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# GERAF REVIEW NOTES

## Prepared by: Gerry Lou Quiles, CSA-B

Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 1
1. Consider a fish swimming 5 m below the free surface of water. The increase in the pressure
exerted on the fish when it dives to a depth of 45 m below the free surface is-
a. 392 Pa b. 9800 Pa c. 50,000 Pa d. 392,000 Pa
2. An apple loses 4.5 kJ of heat as it cools per C drop in its temperature. The amount of heat loss
from the apple per F drop in its temperature is-
a. 1.25 kJ b. 2.50 kJ c. 5.0 kJ d. 8.1 kJ
3. A 2-kW electric resistance heater in a room is turned on and kept on for 30 min. The amount of
energy transferred to the room by the heater is-
a. 1 kJ b. 60 kJ c. 1800 kJ d. 3600 kJ
4. In a hot summer day, the air in a well-sealed room is circulated by a 0.50-hp (shaft) fan driven by
a 65% efficient motor. (Note that the motor delivers 0.50 hp of net shaft power to the fan). The
rate of energy supply from the fan-motor assembly to the room is
a. 0.769 kJ/s b. 0.325 kJ/s c. 0.574 kJ/s d. 0.373 kJ/s
5. A fan is to accelerate quiescent air to a velocity to 12 m/s at a rate of 3 m
3
/s. If the density of air
is 1.15 kg/m
3
, the minimum power that must be supplied to the fan is-
a. 248 W b. 72 W c. 497 W d. 216 W
6. The elevator of a large building is to raise a net mass of 400 kg at a constant speed of 12 m/s
using an electric motor. Minimum power rating of the motor should be-
a. 0 kW b. 4.8 kW c. 47 kW d. 12 kW
7. Electric power is to be generated in a hydroelectric power plant that receives water at a rate of
70 m
3
/s from an elevation of 65 m using a turbinegenerator with an efficiency of 85 percent.
When frictional losses in piping are disregarded, the electric power output of this plant is-
a. 3.9 MW b. 38 MW c. 45 MW d. 53 MW
8. A 75 hp (shaft) compressor in a facility that operates at full load for 2500 hours a year is powered
by an electric motor that has an efficiency of 88 percent. If the unit cost of electricity is
P0.06/kWh, the annual electricity cost of this compressor is-
a. P 7382 b. P9900 c. P12,780 d. P9536
9. Ten centimeter high and twenty centimeter wide circuit board houses on its surface 100 closely
spaced chips, each generating heat at a rate of 0.08 W and transferring it by convection to the
surrounding air at 40C. Heat transfer from the back surface of the board is negligible. If the
convection heat transfer coefficient on the surface of the board is 10 W/m
2
C and radiation heat
transfer is negligible, the average surface temperature of the chips is-
a. 80C b. 54C c. 41C d. 72C
10. If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with each other-
a. they cannot be moving
b. they cannot be undergoing an elastic collision
c. they cannot have different pressures
d. they cannot be at different temperatures
11. A "closed system" is also known as-
a. Control mass b. isolated system c. control volume d. control boundary
12. Properties that are independent of the size of the system, such as temperature, pressure, and
the density are called-
a. intensive properties c. extensive properties
b. extrinsive properties d. extrinsic properties
13. A H-S diagram is also known as-
a. Argand diagram b. Euler diagram c. Mollier diagram d. Grolier diagram
14. The condition in which there is no change in pressure at any point of the system with time.
a. Thermal equilibrium c. mechanical equilibrium
b. Phase equilibrium d. chemical equilibrium

15. A process during which, the specific volume V remains constant is called-
a. Isometric b. isovolumetric c. isochoric d. all of these
16. Who wrote the first thermodynamics textbook in 1859?
a. Lord Kelvin b. William Rankine c. Thomas Young d. Rudolph Clausius
17. The area under the process curve on a P-V diagram represents the boundary-
a. Temperature b. pressure c. energy d. work
18. A device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down is called-
a. Noozle b. diffuser c. manometer d. heat exchanger
19. A rigid tank contains 6 kg of an ideal gas at 3 atm and 40C. Now a valve is opened, and half of
mass of the gas is allowed to escape. If the final pressure in the tank is 2.2 atm, the final
temperature in the tank is-
a. 186C b. 59C c. -43C d. 20C
20. Water is boiling at 1 atm pressure in a stainless steel pan on an electric range. It is observed that
2 kg of liquid water evaporates in 30 minutes. The rate of heat transfer to the water is-
a. 2.51 kW b. 2.32 kW c. 2.97 kW d. 0.47 kW
21. A rigid 3-m
3
rigid vessel contains steam at 10 MPa and 500C. The mass of the steam is-
a. 3.0 kg b. 19 kg c. 84 kg d. 31 kg
22. A certain humidifier operates by raising water to the boiling point and then evaporating it. Every
minute 30 g of water at 20 C are added to replace the 30 g that are evaporated. The heat of
fusion of water is 333 kJ/kg, the heat of vaporization is 2256 kJ/kg, and the specific heat is 4190
J/kg K. How many joules of energy per minute does this humidifier require?
