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NEBOSH NOTES

The health and safety management system can be summarized as


Policy
Organization
Planning & Implementation
Evaluation
Action for improvement
Audit

1. Why policy in important?
The health & Safety policy of an organization is an very important document
because it sets the aim of an organization regards with the health and safety and who is
responsible for achieving the aim and how the aim are to be achieved.

The policy has a role in the decision making for both senior management who formulate
it and middle and junior manager who implement it.

2. Outline the section of health and safety policy?
The health and safety policy consists of three parts.
general statement of intent
The organization section
The arrangement section

The general statement of intent:
It shows the importance of health and safety in an organization and commitment that can
be expected and it sets the aim and objects to achieve. It is signed by the senior most
person in an organization.

The organization section:
It highlights the roles and responsibilities that exist in all levels in an organisation. It
shows the lines of responsibility and accountability

The arrangement section:
It consists of detail how to manage health and safety in an organisation. It shows the
general arrangement for health and safety and the specific arrangements for the individual
health and safety

3. Outline why targets are important?
Targets are important because they allow to measure the performance and to set on real
goal for the staff to achieve. They help for the continual improvement.

Target may be related to.
Accident rates
Active monitoring

4. Identify situation why policy is to be reviewed?
Requested by 3
rd
party
Annual change
Change of type of work in an organisation
Organizational changes
Legal change
Technological change
Following enforcement action
Following consultation by workforce
Where an audit says that the policy is no longer effective

5. Explain why policy should be signed by the most senior person?
The policy is signed by the most senior person of an organization that the commitment
comes from top. This person is responsible for health and safety in the organization and
should be committed to the policy content.

6. Identify the duties of (a) Director, (b) Manager, (c) Safety Officer.
Duties of Director
They give organization its direction
Arrange resource and appoint competent person
Arrange responsibility
Repair HSE policy and sign it

Duties of Manager
They should control the work in the area of responsibility
They must inspect the site
Set good example to others
Deals with unsafe condition and act
Develop safe work system.

Duties of Safety Officer
Provides experts advice on the matters of HSE
Assist in the development of HSE policy and procedure and reviews
Take action when workers goes under unsafe act/condition
Keep HSE records

7. Explain risk with an example?
Risk is a likelihood of a hazard which may cause harm with the combination of severity
of an accident, injury or loss that may occur.
E.g.: walking below the suspected load without PPE or with PPE



8. Outline the key stages of risk assessment. Identifying the issues to be considered in each
stage?
There are five stages of risk assessment they are:
Identification of hazard
Identification of people
Evaluation of hazard
Recording significant findings
Reviews

Identification of hazard.
Hazard is something that has potential to cause harm. The first stage of risk
analysis identification of hazard.

Methods for identifying hazards are:
Observation
Inspection
MSDS
Manufacture information
Task analysis
Previous accident/ incident

The issues to be considered at these stages are:
Type of hazard (Physical, Chemical, Biological, Ergonomics and Psychological)
Effect of hazard (Acute, Chronic)

Identify the people
Once the hazard is identified find people who are going to be affected how they
are going to be affected and how many are going to be affected.

The people who may be affected are:
Worker
Maintenance staff
Visitor
Cleaner
Contractor
Members of public

The issue to be considered in this stage is.
No. of people affected
How they are going to be affected (individually or in a group)
Presence of vulnerable people like going people, handicapped, pregnant ladies
etc.



Evaluation of risk
o After identify the hazard and identifying the people, evaluating the hazard is the
3dr step
o Analysis the hazard into high, medium and low
o Find the hazard is acceptable or control measures needed.
o Check control measures are adequate or not
o Check control measures are needed implement it and bring the risk to acceptable
level as possible.
o The issues to be considered in this stage are.
o Categorizing the risk to high, medium and low
o Control measures are adequate or not
o General hierarchy (Elimination, substitution, engineering, administration or PPE)
o Bring the risk to as low as reasonable practicable level

Recoding of significant finding.
o Significant findings should be recorded to provide
o A statement of hazard
o Extent of risk that they may present
o Action taken to control the risk
o Risk assessment is auditable, Legal requirement as well as it is used for
management review and accident investigation

Issues to be considered in this stage are:
Identification of activity
Identification of group of risk
Evaluating risk and adequate existing control
Action taken for future control
Assessment date
Next review date

