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AUTOMATIC RAILWAY GATE CONTROLLER

SYNOPSIS

In our country everyday we are hearing about the accidents in the level crossing.
That may end the humans life. To prevent the accident we plan to go for the automatic
railway gate controller for the unmanned level crossing. The train, which is coming in
either way, will be sensed in two ways, one is by sensing the vibration and the one is by
using the infrared ways. The best method is by sensing the vibration. But we are going to
develop the model by using the toy trains. IR sensor is suitable for these types of trains.

We are planning to go for two pairs of IR sensors, one is at the one end of the gate
on track, and the other one is other side. This system is to install the sensor at least 0.5
KM from the gate. When a train crossed the IR sensor, it will be sensed and given to the
PLC Control Unit.

INTRODUCTION

This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual
effort by Electronics in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part
of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of
mechanization is increased.

Degrees of automation are of two types, viz.

Full automation.
Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is
required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible. In our project
is fully automation one.


NEED FOR AUTOMATION

Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics,
etc., of these sources, form an attractive medium for low cost automation. The main
advantages of all automation systems are economy, accuracy and simplicity. Automation
plays an important role in all industries.

To achieve Quick Response
To reduce man power
To increase the system efficiency
To reduce the work load
To achieve grater accuracy
To reduce the time of operation
To reduce the fatigue of workers
To achieve good system quality
Less Maintenance








BLOCK DIAGRAM

WORKING PRINCIPLE

When the PLC receives the signals from IR sensor, it will be taking a decision to
close the railway gate. Also it will open the gate when the train leaves that will also
sensed with the help of IR sensor, and it will be given to the controller and then it will
open the gate. The gate opening and closing can be done with the help of DC motor.

There will be LEDs to guide the passengers across the road as the indicator for
train as well as the traffic signals.

There are two sensor signal is given to PLC (control unit). These pulse signal
received from IR sensor circuit when the people entering into the particular entrance.




IR
TRANSMITTER
IR
RECEIVER
CONTROL UNIT
(PLC)

LIGHT
INDICATOR
SOLENOID
VALVE
RELAY
PNEUMATIC
GATE
OPEN/CLOSE
MECHANISM
ADVANTAGES

Two IR sensors are used, one is at the one end of the gate on track, and the
other one is other side. So the sensor will be operated on both sides.
Dc motor is used to opening and closing the gate.
The sensors only sense big objects only, not sensing the birds etc.
The third sensor is used to senses the obstacle in between the railway gate.
Two trains entering into the same track, the indication is provided.
Simple rack and pinion mechanism is used to opening/closing the gate.
This project is fully automated one


APPLICATION

It is used to railway application.

DISADVANTAGES

This IR sensor senses the particular distance only.
This circuit having more wiring connection from one end of
the sensor to another end of the sensor.
This circuit giving the information/alarm/indication to the
station only not the engine operator.




ENERGY MANAGEMENT METHOD FOR SOLAR
RACE CAR DESIGN AND APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
The energy management method for designing a solar-cell supplied electrical vehicle is
described and its implementation on Istanbul Technical University (ITU) race cars is discussed.
The effectiveness of the method has been tested and proved during the 2006, 2007 and 2008
races organized by the Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey. The ldquoenergy
management model (EMS)rdquo, which computes the energy consumption of the virtual vehicle
on the virtual race track. For this purpose, electrical and mechanical components of the vehicle
are modeled and the energy values are calculated while vehicle computer model is running on
three dimensional model of the test track. When the maximum performance scenario, which
means maximum possible speed for available energy, is obtained, then brushless dc machine and
its driver are designed accordingly. A data acquisition system is formed to measure vehicle's
electrical and electromechanical quantities. This information is send to the main computer
through a wireless communication system. The main computer runs the energy management
program and controls whether the race is progressing suitable with the best race scenario. If any
discrepancy between simulation and experiment is detected a new optimum scenario is defined
and implemented. With this flexible method, maximum performance is achieved by neither
flatting the battery in the middle of the race nor remaining partially charged at the finish line.

MULTI-SENSOR RAILWAY TRACK GEOMETRY SURVEYING
SYSTEM

Abstract:
Depending on recent developments in railway systems, high-speed trains are being
extensively used, and rail transportation is being increased. Reasons for this increase are high
speed, economical, environment friendly, safety, and modern characteristics of railway systems.
These characteristics can be continued by periodical maintenance and control measurements.
Depending on different factors, deformations may occur on the superstructure of railways.
Determining these deformations on time and taking precautions is very important for the safety
of railway systems.

Existing system:
In the existing system, Classical geodetic measurement methods and instruments are used
to determine railway deformations. The measurement process with these methods and
instruments usually takes a long time. Determining these deformations on time and taking
precautions is very important for the safety of railway systems

Proposed system:
In the proposed system, a railway track inspection system based on Accelerometer and
Crack Detection Sensor is framed. The system uses GSM Communication for communicating
with the railway station. The accelerometer and crack detection sensor are connected with the
PIC Microcontroller. The Accelerometer is used to inspect any deformation in the railway track
and the crack detection sensor is used to find cracks on the railway track. Once if any of the two
abnormalities is encountered, the system sends an alert message to the control center, where it is
stored and retrieved later.


Block Diagram:
Inspection Section:

Control Section:








Hardware requirements:
PIC16F877A Microcontroller with Power Supply
GSM Modem
Max 232
2 axes Robot
Relay Driver
Crack Detection sensor

PIC
16F877A
Micro
Controller
Power
Supply
LCD
MAX 232

Driver
Circuit

ROBOT
Mechanism

GSM
Modem

Accelerometer

Crack Sensor
Buzzer
Power
Supply
MAX
232
GSM
MEMS Accelerometer
LCD
Buzzer
PC with .net

Software requirements
Embedded c
MPLab Compiler or CCS Compiler
VB .NET


Advantages
Timely measurement of required data.
Remote application.