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1.

0 SCOPE
This guide identifies various criteria which govern pipe routing for process,
industrial and power plants. It gives a list of items which the piping engineer is
required to check during layout. It also describes rack piping and loads to be
considered for rack design.
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 The piping layout proper consists of combining information on sie, terminals,
fittings, etc., defined by the !iping and Instrumentation "iagram #!$I "% and
piping material specifications with the most optimum route possible within the
plant layout. The layout is a compromise, a balance the designer can achieve with
constraints of cost, operation, safety, maintenance, construction and aesthetics.
&ometimes a particular aspect will override others, for e'ample, process
requirement may demand piping be connected directly from one equipment to
another. (ther considerations, in such cases, will be of secondary importance.
2.2 To layout the route of a particular pipe, the piping designer first assembles the
following information )
2.2.1 Terminal connections, equipment*general arrangement drawings
2.2.2 +ine designation
2.2., !ipe sie
2.2.- !iping material specification
2.2.. (perating temperature and pressure
2.2./ "imensional standards of components
2.2.0 1alve types and details
2.2.2 In3line valve and speciality details
2.2.4 5ny specific requirement
2.2.10 6haracteristics of medium handled
The above information is obtained from !$I "s, piping material specifications,
applicable dimensional standards etc.
2., The designer then uses the information available to determine possible routes.
7hile many possible alternative routes are possible, the final route is governed by
the need to provide space for other pipes, space occupied by piping components etc.
The selected route shall be defined on the relative importance of the governing
factors e'plained above. 5s each pipe is laid out, it is advisable to 8yellow9 the !$I
" and the line list to verify if any lines are left out.
2.- :sually, the larger and e'pensive pipes should be given priority in having direct
routes to save cost. The smaller less e'pensive pipes may be added later.
2.. "uring the development of piping layout, the designer must remember many points
arising from the various constraints and the following checklist provides guidance
for the design engineer. The checklist may be e'panded based on individual
designer;s e'perience.
,.0 GENERAL CHECKLIST
,.1 6heck with !$I "9s for conformity.
,.2 6heck locations of equipment with respect to equipment layout drawings. In some
cases, the equipment layout may give tentative dimensions which are to be finalised
based on the piping requirements.
,., <un pipes in plant north3south, east3west and up3down directions wherever
possible. This will line up pipes with building and structural steel lines and
simplify pipe supporting. !ipes can also run along walkways*aisles to facilitate
valve operations.
,.- It may be advantageous to have separate elevations for piping running in plant
north3south and east3west directions. This will avoid fouling to a large e'tent and
facilitate change of sequence if required.
,.. <un pipes in groups to simplify supporting.
,./ <un heavy pipes close to structural steel, for e'ample, columns, to take advantage
of the columns for support. 6heck with the civil engineer before deciding to
support pipes from slender truss members. =ven if support from truss is allowed,
civil engineer may allow supporting from 8nodal9 points of truss only.
,.0 >eep pipe3to3pipe spacing as per ?pipe3spacing table;. <efer to the design guide,
T6=.@/3@=3.403--2. 7ithin the plant, a minimum clearance of -0 to .0 mm is
required between adAacent pipes. 6onsider insulation and possible pipe movements
due to thermal e'pansion.
,.2 (n multifloor plants, it may be necessary to identify ?pipe3chases; in advance for
piping crossing from floor to floor.
,.4 6heck piping interference with)
,.4.1 5dAacent piping
,.4.2 5dAacent equipment*equipment parts
,.4., 6olumns, beams, bracings
,.4.- =quipment supports and foundations
,.4.. 1entilation and air3conditioning ducting
,.4./ 6able trays #electrical and instrumentation%
,.4.0 Bloor lighting
,.4.2 Bloors and walls
,.4.4 Bloor drains and roof drains which may run along columns*walls
,.4.10 &pring bo', hanger rods and supports of other piping
,.4.11 &tructural members or beams of platforms*floors
,.10 &ometimes, the valve actuators are large and heavy and are required to be
supported. <efer suggested supporting arrangement indicated by the valve or
actuator vendor. If necessary, modify it to suit the piping layout.
