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Introduction to Shear Stress

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2. Shear stress arises whenever the applied loads cause one pp

section of a body to slide past its adjacent section.

3 The two plates that are joined by a rivet 3. The two plates that are joined by a rivet.

4. From FBD, the rivet must carry the shear force V.

5 Because only one cross section of the rivet resists the shear the 5. Because only one cross section of the rivet resists the shear, the

rivet is said to be in single shear.

Shear Stress (Contd)

1. The bolt of the clevis carries the load P across two crosssectional areas,

the shear force being V = P/2 on each cross section.

2 Th f th b lt i id t b i t t f d bl h 2. Therefore, the bolt is said to be in a state of double shear.

Shear Force (contd)

1 A circular slug is being punched out of a metal sheet 1. A circular slug is being punched out of a metal sheet.

2. Here the shear force is P and the shear area is similar to the

milled edge of a coin milled edge of a coin.

3. The loads are sometimes referred to as direct shear to

distinguish them from the induced shear distinguish them from the induced shear.

Induced Shear

1. The distribution of direct shear stress is usually complex and not

easily determined.

2. It is common practice to assume that the shear force V is uniformly

distributed over the shear area A, so that the shear stress can be

computed from

3 The above equation strictly speaking must be interpreted as the 3. The above equation, strictly speaking must be interpreted as the

average shear stress.

4 It is often used in design to evaluate the strength of connectors 4. It is often used in design to evaluate the strength of connectors,

such as rivets, bolts, and welds.

Bearing Stress

1 If two bodies are pressed against each other compressive forces are 1. If two bodies are pressed against each other, compressive forces are

developed on the area of contact.

2 The pressure caused by these surface loads is called bearing stress 2. The pressure caused by these surface loads is called bearing stress.

3. Examples of bearing stress are the soil pressure beneath a pier and

h b d h d f h l the contact pressure between a rivet and the side of its hole.

4. If the bearing stress is large enough, it can locally crush the

material, which in turn can lead to more serious problems.

5. To reduce bearing stresses, engineers sometimes employ bearing

plates, so that the contact forces are distributed over a larger area.

Bearing Stress (Contd)

1. Consider the lap joint formed by the two plates that are riveted

together as shown. g

2. The bearing stress caused by the rivet is not constant; it actually

varies fromzero at the sides of the hole to a maximumbehind varies from zero at the sides of the hole to a maximum behind

the rivet.

Bearing Stress (Contd)

1. The difficulty is avoided by assuming that the bearing stress

b

is uniformly distributed over a reduced area.

2. The reduced area A

b

is taken to be the projected area of rivet

3 FromFBD bearing force P = P 3. FromFBD bearing force P

b

= P

4. The bearing stress becomes

Example 1 (Shear and Bearing Stress)

Th l j i t i f t d b f i t f 3/4 i di t Fi d th The lap joint is fastened by four rivets of 3/4in. diameter. Find the

maximum load P that can be applied if the working stresses are 14 ksi for

shear in the rivet and 18 ksi for bearing in the plate Assume that the shear in the rivet and 18 ksi for bearing in the plate. Assume that the

applied load is distributed evenly among the four rivets, and neglect friction

between the plates between the plates.

Solution:

(FBD of Lower plate is drawn)

We see that the equilibrium

condition is V =P/4.

(FBD of Lower plate is drawn)

Given problem

Design for Shear Stress in Rivets

The value of P that would cause the shear stress in the rivets to reach its

working value is found as follows:

Design for Bearing Stress in Plate

1 Th h f V P/4 th t t th ti f i t i 1. The shear force V=P/4 that acts on the cross section of one rivet is

equal to the bearing force P

b

due to the contact between the rivet and

the plate the plate.

2. The value of P that would cause the bearing stress to equal its working

value is computed from value is computed from

Comparing, the maximum safe load P that can be applied to the lap joint is

P 24 700 lb ith th h t i th i t b i th i d i P = 24 700 lb, with the shear stress in the rivets being the governing design

criterion.

Example 2: (Normal and Bearing Stresses)

The shaft is subjected to the axial force of 40 kN. Determine the average

bearing stress acting on the collar C and the normal stress in the shaft

Solution:

2 3

2

s

m 10 225 . 0 03 . 0

4

A

2 3

2

b

m 10 4 . 0 04 . 0

4

A

Example 3: (Bearing Stress)

Th bl i t f th di k A B d C th t d t t th The assembly consists of three disks A, B, and C that are used to support the

load of 140 kN. Determine the smallest diameter of the top disk, the diameter

within the support space and the diameter of the hole in the bottomdisk The within the support space, and the diameter of the hole in the bottom disk. The

allowable bearing stress for the material is (

allow

)

b

= 350 Mpa, and allowable

shear stress is = 125 MPa shear stress is

allow

= 125 MPa.

Solution

Example 4

The eye bolt is used to support the load of 5 kip Determine its diameter d and The eye bolt is used to support the load of 5 kip. Determine its diameter d and

the required thickness h of the support so that the washer will not penetrate or

shear through it. The allowable normal stress for the bolt is

allo

= 21 ksi and shear through it. The allowable normal stress for the bolt is

allow

21 ksi and

the allowable shear stress for the supporting material is

allow

= 5 ksi.

Solution

Example 5

If th ll bl b i t f th t i l d th t t A d B If the allowable bearing stress for the material under the supports at A and B

is (

allow

)

b

= 15 Mpa determine the size of square bearing plates A' and B'

required to support the load The reactions at the supports are vertical Take required to support the load. The reactions at the supports are vertical. Take

P = 100 kN.

FBD

Example 6

The hanger is supported using the rectangular pin. Determine the The hanger is supported using the rectangular pin. Determine the

magnitude of the allowable suspended load P if the allowable bearing

stress is (

allow

)

b

= 220 MPa, the allowable tensile stress is (

allow

)

t

=

150 MPa and the allowable shear stress is = 130 MPa Take t = 6 150 MPa, and the allowable shear stress is

allow

= 130 MPa. Take t = 6

mm, a = 5 mm, and b = 25 mm.

Allowable Shear Stress: The pin is subjected

to double shear. Therefore V = P/2

Example 7

The 200mmdiameter aluminium cylinder supports a compressive load of

300 kN. Determine the average normal and shear stress acting on section a

ff a. Show the results on a differential element located on the section.

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