Review and update
Review must be done when these are significant changes in:
Process
Equipment
Legal statement
Substance
Worker
Working environment
After an accident, illness, near miss

Issues to be considered
Review must be regular
Review must according to risk level
If nothing happens view must be done once in a gear

9. Identify the criteria for an assessment to be suitable and sufficient.
State the name and competency of assessor
Identify the hazard and risk
Identify the person who will be at risk
Evaluate the effectiveness of control measures
Identify additional control measures to bring risk level to ALARP
Should enable the employer the priorities the control measure
Record all significant findings
Control measures must be proportionate to risk
Control measures must be effective for reasonable period of time
State the period of time it is likely to be valid

10. Identify when RA is to be reviewed
The RA is reviewed when these are changes in:

Process
Substance
Equipment
Worker
Worker environment
Legal standards
Technology
After any accident/illness/near miss

11. Permit to work (PTW)
Permit to work is a formal document to safe system of work. It is signed by the
authorized person and who carry out the activities to ensure all control measures are
taken and recorded.

Factors to be considered for SSOW
People
Equipment
Machine
Environment

12. Ways to identify hazards
Observation, inspection, task, analysis, MSDS, manufactures information, legal standard,
previous accident/incident

In accordance with the legal requirements
According to national and international standards
PPE is considered to be last control measure if only all other
Hierarchy of control does not remove hazard it is used.


PPE may not be effective due to:
Poor selection
PPE is likely uncomfortable
Miss use or non use of work
Poor fit due to facial feathers such as beard
13. Outline how an organisation reduces the risk to a contractors and during the work?
Contractors:- A person or organisation engaged to do clients work but not under the
direct supervision and control of the client.
One of the first steps a client must do is choose and designer to work in safe manner

Select an appropriate contractor:-
Previous experience in doing similar type of work
Allotted time to complete the work safely
The quality of risk assessment
Their safely and legal compliance states
Ensured do they have adequate resource to do the work
Reference provided by former clients

Planning the work.
Given induction training to the new contractor worker and review them
Give information about risk in the work site and how they can escape from the
risk
Information about hazard in the workplace
Information about source in which gas, water, electricity are present
Permit system

During the work
Provide proper coordination and cooperation with the contractor
Regular monitoring of their performance using the inspection and audit
Ensure proper health and safety of all contractor worker
Allocate of all contract person who is responsible for safety matter.

14. Identify 4 types of emergencys that requires emergency procedures?
Provision of suitable equipment
Nomination of responsible staff
Providing training and information
Drills and exercises

15. Explain why visitors should be informed about emergency procedure?
Visitors are unfamiliar to the process carried out the workplace
Visitors are not familiar with the hazard occurs during the work and there risk
Lack of knowledge about site layouts
Unfamiliar with the emergency procedure

16. Identify the four types of safety information displayed in the notice board?
HSE policy statement
Emergency procedure
Safety representative details
First Aider details
Emergency contact no.
Minutes of safety committee meeting
17. Identify how effectiveness of notice board can be increased?
Should be eye catching
Should be current and relevant
Should not be cluttered in group
Should be neat and clean
Notice must include graphics, pictures and colour wordings
It must get an positive information
Should be placed in important place where people can see regularly
18. Identify factors that should be considered when developing a programe of HSE training.
Training is carefully planned to avoid unwanted expenses and disturbtion and to
focus on the resources where they are most needed.
Type & function of an organisation
Hazard and risk profile of an organisation
Accident history of an organisation to find where training is needed
An statutory training
Level of training previously done and the details of employees who had
undergone training.

19. Identify the indicators of safety training?
Poor health and safety leads to poor performance
Absenteeism
Accident level
Sickness level
Staff turnover
Staff moral
Workers complaints
Compliance of health and safety rules
20. Outline the ways in which health and safety culture of an organisation can be improved?
The safety culture of an organisation can be improved by proper commitment of
management and variable leadership.
Competent worker will be having knowledge how to train experience and they
know to do their job safely.
Communication can be verbal, written and graphic there are strength and
weakness of each type
Notice board, toolbox talk, poster which can pass safety information to
employees.