,.11 7hile routing hot or cold piping, consider thermal e'pansion or contraction.
!rovide for thermal fle'ibility by the use of bends, elbows, e'pansion Aoints etc.
='pansion Aoints shall be used as a last resort but may be required for large diameter
low pressure hot ducting. 6onsider requirement of space for spring hangers in ?hot;
or ?cold; piping. 5dequate room should be available above overhead piping to
install spring bo' assemblies 3 this may be 1200 to 2000 mm depending on load and
displacement. Bor piping connected to large storage tanks, check supporting
arrangement near the tank and fle'ibility due to tank settlement and nole
displacements and rotations. 5lso refer to para 0./. <efer to 5!I /.0 for method of
calculating nole displacements and rotations.
,.12 >eep plant future e'pansion in mind while routing piping. Bor e'ample, if a floor is
to be e'tended in future, do not run pipes on e'isting floors adAacent to future floors.
,.1, >eep straight lengths of pipes upstream and downstream of flow measuring devices.
This can be up to a total of 20 diameters. 6heck with instrument designer in case of
doubt. =nsure that flow to rotameters is from bottom to top.
,.1- !ipe routing shall be as short and direct as possible consistent with ?fle'ibility;
requirements to minimise cost.
,.1. !rovide adequate headroom below pipes #consider insulation and support members
also%. :nless there is a constraint, keep a clearance of 2.1 m. This may have to be
increased if fork lift movement is envisaged.
,.1/ "o not run pipes below monorails.
,.10 "o not run pipes above or in spaces provided for maintenance.
='amples) Tube removal space for heat e'changersC in front of
manholes*handholes of equipmentC above agitatorsC above vertical pumps etc.
6heck with process engineer in case of doubt. 5lso consider necessity of
dismantling piping connected to equipment. This may require provision of flanged
spool piece adAacent to the equipment. !rovide adequate room around equipment
for access as required.
,.12 5s far as possible pipe support locations should facilitate removal of control valves
etc. for maintenance without the provision of temporary supports.
,.14 1alves which require frequent operation and those requiring to be operated in
emergency should be accessible for operation. Infrequently operated valves should
be capable of operation from a portable ladder. 1alves which require frequent
operation but which cannot be lowered to accessible level should be provided with
either chain wheel operators or e'tended items. "o not provide chain wheel
operators for valves .0 mm and smaller and for threaded end valves.
,.20 +ocate pressure gauges and temperature indicators at readable levels.
,.21 =nsure that small pipes are locally e'panded to facilitate installation of
thermowells. These may not always be indicated on !$I "s.
,.22 !rovide slopes as required by process. =nsure that the direction of slope is as
required.
,.2, !rovide vents and drains as required by the process and as required for hydrotest.
,.2- !rovide drip legs with steam traps in steam lines as follows )
#a% :pstream of isolating valves
#b% Defore every riser
#c% 5t dead ends
#d% If the steam lines are routed straight for long distances without isolation
valves or risers, provide steam traps at every ,0 to -0 @.
,.2. 6heck for provision of removal space and handling and lifting arrangement for
strainer element. Dasket strainers may require considerable space above the bolted
cover. In steam lines install E3strainers preferably in horiontal plane to avoid
pockets.
,.2/ 6heck for required removal space at the top and bottom of control valves.
Formally, control valve bottom shall be at least ,.0 mm above floor. 6heck
control valve location for access and maintenance requirementsC check with the
instrumentation engineer for any special requirements.
,.20 7here many pipes are grouped together, consider eccentric reducers in horiontal
lines to maintain bottoms of pipe at the same level. <educers on racks and sleepers
should be eccentric. 5lso use eccentric reducers with flat bottom in steam lines and
other lines where condensation is possible, to avoid pockets. The above do not
apply to socket welding reducers. !rovide eccentric reducers at pump suction as
follows)
Blat top for clear liquids
Blat bottom for slurries and suspensions
,.22 6heck approved vendor drawings for nole orientations, terminal points etc.
6heck for correct nole number, nole sie and nole connection detail. !rovide
connections in piping as required.
