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Name Bhatia Hardik Haresh

Roll No 521158882
Program Bachelor of Computer Application
Semester 6

Q1)Differentiate between OLTP and Data Warehouse.
Differences between OLTP and Data Warehouse
Application databases are OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems where every transaction has
to be recorded as and when it occurs. Consider the scenario where a bank ATM has disbursed cash to a
customer but was unable to record this event in the bank records. If this happens frequently, the bank
wouldn't stay in business for too long. So the banking system is designed to make sure that every
transaction gets recorded within the time you stand before the ATM machine.
A Data Warehouse (DW) on the other end, is a database (yes, you are right, it's a database) that is
designed for facilitating querying and analysis. Often designed as OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing)
systems, these databases contain read-only data that can be queried and analyzed far more efficiently
as compared to your regular OLTP application databases. In this sense an OLAP system is designed to be
Separation from your application database also ensures that your business intelligence solution is
scalable (your bank and ATMs don't go down just because the CFO asked for a report), better
documented and managed.
Creation of a DW leads to a direct increase in quality of analysis as the table structures are simpler (you
keep only the needed information in simpler tables), standardized (well-documented table structures),
and often de-normalized (to reduce the linkages between tables and the corresponding complexity of
queries). Having a well-designed DW is the foundation for successful BI (Business Intelligence)/Analytics
initiatives, which are built upon.
Data Warehouses usually store many months or years of data. This is to support historical analysis. OLTP
systems usually store data from only a few weeks or months. The OLTP system stores only historical
data as needed to successfully meet the requirements of the current transactions.

Q2)What are key issues in planning a Data Warehouse.
Key Issues during Data warehouse Construction
Planning for your Data Warehouse begins with a thorough consideration of the key issues. Answers to
the key questions are vital for the proper planning and the successful completion of the project.
Therefore, let us consider the pertinent issues, one by one.
Values and Expectations. Some companies jump into Data Warehousing without assessing the value to
be derived from their proposed Data Warehouse. Of course, first you have to be sure that, given the
culture and the current requirements of your company; a Data Warehouse is the most viable solution.
After you have established the suitability of this solution, only then can you begin to enumerate the
benefits and value propositions.
Risk Assessment. Planners generally associate project risks with the cost of the project. If the project
fails, how much money will go down the drain? But the assessment of risks is more than calculating the
loss from the project costs. What are the risks faced by the company without the benefits derivable
from a Data Warehouse? What losses are likely to be incurred? What opportunities are likely to be
Differences between OLTP and Data Warehouse projects
The Data Warehouse and the OLTP database are both relational databases. However, the objectives of
both these databases are different.
The OLTP database records transactions in real time and aims to automate the clerical data entry
processes of a business entity. Addition, Modification and Deletion of data in the OLTP database is
essential and the semantics of the application used in the front end makes an impact on the
organization of the data in the database.
The Data Warehouse on the other hand does not cater to real time operational requirements of the
enterprise. It is more a storehouse of current and historical data and may also contain data extracted
from external data sources.
However, the Data Warehouse supports OLTP systems by providing a place for the latter to offload data
as it accumulates and providing services, which would otherwise degrade the performance of the
database table.

