Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

© All Rights Reserved

52 views

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

© All Rights Reserved

- Flexibility and Reliability of Numerical Protection Relay
- Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
- 33.DUOBIAS-M Relay Testing
- p632 Testing Procedure of Tranformer Diffrential Protection
- Discrimination between Inrush and Fault Current in Power Transformer by using Fuzzy Logic
- Theon's Ladder
- TestingTransformerDifferentialRelays
- 210718140 Sample Calculation for Differential Relays
- MTE-2
- Numerical Relay
- Modeling Relays
- Over-under Voltage Cut-Off With on-Time Delay PROJECT REPORT
- MA106
- Chap2
- Resarch Paper
- over and under volltage protection
- relai reverse power
- Modern Numerical Relay Design
- Journal paper on Numerical
- Buchholz Relay in Transformer _ Buchholz Relay Operation and Principle _ Electrical Engineering

You are on page 1of 11

Steve Turner

Beckwith Electric Co., Inc.

Largo, FL U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

Numerical transformer differential relays require careful consideration regarding how to test

them properly. These relays provide different types of protection such as restrained phase

differential, high set phase differential, restrained ground differential and overcurrent protection.

All protection elements that are enabled should be adequately tested.

A common commissioning practice is to test all the numerical relay settings to verify they were

properly entered. Automated testing using computer software to run the test set has made this

possible since the overall commissioning for a numerical relay could consist of several hundred

tests. While this is a good check, it is still important to ensure that the transformer is thoroughly

protected for the particular application.

TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERISTIC BOUNDARY TEST

A common practice for commissioning distance protection is to test along the boundary of the

operating characteristicfor example, circles, lenses or quadraterals. This practice can also be

applied to transformer differential protection. Consider the example of a two-winding transformer

with both sets of windings wye-connected. To keep the example simple, also assume both sets

of CTs are wye-connected and have the same CT ratiosthat is, both windings are at the same

potential. If you connect the current leads from the test set such that the test currents I

1

and I

2

are flowing through the transformer winding, then the per-phase differential and restraint

currents can be expressed as follows:

I

d

=

2 1

I I [1]

I

r

=

2

2 1

I I +

[2]

Where

I

1

= Winding 1 per unit current (A, B, or C-phase)

I

2

= Winding 2 per unit current (A, B, or C-phase)

Express equations [1] and [2] using matrices as follows:

r

d

I

I

=

5 . 0 5 . 0

1 1

2

1

I

I

[3]

Where

I

C

= MI

T

[4]

I

C

=

r

d

I

I

, M =

5 . 0 5 . 0

1 1

, I

T

=

2

1

I

I

[5]

Invert the matrix M in equation [3] to determine the two equations for the test currents:

2

1

I

I

=

1 5 . 0

1 5 . 0

r

d

I

I

[6]

Page 2 of 11

Calculate the test currents based upon an operating point on the differential characteristic as

follows:

I

1

=

r

d

I

I

+

2

[7]

I

2

=

r

d

I

I

+

2

[8]

1

st

Example

Consider a transformer differential characteristic for the two-winding transformer described

earlier, and indicated in Figure 1, with the following settings:

Pickup = 0.2 per unit

Slope = 28.6%

FIGURE 1. Phase Current Differential Characteristic for Two-Winding Transformer

Table 1 lists the four operating points on the characteristic along with the corresponding test

currents. All values are in per unit.

Table 1. Test Currents for Transformer Differential Characteristic Boundary

I

d

I

r

I

1

I

2

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2

0.2 0.7 0.8 0.6

0.4 1.4 1.6 1.2

0.6 2.0 2.3 1.7

Remember that the test currents are connected such that they are 180 degrees out of phase.

2

nd

Example

Now consider a transformer differential characteristic for a two-winding transformer connected

delta (DAB) wye with wye connected CTs on both sides. A numerical transformer differential

relay internally compensates the CT currents as follows:

Winding 1 (DAB) Winding 2 (Wye)

I

A1relay =

1

1

TAP

I

A

[09] I

A2relay =

3 2

2 2

TAP

I I

B A

[12]

I

B1relay =

1

1

TAP

I

B

[10] I

B2relay =

3 2

2 2

TAP

I I

C B

[13]

Page 3 of 11

I

C1relay =

1

1

TAP

I

C

[11] I

C2relay =

3 2

2 2

TAP

I I

A C

[14]

Where I

A1

, I

B1

, I

C1

, I

A2

, I

B2

and I

C2

are the CT currents

To test the A-Phase differential element at point of the characteristic shown in Figure 2, use

the following equations:

I

A1

= I

1

TAP1 [15]

I

A2

= I

2

TAP23 [16]

From Table 1:

I

1

= 0.8 per unit [17]

I

2

= 0.6 per unit [18]

I

A1

= 0.8TAP1 [19]

I

A2

= 0.6TAP23 [20]

I

A1

and I

A2

are the two test currents.