,.24 "o not run pipes, through windows, through lintels or through floor beams.
,.,0 6heck level of pipes with regard to level of ventilators or e'haust fans.
,.,1 7hile fi'ing trench levels, check plinth beam levels.
,.,2 !ipe routing should not obstruct crane movement.
,.,, 5void running pipes vertically outside buildings especially on the front side of
building. This spoils aesthetics and maintenance is not easy.
,.,- 6heck underground piping #buried*pipes in trenches% for interference with other
underground piping #especially fire protection piping%, underground cables,
foundations and foundation footings. 7hile routing buried piping, check for soil
cover above the pipe which may depend upon loads due to traffic above. 7here
there are such loads, it may be advisable to route the pipes in hume pipes.
Generally, in areas where loads are not envisaged, keep the top of the pipe about
0.0 to 1000 mm from grade. 5lso where low ambient temperatures are involved
which may result in freeing of pipe contents, it is necessary to keep the pipe below
the frost line. 6heck with the proAect engineer.
,.,. 7hile routing piping in the vicinity of panels, check for panel door openings.
These openings can be either on front, back or on side.
,.,/ 7hile running pipes along walls, run above door levels and window levels. 5 door
or window may be added in future.
,.,0 !iping around equipment shall be checked for level instruments and temperature
instruments #including withdrawal space for the same%.
,.,2 Dranches on vapour, steam and air lines shall be generally from the top and on
liquid lines from the bottom. 5 branch from a steam line may be taken from the
bottom, if there is no other alternative, provided a drip leg with a trap assembly is
installed at the bottom of the vertical leg.
,.,4 "rains from low points of lines, drip legs, strainers, air handling units, pump
leakage etc. should have sufficient space. Hence, elevations shall be fi'ed at a
sufficient level from the floor #minimum ,00 mm%. "rains from steam traps located
inside a building shall be led outside the building. In no case, shall these drains be
left open inside the building. Introduce a suitable note in the piping layout drawings
indicating this requirement.
,.-0 "o not install valves with stem below horiontal. The gland packing is likely to be
filled with deposits making it difficult for the valve stem to be operated.
,.-1 5void installing valves in vertical steam lines as this will lead to collection of
condensate above the valve when the valve is closed. If unavoidable, provide a
drain Aust above the valve.
,.-2 &ample points, should be appro'imately 1.0 @ above floor level and must never be
above the eye level. !oints on upper floors or platforms should be fitted with a
funnel to run spillage to a drain system. The same applies to trap drains on upper
floors.
,.-, &team feeds to plant heating systems #Aacketed piping, Aacketed equipment etc.%
should be grouped in operating sets #steam distribution headers% at convenient
locations so that the system can be controlled from central points without the
necessity for the operator to locate a number of small valves at different points and
at difficult3to3reach locations. Group condensate returns in a similar manner by
locating convenient condensate collection manifolds. Identify supply to each user
and return from each user.
,.-- 7here plant conditions are displayed on a local instrument and controlled from a
manually operated station, the instrument should be clearly and easily visible from
the operating station.
,.-. "o not run plastic pipes adAacent to hot pipes.
,.-/ 5void running pipes above and parallel to cable trays.
,.-0 "o not locate flanged or screwed Aoints above walkways and roads.
,.-2 !ipes carrying non3conducting flammables must be bonded for electrical continuityC
check with process engineer.
,.-4 =mergency shutdown valves should be placed in a sheltered but visible area from
which the operator can escape easily during emergencies.
,..0 5s far as possible, piping to water3cooled heat e'changers should enter at the
bottom and e'it at the top. If the supply of cooling water fails, the e'changer will be
left full of water to provide a limited cooling water reserve capacity.
,..1 Install relief valves with inlet a'is vertical and outlet horiontal.
,..2 Inlet piping to relief valves shall be as short as possible and shall never be smaller
than the valve inlet nole. (utlet piping shall be adequately supported to absorb
thrusts during valve operation.
,.., "isposal of vented fluids shall be as follows )
,..,.1 Harmless gases #steam, air, nitrogen, carbondio'ide etc.% at a height of , @ above
the highest platform within a radius of 12 @.
