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8aclal SLereoLypes of Cne Pundred College SLudenLs

8y: uanlel kaLz and kenneLh 8raly 1933 (parL one of Lhe rlnceLon 1rllogy)

)*+,&# - ."*/"0&+1" 23 .+*&,/,.+0&# &4+& /42#" &4"5- 2&4"* 02&"#
Cermans !ewlsh
SclenLlflcally mlnded -78, lndusLrlous - 63, sLolld -
ConslsLenL wlLh popular sLereoLype ln Lhe medla aL Lhe
Llme. More deflnlLe - more agreemenL among
parLlclpanLs Also, lnLelllgenL, meLhodlcal.
Shrewd -79, mercenary - 48, lndusLrlous - 48,
grasplng - 34, lnLelllgenL - 29
Aggresslve quallLles emphaslzed. 1hough, 13
lncluded loyalLy Lo famlly Lles. CLher LralLs lnclude
amblLlous, sly.
Chlnese Amerlcan
SupersLlLlous - 33, Sly - 30, ConservaLlve - 30,
1radlLlon-lovlng - 27
Also consldered loyal Lo famlly Lles, lndusLrlous,
medlLaLlve. Less agreemenL. 3 parLlclpanLs gave no
lndusLrlous - 48, lnLelllgenL - 47, MaLerlallsLlc -
33, AmblLlous - 33
Shows ob[ecLlvlLy from Amerlcan parLlclpanLs, slmllar
Lo non-Amerlcan sLereoLype. Also ofLen labelled
progresslve and pleasure-lovlng.
negroes lLallans
SupersLlLlous - 84, Lazy - 73, Pappy-go-lucky - 38
lgnoranL - 38, Muslcal - 26 CsLenLaLlous - 26
Slmllar Lo Lhe porLrayal of negroes by Lhe !"#$%&"'
)*+,-,. /01#.
MosL deflnlLlve sLereoLypes, greaLesL agreemenL on
supersLlLlous LralL.
ArLlsLlc - 33, lmpulslve - 44, asslonaLe - 32,
Culck - 33, Muslcal - 32, lmaglnaLlve - 30
llLs hoL blooded LaLln sLereoLype, mosLly poslLlve.
Scarcely accounLs for Lhe degree of pre[udlce
Lowards lLallans ln 1933.
Lngllsh !apanese
SporLsmanllke - 33, lnLelllgenL - 46, ConvenLlonal -
34, 1radlLlon-lovlng - 31
Also ofLen labelled conservaLlve reserved,
sophlsLlcaLed, courLeous, honesL. comparable Lo
genLlemen" sLereoLype
lnLelllgenL - 48, lndusLrlous - 46, rogresslve -
26, Shrewd - 23, Sly - 21
More clear cuL, more agreemenL among parLlclpanLs.
Some recognlLlon of wesLernlzaLlon of !apan ln
lrlsh 1urklsh
ugnaclous - 43, Culck-Lempered - 39,
WlLLy - 38
Also ofLen descrlbed as honesL, very rellglous,
lndusLrlous, exLremely naLlonallsLlc. Less agreemenL.
Cruel - 47, very rellglous - 26, 1reacherous -
21, Sensual - 20
LeasL deflnlLe sLereoLype, leasL agreemenL among
parLlclpanLs. 13 sLudenLs dldn'L answer.
6*2/"7$*"' 1he parLlclpanLs were glven a llsL of 84
ad[ecLlves, Lhen asked Lo wrlLe as many of Lhose
LralLs as Lhey deemed necessary, lf needed addlng
words Lo provlde a more accuraLe descrlpLlon, Lo
descrlbe a cerLaln raclal group. 1he Len raclal
groups Lhey had Lo descrlbe were: Cermans,
lLallans, negroes, lrlsh, Lngllsh, !ewlsh, Amerlcans,
Chlnese, !apanese and 1urks. 1hey were Lhen
lnsLrucLed Lo go back and mark Lhe flve words ln
each llsL (wlLh an x) LhaL Lhey LhoughL were Lhe
mosL Lyplcal of Lhe race ln quesLlon.

8,5' Lo lnvesLlgaLe sLereoLyplcal aLLlLudes of
Amerlcans Lowards oLher races and Amerlcans
!"#"+*/4 9"&427' quesLlonnalre
:"#,10' lndependenL measures
1oo much agreemenL Lo be based on personal experlence alone
CfLen less agreemenL for more unfamlllar groups, le 1urks, Chlnese, !apanese
CharacLerlsLlcs asslgned llkely based on boLh personal and publlc knowledge,
(Lhus, less agreemenL wlLh Amerlcans and Lngllshmen sLereoLypes, as sLudenLs
had more personal knowledge of Lhese races)
lndlvldual experlences llkely conflrm Lhe orlglnal sLereoLype, or are omlLLed lf
Lhey conLradlcL lL
SLereoLypes are false: Lhere ls a loL of overlap beLween groups, no speclflc LralLs
can characLerlze all members of a group
unlformlLy of sLereoLype (degree of consensus) has no relaLlon Lo pre[udlces
LLhnlc sLereoLypes are wldespread and shared by members of a soclal group,
and can be boLh poslLlve and negaLlve