GROUND DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT SENSITIVITY TEST

Ground differential protection can provide good sensitivity for ground faults on wye-connected

transformer windings. Figure 2 shows a simple three-line diagram for a typical application. The

CTs are connected such that:

if I

G

and 3I

0

are in-phase, the ground fault is external

if I

G

and 3I

0

have opposite polarity, the ground fault is internal

FIGURE 2. Ground Differential Protection Connection Diagram

Stability is improved for CT saturation during external faults if the ground differential protection

is disabled when I

G

is less than a preset value, 200 milli-amps for example. The ground

differential element operates when the difference between 3I

0

and I

G

is greater than the pickup

setting:

|3I

0

I

G

| > 50GD [21]

3I

0

and I

G

add together in equation [21] above when the ground fault is internal since they have

opposite polarity for this condition.

A good test is to check how much sensitivity 87GD provides for ground faults located close to

the neutral of wye connected windings coupled with fault resistance (R

F

). Consider the case of a

Page 4 of 11

two winding delta wye 25 MVA distribution transformer connected to a 230 kV grid and serving

load at 23 kV. Here is the power system data:

Source impedance (X

S

) varies

X

T

= 10%

R

F

varies

Ground fault located 5% from neutral

CTR

23 kV

= 600:5

CTR

GND

= 600:5

Figure 3 illustrates the sensitivity of 87GD as a function of the source impedance and ground

fault resistance. The top curve corresponds to each point where I

G

is equal to 200 milli-amperes

(that is, the minimum amount required for operation or the maximum sensitivity possible). The

middle curve corresponds to each point where I

G

is equal to 500 milli-amperes. The bottom

curve corresponds to each point where I

G

is equal to 1 amp. The source impedance and ground

fault resistance are in ohms primary.

87GD Sensitivity

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Source Impedance

F

a

u

l

t

R

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

IG = 200 mA IG = 500 mA IG = 1 Amp

FIGURE 3. Ground Differential Sensitivity Diagram

EVEN HARMONIC RESTRAINT DURING TRANSFORMER INRUSH

Events such as transformer energization can be captured by utilities using digital fault recorders

or numerical relays and then later played back via COMTRADE to observe relay performance.

Some customers have access to power system transient simulation software and can build their

own transformer models to simulate inrush. This is a very practical method to check that the

relay is properly set. One example of playback is to evaluate the performance of the restrained

differential protection for transformer inrush with varying levels of harmonic content in the

current waveforms.

Transformer differential protection has historically used the 2

nd

harmonic content of the

differential current to prevent unwanted operation during transformer inrush. !t is

advantageous to use both the 2

nd

and +

th

harmonic content of the differential current. The relay

can internally calculate the total harmonic current per phase as follows:

!

2-+

=

2

4

2

2

I I + [22|

Page 5 of 11

The sum of the two even harmonics per phase helps to prevent the need to lower the value of

restraint which could cause a delayed operation if an internal fault were to occur during

transformer energization.

Cross-phase averaging also helps prevent unwanted operation during transformer inrush. Cross-

phase averaging averages the even harmonics of all three phases to provide overall restraint.

The cross-phase averaged harmonic restraint can be internally calculated by the relay as

follows:

!

r2-+

=

2

4 2

2

4 2

2

4 2

+ +

C B A

I I I [23|

The transformer relay with even harmonic restraint and cross-phase averaging tested for the

following cases did not misoperate. The inrush currents presented here were created using ATP

and have a slow rate of decay. The auto-transformer data is as follows:

FIGURE 4. 600 MVA Auto-Transformer Single-Line Diagram (Delta Winding DAC)

wye wye

delta

13.2 kV

345 kV

230 kV

W

1

W

2

W

3

Page 6 of 11

Table 2. Auto-transformer Characteristics

Z

HN

= 0.01073 per unit

Z

HL

= 0.0+777 per unit

Z

NL

= 0.03123 per unit

ZH =

2

ML HL HM

Z Z Z +

= 0.01+0 per unit [2+|

ZN =

2

HL ML HM

Z Z Z +

= -0.0029 per unit [25|

ZL =

2

HM ML HL

Z Z Z +

= 0.03+0 per unit [26|

CTR

W1

= 1200:5 (wye connected)

CTR

W2

= 2000:5 (wye connected)

Table 3. 87T Relay Settings

TAP1 =

3 240 345

600

kV

MVA

= +.18 [27|

TAP2 =

3 400 230

600

kV

MVA

= 3.77 [28|

87T Pickup = 0.5 per unit

Slope 1 = 25

Slope 2 = 75

Break Point = 2.0 per unit

Even Harmonic Restraint = 10 (cross phase averaging enabled)