,..,.2 Harmless liquids to a suitable drainage system. "rainage points should be visible.
,..,., Haardous or flammable liquids or gases #e.g. solvent, methane, phosgene etc.%
shall be vented to a closed system equipment for proper disposal.
,..- 5ccess to emergency e'ists, fire escapes or access for firefighting shall not be
obstructed by pipes.
,... !ipes to be cleaned frequently should be provided flanged rodding 3 out points at
changes in direction #in the form of crosses%. 6onsider 4 @ as ma'imum rodding
distance for effective rodding from one end.
,../ Heat e'changer piping running along the heat e'changer should clear the edge of
the tube sheet sufficiently to facilitate access to the bolts. <efer to para 0.2.
,..0 If piping is required to be run above false ceiling, keep a clearance of at least 200
mm above light fi'tures.
,..2 &pecific process requirements like flanged Aoints at specified intervals for cleaning
and maintenance shall be borne in mind.
,..4 !iping under vacuum shall be as short as possible. !iping shall be as vertical as
possible. "eviations from vertical a'is shall not e'ceed -. degrees.
,./0 &pectacle blinds and blanks with a weight of -0 kg and less can be installed in
vertical or horiontal positions. Dut when the weight e'ceeds -0 kg, these are
preferably located in vertical position #horiontal pipe%.
,./1 If a spectacle blind or blank is installed between two valves, it is advisable to
provide a spool piece between the valves to facilitate handling of the spectacle blind
or blank. <efer to Bigure31.
,./2 Instrument air header drain connections from various floors shall be led to the
nearest drain trench on ground floor.
-.0 AESTHETICS
5esthetics can be ensured by generally )
-.1 <unning pipes along or perpendicular to building lines.
-.2 <unning vertical pipes vertically and horiontal pipes without
perceptible sag.
-., Fot running pipes across windows or under lights.
-.- Grouping piping runs as far as possible.
-.. Fot running pipes on the front road side of buildings.
..0 NOZZLE LOCATIONS
..1 =levations of noles shall be as per process requirement.However do not locate
noles which may foul with floor or floor beams. Blanged noles above floors or
below floors should have adequate clearance around to facilitate bolting.
..2 Bor horiontal equipment, noles shall be well away from the foundation. Fote
that width of concrete foundations of an equipment support can be much wider than
the support base plate and even if the nole clears the base plate, piping may foul
with the concrete foundation.
.., Bor tanks with spiral staircase, valves, specialities and instrument noles may be
located in such a way that these are approachable from staircase. However,
interference aspect shall be carefully checked.
/.0 RACK PIPING
/.1 5scertain the pipes to be run on racks and other items such as cable trays.
/.2 >eep heavy pipes near the edge of the rack for structural strength.
/., >eep hot pipes on one side of the rack. This will facilitate providing an e'pansion
loop over the width of the rack.
/.- "o not run plastic pipes adAacent to hot pipes. +ined piping and other piping having
flanged pipe3to3pipe Aoints shall always be provided with clamps and shoes whether
the lines are insulated or not. This is to avoid the problem of interference of flange
with a member on the rack. This requirement is also applicable to pipes running on
sleepers and inside the building.
/.. If two tiers are used, it is advisable to have utilities on the top tier as spillage from
top tier to lower tier is harmless.
/./ Try to avoid locating valves on rack. If this is not possible, heavy valves shall be
located close to supporting members.
/.0 <ack width shall be minimum consistent with the Aob requirement unless a specific
need is identified for future e'pansion.
/.2 If rack runs adAacent to a building, try to take advantage of the building columns for
rack support on one side.
/.4 @aintain adequate clearance above maAor roads. Bor details, refer design guide
T6=.@/3@=3.403-0, I6learances in !iping +ayout.J
/.10 Take advantage of changes in direction to provide fle'ibility of piping.
/.11 <56> +(5"IFG
/.11.1 5fter ascertaining the number, sies and services of pipes, refer to a pipe spacing
chart and establish minimum width required. 6onsider thermal insulation and
possible pipe movements. 6entre3to3centre spacing should be based on
consideration of flange on the line even if flanges are not envisaged now. Blanges
may be added in future. Blanged Aoints are to be considered as staggered.