Q3)Explain Source Data Component and Data Staging Components of Data Warehouse Architecture.
Source Data Component
1. Production Data
2. Internal Data
3. Archived Data
4. External Data
Production Data This category of data comes from the various operational systems of the enterprise.
Based on the information requirements in the Data Warehouse, you choose segments of data from the
different operational systems. While dealing with this data, you come across many variations in the data
formats. You also notice that the data resides on different hardware platforms. Further, the data is
supported by different database systems and operating systems. This is the data from many vertical
In operational systems, information queries are narrow. You query an operational system for
information about specific instances of business objects. You may want just the name and address of a
single customer. Or, you may need the orders placed by a single customer in a single week. Or, you may
just need to look at a single invoice and the items billed on that single invoice. In operational systems,
you do not have broad queries. You do not query the operational system in unexpected ways. The
queries are all predictable. Again, you do not expect a particular query to run across different
operational systems. What do all these mean? There is no conformance of data among the various
operational systems of an enterprise. A term like an account may have different meanings in different
The significant and disturbing characteristic of production data is disparity. Your great challenge is to
standardize and transform the disparate data from the various production systems, convert the data,
and integrate the pieces into useful data for storage in the Data Warehouse.
Internal Data In every organization, users keep their private spreadsheets, documents, customer
profiles, and sometimes even departmental databases. This is the internal data, parts of which could be
useful for Data Warehouse for analysis.
If your organization does business with the customers on a one-to-one basis and the contribution of
each customer to the bottom line is significant, then detailed customer profiles with ample
demographics are important in a Data Warehouse. Profiles of individual customers become very
important for consideration. When your account representatives talk to their assigned customers or
when your marketing department wants to make specific offerings to individual customers, you need
the details. Although much of this data may be extracted from production systems, individuals and
departments in their private files hold a lot of it.
You cannot ignore the internal data held in private files in your organization. It is a collective judgment
call on how much of the internal data should be included in the Data Warehouse. The IT department
must work with the user departments to gather the internal data. Internal data adds additional
complexity to the process of transforming and integrating the data before it can be stored in the Data
Warehouse. You have to determine strategies for collecting data from spreadsheets, find ways of taking
data from textual documents, and tie into departmental databases to gather pertinent data from those
sources. Again, you may want to schedule the acquisition of internal data. Initially, you may want to limit
yourself to only some significant portions before going live with your first data mart.
Archived Data Operational systems are primarily intended to run the current business. In every
operational system, you periodically take the old data and store it in archived files. The circumstances in
your organization dictate how often and which portions of the operational databases are archived for
storage. Some data is archived after a year.
Sometimes data is left in the operational system databases for as long as five years. Many different
methods of archiving exist. There are staged archival methods. At the first stage, recent data is archived
to a separate archival database that may still be online. At the second stage, the older data is archived
to flat files on disk storage. At the next stage, the oldest data is archived to tape cartridges or microfilm
and even kept off-site.
As mentioned earlier, a Data Warehouse keeps historical snapshots of data. You essentially need
historical data for analysis over time. For getting historical information, you look into your archived data
sets. Depending on your Data Warehouse requirements, you have to include sufficient historical data.
This type of data is useful for detecting patterns and analyzing trends.
External Data Most executives depend on data from external sources for a high percentage of the
information they use. They use statistics relating to their industry produced by external agencies. They
use market share data of competitors. They use standard values of financial indicators for their business
to check on their performance.
For example, the Data Warehouse of a car rental company contains data on the current production
schedules of the leading automobile manufacturers. This external data in the Data Warehouse helps the
car rental company plan for their fleet management. The purposes served by such external data sources
cannot be fulfilled by the data available within your organization itself. The insights gleaned from your
production data and your archived data are somewhat limited. They give you a picture based on what
you are doing or have done in the past. In order to spot industry trends and compare performance
against other organizations, you need data from external sources.
Usually, data from outside sources do not conform to your formats. You have to do conversions of data
into your internal formats and data types. You have to organize the data transmissions from the external
sources. Some sources may provide information at regular, stipulated intervals. Others may give you the
data on request. You need to accommodate the variations.
Data Staging Component
After you have extracted data from various operational systems and from external sources, you have to
prepare the data for storing in the Data Warehouse. The extracted data coming from several disparate
sources need to be changed, converted, and made ready in a format that is suitable to be stored for
querying and analysis.
Three major functions need to be performed for getting the data ready. You have to extract the data,
transform the data, and then load the data into the Data Warehouse storage. These three major
functions of extraction, transformation, and preparation for loading take place in a staging area. The
data-staging component consists of a workbench for these functions. Data staging provides a place and
an area with a set of functions to clean, change, combine, convert, reduplicate, and prepare source data
for storage and use in the Data Warehouse.
Data Extraction This function has to deal with numerous data sources. You have to employ the
appropriate technique for each data source. Source data may be from different source machines in
diverse data formats. Part of the source data may be in relational database systems. Some data may be
on other legacy network and hierarchical data models. Many data sources may still be in flat files. You
may want to include data from spreadsheets and local departmental data sets. Data extraction may
become quite complex.
Tools are available on the market for data extraction. You may want to consider using outside tools
suitable for certain data sources. For the other data sources, you may want to develop in-house
programs to do the data extraction. Purchasing outside tools may entail high initial costs. In-house
programs, on the other hand, may mean ongoing costs for development and maintenance.
After you extract the data, where do you keep the data for further preparation? You may perform the
extraction function in the legacy platform itself if that approach suits your framework. More frequently,
Data Warehouse implementation teams extract the source into a separate physical environment from
which moving the data into the Data Warehouse would be easier. In the separate environment, you may
extract the source data into a group of flat files, or a data-staging relational database, or a combination
of both.
Data Transformation In every system implementation, data conversion is an important function. For
example, when you implement an operational system such as a magazine subscription application, you
have to initially populate your database with data from the prior system records. You may be converting
over from a manual system. Or, you may be moving from a file-oriented system to a modern system
supported with relational database tables. In either case, you will convert the data from the prior
systems. So, what is so different for a Data Warehouse? How is data transformation for a Data
Warehouse more involved than for an operational system?
Again, as you know, data for a Data Warehouse comes from many disparate sources. If data extraction
for a Data Warehouse poses great challenges, data transformation presents even greater challenges.
Another factor in the Data Warehouse is that the data feed is not just an initial load. You will have to
continue to pick up the ongoing changes from the source systems. Any transformation tasks you set up
for the initial load will be adapted for the ongoing revisions as well.
You perform a number of individual tasks as part of data transformation. First, you clean the data
extracted from each source. Cleaning may just be correction of misspellings, or may include resolution
of conflicts between state codes and zip codes in the source data, or may deal with providing default
values for missing data elements, or elimination of duplicates when you bring in the same data from
multiple source systems.
Standardization of data elements forms a large part of data transformation. You standardize the data
types and field lengths for same data elements retrieved from the various sources. Semantic
standardization is another major task. You resolve synonyms and homonyms. When two or more terms
from different source systems mean the same thing, you resolve the synonyms. When a single term
means many different things in different source systems, you resolve the homonym.
Data transformation involves many forms of combining pieces of data from the different sources. You
combine data from single source record or related data elements from many source records. On the
other hand, data transformation also involves purging source data that is not useful and separating
outsource records into new combinations. Sorting and merging of data takes place on a large scale in
the data staging area.
In many cases, the keys chosen for the operational systems are field values with built-in meanings. For
example, the product key value may be a combination of characters indicating the product category, the
code of the warehouse where the product is stored, and some code to show the production batch.
Primary keys in the Data Warehouse cannot have built-in meanings. Data transformation also includes
the assignment of surrogate keys derived from the source system primary keys.
A grocery chain point-of-sale operational system keeps the unit sales and revenue amounts by individual
transactions at the checkout counter at each store. But in the Data Warehouse, it may not be necessary
to keep the data at this detailed level. You may want to summarize the totals by product at each store
for a given day and keep the summary totals of the sale units and revenue in the Data Warehouse
storage. In such cases, the data transformation function would include appropriate summarization.
When the data transformation function ends, you have a collection of integrated data that is cleaned,
standardized, and summarized. You now have data ready to load into each data set in your Data
Data Loading Two distinct groups of tasks form the data loading function. When you complete the
design and construction of the Data Warehouse and go live for the first time, you do the initial loading
of the data into the Data Warehouse storage. The initial load moves large volumes of data using up
substantial amounts of time. As the Data Warehouse starts functioning, you continue to extract the
changes to the source data, transform the data revisions, and feed the incremental data revisions on an
ongoing basis. The figure below illustrates the common types of data movements from the staging area
to the Data Warehouse storage.