a. 3.0 10
4
b. 8.8 10
4
c. 7.8 10
4
d. 1.1 10
5

23. A system undergoes an adiabatic process in which its internal energy increases by 20 J. Which of
the following statements is true?
a. 20 J of work was done on the system c. the system received 20 J of energy as heat
b. 20 J of work was done by the system d. the system lost 20 J of energy as heat
24. A frictionless piston-cylinder device and a rigid tank contain 2 kmol of an ideal gas at the same
temperature, pressure and volume. Now heat is transferred, and the temperature of both
systems is raised by 10C. The amount of extra heat that must be supplied to the gas in the
cylinder that is maintained at constant pressure is-
a. 0 kJ b. 42 kJ c. 83 kJ d. 166 kJ
25. A 3-m
3
rigid tank contains nitrogen gas at 500 kPa and 300 K. Now heat is transferred to the
nitrogen in the tank and the pressure of nitrogen rises to 800 kPa. The work done during this
process is-
a. 500 kJ b. 1500 kJ c. 0 kJ d. 900 kJ
26. ChE GATE PROBLEM 2011. One mole of methane is contained in a leak proof piston cylinder
assembly at 8 bar and 1000 K. The gas undergoes isothermal expansion to 4 bar under reversible
conditions. Methane can be considered as an ideal gas under these conditions. The heat
transferred in kJ during the process is-
a. 11.52 b. 5.76 c. 4.15 d. 2.38
27. Equations of state for a single component can be any of the following, except:
a. the ideal gas law, PV= RT
b. the ideal gas law modified by insertion of a compressibility factor, PV = ZRT.
c. any relationship interrelating 3 or more state functions.
d. a mathematical expression defining a path between states.
28. The state of a thermodynamic system is always defined by its-
a. absolute temperature b. process c. properties d. temperature and pressure
29. Mathematically, a thermodynamic property is which of the following?
a. a point function c. an inexact differential
b. a path function d. discontinuous
30. PIChE National Quiz Bee 2007. Three moles of an ideal gas at 1 atm and 20
O
C are heated at
constant pressure until the final temperature is 80
O
C. (C
v
= 7.5 + 3.2 x 10
-2
T, cal/ mol K). The
change in the internal energy of the process is
a. 3210.5 cal b. 2105.3 cal c. 2015.3 cal d. 1203.5 cal
31. A 0.8-m
3
cylinder contains nitrogen gas at 600 kPa and 300 K. Now the gas is compressed
isothermally to a volume of 0.1 m
3
. The work done on the gas during this compression process is-
a. 746 kJ b. 0 kJ c. 420 kJ d. 998 kJ
32. An ordinary egg with a mass of 0.1 kg and a specific heat of 3.32 kJ/kg-C is dropped into boiling
water at 95C. If the initial temperature of the egg is 5C, the maximum amount of heat transfer
to the egg is-
a. 12 kJ b. 30 kJ c. 24 kJ d. 18 kJ
33. A pistoncylinder device contains an ideal gas. The gas undergoes two successive cooling
processes by rejecting heat to the surroundings. First the gas is cooled at constant pressure until
T
2
= T
1
. Then the piston is held stationary while the gas is further cooled to T
3
= T
1
, where all
temperatures are in K. The ratio of the final volume to the initial volume of the gas is-
a. 0.25 b. 0.50 c. 0.67 d. 0.75
34. From problem #33, The work done on the gas by the piston is-
a. RT
1
/4 b. C
v
T
1
/2 c. C
p
T
1
/2 d. (C
v
+C
p
)T
1
/4
35. From problem #33, The total heat transferred from the gas is-
a. RT
1
/4 b. C
v
T
1
/2 c. C
p
T
1
/2 d. (C
v
+C
p
)T
1
/4
36. MRII Question. An adiabatic tank contains 20 kg of water. A 220V, 0.1A motor drives a paddle
wheel and runs for 45 minutes. Determine the change in the total energy of the system.