/.11.2 To the width calculated, provide space for one pipe of average diameter on the rack.
<ound off to nearest 100 mm. If future e'pansion is envisaged provide for
additional space in consultation with the client. 6heck with proAect engineer if
electric cable trays are to be run on rack in which case e'tra space may be required.
/.11., 6alculate the dead weights of pipes considered. 6onsider weight of fluid carried #if
there are liquids% and insulation weights. 6onsider hydrotest weights for steam
lines. 7ater3filled weights shall not be considered for large diameter vapour lines
and flare lines which will not be hydrotested. <ound off the weights with a .K
margin. If future space is provided, weight allowance for such space shall be
considered.
/.11.- Identify anchors and a'ial restraints. 6alculate loads and moments and furnish such
loads along with locations to the civil engineer. 6onsider 10K margin on the loads.
Bor other details, refer T6=.@/3@=3.403-00, I!ipe <ack !lanningJ.
/.11.. If the number of pipes on a stretch of rack reduces, calculate the loads separately for
such stretches.
/.11./ If the number of the pipes beyond a point reduces considerably, consider a single
post support to reduce cost.
/.11.0 Bor guidance for fi'ing elevations of rack, refer design guide T6=3@/3@=3.403-0,
L6learances in piping layoutL.
/.11.2 <ecord client9s letter reference number regarding advice on the provision of e'tra
space for future. If the advice is oral, client shall be informed in writing confirming
implementation of the advice.
0.0 PIPING AROUND SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT
0.1 !<(6=&& 6+(:@F&
0.1.1 !iping from process columns shall rise or fall close to the noles and shall run
parallel to the column as close as practically possible. The horiontal runs from the
noles shall be radial. !iping shall be grouped to the e'tent feasible to simplify
supporting and shall be run on the rack side of the column with the manholes and
stair risers being on the road side of the column. !iping shall be supported from
cleats welded to the column to the ma'imum e'tent. !latforms shall have 0.0 mm
clear width. Deyond manhole there shall be 1000 mm space for movement.
0.1.2 "esign of piping shall be coordinated with process requirements of equipment to
achieve optimum nole position. Inlet noles shall be arranged so as to avoid
impingement on the vessel wall or against liquid level and gauge glass connections.
0.1., !iping intended for vacuum services and reboiler outlet piping shall be as short and
direct as possible with minimum bends.
0.1.- <efer to Bigures 2 to - for typical details around columns.
0.2 =M6H5FG=< !I!IFG
='changer piping shall be routed considering the following aspects )
#a% Tube removal space #Dundle length N 1 metre%.
#b% 5void locating a valve directly to the nole on the channel side, for
maintenance convenience. 5 flanged elbow or a spool piece shall be used
between the valve and the nole flange.
#c% 5dequate wrench clearance at e'changer body flanges #,00 mm from the
edge of the flanges%.
#d% 6learance in front of channel or bonnet flange of 1200 mm.
0., !:@! !I!IFG
0.,.1 =nd &uction !umps
5 straight length of pipe of three times the nominal pipe sie with a minimum of
,00 mm shall be provided immediately upstream the suction nole. <efer to
Bigure3..
0.,.2 1ertical Inline !umps
There is no requirement of straight length of piping. <efer to Big3/.
0.,., "ouble &uction !umps
5 straight length of piping of minimum three diameters shall be provided
immediately upstream the suction nole and the first elbow shall always be at 40O
angle to the pump shaft centre line. 7hen the first elbow cannot be installed as
required, the straight length of piping shall be .". <efer to Bigures30 and 2.
0.,.- &ingle &uction Top &uction !umps
7hen the last elbow of the suction line is in the same plane as the pump shaft, no
straight length of piping is required. However, if the last elbow of the suction line is
in a plane at right angles to the pump shaft, a straight length of -" minimum shall
be provided. <efer to Bigures 4 and 10.
0.- 6(FT<(+ 15+1= &T5TI(F +(65TI(F& 5+(FG !I!= <56>&
The preferred locations of control valve stations below a pipe rack are shown in
Bigure 11.