21. Identify the cost to an organisation from accident due to poor standard of health and
safety?
Direct cost
Indirect cost
Direct cost
Fines from criminal court
First aid treatment
Workers sick pay
Lost production when the worker is dealing with injury
Indirect cost
Compliance of enforcement notice received
Cost of replacing and training new worker
Loss of staff morale
Damage the public and business reputation
22. Outline the reason for maintaining health and safety standards?
The reason for maintaining Health and Safety standard are:
Moral
Social or legal reason
Economic reason
Moral reason
This reason states that the workers are killed, injured and getting into sick by their
occupation. The society says this must be stopped and people must work in safe manner

Social reason or legal reason:
This reason relates to the employer must provide all welfare, safe place for work, safe
work equipments. If they fail they will be fined.

Economical reason
This reason relates the direct and indirect cost and the fact that accident cost money
23. Outline the responsibility of employer?
To provide safe environment without any risk to health of worker
To provide all welfare to worker
To provide PPEs
Hours of work must not affect the worker
To provide supervision
To provide training and instruction
24. Identify the responsibility of a worker?
They must report work related accident ,illness
They must report the area where they are not able to correct it.
They must use all safety equipment
Take care of their own and their co-worker
25. Identify the insured and uninsured cost?
Insured cost:
Damage to plant equipment and building.
Medical cost
Legal cost
Compensation paid to worker
Uninsured cost:
Production delay
Loss of material due to accident
Accident investigation time
Hiring and training new worker
26. Work at height accident is increasing identify the source of information to investigate this
problem?
There are two sources of information they are:
Internal source of information
External source of information
Internal source of information
Medical record
Accident record
Audit report
Safety representatives inspection
External source
National and international regulatory bodies
MSDS
Manufactures safe use information
Safety magazines and manuals
27. Explain why a policy is important?
The policy of an organisation is an important document which consists of
management aims and who is responsible for their aims and how to achieve their
aims.
Policy helps decision making process for both senior management who formulate
and middle and junior management who implement it.

28. Outline the section of health and safety policy?
The 3 sections of health and safety policy are.
The general statement of intent
The organisation section
The arrangement section



The general statement of intent:
It outlines the importance of health and safety in an organisation. It shows the aims to be
achieved by the organisation. It is signed by the main person who controls the
organisation. It shows the commitment towards the health and safety of an organisation.

The organisation section:
It shows the roles and responsibility of all level worker of an organisation. It shows the
worker responsibility and accountability.

The arrangement section
It outlines the details about the aims towards the hand safety. The general arrangement to
the health and safety and the specific arrangement towards the work they are doing.
Health and safety policy must be reviewed in order to keep them current and relevant.

29. Outline why targets are important?
Targets are important because they are used to measure the performance and they give a
tangible (real) aim to the continual important.
The target may be based on
Accident reduction rate
Active monitoring

30. Identify the situation why policy is to be reviewed?
Technology change
Organizational change
Legal change
Change in work which organisation does
Following the consultation of work force
Following the enforcement action
Review at annual period
When requested by third party.

31. Explain why policy must be signed by the most senior person?
The policy is signed by the higher official to authorize the policy and to show the
commitment of Health and Safety in the organisation and it shows it comes from top
level and everyone should follow the health and safety rules.

32. Identify the duties of (a) Director,(b)Manager,(c)Safety officer?
Duties of Director
The give organisation its direction
They allocate resources and appoint competent person
They prepare the policy and sign it




Duties of Manager
They take care of the work in their area of responsibility
They produce safe procedure of work
Set example for others
Carry out inspection in site
Deals with unsafe act/condition

Duties of safety officer
Assists for the development and review of policy
Take action when workers goes under unsafe action/condition
Keep health and safety records

Key elements of Health and Safety Management System (POPEAAC)
P - Policy
O - Organisation
P Planning & Implementation
E - Evaluation
A - Action for improvement
A - Audit
C - Continues improvement

33. Outline the key stages of Risk Assessment (RA)?
There are five stages of risk assessment.
Identification of hazards
Identification of people
Evaluation the risk
Recording the significant
Reviews

Identification of hazard
Hazard is something which has a potential to cause harm. To find the hazard is the
first step for risk assessment. The steps to identify risks are.
Monitoring
Task analysis
Investigation
MSDS
Manufacturer information
Accident/incident/near miss
Identification of people
After finding hazard find how many people will be affected in risk by the hazard,
how they will be affected individually or group.
The personals affected are: Workers, visitors, cleaners, and maintenance staff



Evaluating of risk
After identifying hazard and identifying the people who are affected evaluate the
risk to high, medium and low and take control measures to make the risk to acceptable
level

Recording of significant finding
The significant findings must be recorded to have a statement about
hazard, for accident investigation and action taken to control the risk. The record will be
useful for audit.
The Review must be done after the change in:
Process
Equipment
Substance
Legal standards
After incident, accident
Work environment

34. Identify the criteria to be met for an assessment to be suitable and sufficient?
State the name and competence of the assessor
Identify the significant hazard and risk
Identify the people
Enable proper control measures
Take additional control measures to bring the risk level to ALARP.
Record the significant findings
Enable the employer to priorities the control measures
Control measures must be effective for as reasonable period
There must be period of time to valid.

