looking around at this magnificent city -- and looking around this room -- I do believe that our nations hold something important in common, and that is a belief in the future. Neither the United States nor China is content to rest on our achievements. For while China is an ancient nation, you are also clearly looking ahead with confidence, ambition, and a commitment to see that tomorrow's generation can do better than today's. In addition to your growing economy, we admire China's extraordinary commitment to science and research -- a commitment borne out in everything from the infrastructure you build to the technology you use. China is now the world's largest Internet user -- which is why we were so pleased to include the Internet as a part of today's event. This country now has the world's largest mobile phone network, and it is investing in the new forms of energy that can both sustain growth and combat climate change -- and I'm looking forward to deepening the partnership between the United States and China in this critical area tomorrow. But above all, I see China's future in you -- young people whose talent and dedication and dreams will do so much to help shape the 21st century. I've said many times that I believe that our world is now fundamentally interconnected. The jobs we do, the prosperity we build, the environment we protect, the security that we seek -- all of these things are shared. And given that interconnection, power in the 21st century is no longer a zero-sum game; one country's success need not come at the expense of another. And that is why the United States insists we do not seek to contain China's rise. On the contrary, we welcome China as a strong and prosperous and successful member of the community of nations -- a China that draws on the rights, strengths, and creativity of individual Chinese like you. To return to the proverb -- consider the past. We know that more is to be gained when great powers cooperate than when they collide. That is a lesson that human beings have learned time and again, and that is the example of the history between our nations. And I believe strongly that cooperation must go beyond our government. It must be rooted in our people -- in the studies we share, the business that we do, the

knowledge that we gain, and even in the sports that we play. And these bridges must be built by young men and women just like you and your counterparts in America. That's why I'm pleased to announce that the United States will dramatically expand the number of our students who study in China to 100,000. And these exchanges mark a clear commitment to build ties among our people, as surely as you will help determine the destiny of the 21st century. And I'm absolutely confident that America has no better ambassadors to offer than our young people. For they, just like you, are filled with talent and energy and optimism about the history that is yet to be written. So let this be the next step in the steady pursuit of cooperation that will serve our nations, and the world. And if there's one thing that we can take from today's dialogue, I hope that it is a commitment to continue this dialogue going forward. So thank you very much. And I look forward now to taking some questions from all of you. Thank you very much. (Applause.) So -- I just want to make sure this works. This is a tradition, by the way, that is very common in the United States at these town hall meetings. And what we're going to do is I will just -- if you are interested in asking a question, you can raise your hands. I will call on you. And then I will alternate between a question from the audience and an Internet question from one of the students who prepared the questions, as well as I think Ambassador Huntsman may have a question that we were able to obtain from the Web site of our embassy. So let me begin, though, by seeing -- and then what I'll do is I'll call on a boy and then a girl and then -- so we'll go back and forth, so that you know it's fair. All right? So I'll start with this young lady right in the front. Why don't we wait for this microphone so everyone can hear you. And what's your name? Q My name is (inaudible) and I am a student from Fudan University. Shanghai and Chicago have been sister cities since 1985, and these two cities have conduct a wide range of economic, political, and cultural exchanges. So what measures will you take to deepen this close relationship between cities of the United States and China? And Shanghai will hold the World Exposition next year. Will you bring your family to visit the Expo? Thank you. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, thank you very much for the question. I was just having lunch before I came here with the Mayor of Shanghai, and he told me that he