0.. 6(FT(<+ 15+1= &T5TI(F& (F !+5TB(<@&
Bigure312 shows the recommended arrangements of control valve stations on a
platform.
0./ !I!IFG 5<(:F" &T(<5G= T5F>&
0./.1 !iping connected to storage tanks shall be routed in such a way that there is
adequate fle'ibility to absorb nole rotations and deflection due to the liquid head
#this is especially required for noles located near the tank bottom% and also the
tank settlements.
0./.2 Bigure 1, shows a method of routing pipes around a tank considering the above
requirements. There shall be at least one elbow between the tank nole and the
dyke.
0./., 7hether spring supports are required or not will have to be established by a stress
analysis.
0./.- 1alves, specialities and instruments mounted on the tanks shall be located in such a
way as to be accessible from a platform or a staircase. However, interference aspect
shall be carefully checked.
0./.. 1alve manifolds shall be located outside the dyke.
0.0 !I!IFG 5<(:F" 5 6=FT<IB:G5+ 6(@!<=&&(<
0.0.1 6entrifugal compressor discharge piping shall be analysed for fle'ibility under
thermal load resulting from the heat of compression. Ble'ibility analysis will be
required for all centrifugal compressors to confirm the acceptability of the loads
imposed on the compressor noles as per the requirements of 5!I /10.
0.0.2 The fabrication of suction and discharge piping requires straingent flange alignment
tolerances at the compressor nole connections to avoid e'cessive loads imposed
on the machine.
0.0., Bigure 1- shows possible arrangements of e'pansion Aoints at compressor discharge
noles and the recommendation.
2.0 PIPING FOR POWER PLANTS
2.1 @5IF 5F" <=H=5T &T=5@ !I!IFG
2.1.1 @ain and reheat steam piping shall be sloped towards the lowest point with a slope
of 1 in 200 and it shall be ensured that this slope is available even during hot
condition.
2.1.2 If the drains from main and reheat systems are taken to the flash tank connected to
the condenser, elevation of the main and reheat pipes shall be so selected that drain
piping is above the water level in the condenser*flash tank.
2.1., 7hile selecting the pipe elevation ensure that sufficient headroom is available to
provide spring hangers.
2.2 HIGH !<=&&:<= #H!% DE!5&& !I!IFG
2.2.1 +ocate H! bypass valve above the main steam pipe.
2.2.2 Bor H! bypass valve, provide upstream straight pipe of ." or a minimum of one
metre and downstream pipe of 10" or a minimum of two metres. " refers to pipe
inside diameter.
2.2., :se higher thickness pipe, preferably about 2032. mm thick on the downstream for
a distance of 2.0 metres, from the H! bypass valve outlet.
2.2.- !rovide an anchor downstream of the H! bypass valve.
2.2.. 5rrangement of valves could be inlet*outlet horiontal, inlet horiontal outlet
downwards. Fever adopt an arrangement with inlet horiontal and outlet upwards.
2., =MT<56TI(F !I!IFG
2.,.1 The distance between the e'traction non3return valve and turbine outlet shall be as
short as possible to reduce the volume of steam in this portion and thus avoid over
speeding of turbine in case of turbine trip3out.
2.,.2 5ll e'traction non3return valves shall be accessible. If these valves are not
accessible suitable platform for operation of these valves shall be planned.
!rovision for a temporary platform shall at least be feasible.
2.- D(I+=< B==" &:6TI(F !I!IFG
2.-.1 Doiler feed*booster pump suction piping should be short, direct and vertical. If
there has to be an off3set between tank outlet and pump inlet because of general
arrangement considerations, this horiontal limb shall be as short as possible and
shall be provided with min. 10 deg. slope. 5lways avoid horiontal limb directly
under the tank.
2.-.2 +ocate suction strainer close to the pump.
2.. !I!IFG 5<(:F" &5B=TE 15+1=&
2...1 +ocation of &afety 1alve
#a% &afety valves should be fitted in a flow area which is free from turbulence.
Table below indicates the recommended minimum distances to be observed.