a. 59.4 kJ b. 55.6 kJ c. 52.4 kJ d. 62.3 kJ
37. MRII Question. It is the heat effect accompanying a change in phase at constant temperature.
a. sensible heat c. heat capacity
b. latent heat d. heat of formation
38. Steam enters a diffuser steadily at 0.5 MPa, 300C, and 122 m/s at a rate of 3.5 kg/s. The inlet
area of the diffuser is-
a. 15 cm
2
b. 50 cm
2
c. 105 cm
2
d. 150 cm
2

39. Water flows through a constriction in a horizontal pipe. As it enters the constriction, the waters:
a. speed increases and pressure decreases c. speed increases and pressure increases
b. speed increases and pressure is constant d. speed decreases and pressure increases
40. A heat engine-
a. converts heat input to an equivalent amount of work
b. converts work to an equivalent amount of heat
c. takes heat in, does work, and loses energy heat
d. uses positive work done on the system to transfer heat from a low temperature
reservoir to a high temperature reservoir
41. A heat engine that in each cycle does positive work and loses energy as heat, with no heat energy
input, would violate-
a. the zeroth law of thermodynamics c. the second law of thermodynamics
b. the first law of thermodynamics d. the third law of thermodynamics
42. A Carnot cycle-
a. is bounded by two isotherms and two adiabats on a p-V graph
b. consists of two isothermal and two constant volume processes
c. is any four sided process on a p-V graph
d. only exists for an ideal gas
43. The change in entropy is zero for:
a. reversible adiabatic processes c. reversible processes during which no work is done
b. reversible isothermal processes d. reversible isobaric processes
44. Which of the following processes leads to a change in entropy of zero for the system undergoing
the process?
a. Non-cyclic isobaric (constant pressure) c. Non-cyclic isothermal (constant temperature)
b. Non-cyclic isochoric (constant volume) d. Any closed cycle
45. An ideal gas expands into a vacuum in a rigid vessel. As a result there is:
a. a change in entropy c. a change in temperature
b. an increase of pressure d. a decrease of internal energy
46. A copper block (Cp = 0.398 kJ/kg K) having a mass of 15 kg and a temperature of 500 K is placed
in a well insulated vessel containing 100 kg of water initially at 300 K. The entropy change in this
process (in kJ/kg) is-
a. 0.912 b. 3.906 c. 2.994 d. 6.521
47. MRII Question. According to ___________, it is impossible to create a device in which the only
effect is to transfer heat from low temperature to high temperature.
a. Kelvin Planck b. Clausius c. Carnot d. Clapeyron
48. Air at 20C and 5 atm is throttled by a valve to 2 atm. If the valve is adiabatic and the change in
kinetic energy is negligible, the exit temperature of air will be-
a. 10C b. 14C c. 17C d. 20C
49. The drinking water needs of an office are met by cooling tab water in a refrigerated water
fountain from 23C to 6C at an average rate of 10 kg/h. If the COP of this refrigerator is 3.1, the
required power input to this refrigerator is-
a. 197 W b. 612 W c. 64 W d. 109 W
50. Throttling process is a/an __________ process.
a. reversible and isothermal c. reversible and constant enthalpy
b. reversible and constant entropy d. irreversible and constant enthalpy
51. In case of an __________ process, the temperature of the system increases.
a. adiabatic compression c. isothermal expansion
b. isothermal compression d. adiabatic expansion
52. The third law of thermodynamics states that the-
a. heat capacity of a crystalline solid is zero at absolute zero temperature.
b. heat transfer from low temperature to high temperature source is not possible without
external work.
c. gases having same reduced properties behave similarly.
d. none of these.
53. The main feature of Carnot refrigeration cycle is that, it-
a. accomplishes the reverse effect of the heat engine.
b. does not need the addition of external work for its functioning.
c. transfers heat from high temperature to low temperature.
d. none of these
54. Degree of freedom of the system ice-water-vapor will be-
a. 1 b. 3 c. 0 d. 2
55. Degree of freedom of the system liquid water with its vapor will be-
a. 1 b. 3 c. 0 d. 2
56. Degree of freedom of the system liquid solution of alcohol in water in equilibrium with its vapor-
a. 1 b. 3 c. 0 d. 2
57. For any system, what is the minimum number of degrees of freedom?
a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3
58. Given the table below for Freon 12 (entropy in BTU/ lb R; enthalpy in BTU/lb; specific volume in
ft
3
/lb)-

What is its state at 40F and 25 psia?