has had an excellent relationship with the city of Chicago -- my home town -- that he's visited there twice. And I think it's wonderful to have these exchanges between cities. One of the things that I discussed with the Mayor is how both cities can learn from each other on strategies around clean energy, because one of the issues that ties China and America together is how, with an expanding population and a concern for climate change, that we're able to reduce our carbon footprint. And obviously in the United States and many developed countries, per capita, per individual, they are already using much more energy than each individual here in China. But as China grows and expands, it's going to be using more energy as well. So both countries have a great interest in finding new strategies. We talked about mass transit and the excellent rail lines that are being developed in Shanghai. I think we can learn in Chicago and the United States some of the fine work that's being done on high-speed rail. In the United States, I think we are learning how to develop buildings that use much less energy, that are much more energy-efficient. And I know that with Shanghai, as I traveled and I saw all the cranes and all the new buildings that are going up, it's very important for us to start incorporating these new technologies so that each building is energy-efficient when it comes to lighting, when it comes to heating. And so it's a terrific opportunity I think for us to learn from each other. I know this is going to be a major focus of the Shanghai World Expo, is the issue of clean energy, as I learned from the Mayor. And so I would love to attend. I'm not sure yet what my schedule is going to be, but I'm very pleased that we're going to have an excellent U.S. pavilion at the Expo, and I understand that we expect as many as 70 million visitors here. So it's going to be very crowded and it's going to be very exciting. Chicago has had two world expos in its history, and both of those expos ended up being tremendous boosts for the city. So I'm sure the same thing will happen here in Shanghai. Thank you. (Applause.) Why don't we get one of the questions from the Internet? And introduce yourself, in case --

Q

First shall I say it in Chinese, and then the English, okay?

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Yes. Q I want to pose a question from the Internet. I want to thank you, Mr. President, for visiting China in your first year in office, and exchange views with us in China. I want to know what are you bringing to China, your visit to China this time, and what will you bring back to the United States? (Applause.) PRESIDENT OBAMA: The main purpose of my trip is to deepen my understanding of China and its vision for the future. I have had several meetings now with President Hu. We participated together in the G20 that was dealing with the economic financial crisis. We have had consultations about a wide range of issues. But I think it's very important for the United States to continually deepen its understanding of China, just as it's important for China to continually deepen its understanding of the United States. In terms of what I'd like to get out of this meeting, or this visit, in addition to having the wonderful opportunity to see the Forbidden City and the Great Wall, and to meet with all of you -- these are all highlights -- but in addition to that, the discussions that I intend to have with President Hu speak to the point that Ambassador Huntsman made earlier, which is there are very few global challenges that can be solved unless the United States and China agree. So let me give you a specific example, and that is the issue we were just discussing of climate change. The United States and China are the world's two largest emitters of greenhouse gases, of carbon that is causing the planet to warm. Now, the United States, as a highly developed country, as I said before, per capita, consumes much more energy and emits much more greenhouse gases for each individual than does China. On the other hand, China is growing at a much faster pace and it has a much larger population. So unless both of our countries are willing to take critical steps in dealing with this issue, we will not be able to resolve it. There's going to be a Copenhagen conference in December in which world leaders are trying to find a recipe so that we can all make commitments that are differentiated so each country would not have the same obligations -- obviously China, which has much more poverty, should not have to do exactly the same thing as the United States -- but all of us should have these certain obligations in terms of what our plan will be to reduce these greenhouse gases.

So that's an example of what I hope to get out of this meeting -- a meeting of the minds between myself and President Hu about how together the United States and China can show leadership. Because I will tell you, other countries around the world will be waiting for us. They will watch to see what we do. And if they say, ah, you know, the United States and China, they're not serious about this, then they won't be serious either. That is the burden of leadership that both of our countries now carry. And my hope is, is that the more discussion and dialogue that we have, the more we are able to show this leadership to the world on these many critical issues. Okay? (Applause.) All right, it's a -- I think it must be a boy's turn now. Right? So I'll call on this young man right here. Q (As translated.) Mr. President, good afternoon. I'm from Tongji University. I want to cite a saying from Confucius: "It is always good to have a friend coming from afar." In Confucius books, there is a great saying which says that harmony is good, but also we uphold differences. China advocates a harmonious world. We know that the United States develops a culture that features diversity. I want to know, what will your government do to build a diversified world with different cultures? What would you do to respect the different cultures and histories of other countries? And what kinds of cooperation we can conduct in the future? PRESIDENT OBAMA: This is an excellent point. The United States, one of our strengths is that we are a very diverse culture. We have people coming from all around the world. And so there's no one definition of what an American looks like. In my own family, I have a father who was from Kenya; I have a mother who was from Kansas, in the Midwest of the United States; my sister is half-Indonesian; she's married to a Chinese person from Canada. So when you see family gatherings in the Obama household, it looks like the United Nations. (Laughter.) And that is a great strength of the United States, because it means that we learn from different cultures and different foods and different ideas, and that has made us a much more dynamic society. Now, what is also true is that each country in this interconnected world has its own culture and its own history and its own traditions. And I think it's very important for the United States not to assume that what is good for us is automatically good for somebody else. And we have to have some modesty about our attitudes towards other countries.