35. Identify when a RA must be reviewed?
The RA must be reviewed by the change in:
Process, technology, substance, equipment, work environment, worker, accident,
illness/ risk, legal standards

36. Give meaning of the term permit to work identify 3 types of work that requires PTW and
state it in each case?
Permit to work in a document for safe system of work. This is signed by an
authorized person who controls the activity to fulfill are control measures

Hot work: welding, cutting and grinding it may cause fire and bearings.
High voltage electric work: It may cause fire, Electrocution
Confined space: o2 level will be low, poisonous gas may leak





37. Outline the hierarchy of control with example?
The hierarchy of control is designed to control the risk level
Elimination
Substitution
Engineering
Administration
Provide PPEs

Elimination: It is the process of eliminating hazard from the work place

Substitution: If a high hazardous substance is present if we use low hazardous substance
its substitution
E.g.: If acid is a hazard they will be removing if and they will introduce some other thing
for the some process.

Engineering: provide guard for the hazard.

Administrative: give training, signage boards will be placed.

PPE: If the risk cannot be reduced by all these measures PPE must be provided.

38. Outline the factors to be considered while developing SSOW?
People
Equipment
Material
Environment

39. Outline why PPE should be the last control measure?
In accordance to the legal requirements
According to national and international standards
PPEs are provided of other hierarchy of control does not reduce the hazard
because.
o Poor selection
o Storage problem
o Miss use and non use
o Likely uncomfortable
o Poor fit due to facial features such as beard
o Use beyond validity period

40. Outline how an organisation could reduce the risk to the contractor before and during the
work?
One of the first steps is to choose a competent designer to do the work safely.
Selection of contractor:
Previous experience in similar type of work
Previous clients reference
Compliance of health and safety rules
Their health and safety policy
Time taken to complete the work safely.

Planning of work
They must inform about all risk, hazard such as asbestos, source were water, gas,
electricity are present, accident reporting, emergency procedure

During work
o Coordination and cooperation of workers in work place
o All workers are safe or not
o Training, appointing an responsible staff for the coordination of safety matter

41. Identify 4 types of emergencies that require emergency procedures?

Provision of suitable equipment
Nomination of responsible staff
Provision of training and information
Drills and exercises

42. Explain why visitors should be informed about emergency procedure?

Visitors are unfamiliar with the activity carried out in the workplace
Visitors are unfamiliar with the hazard and their risk.
Unfamiliar with site layout
Unfamiliar with emergency procedure

43. Identify 4 types of safety information to be displayed on notice board?

HSE safety policy statement
Minutes of safety committee meeting
Safety representative details
Emergency procedure

44. Identify how effectiveness of notice board can be increased?
Should be current catching
Should be current and relevant
Should not be cluttered in group
Should include graphic, pic and color letters
Should be neat and clean
Notice board must be placed in an important place where everyone can read it
regularly



45. Identify the factors that should be considered when developing a programme of HSE
training?
Training must be placed and done by an organisation to avoid unnecessary
expense and distraction and other resource were training is needed.

They must analyze the training by
Type and function of work
Hazard, accident
Statutory train
Details about pre training and details of employees who are trained

46. Identify the indicators of safety culture?
Poor health and safety management leads to poor performance
Accident rate
Staff turnover
Sickness rate
Staff moral
Compliance of Health and Safety rules
Compliance of worker
Absenteeism

47. Outline the ways in which health and safety culture of an organization in important?
The health and safety culture of an organisation can be improved by proper with
commitment made by the organisation and visible leadership.
Notice board, manual, tool box talk will deliver safety related information
Communication can be verbal, graphic and written each type has their strength
and weakness
Competent person must be appointed in order to do the work safely
Training is the best method to improve health and safety culture

