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Lab: Endo vs.

Exo

Jennifer Silva
D-block
Mr. Louis
January 29, 2014




Many chemical reactions give off energy. Chemical reactions release
energy in form of heat, light, or sound. Chemical reactions that release
energy are known as exothermic reactions. Some chemical reactions
absorb energy and theyre known as endothermic reactions. In an
exothermic reaction the products are lower in energy than the reactants.
While in an endothermic reaction the products are higher in energy than
the reactants. Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic chemical
reaction. In this process, plants use the energy from the sun to convert
carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. And an example of an
exothermic reaction is the mixture of sodium and chloride to yield table
salt. In order to figure out whether a reaction is an endothermic or
exothermic reaction the increase or decrease of the temperature of the
reaction solution needs to be measured. It can also be noticed by observing
the solution and the changes occurring.


Lab: Endo vs. Exo

Identify chemical compounds which result in
the production of exothermic or endothermic
reactions
Determine some real world application of
endothermic and exothermic reactions
Write a formal lab report as directed by the
rubric




Lab: Endo vs. Exo








Water bottle
6 Test tubes
15ml Graduated cylinders
Baking soda
Urea
Sodium Hydroxide pellets
Sodium chloride
Magnesium strips
Hydrochloric acid
Sodium hydroxide
Tape
Measuring scoop
Thermometer



Note; Make sure all members of the group feel the temperature of each test immediately after the
water was added and 3 minutes later.
1. Label the test tubes with the name of the white powder
chemical.
2. Add one scoop of chemical #1 into a dry test tube.
3. Take the temperature.
a) Qualitatively
b) Quantitatively
4. Measure 3ml of water using the graduated cylinder
5. Take the temperature of the water.
a) Qualitatively
b) Quantitatively
6. Place the thermometer inside the test tube, and take
the temperature, also feel it from the outside.
7. Repeat the steps for chemical #2 and #3.


Hydrochloric Acid & Sodium Hydroxide
CAUTION: HYDROCHOLIRED ACID is corrosive. It will
burn through clothes and skin if it comes in contact
with them.
1. Measure the temp., qualitatively and
quantitatively
2. Repeat step one for the HCL.
3. Pour 2ml of HCL into a clean test tube
4. Place the magnesium into the HCL test tube.
Record temp.
5. Repeat step 4&5 and use NAOH instead of
HCL.


Lab: Endo vs. Exo



These following reactants, Baking soda, Sodium chloride, and Urea
temperatures dropped after being mixed with water which means that they had
exothermic reactions. The products were definitely lower in energy than the
reactants and the energy given out was negative. Three minutes after testing the
temperature increased to room temperature. Now these reactants, Sodium
carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide pellets, Hydrochloric acid/ magnesium strip and
Sodium Hydroxide/ magnesium strip temperatures increased after being mixed
with water. Therefore the products were higher in energy than the reactants which
made them endothermic reactions. Three minutes after all of the reactants
temperatures decrease except Sodium hydrogen/ magnesium strip. Sodium
hydrogen/ magnesium strips temperature increase it went from 29C to 29.3C.

Reactants Products
Qualitative
Temperature
Quantitative
Temperature
Qualitative
Temperature
Quantitative
Temperature
After 3
mins
Water Room temp. 22 C cool 24.8C ----C
Baking soda Room temp. 28.5C cooler/powder
-exo-
26.5C 28.3C
Sodium chloride Room temp. 29.2C cooler
-exo-
27.4C 31.1C
Sodium
carbonate
Room temp. 27.9C warmer/powder
-endo-
35.5C 31.9C
Urea Room temp. 31.5C cooler/ clear
-exo-
25.4C 26.2C
Sodium
Hydroxide pellets

Room temp.

23.7C
warmer/clear
-endo-

50.4C

41.5C
Hydrochloric
acid/ magnesium
strip

Room temp.

22C
Warmer/bubbles
-endo-

48C

46.8C
Sodium
Hydroxide/
magnesium strip

Room temp.

22C
warmer
-endo-


29C

29.3C


Lab: Endo vs. Exo



During this lab I was able to identify chemical compounds which result in the production
of exothermic or endothermic reactions. For baking soda was an exothermic reaction. Therefore
the product was lower in energy than the reactants. Sodium carbonate was an endothermic
reaction, because the product was higher in energy than the reactants. Endothermic and
exothermic reactions and processes are commonly observed in our life. These energy changes
are either occurring naturally (burning, photosynthesis, respiration, boiling, freezing, etc) or
theyre being employed by mankind to make our living easier and better. One of the most
common applications is the use of heat packs or cold packs. When you have back pain, applying a
heat pack relieve the pain; and when you have a headache applying a cold pack helps relieve the
headache. What really happens is that when the heat pack is used, the chemicals inside the pack
are made to react with each other. The heat pack is made up of 2 bags, a small inner bad and
outer bad. The small inner can be just water and the out bag can be sodium acetate. When the
bag is squeezed, the small inner bag breaks and the sodium acetate dissolve in water. This causes
a reaction which is Exothermic.