I have to say, though, as I said in my opening remarks, that we do believe that there are certain fundamental principles that are common to all people, regardless of culture. So, for example, in the United Nations we are very active in trying to make sure that children all around the world are treated with certain basic rights -- that if children are being exploited, if there's forced labor for children, that despite the fact that that may have taken place in the past in many different countries, including the United States, that all countries of the world now should have developed to the point where we are treating children better than we did in the past. That's a universal value. I believe, for example, the same thing holds true when it comes to the treatment of women. I had a very interesting discussion with the Mayor of Shanghai during lunch right before I came, and he informed me that in many professions now here in China, there are actually more women enrolled in college than there are men, and that they are doing very well. I think that is an excellent indicator of progress, because it turns out that if you look at development around the world, one of the best indicators of whether or not a country does well is how well it educates its girls and how it treats its women. And countries that are tapping into the talents and the energy of women and giving them educations typically do better economically than countries that don't. So, now, obviously difficult cultures may have different attitudes about the relationship between men and women, but I think it is the view of the United States that it is important for us to affirm the rights of women all around the world. And if we see certain societies in which women are oppressed, or they are not getting opportunities, or there is violence towards women, we will speak out. Now, there may be some people who disagree with us, and we can have a dialogue about that. But we think it's important, nevertheless, to be true to our ideals and our values. And we -- and when we do so, though, we will always do so with the humility and understanding that we are not perfect and that we still have much progress to make. If you talk to women in America, they will tell you that there are still men who have a lot of old-fashioned ideas about the role of women in society. And so we don't claim that we have solved all these problems, but we do think that it's important for us to speak out on behalf of these universal ideals and these universal values. Okay? All right. We're going to take a question from the Internet. Q: Hello, Mr. President. It's a great honor to be here and meet you in person. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you.

Q: I will be reading a question selected on the Internet to you, and this question is from somebody from Taiwan. In his question, he said: I come from Taiwan. Now I am doing business on the mainland. And due to improved cross-straits relations in recent years, my business in China is doing quite well. So when I heard the news that some people in America would like to propose -- continue selling arms and weapons to Taiwan, I begin to get pretty worried. I worry that this may make our cross-straits relations suffer. So I would like to know if, Mr. President, are you supportive of improved cross-straits relations? And although this question is from a businessman, actually, it's a question of keen concern to all of us young Chinese students, so we'd really like to know your position on this question. Thank you. (Applause.) PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. Well, I have been clear in the past that my administration fully supports a one-China policy, as reflected in the three joint communiqués that date back several decades, in terms of our relations with Taiwan as well as our relations with the People's Republic of China. We don't want to change that policy and that approach. I am very pleased with the reduction of tensions and the improvement in cross-straits relations, and it is my deep desire and hope that we will continue to see great improvement between Taiwan and the rest of -- and the People's Republic in resolving many of these issues. One of the things that I think that the United States, in terms of its foreign policy and its policy with respect to China, is always seeking is ways that through dialogue and negotiations, problems can be solved. We always think that's the better course. And I think that economic ties and commercial ties that are taking place in this region are helping to lower a lot of the tensions that date back before you were born or even before I was born. Now, there are some people who still look towards the past when it comes to these issues, as opposed to looking towards the future. I prefer to look towards the future. And as I said, I think the commercial ties that are taking place -- there's something about when people think that they can do business and make money that makes them think very clearly and not worry as much about ideology. And I think that that's starting to happen in this region, and we are very supportive of that process. Okay? Let's see, it's a girl's turn now, right? Yes, right there. Yes. Hold on, let's get -whoops, I'm sorry, they took the mic back here. I'll call on you next.