Strength of checklist
Gives an written document
Endure all points are covered
Consistent approach
Allows for planning and preparation

48. Identify the factors to be considered while carrying out a first aid Risk Assessment?
Factors to be considered while carrying out a first aid risk assessment
General risk present in the workplace
Hazard present in the workplace
Specific work procedure
Spread of workplace
Geographical location of workplace
Presence of vulnerable people
No. of workers present
Work patterns and shift system of work
Strength of the checklist:
Ensure all points are covered in the work area
Allows planning and preparation
Consistent approach
Forms a written document
Weakness of check list:
May skip the points not in the checklist
Limits the scope
May not be reviewed an updated
May be used by an non competent person

49. Outline the features of (a) Inspection (b) Audit.
Features of inspection
Check the workplace
Check the record
Low cost
Usually quick
Requires only basic competence
Part of an audit
Features of Audit
Examine document
Examine procedures
Interviews workers
Verifies standards
Check the workplace
Highly expensive
Long process

Inspection Audit
Checks the workplace
Checks the records
Low cost
Usually quick
Parts of an audit
Basic competence level is required
Examines documents
Examines procedure
Interviews workers
Verifies standards
Check the workplace
Highly expensive
Long process






50. Explain 4 active and 4 reactive monitoring?
Active
Safety surveys
Samplings,
Safety Tours
Safety Inspection
Audit
Reactive
Reporting of accident
Recording
Investigation
User data
Enforcement action

51. Identify the document likely to be examined during the audit?
Documents likely to be examined by audits are:
Health and safety policy
Risk analysis
Minutes of safety committee meeting
Maintenance record
Training record
Records of monitoring activities
Regular visitors
Workers complaints
Accident investigation rep. and data

52. Outline why organisation should have internal reporting of accident?
To trigger the provision of first aid treatment etc.
To preserve the accident scene for investigation
To enable the investigators to avoid the repeated action
To report the legal requirements about the incident
To record that an incident has occurred in the event of civil claim

53. Identify strength and weakness of checklist?
Strength
Ensures all points are covered
Consistent approach
Forms are written document
Allows planning and preparation
Weakness
May ignore points that are not in the checklist
Can be used by an non competent person
Limits the scope
May not be reviewed and updated

54. What are the resources of information that an employer could consult when investigating
accident/ sickness?
Identify the cause
Prevent repeated accident
Insurance purpose
Legal purpose
Staff moral
Update RA
Discover trends
Collect evidence
Disciplinary function

55. Outline reason why an organisation should review the health and safety performance?
The reason why an organisation should review its health and safety performances are:
Are we on target
if not why not
What we have to do for continues improvement
What are the new priorities
What are the resources to be provided
Requirements of standardization
56. Identify the few welfare measures?
Drinking water
Sanitary conveniences
Changing room
Accommodation for clothing
Washing room
Rest and food facilities

57. Identify the hazard from demolition work?
Premature collapse of the structure
Plant and equipment
Dust
Noise and vibration
Work at height
Contact with buried services
Contact with line overhead
Asbestos
Presents of biological hazard
Sharp edges such as glass piece, nails etc.
Movement of vehicle
Explosive
Hazardous substance of previous use of building.

58. Identify the hazard from (a) cement mixer (b) dumber truck. Control measures
Hazards
Entanglement with rotating part
Collision
Entrapped in belt drive
Noise
Wet cement leads to corrosion
Dry cement leads to inhalation problem
Over speed
Over turning

Control measures
Inform school authority to control their children
Arrange an site visit for children
Fence and signs
Barricading of excavation
Ladders must be removal from scaffold
Light are must be good
Store all portable tools in locked store
Store all chemical in locked store
Secure all portable machine safely
cctv camera
Slip hazard and Trip hazard
Slip hazard
Smooth surface
Inherently slippery
Wet
Contaminated oil spillage
Frost or ice
Trip hazard
Trailing wires
Object on floor
Uneven floor
Loose floor
59. Identify reason why a person may behave violently with the worker?
Cash handling
Lone working
Dealing with people under stress
Dealing with people under the influence of alcohol and drug
Saying no
Representative authority
Wearing a uniform

