ECOLOGY

By:

MARIA KRISIA
FAE DELOS
REYES DE ASIS,
BSN-RN
BIOMES
– also known as LIFE ZONES

- composed of many ecosystems—
smaller communities of plants and
animals and their habitats within
special regions

- are sometimes named by the
climax vegetation (stable plant
communities) of the region
BIOMES
– The ecosystems of a particular
biome tend to have plants with
similar growth forms and animals
with similar feeding habits

- The characteristics of biomes
are a direct result of
temperature and rainfall
patterns. These patterns result
from the features of the Earth
(mountains, valleys, etc.)
BIOMES
– 2 physical factors:

a. Amounts of heat from the sun
that reach the different parts
of the Earth and seasonal
variations of heat

b. Global atmospheric circulation
and the resulting patterns of
oceanic circulation
THE SUN AND ITS EFFECT
ON CLIMATE
– because the Earth is a SPHERE,
some parts receive more energy
from the sun than others.

-Therefore, the greater the
LATITUDE or distance from the
equator, the colder the climate

-Seasons occur because the earth
is tilted on its axis
THE SUN AND ITS EFFECT
ON CLIMATE
ATMOSPHERE AND ITS
EFFECT ON CLIMATE
– the climate of a region is
determined primarily by its
latitude and wind patterns

-These factors interacting with
earth features result in
particular rainfall patterns

-Temperature, rainfall, and
altitude result in the vegetative
growth of a specific area
LIFE ON LAND: biomes of
the world
A. TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS
B. SAVANNAS
C. DESERTS
D. TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS
E. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTS
F. TAIGA
G. TUNDRA

- Arranged by their distance from
the equator
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS
- is the most complex biome in
the world
- found at low elevations in the
tropics at the equator where
it is warm and wet
- characterized by a dense tree
canopy—tree top branches and
leaves that overlap with each
other
- The thick canopy allows little
sunlight to penetrate, so rain
forest soils are nutrient-poor
SAVANNAS
- Found near the equator in
areas with less annual
rainfall
- This climate supports
grasslands with scattered
shrubs and trees
- It also supports herds of
grazing herbivores such as
zebra, buffalo, etc. which are
eaten by carnivores
DESERTS
- Biomes that have 10 inches or
less of precipitation annually
- Vegetation is
characteristically sparse
- Because of a lack of moisture
in the soil and low humidity
in the atmosphere, most of the
sunlight penetrates to the
ground
DESERTS
- Daytime temperatures can reach
55° C (131° F) in the shade.
At night the desert floor
radiates heat back to the
atmosphere, and the
temperature can drop to near
freezing
- Plants are those with tissues
adapted to store water, such
as cacti
DESERTS
- Daytime temperatures can reach
55° C (131° F) in the shade.
At night the desert floor
radiates heat back to the
atmosphere, and the
temperature can drop to near
freezing
- Plants are those with tissues
adapted to store water, such
as cacti
DESERTS
- Animals have also adapted
themselves to cope with
limited water, by limiting
activity, living in deep
burrows and emerging only at
night, or storing water in
tissues (camels)
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS
- Also known as prairies,
steppes, pusztas, veld, or
pampa
- All grasslands have 10-30
inches of rainfall annually
(less than savannas and more
than deserts)
- Characterized by large
quantities of perennial
grasses since rainfall is
insufficient to supports
forests or shrublands
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS
- Often populated by burrowing
rodents (prairie dogs), and
grazing herbivores
- Highly productive when
converted to agriculture
TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS
FORESTS
- Supports the growth of trees
that lose their leaves during
winter (DECIDUOUS)
- Climates in these are areas
where summmers are warm,
winters are cold, and
precipitation is moderate and
well distributed throughout
the year
- Same as tropical forest, but
with more vegetation on the
forest floor

TAIGA
- Characterized by long, cold
winters with little
precipitation; most of the
precipitation falls in the
summers
- Because of the latitude where
taiga occurs, the days are
short in winter and long in
the summer
- Light, warmth, and rainfall of
the summer allows plants to
grow rapidly
TUNDRA
- Encircles the top of the
world, covering 1/5 of the
earth’s land surface
- Dominated by scattered patches
of grasses, sedges, and
lichens with some small trees
- Very low annual precipitation
(desert-like levels) which are
unavailable to plants because
it freezes for most of the
year
TUNDRA
- In brief summers, some of the
ice melts and forms puddles in
the ground
- Many animal species nest in
the tundra in the summer and
return to warmer climates for
the winter

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