Page 7 of 11

1

st

Case Balanced Inrush

Energize Line with Bank from Single End (No residual flux)

FIGURE 5A. Total Phase Currents for Balanced Inrush

FIGURE 5B. 2

nd

Harmonic Component Currents for Balanced Inrush

FIGURE 5C. 4

th

Harmonic Component Currents for Balanced Inrush

Page 8 of 11

2

nd

Case Balanced Inrush

Energize Bank from Winding 2 with Winding 1 Open (No residual flux)

FIGURE 6A. Total Phase Currents for Balanced Inrush

FIGURE 6B. 2

nd

Harmonic Component Currents for Balanced Inrush

FIGURE 6C. 4

th

Harmonic Component Currents for Balanced Inrush

Page 9 of 11

3

rd

Case Unbalanced Inrush

Energize Line with Bank from Single End (Severe A-phase residual flux)

FIGURE 7A. Total Phase Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

FIGURE 7B. 2

nd

Harmonic Component Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

FIGURE 7C. 4

th

Harmonic Component Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

Page 10 of 11

4

th

Case Balanced Inrush

Energize Bank from Winding 2 with Winding 1 Open (Severe A-phase residual flux)

FIGURE 8A. Total Phase Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

FIGURE 8B. 2

nd

Harmonic Component Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

FIGURE 8C. 4

th

Harmonic Component Currents for Unbalanced Inrush

Page 11 of 11

CONCLUSIONS

A common commissioning practice is to test all the numerical relay settings to verify they were

properly entered. Automated testing using computer software to run the test set has made this

possible since the overall commissioning for a numerical relay could consist of several hundred

tests. While this is a good check, it is still important to ensure that the transformer is thoroughly

protected for the particular application.

This paper presented three types of test for transformer differential protection:

Transformer Differential Characteristic Boundary Test

Ground Differential Sensitivity Test

Even Harmonic Restraint during Transformer !nrush

The first test determines if the transformer differential protection meets the stated accuracy for

the operating characteristic slopes. The second test determines the fault resistance coverage of

the ground differential protection as a function of the source impedance. The third test

determines if the transformer differential protection harmonic restraint works during a variety of

stringent conditions that could occur during actual energization.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Steve Turner is a Senior Applications Engineer at Beckwith Electric Company, !nc. His previous

experience includes working as an application engineer with GEC Alstom for five years, primarily

focusing on transmission line protection in the United States. He also was an application

engineer in the international market for SEL, !nc. again focusing on transmission line protection

applications. Steve wrote the protection-related sections of the instruction manual for SEL line

protection relays as well as application guides on various topics such as transformer differential

protection and out-of-step blocking during power swings. Steve also worked for Progress

Energy in North Carolina, where he developed a patent for double-ended fault location on

transmission lines and was in charge of all maintenance standards in the transmission

department for protective relaying.

Steve has both a BSEE and NSEE from virginia Tech University. He has presented at numerous

conferences including: Georgia Tech Protective Relay Conference, Western Protective Relay

Conference, ECNE and Doble User Groups, as well as various international conferences. Steve is

also a senior member of the !EEE.

- Flexibility and Reliability of Numerical Protection RelayUploaded byEngr. Abdullah
- Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and WorksheetsUploaded byRajesh Bodduna
- 33.DUOBIAS-M Relay TestingUploaded byTerezkaM
- p632 Testing Procedure of Tranformer Diffrential ProtectionUploaded byBedabyas_dehury
- Discrimination between Inrush and Fault Current in Power Transformer by using Fuzzy LogicUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Theon's LadderUploaded byLudwing Escandón
- TestingTransformerDifferentialRelaysUploaded byRajesh Bodduna
- 210718140 Sample Calculation for Differential RelaysUploaded bysamiahmedmansour
- MTE-2Uploaded byMohit Chauhan
- Numerical RelayUploaded byRiyah_Rae
- Modeling RelaysUploaded byIvan Ramljak
- Over-under Voltage Cut-Off With on-Time Delay PROJECT REPORTUploaded bySumit Agarwal
- MA106Uploaded byAman Chaudhary
- Chap2Uploaded byIlman Faiq
- Resarch PaperUploaded byIbrahim Al-badi
- over and under volltage protectionUploaded byrahulkudlu
- relai reverse powerUploaded byFebby Hadi Prakoso
- Modern Numerical Relay DesignUploaded byNeelakandan Masilamani
- Journal paper on NumericalUploaded byvrsafe
- Buchholz Relay in Transformer _ Buchholz Relay Operation and Principle _ Electrical EngineeringUploaded byfurkandar
- BE1-CDS220_IMPackageUploaded bygusfaj
- Transmission Line Relay ProtectionUploaded byRogelio Revetti
- Text (14)_3Uploaded byVijay Pandit
- Bussines StatisticsUploaded byMahendran Kaliyathangam
- Matlab TutorialUploaded byrtloquias
- 0_transformer+stability_sajjadUploaded byHosam Jabrallah
- 28Uploaded byRajesh Manjhi
- Matrix Indexing in Mat LabUploaded byLuis Santos
- Eeen 810 Final Assignment_21012012Uploaded byKabir Mohammed
- Advanced Protections System of Substation Using Numerical RelaysUploaded byOsman H Hussein

