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Shear Forces on Bolts

Bolted connection in a steel frame


The bolts must withstand the shear forces
imposed on them by the members of the frame.
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Equilibrium and FBDs Equilibrium and FBDs
Equilibrium analysis will determine the
force P, but not the strength or
the rigidity of the bar. g y
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Freebody diagram for determining the
internal force system acting on section
External forces acting on
a body.
Resolving the internal force
R i t th i l f P d R into the axial force P and
the shear force V.
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Deformations Deformations
Deformations produced by the components of internal forces and
couples
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Normal and Shear Stress NormalandShearStress
If the stress is uniformly distributed, we get
Otherwise we call it average stress
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Axially Loaded Bars Axially Loaded Bars
when the loading is uniform, its resultant
th h th t id f th l d d passes through the centroid of the loaded area
Statics
A bar loaded axially by A bar loaded axially by
(a) uniformly distributed load of intensity p
(b) a statically equivalent centroidal force P = pA
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Normal stress distribution in a
strip caused by a concentrated load.
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Saint Venants Principle p
The difference between the effects of two different but statically equivalent
loads becomes very small at suffiently large distances fromthe load loads becomes very small at suffiently large distances from the load.
1. Most analysis in mechanics of materials is based on simplifications that can
be justified with Saint Venants principle.
2. We often replace loads (including support reactions) by their resultants
and ignore the effects of holes, grooves, and fillets on stresses and
deformations.
3. Many of the simplifications are not only justified but necessary.
4. Without simplifying assumptions, analysis would be exceedingly difficult.
5. However, we must always keep in mind the approximations that were
d d k ll f h i h fi l d i made, and make allowances for them in the final design.
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Normal stress distribution in a
grooved bar
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Stresses on Inclined Planes
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1. Maximum normal stress is P/A, and it acts on the cross
section of the bar (that is on the plane = 0) section of the bar (that is, on the plane = 0).
2. The shear stress is zero when = 0, as would be expected.
3. The maximum shear stress is P/2A, which acts on the
planes inclined at = 45
o
to the cross section.
In summary, an axial load causes not only normal stress but also
h h d f b h d d h shear stress. The magnitudes of both stresses depend on the
orientation of the plane on which they act.
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Stresses acting on two mutually
di l i li d ti f b perpendicular inclined sections of a bar.
By Substituting =+90
o
we get By Substituting =+90 , we get
stresses on a plane perpendicular to q
plane
Stresses acting on mutually perpendicular, or complementary
planes, they are called complementary stresses.
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The shear stresses that act on complementary planes
h th it d b t it have the same magnitude but opposite sense.
1 The design of axially loaded bars is usually based on the maximum normal 1. The design of axially loaded bars is usually based on the maximum normal
stress in the bar.
2 This stress is commonly called simply the normal stress and denoted by 2. This stress is commonly called simply the normal stress and denoted by .
3. The design criterion thus is that = P/A must not exceed the working stress
of the material from which the bar is to be fabricated. o t e ate a o w c t e ba s to be ab cated
4. The working stress, also called the allowable stress, is the largest value of
stress that can be safely carried by the material. y y
5. Working stress, denoted by
w
, will be discussed more fully later
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Procedure for Stress Analysis
I l th t l i f i ll l d d b f t t In general, the stress analysis of an axially loaded member of a structure
involves the following steps.
1. EquilibriumAnalysis
If necessary, find the external reactions using a freebody diagram
(FBD) of the entire structure.
Compute the axial force P in the member using the method of sections.
This method introduces an imaginary cutting plane that isolates a
segment of the structure.
The cutting plane must include the cross section of the member of
interest.
The axial force acting in the member can then be found from the FBD of
the isolated segment because it now appears as an external force on the the isolated segment because it now appears as an external force on the
FBD.
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1. Computation of Stress
1. After the axial force has been found by equilibrium analysis, the y q y ,
average normal stress in the member can be obtained from s=P/A,
where A is the crosssectional area of the member at the cutting where A is the cross sectional area of the member at the cutting
plane.
2 In slender bars s=P/A is the normal stress if the section is sufficiently 2. In slender bars, s=P/A is the normal stress if the section is sufficiently
far from applied loads and abrupt changes in the cross section (Saint
V i i l ) Venants principle).
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Design Considerations
For purposes of design, the computed stress
1. must be compared with the allowable stress, also called the working stress.
2. The working stress, which we denote by
w
, is discussed in detail in the next
chapter.
3. To prevent failure of the member, the computed stress must be less than the
working stress.
4 N h A l i f T Th l i d i h l i f 4. Note on the Analysis of Trusses The usual assumptions made in the analysis of
trusses are: (1) weights of the members are negligible compared to the applied
loads (2) joints beha e as smooth pins and (3) all loads are applied at the joints loads; (2) joints behave as smooth pins; and (3) all loads are applied at the joints.
Under these assumptions, each member of the truss is an axially loaded bar.
5 The internal forces in the bars can be obtained by the method of sections or the 5. The internal forces in the bars can be obtained by the method of sections or the
method of joints (utilizing the freebody diagrams of the joints).
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Determine the normal force, shear force, and moment
at a section through point C. Take P = 8 kN.
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The floor crane is used to lift a 600kg concrete pipe. Determine the
resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at H resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at H.
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Examples
Sample Problem #1
The bar ABCD consists of three cylindrical steel segments with different lengths
and crosssectional areas. Axial loads are applied as shown. Calculate the normal
stress in each segment.
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Observe that the lengths of the segments do not affect the calculations of the
stresses. Also, the fact that the bar is made of steel is irrelevant; the stresses in
the segments would be as calculated, regardless of the materials from which
the segments of the bar are fabricated.
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The two members used in the construction of an aircraft
fuselage are joined together using a 30 fish mouth weld fuselage are joined together using a 30 fishmouth weld.
Determine the average normal and average shear stress on the
plane of each weld. Assume each inclined plane supports a
h i l f f 400 lb horizontal force of 400 lb.
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For the truss shown in calculate the normal stresses in (1) member
AC; and (2) member BD. The crosssectional area of each member is ( )
900 mm
2
.
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The rectangular wood panel is formed by gluing together two boards along the
30
o
seamas shown in the figure Determine the largest axial force P that can be 30 seamas shown in the figure. Determine the largest axial force P that can be
carried safely by the panel if the working stress for the wood is 1120 psi, and the
normal and shear stresses in the glue are limited to 700 psi and 450 psi, normal and shear stresses in the glue are limited to 700 psi and 450 psi,
respectively.
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Design for Working Stress in Wood
D i f N l St i Gl Design for Normal Stress in Glue
Design for Shear Stress in Glue
Maximum Load that can be carried
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