Go ahead, and then I'll go up here later. Go ahead. Q Thank you. PRESIDENT OBAMA: I'll call on you later. But I'll on her first and then I'll call on you afterwards. Go ahead. Q Okay, thank you. Mr. President, I'm a student from Shanghai Jiao Tong University. I have a question concerning the Nobel Prize for Peace. In your opinion, what's the main reason that you were honored the Nobel Prize for Peace? And will it give you more responsibility and pressure to -- more pressure and the responsibility to promote world peace? And will it bring you -- will it influence your ideas while dealing with the international affairs? Thank you very much. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. That was an excellent question. I have to say that nobody was more surprised than me about winning the Nobel Prize for Peace. Obviously it's a great honor. I don't believe necessarily that it's an honor I deserve, given the extraordinary history of people who have won the prize. All I can do is to, with great humility, accept the fact that I think the committee was inspired by the American people and the possibilities of changing not only America but also America's approach to the world. And so in some ways I think they gave me the prize but I was more just a symbol of the shift in our approach to world affairs that we are trying to promote. In terms of the burden that I feel, I am extraordinarily honored to be put in the position of President. And as my wife always reminds me when I complain that I'm working too hard, she says, you volunteered for this job. (Laughter.) And so you -there's a saying -- I don't know if there's a similar saying in China -- we have a saying: "You made your bed, now you have to sleep in it." And it basically means you have to be careful what you ask for because you might get it. I think that all of us have obligations for trying to promote peace in the world. It's not always easy to do. There are still a lot of conflicts in the world that are -- date back for centuries. If you look at the Middle East, there are wars and conflict that are rooted in arguments going back a thousand years. In many parts of the world -- let's say, in the continent of Africa -- there are ethnic and tribal conflicts that are very hard to resolve.

And obviously, right now, as President of the United States, part of my job is to serve as Commander-in-Chief, and my first priority is to protect the American people. And because of the attacks on 9/11 and the terrorism that has been taking place around the world where innocent people are being killed, it is my obligation to make sure that we root out these terrorist organizations, and that we cooperate with other countries in terms of dealing with this kind of violence. Nevertheless, although I don't think that we can ever completely eliminate violence between nations or between peoples, I think that we can definitely reduce the violence between peoples -- through dialogue, through the exchange of ideas, through greater understanding between peoples and between cultures. And particularly now when just one individual can detonate a bomb that causes so much destruction, it is more important than ever that we pursue these strategies for peace. Technology is a powerful instrument for good, but it has also given the possibility for just a few people to cause enormous damage. And that's why I'm hopeful that in my meetings with President Hu and on an ongoing basis, both the United States and China can work together to try to reduce conflicts that are taking place. We have to do so, though, also keeping in mind that when we use our military, because we're such big and strong countries, that we have to be self-reflective about what we do; that we have to examine our own motives and our own interests to make sure that we are not simply using our military forces because nobody can stop us. That's a burden that great countries, great powers, have, is to act responsibly in the community of nations. And my hope is, is that the United States and China together can help to create an international norms that reduce conflict around the world. (Applause.) Okay. All right? Jon -- I'm going to call on my Ambassador because I think he has a question that was generated through the Web site of our embassy. This was selected, though, by I think one of the members of our U.S. press corps so that -AMBASSADOR HUNTSMAN: That's right. And not surprisingly, "in a country with 350 million Internet users and 60 million bloggers, do you know of the firewall?" And second, "should we be able to use Twitter freely" -- is the question. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, first of all, let me say that I have never used Twitter. I noticed that young people -- they're very busy with all these electronics. My thumbs