- XLPE Insulated CablesUploaded byMalik Daus
- Picplc16 v6 Schematic v101Uploaded byhizbi7
- MM600v2BulletinUploaded byhizbi7
- SVERKER900_DS_en_V05.pdfUploaded byhizbi7
- Home Owner's GuideUploaded byhizbi7
- SincalUniqueFeatures EngUploaded byhizbi7
- Power Factor CorrectionUploaded byrdelgranado
- PSSE 2nd Generation Wind Models Final JayUploaded byhizbi7
- Tray and Ladder Practice GuideUploaded bymariusrotaru
- Underground Power Cables Catalogue 03-2010Uploaded byPaneendra Kumar
- MMF-15Uploaded byArif Yusof
- OLTC Dynamic Testing P10Uploaded byMarcio Rangel
- The New Enhanced Dispatch Arrangement (Neda)Uploaded byhizbi7
- protection relay FAT using omicron.pdfUploaded byhizbi7
- Trip Coil Signature Measurement and Analysis Techniques for Circuit BreakerUploaded byhizbi7
- Dif.protectionUploaded byVishal Sheth
- Power Systems Studies and Protection of Generators (July 2017)_FAEZAHUploaded byhizbi7
- Trafo. Diff Slope Calc Micom p643Uploaded byAnoss Olier
- Abb Reb650 Busbar High ImpUploaded byhizbi7
- LockoutUploaded byhizbi7
- Non Metal Gland PlateUploaded byhizbi7
- ETAP_ComparisonResultsUploaded bysiddharthagoh
- 7SR23 DADUploaded byhizbi7
- Wide Area RestorationUploaded byhizbi7
- Slide Partial DischargeUploaded byhizbi7
- SF6-Sulphur-Hexafluoride-EN-254640.pdfUploaded byhizbi7
- COP_E_2015.pdfUploaded byjackwpso
- 7SS52 Training 01_2007Uploaded byhizbi7
- history_summer09.pdfUploaded byhizbi7

- Afghanistan on ShortwaveUploaded byKasi Xswl
- SysUploaded byDimos Mastro
- Digital Logic ReviewUploaded byTấn Long Lê
- User Manual Schwinn 430 Elliptical TrainerUploaded byJessica Bentley
- seleccion_periodo_muestreo.pdfUploaded byAntonio Martinez
- Tga 4830Uploaded bykrishnakumariram
- 2n2219Uploaded bySaadAhmedBeihaqi
- ENGG112-Tutorial7Uploaded byShirshak Bajgain
- Splunk 6.5.2 CapacityUploaded byim
- Quantx SpecificationsUploaded byHasan Zaity
- Dvp5106k 97 Dfu EngUploaded bygeneralstuff18
- Review Notes AcousticsUploaded bynateFX
- 946GZPL7MA-EN-manual-V1.0.pdfUploaded byJonathan Carpio
- Minimizing Penalty in Industrial Power Consumption by Engaging APFC UnitUploaded byZeeshan Khan
- 9013 Db 0701Uploaded byPrabhu Chandran
- What is CMOS SensorUploaded byndaput
- MPP Solar (UPS,Inverter)Uploaded byMtech ServSol
- 12v to 18v ConverterUploaded byLuis Paulo
- Chapter 3_ Hardware Basics_ PeripheralsUploaded bySasurika Uchiha
- Canal IsUploaded byTomuta Stefan
- chap6Uploaded by김연옥
- Glow Plug System (from the web)Uploaded byAbdul R. Mustapha
- AM4 User ManualUploaded bybryan108
- 01580010Uploaded bymorteza2885
- Sklansky AdderUploaded bySaiDhoolam
- GA-Delta-06-EN-01-14Uploaded byAnonymous euEXCKl
- 03 Nonlinear Pipeline SummaryUploaded bySreekanth Narayan
- InrushUploaded byDinesh Selvakumar
- HATCO - RHW-1BUploaded byThanh Thuan
- L~0742~2013_[2] SpecificationUploaded byempmuditha