60. A 3m depth dipping is going on across a car parking
(a) Identify the possible hazard from the work.
(b) Identify the suitable controls.
(a) Hazards
Collapse of unprotected sides of the trench
Fall of people people may fall due to unprotected edge
Objects may fall Tools can fall in due to unprotected edge
Hazardous substance LPG, CO2 etc.
Collapse of adjacent structures
Striking buried services Electricity, gas, water line etc.
(b) Controls
Since this trench is 3m height it must be considered as confined space. An RA
must be done and a safe system of work must be followed permit of work
must be done, PPEs must be issued.
Collapse of trench can be used of battering, trench box and shoring
Vehicle must not be allowed to come near the trench by using proper signage
of warning
Heaps soils must be removed from edges
Detectors must be used to ensure.
Falling guardrail, lighting
PPEs

61. Identify the precaution to be observed while using
(a) Mobile tower scaffold
(b) MEWPS
(a) Mobile tower scaffold
Guard rail must be used in the work platform
They must be sited in strong and steady guard
People must not climb outside the tower
Wheels must be locked
Do not more when people and material are an the tower
Dont over load
Overhead power lines
Outrigger must be used for extra stability
The tower must be built by trained workers
(b) Safety precautions for use of MEWPS
Vehicle must be sited on strong and steady ground
Sufficient clearance from obstruction and overhead which operating
Barriers around the MEWPS must be provided in order to stuck with the
vehicle
Barriers also act as an indicator for people not to come underneath the cradle
Guardrail must be provided on the cradle prevent

62. Identify the factors that might cause collapse of an independent tied scaffold.
Scaffold used on soft ground without use of sole board
Scaffold not tied adequately to the building
Insufficient bracing used for scaffold rigidity
Overloaded platform
Standards bend, correction
Heavy winds
Vehicles and other strong hits on scaffold
Incorrect couplers
Erected by incompetent person
Used without inspection

63. Identify the advantages and limitations of (a)fixed guards (b) adjustable and self
adjustable guard (c) Interlocked guards
(a) Fixed guards
Advantages:
It totally blocks the entrance to the dangerous parts of the machine
This is fixed to a place
Tools are needed to fix the guard
We cannot remove it with our figure force
Disadvantage:
The main disadvantage are its strength it will be very hard to clean and
maintain the machine
If there is routine access then avoid the guard
If the routine access is their then the operator will automatically leave the
guard without fixing
(b) Adjustable and self adjustable guards:
Advantages:
Its used when there is no access to the dangerous parts
Adjustable guards can be adjusted according to the work
Self adjustable guard will be adjusted by machine
Disadvantage:
Easy to defeat
Do not completely prevent access to dangerous parts
Really 100% on the competency of operator
(c) Interlocked guards:
Advantages:
Power to the machine is disabled until the guard is placed
The machine will be operated with the guard shut and safe to use if the act of
opening occurs the dangerous parts will stop rotation
Disadvantage:
We can use it by bypassing
It access the operator by climbing the guard while the second operator
operates the machine
Maintenance must be done regular

64. Identify the types of trip devices?
Pressure mat
Trip basis
Photo electric device

65. Outline the advantages and limitations of trip device and two hand control?
Advantages:
It does not allow any physical barrier between the operator and dangerous
parts of the machine
An senor is present to find the operator and to stop the machine
The trip device is used to reduce the severity of injury.
Disadvantages:
Do not provide any physical barrier to prevent access
It can be over rider
The operator will be very slow in order to reduce harm
Due to over sensitivity it can frequently trip
Production delay
Advantages of two hand control:
The control will be more than one and hand span apart.
The machine can started by two controls simultaneously
Release of control will stop the machine
Disadvantages:
It will not protect other parts of the body
It can be used by two operators to bypass the system

66. Identify the hazard and precaution for use of pedestal drill?
Hazard present in pedestal drill.
Entanglement with the rotating part
Puncture due to drill for normal use
Drawing to the rip point of rotating belt
Puncture due to swage coming duct during metal work
Hot parts
Electricity
Noise
Health hazard from cutting fluid.
Precaution:
Fixed guard to the motor drive mechanism
Adjustable guard to the drill fit
Clamp to secure waste on the base
Use ear protection device
Use eye protection device
Proper maintenance must be done and test must be done for electrical device
Trained operator only must allowed to operate

67. Outline control measures to reduce risk to workers who use non powered hand tools?
Tools must be suitable for the task they are carrying out in the environment
Operator must be trained and instruction and information must be given
Visual inspection must be done.
Tools must be properly maintained
Supervision must be provided to ensure the safe practice.