are too clumsy to type in things on the phone. But I am a big believer in technology and I'm a big believer in openness when it comes to the flow of information. I think that the more freely information flows, the stronger the society becomes, because then citizens of countries around the world can hold their own governments accountable. They can begin to think for themselves. That generates new ideas. It encourages creativity. And so I've always been a strong supporter of open Internet use. I'm a big supporter of non-censorship. This is part of the tradition of the United States that I discussed before, and I recognize that different countries have different traditions. I can tell you that in the United States, the fact that we have free Internet -- or unrestricted Internet access is a source of strength, and I think should be encouraged. Now, I should tell you, I should be honest, as President of the United States, there are times where I wish information didn't flow so freely because then I wouldn't have to listen to people criticizing me all the time. I think people naturally are -- when they're in positions of power sometimes thinks, oh, how could that person say that about me, or that's irresponsible, or -- but the truth is that because in the United States information is free, and I have a lot of critics in the United States who can say all kinds of things about me, I actually think that that makes our democracy stronger and it makes me a better leader because it forces me to hear opinions that I don't want to hear. It forces me to examine what I'm doing on a day-to-day basis to see, am I really doing the very best that I could be doing for the people of the United States. And I think the Internet has become an even more powerful tool for that kind of citizen participation. In fact, one of the reasons that I won the presidency was because we were able to mobilize young people like yourself to get involved through the Internet. Initially, nobody thought we could win because we didn't have necessarily the most wealthy supporters; we didn't have the most powerful political brokers. But through the Internet, people became excited about our campaign and they started to organize and meet and set up campaign activities and events and rallies. And it really ended up creating the kind of bottom-up movement that allowed us to do very well. Now, that's not just true in -- for government and politics. It's also true for business. You think about a company like Google that only 20 years ago was -- less than 20 years ago was the idea of a couple of people not much older than you. It was a science project. And suddenly because of the Internet, they were able to create an

industry that has revolutionized commerce all around the world. So if it had not been for the freedom and the openness that the Internet allows, Google wouldn't exist. So I'm a big supporter of not restricting Internet use, Internet access, other information technologies like Twitter. The more open we are, the more we can communicate. And it also helps to draw the world together. Think about -- when I think about my daughters, Malia and Sasha -- one is 11, one is 8 -- from their room, they can get on the Internet and they can travel to Shanghai. They can go anyplace in the world and they can learn about anything they want to learn about. And that's just an enormous power that they have. And that helps, I think, promote the kind of understanding that we talked about. Now, as I said before, there's always a downside to technology. It also means that terrorists are able to organize on the Internet in ways that they might not have been able to do before. Extremists can mobilize. And so there's some price that you pay for openness, there's no denying that. But I think that the good outweighs the bad so much that it's better to maintain that openness. And that's part of why I'm so glad that the Internet was part of this forum. Okay? I'm going to take two more questions. And the next one is from a gentleman, I think. Right here, yes. Here's the microphone. Q First, I would like to say that it is a great honor for me to stand here to ask you the questions. I think I am so lucky and just appreciate that your speech is so clear that I really do not need such kind of headset. (Laughter.) And here comes my question. My name is (inaudible) from Fudan University School of Management. And I would like to ask you the question -- is that now that someone has asked you something about the Nobel Peace Prize, but I will not ask you in the same aspect. I want to ask you in the other aspect that since it is very hard for you to get such kind of an honorable prize, and I wonder and we all wonder that -- how you struggled to get it. And what's your university/college education that brings you to get such kind of prizes? We are very curious about it and we would like to invite you to share with us your campus education experiences so as to go on the road of success. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Well, first of all, let me tell you that I don't know if there's a curriculum or course of study that leads you to win the Nobel Peace Prize. (Laughter.) So I can't guarantee that. But I think the recipe for success is the one that

