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OSI model

Why we need reference model:

In earlier time, network devices are vendor specific. So computers from
different network devices cant communicate with each other.
For example, companies ran either a complete DECnet solution or an
IBM solutionnot both together. To break this barrier, Reference
model is come into existence.
In 1984, the international organization for standardization (ISO)
developed the OSI reference model to describe how information is
transferred from one networking component to another. Therefore the
OSI model is most often used as teaching and troubleshooting tool.
It has seven layers (application, presentation, session, transport,
network, data-link, and physical)
The function of the application, presentation, and session layer
are typically part of the user application such as Firefox and
internet explorer and Microsoft outlook e-mail application.
The transport, network, data-link and physical layer are
responsible for moving data and information.
7) Application layer :- It is the top most layer of the OSI model and it
provide service that directly support user application such as database
access e-mail and file transfer mean it provide the interface between the
application you use to communication . Ex: - internet explorer use the
application layer to make it request for file end web page ex: - TELNET,
6) Presentation layer: - The presentation layer ensures that the
information that the application layer of one system sends out is
readable by the application layer of another system.
Provides encryption and compression of data.
The following service to direct graphic and visual image presentation.
JPEG (joint photographic expert group)
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface)
Mpeg (motion picture expert group)

5) Session layer: - It establishes, manages and terminates the connections
between the local and remote application.
Dialogs control the session layer allows two systems to enter into a
dialogs these dialogs can take place either in half duplex or full duplex
4) Transport layer: - transport layer provide end to end data delivery
using reliable and un-reliable.
Flow control:-flow control manages data transmission between
devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data
than the receiving device.
Connection oriented: - a protocol which establish connection
between connection host before transmission. Transport layer
establish connection using three way hand shake.
It will add sequence number to each segment so that out of sequence
data can be detected and rearranged in proper manner.
Error checking = Transport layer generates cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
and forward the CRC value to destination along with segment. The other
end will generate CRC according to data and match the CRC value with
received value. If both are same, then data is accepted otherwise discard.
Acknowledgement: - what the receiver next expect.
Window: - It is a flow control method in which the source device
requires an Ack from destination after a certain number of
packets have been transmitted.
3) Network layer: - Defines end-to-end delivery of packets.
Defines logical addressing so that any endpoint can be identified.
Defines how routing works and how routes are learned so that the
packets can be delivered.
Network layer also defines how to fragment a packet into smaller
packets to accommodate different media.
Routers operate at Layer 3.
Examples: - IP, IPX, AppleTalk.
Type of packet:-
a) Data packet:- used to transport user data through the
internetwork that is called data packet, protocol used to support
data traffic are called routed protocol (ip, ipx,ipv6)
b) Update packets: - used to update neighbor router about the
network connected to all router within the internetwork.

2) Data link layer: - provide the physical transmission of the data
and handles error notification, network topology and flow control.
(i) Logical Link Control place information in the frame that identifies
which network layer protocol is being used for the frame. This
information allows multiple layer 3 protocol, such as IPv4, IPv6,
and IPX, to utilize the same network interface and media.
(ii) Media Access Control defines methods to access the shared
media and establish the identity with the help of MAC address.
Some examples of Media Access Control are CSMA/CD, Token

1) Physical layer is responsible for sending bits one computer to
another the layer deals with the physical electrical, and cable
issues which make network connection.