68. Hazard and risk to a worker who uses petrol driven chain saw to cut a tree?
Cutting on contact with moving blade
Entanglement in the moving blade
Drawing to the chain of blade and casing
Fire and explosion
Burn by hot exhaust system
Dust
Vibration
Manual handling (Ergonomic)
Noise
Puncher of ejected parts
Health hazard by the lubricating oil

69. Identify the factors which could cause a forklift overturn?
Cornering while driving in over speed
Excessive or sudden braking
Overload on forks
Uneven tire pressure
Driving with the load extended to the corners
Driving over potholes
Collusion due to Krebs
Driving across a slope

70. Identify control measures could reduce the risk of injury during reversing operation
Avoid reversing by using one way traffic
Good vehicles selection for drivers adequate visibility
Reversing alarm/ flash beacon light
Segregation of pedestrians/ vehicles
High visibility clothing
Training to pedestrian/ drivers
Mirror on the blind spot to know the approach of pedestrians
Provision of banks man
Ensure the work area is well lit

71. Identify eight health and safety hazard relevant to the role of a long distance delivery
driver?
Distance travelled
Driving hours
Work schedule
Stress
Weather condition

72. Outline the precaution to be observed while leaving fork lift truck unattended.
Park the vehicle on firm surface
Avoid distraction to pedestrian route, vehicles route, and emergency exit.
Apply hand break
Lower the fork and the mast forward
Switch off the power
Hand over the key to responsible person to avoid unauthorized driving.

73. Outline ways to reduce the risk of receiving electric shock to workers using electric
equipment?
Consider battery power equipment
Consider reducing voltage (110v) and centre trapped to earth
Double insulated equipment can be used
Peruse check must be done to find the sign of damage
Do not use in wet condition
Training
Routine inspection must be done to electrical equipment and to the cable
Cable must be placed way from hazard

74. Identify electrical hazard which can be identified by visual inspection?
Body of plug is undamaged and secure
Outer sheath of flex is covers the in core of the plug
Outer sheath of flex cover the core of the appliance
Check the wetness
Check the cable were are any pincher
Appliance cable clamp appear to be tight
Plug cable clamp appears to be tight
Body of appliance is intact
Plug and appliance of one not excessively soiled

75. Identify the emergency action to be taken in electric shock incident?
Dont touch the casualty
Call for help
Isolate the power supply
Call for ambulance
Check breathing
Recover position if breathing
Start CPR if not breathing
Treat for burns
Treat for physical shock
Ensure medical help is obtained

76. Identify the effect on human body from electric shock?
Involuntary muscle grip
Cardiac arrest
Respiratory problem
Burns at the entry and ext of the current through the body
Internal burns through current path

77. Identify the four factors that affect severity of shock?
Voltage
Duration current path
Resistance
Contact surface area
Environment

78. Identify how earthling can reduce the risk of shock?
It protects the person from fatal electric shock
It acts as the secondary protection for equipment and the fault current enters the
earth overrates the fuse

79. Identify the 4 classification of hazardous substance?
Highly flammable
Toxic
Carcinogenic
Corrosive

80. Identify the there forms of biological agents?
Virus
Bacteria
Fungi
Prions
CJD (mad cow)

81. Identify 3 possible rout of entry of biological agent?
Inhalation
Ingestion
Injection
Absorption
82. Explain the duff between acute and chronic effect?
Acute
High level exposure
Short exposure time
Quick effect
Chronic
Low level exposure
Long exposure time
Long term effect

83. Identify the information to provide on MSDS?
Identification of substance
Hazard identification
Fire fighting technique
Physical and chemical effects
Regulatory information
Toxicology information
Ecological information

84. Outline the factors that affect effectiveness of RPE?
Concentration of contaminated hazard
Physical form of substance
Level of protection offered by RPE
Presence or absence of oxygen
Compatibility with other PPE
Duration of time in can be worn
Facial hair users
Shape of face
Physical fitness of the weaver