you are already following. Obviously all of you are working very hard, you're studying very hard. You're curious. You're willing to think about new ideas and think for yourself. You know, the people who I meet now that I find most inspiring who are successful I think are people who are not only willing to work very hard but are constantly trying to improve themselves and to think in new ways, and not just accept the conventional wisdom. Obviously there are many different paths to success, and some of you are going to be going into government service; some of you might want to be teachers or professors; some of you might want to be businesspeople. But I think that whatever field you go into, if you're constantly trying to improve and never satisfied with not having done your best, and constantly asking new questions -- "Are there things that I could be doing differently? Are there new approaches to problems that nobody has thought of before, whether it's in science or technology or in the arts? -- those are usually the people who I think are able to rise about the rest. The one last piece of advice, though, that I would have that has been useful for me is the people who I admire the most and are most successful, they're not just thinking only about themselves but they're also thinking about something larger than themselves. So they want to make a contribution to society. They want to make a contribution to their country, their nation, their city. They are interested in having an impact beyond their own immediate lives. I think so many of us, we get caught up with wanting to make money for ourselves and have a nice car and have a nice house and -- all those things are important, but the people who really make their mark on the world is because they have a bigger ambition. They say, how can I help feed hungry people? Or, how can I help to teach children who don't have an education? Or, how can I bring about peaceful resolution of conflicts? Those are the people I think who end up making such a big difference in the world. And I'm sure that young people like you are going to be able to make that kind of difference as long as you keep working the way you've been working. All right? All right, this is going to be the last question, unfortunately. We've run out of time so quickly. Our last Internet question, because I want to make sure that we got all three of our fine students here. Q Mr. President, it's a great honor for the last question. And I'm a college student from Fudan University, and today I'm also the representative of China's Youth (inaudible.) And this question I think is from Beijing: Paid great attention to your

Afghanistan policies, and he would like to know whether terrorism is still the greatest security concern for the United States? And how do you assess the military actions in Afghanistan, or whether it will turn into another Iraqi war? Thank you very much. PRESIDENT OBAMA: I think that's an excellent question. Well, first of all, I do continue to believe that the greatest threat to United States' security are the terrorist networks like al Qaeda. And the reason is, is because even though they are small in number, what they have shown is, is that they have no conscience when it comes to the destruction of innocent civilians. And because of technology today, if an organization like that got a weapon of mass destruction on its hands -- a nuclear or a chemical or a biological weapon -- and they used it in a city, whether it's in Shanghai or New York, just a few individuals could potentially kill tens of thousands of people, maybe hundreds of thousands. So it really does pose an extraordinary threat. Now, the reason we originally went into Afghanistan was because al Qaeda was in Afghanistan, being hosted by the Taliban. They have now moved over the border of Afghanistan and they are in Pakistan now, but they continue to have networks with other extremist organizations in that region. And I do believe that it is important for us to stabilize Afghanistan so that the people of Afghanistan can protect themselves, but they can also be a partner in reducing the power of these extremist networks. Now, obviously it is a very difficult thing -- one of the hardest things about my job is ordering young men and women into the battlefield. I often have to meet with the mothers and fathers of the fallen, those who do not come home. And it is a great weight on me. It gives me a heavy heart. Fortunately, our Armed Services is -- the young men and women who participate, they believe so strongly in their service to their country that they are willing to go. And I think that it is possible -- working in a broader coalition with our allies in NATO and others that are contributing like Australia -- to help train the Afghans so that they have a functioning government, that they have their own security forces, and then slowly we can begin to pull our troops out because there's no longer that vacuum that existed after the Taliban left. But it's a difficult task. It's not easy. And ultimately I think in trying to defeat these terrorist extremists, it's important to understand it's not just a military exercise. We also have to think about what motivates young people to become terrorists, why would they become suicide bombers. And although there are obviously a lot of different reasons, including I think the perversion of religion, in thinking that

somehow these kinds of violent acts are appropriate, part of what's happened in places like Pakistan and Afghanistan is these young people have no education, they have no opportunities, and so they see no way for them to move forward in life, and that leads them into thinking that this is their only option. And so part of what we want to do in Afghanistan is to find ways that we can train teachers and create schools and improve agriculture so that people have a greater sense of hope. That won't change the ideas of a Osama bin Laden who are very ideologically fixed on trying to strike at the West, but it will change the pool of young people who they can recruit from. And that is at least as important, if not more important over time, as whatever military actions that we can take. Okay? All right, I have had a wonderful time. I am so grateful to all of you. First of all, let me say I'm very impressed with all of your English. Clearly you've been studying very hard. And having a chance to meet with all of you I think has given me great hope for the future of U.S.-China relations. I hope that many of you have the opportunity to come and travel and visit the United States. You will be welcome. I think you will find that the American people feel very warmly towards the people of China. And I am very confident that, with young people like yourselves and the young people that I know in the United States, that our two great countries will continue to prosper and help to bring about a more peaceful and secure world. So thank you very much everybody. Thank you. (Applause.) END