Low ecologlcal valldlLy, doesn'L necessarlly represenL how people acL ln real llfe.
Soclal deslrablllLy - people may lle
PawLhorne effecL, reacLlve - sub[ecLs feel pressure Lo wrlLe sLereoLypes even lf
Lhey do noL hold Lhem sLrongly
parLlclpanLs may wrlLe whaL Lhey Lhlnk ls Lhe culLural blas
llmlLed cholce of sLlmull, may have mlssed sLereoLypes lf ad[ecLlve was noL
Lhere, or lf lL was overlooked by parLlclpanLs
could gaLher more daLa
o does noL allow for deLermlnlng lmporLance of sLereoLypes Lo Lhe lndlvldual
o no daLa on aLLrlbuLe raLlng.
! Laslly repllcable, easy Lo conducL
! AlmosL no eLhlcal concerns
! Cood reflexlvlLy - kepL own blases ouL of quesLlonnalre

62&"0&,+% /2032$07,01 >+*,+?%"#' ersonal
experlences of sLudenLs, wordlng of ad[ecLlves (le
LradlLlon-lovlng, exLremely naLlonallsLlc.eLc),
medla, race and naLlonallLy of parLlclpanL
@&4"* AB&*+0"2$# >+*,+?%"#' LnvlronmenL ln whlch
LesL was Laken,
;20&*2%#' lnsLrucLlons on quesLlonnalre, words on
llsL- LxperlmenLer blas, # of parLlclpanLs (100) Lype
of parLlclpanLs - Amerlcan college sLudenLs
C%,07 )"/40,D$"' none
;$%&$*+% E03%$"0/"#' Amerlcan, WesLern culLure,
souLh and norLh
E03%$"0/" 23 1"07"*' llkely more men ln Lhe sLudy,
(more men ln college), gender was noL conLrolled

F$*&4"*,01 $07"*#&+07,01 23 E##$" #&$7,"7'
SLereoLypes are a cognlLlve process as a resulL of
soclal caLegorlzaLlon. lrom Lhls sLudy we found LhaL
sLereoLypes can be learned, and exlsL as a
comblnaLlon of personal experlence and whaL ls
learned. Llkely conflrmaLlon blas occurs, so personal
experlence does noL affecL sLereoLypes Loo much.
1hough, wlLh enough personal experlence
conflrmaLlon blas ls overrldden and sLereoLypes
become les unlform among people. Also,
sLereoLypes can reflecL pre[udlce. lor example !ews
recelved a very negaLlve sLereoLype plcLure, posslbly
showlng a degree of pre[udlce Lowards !ews.
llnally, sLereoLypes wlLhln a group (abouL oLhers) do
noL necessarlly favour Lhe group, as ln Lhe sLudy
Amerlcans raLed oLhers as more sporLsmanllke and
lnLelllgenL, however gave Lhemselves all pos. LralLs

@&4"* #&$7,"#'
uevlne and LllloL (1993) - shows LhaL Lhere ls a dlfference beLween
personal bellefs, and whaL ls LhoughL Lo be Lhe publlc belle
8rlgham (1971) - says LhaL sLereoLypes can be dlsLlngulshed from oLher
generallzaLlons Lhough how [usLlfled Lhey seem Lo Lhe observer, dlfferenL
CenLers (1931) - reverse sLereoLypes
karllnes eL al (1969),
McCauley and SLlLL,
rlnceLon Lrllogy- gllberL 1931, karllns, Coffman and WalLers 1969 - shows
change ln sLereoLypes over Llme
=2/,+% &4"2*G- #/422% 23 &42$14&'
Soclal ldenLlLy 1heory (Sl1) - assumes LhaL lndlvlduals
sLrlve Lo lmprove Lhelr self-lmage by Lrylng Lo enhance
Lhelr self-esLeem based on elLher personal ldenLlLy or
varlous soclal ldenLlLles
use soclal caLegorlzaLlon ln Sl1 - sLereoLyplng ls a form
of Lhls
SLereoLypes are soclal percepLlons of lndlvldual ln Lerms
of group membershlp, apply aLLrlbuLes of group Lo
1hus sLereoLypes should be poslLlve Lowards one's own
culLure, more so Lhan oLher culLures
1hls ls shown ln sLudy, however, some oLher culLures
were also aLLrlbuLed poslLlve quallLles

<"+*0,01 @$&/25"#'
Lxplaln Lhe formaLlon of sLereoLypes and Lhelr effecL on
LvaluaLe Soclal ldenLlLy 1heory, maklng reference Lo
relevanL sLudles
;200"/&,20 &2 &4" H+>"'
1here were a few sLereoLypes evldenL. lor one, Lhere was a deflnlLe
sLereoLype LhaL people ln Lhe WesL are welrd. Powever, Lhey had a person
from Lhe wesL ln Lhe class. Slnce Lhe person was ln Lhe class people had
personal experlences wlLh hlm, so Lhey may have LhoughL LhaL he was an
excepLlon Lo Lhe sLereoLype and conLlnued Lo belleve lL. Also, everyone
who LhoughL LhaL Cermans are exLremely anLl-fasclsL learned LhaL LhaL
sLereoLype ls noL Lrue. 1hls supporLs kaLz and 8raly's ldea LhaL sLereoLypes
are all false. Also, shows how Lhey can be accepLed and learned easlly.