#b% In case where piping configuration renders the above recommendations
impractical or impossible, the downstream comers of the noles should be
rounded. The nole entrance should be rounded so that the radius at the
downstream corner is equal to one3fourth of the nole diameter.
#c% &afety valve noles should never be installed in a steam line in a position
directly opposite a branch line of equivalent sie of the lower side of the
steam line.
#d% &afety valves must not be installed in a location where no flow e'ists #e.g. at
the terminal point of a normally closed horiontal pipe run%.
#e% &ince safety valves are serviced regularly and maintained, they shall be
located for easy access. &ufficient working space should be provided
around the valves for access to adAusting rings.
T:<D:+=F6= 6<=5TIFG "=1I6=
@IFI@:@ "I&T5F6=
#=M!<=&&=" IF F:@D=< (B
"I5@=T=<& (B &T<5IGHT
!I!= <:F%
E, convergent or divergent 2 to 10"P
Dend or elbow or tee 10"
!ulse damper 10"
Two bends or elbows in same plane 1."
6ompressor or centrifugal pump 1."
5lternating compressor or volumetric pump with
damper
1."
Two bends or elbows in different planes 20"
Globe valve or regulating valve 2."
5lternating compressor or volumetric compressor
without damping device
,."
PThis distance must be increased if fluid flow direction changes from vertical to
horiontal.
2...2 Inlet !iping "esign
#a% The inlet nole be atleast equal to the inlet area of the safety valve.
#b% The nole length shall be as short as possible.
#c% The inlet nole corners must be rounded to a radius not less than one fourth
the diameter of the opening.
#d% The pressure drop to the inlet must be less than .0K of the e'pected blow
down of the nole valve.
2..., =scape !iping "esign
&afety valve e'haust piping shall be routed to meet the following)
#a% It shall be properly supported to accommodate thermal loads and reaction
loads due to steam Aet e'haust.
#b% "ischarge piping shall be independently supported. The ma'imum weight
on to outlet of safety valve should not e'ceed the weight of a discharge
elbow drip pan unit.
2...- =lectromatic <elief 1alves
Bollowing requirements shall be considered is locating the electromatic relief valve
and associated piping system)
#a% 1alves shall be located at least eight pipe inside diameters downstream
from any bend, tee or other fitting including thermowells in piping.
#b% The pressure sensing tap3off located on the main line shall be located at least
eight inside pipe diameter upstream of electromatic relief valve and at least
five diameters away from any bends, tees or other sources off disturbance.
2./ !<"& #!<=&&:<= <=":6IFG 5F ""=&:!=<H=5TIFG% !I!IFG
+ayout by piping around !<"& system is somewhat similar to H! bypass piping.
!<"& are of two types)
#a% 6ombined pressure reducing and desuperheating station.
#b% !ressure reducing valve and desuperheater mounted separately.
In both the cases it shall be ensured that an upstream straight length of ." or 1
metre and downstream straight of 10 " shall be maintained from the main pressure
reducing valve. "esuperheater could be horiontal or vertical. It is recommended
that downstream pipe upto first bend after desuperheater is alloy steel. Temperature
sensor on the downstream side shall be located at 20 " distance. Bollow the
recommendations of the !<"& manufacturer in general.
4.0 GENERAL
6heck the following)
4.1 Title of drawing #with respect to drawing schedule%
4.2 Fumber of the issue
4., =quipment numbers and their appearances on piping drawings
4.- 6orrect identification of all lines in plans and relevant sections
4.. 6orrect tagging of valves
4./ &pecification breaks, if any
4.0 5ll dimensions, elevations and coordinates
4.2 +ocations of manholes, level instruments etc. on equipment
4.4 Identification of all non3standard items #e.g control valve flange rating may be ,00
class in a 1.0 class piping%
4.10 Instrument tag numbers
4.11 5voiding repetition of dimensions*elevations
4.12 Insulation as per !$I "
4.1, 6orrectness of scale
4.1- @atching of section letters with plan view
4.1. Identification of 8hold9 areas and description of holds with reasons for holds
4.1/ +ocations of match lines
4.10 <evision clouding