85. Spill kit is used to soak up a chemical spill outline issues that needs to be considered
during, handling, storage and final disposal of waste material.
Solid substance:
The hazard nature of the waste
Manual handling risks
Do not store on unmade ground
Vehicle hazard
Safe access of skips and bins etc.
Have parts of compactors
Segregation
Documentation
Security for waste
Liquid waste
Containers storage as bund away from wall
Bund contains 110% of capacity of argent container
Provision of rain water
Transport points
Bunds must be protected from damage
Bunds must be checked and maintained
86. Outline control measures required to order to minimize risk to worker from toxic gases?
Elimination and substitution
Process change
Reduction of exposure time
PPE
Enclosement or segregation
Local exhaust ventilation
Health surveillance/monitoring
Personal hygienic/ protection
87. Identify the various forms of chemical substance
Solid
Dust
Fumes
Mist
Vapor
Liquid
Gas
88. Outline factors to consider when undertaking assessment of health risk for hazardous
substances?
Hazardous nature
Potential ill health effect
Physical form of substance
Route of entry
Quality
Concentration of substance
No. of people to be affect
Frequency/ duration of exposure
Existing control measures
89. Identify the sources of information that could be used in assessing risk of toxic
chemicals?
Product labor
Details of supplier
Hazardous components
MSDS
Risk phase indicating danger
The result of int
Precaution
90. Outline 4 main guards
Fixed guard
Adjustable guard
Self adjustable guard
Interlocked guard
91. A worker uses electrical drill
(a) Identify 4 hazards
(b) Outline 4 precautions
The hazards when a worker uses electric drill are:
Entanglement in rotating parts
Noise and vibration
Puncher by rotating drill
Dust
Electricity
Trip hazard
Precaution for workers who uses electrical drill are:
Proper maintenance and inspection
Proper cable rout
Eye protection
Noise protection
Adjustable guard
92. Identify the control measure to be used to prevent collusion between pedestrian and
vehicles.
(a) When segregation is possible
(b) When segregation is not possible
(a) When segregation is possible
Designated walk ways
Site rules
Provide barriers
Marking on floor
(b) When segregation is not possible
Zebra crossing
Reverse alarm
Flashing beacon on vehicle
Good visibility/ no blinds
Driver competency
Speed limitation
93. Outline ways to reduce the risk of receiving electric shock to workers using electric
equipment?
Consider battery powered devices
Use reduced voltage device upto (110v) and the center earthed
Use double insulated equipment
Routine check and maintenance must be done
Keep the cable away from the hazard
Do not use the machine in wet condition
94. Outline the responsibility of employer?
To ensure proper environment without any risk to workmen
To provide PPE
To provide all welfares
Check the working hours are safe to work
Provide supervision
Provide training and inspection
95. Outline the responsibility of workers?
Workers must follow all safety rules and instruction
Use all safety equipment
Take reasonable care for them self and their co-workers
Report all work related accident and incident
Report an situation in which they think as hazard and they are not able to
correct it
96. Give meaning of dangerous occurrence an environment protection?
(i) Dangerous occurrence:- Any special event that must be report to the authority
which may result in accident
(ii) Environment protection: - The prevention of damage for water, air, land and
living creatures in and around the work place is known as environment protection.
97. Give the meaning of the term permit to work identify 3 types of work that requires PTW
and State its each case?
The permit to work is a formal document for safe system of work. It is signed by
the authorized person who take cares of the work and to ensure that all control measures
are taken.
Hot work: This permit is taken for welding, cutting, bracing
High voltage electric work: it can cause electrocution third degree burns
Confined space: Deficiency of oxygen, toxic gases etc
Definitions
Health: health is defined as the absence of accident
Safety: the absence of risk of serious personal injury
Environment protection: The prevention damage land, air, water, and living creatures in wider
environment
Accident: An unwanted and unexpected event which leads to injury or loss
Near miss: An unwanted and unexpected event which had a potential to cause injury or loss of
material. No physical injury.
Dangerous occurrence: An unwanted and unexpected event which had a potential to cause injury
or loss of material, but severity is very high. To be reported to the top authority.
Hazard: Any thing which has potential to cause harm
Risk: the likelihood that a hazard will cause harm in combination with the severity of injury,
damage or loss that might occur.
Risk = Probability x Severity
Likelihood x Consequence
Contractor: A person or Organisation engaged to do the clients work but with out the direct
control of client
Client: A person or Organization who engaged the contractor
Motivation: A person drive towards the goal. The thing make then do what they do.
Active monitoring: To ensure the health and safety standards of an organisation are correct
before an accident, incident
Reactive monitoring: using accident, in health and sickness as the indicators of improvement of
health and safety standards.
Attitude: A person view to something
Ergonomic: A study of relationship between worker and the worker and the they are doing and
environment in which they do they work