a. saturated liquid c. compressed liquid
b. superheated vapor d. saturated vapor
59. Using the previous Freon 12 data table in problem #58, what is its entropy in BTU/lb R at 120F
and 80% quality?
a. 0.057 b. 0.144 c. 0.186 d. 28.8
60. Using the previous Freon 12 data table, what is its latent heat (heat of vaporization) in BTU/1b at
80F? a. 0.219 b. 0.423 c. 26.4 d. 58.9
61. Work or energy can be a function of all of the following except:
a. force and distance c. power and time
b. torque and angular rotation d. force and time
62. (U + PV) is a quantity called-
a. flow energy b. shaft work c. entropy d. enthalpy
63. ChE Board Exam Nov. 2009. A chemical engineer wants to extract energy from a geothermal
power plant. At the top of the reservoir, the temperature of water is 30 C and as the water goes
out of the coils, the temperature is 20C. If we analyze 2000 kg of water, how much maximum
power can we extract from the reservoir? Let specific heat capacity of water be 4.186 kJ/kg C.
a. 83,720 kJ b. 2,763 kJ c. 2,536,720 kJ d. 80,957 kJ
64. Consider a Carnot refrigerator and a Carnot heat pump operating between the same two thermal
energy reservoirs. If the COP of the refrigerator is 3.4, the COP of the heat pump is-
a. 1.7 b. 2.4 c. 3.4 d. 4.4
65. Steam is condensed at a constant temperature of 30C as it flows through the condenser of a
power plant by rejecting heat at a rate of 55 MW. The rate of entropy change of steam as it flows
through the condenser is-
a. 1.83 MW/K b. 0.18 MW/K c. 0 MW/K d. 0.56 MW/K
66. Steam is compressed from 5 MPa and 300C to 10 MPa isentropically. The final temperature of
the steam is-
a. 290C b. 300C c. 311C d. 401C
67. Given that molar C
p
of CO
2
is 8.92 BTU/lbmol
o
R, and molar C
p
of N
2
is 6.95 BTU/lbmol
o
R, the
calculated C
p
per pound of mixture containing 25 vol% CO
2
and 75 vol% N
2
is:
a. 0.23 BTU/lb R b. 2.23 BTU/lb
o
R c. 5.21 BTU/lb R d. 7.44 BTU/lb
o
R
68. For an ideal liquid solution, which of the following is unity?
a. Fugacity coefficient b. Activity c. Fugacity d. Activity coefficient
69. In an ideal gas mixture, fugacity of a species is equal to its-
a. partial pressure b. vapor pressure c. chemical potential d. none of these
70. An apple with an average mass of 0.15 kg and average specific heat of 3.65 kJ/kg-C is cooled
from 20C to 5C. The entropy change of the apple is-
a. 0.0288 kJ/K b. 0.192 kJ/K c. -0.526 kJ/K d. 0 kJ/K
71. MRII Question. The cooling energy ratio of a refrigeration cycle operating at -12C and 31C is-
a. 4.39 b. 3.58 c. 6.07 d. 5.19
72. An inventor suggests that a house might be heated by using a refrigerator to draw energy as heat
from the ground and reject energy as heat into the house. He claims that the energy supplied to
the house as heat can exceed the work required to run the refrigerator. This:
a. is impossible by first law
b. is impossible by second law
c. is impossible since heat energy flows from the (hot) house to the (cold) ground
d. is possible
73. In a thermally insulated kitchen, an ordinary refrigerator is turned on and its door is left open.
The temperature of the room:
a. remains constant according to the first law of thermodynamics
b. increases according to the first law of thermodynamics
c. decreases according to the first law of thermodynamics
d. remains constant according to the second law of thermodynamics
74. An experimental electric jeepney running in Makati on 12V battery at 20m/s has a total energy
storage of 2.0x10
7
Joules. If 8.0 KW is needed to move the vehicle, what is the quantity of energy
supplied to the motor and how far will it travel
a. 500 A, 35km b. 814 A, 60km c. 960 A, 71km d. 667 A, 50km
75. An airjet operates at 2,500 rev/min and uses 7.89 x 10
3
J of energy and exhausts 4.58 x 10
3
J for
each crankshaft revolution. Determine the quantity of gasoline fuel consumed in one hour of
operation if the heat of combustion is 4.03 x 10
7
J/liter.
a. 24.2 L/hr b. 29.4 L/hr c. 13.4 L/hr d. 2.05 L/hr