Q4)Discuss the Extraction Methods in Data Warehouses.
The extraction method you choose is highly dependent on the source system and also from the business
needs in the targeted Data Warehouse environment. Very often, there's no possibility to add additional
logic to the source systems to enhance an incremental extraction of data due to the performance or the
increased workload of these systems. Sometimes even the customer is not allowed to add anything to
an out-of-the-box application.
The estimated amount of the data to be extracted and the stage in the ETL process (initial load or
maintenance of data) may also impact the decision of how to extract, from a logical and a physical
perspective. Basically, you have to decide how to extract data logically and physically.
Logical Extraction Methods
There are two kinds of logical extraction:
Full Extraction
Incremental Extraction
Full Extraction
The data is extracted completely from the source system. Since this extraction reflects all the data
currently available on the source system, there's no need to keep track of changes to the data source
since the last successful extraction. The source data will be provided as-is and no additional logical
information (for example, timestamps) is necessary on the source site. An example for a full extraction
may be an export file of a distinct table or a remote SQL statement scanning the complete source table.
Incremental Extraction: At a specific point in time, only the data that has changed since a well-defined
event back in history will be extracted. This event may be the last time of extraction or a more complex
business event like the last booking day of a fiscal period. To identify this delta change there must be a
possibility to identify all the changed information since this specific time event. This information can be
either provided by the source data itself like an application column, reflecting the last-changed
timestamp or a change table where an appropriate additional mechanism keeps track of the changes
besides the originating transactions. In most cases, using the latter method means adding extraction
logic to the source system.
Many Data Warehouses do not use any change-capture techniques as part of the extraction process.
Instead, entire tables from the source systems are extracted to the data warehouse or staging area, and
these tables are compared with a previous extract from the source system to identify the changed data.
Physical Extraction Methods
Depending on the chosen logical extraction method and the capabilities and restrictions on the source
side, the extracted data can be physically extracted by two mechanisms. The data can either be
extracted online from the source system or from an offline structure. Such an offline structure might
already exist or it might be generated by an extraction routine.
These are the following methods of physical extraction:
Online Extraction
The data is extracted directly from the source system itself. The extraction process can connect directly
to the source system to access the source tables themselves or to an intermediate system that stores
the data in a reconfigured manner (for example, snapshot logs or change tables). Note that the
intermediate system is not necessarily physically different from the source system. With online
extractions, you need to consider whether the distributed transactions are using original source objects
or prepared source objects.
Offline Extraction
The data is not extracted directly from the source system but is staged explicitly outside the original
source system. The data already has an existing structure (for example, redo logs, archive logs or
transportable table spaces) or was created by an extraction routine.
We should consider the following structures:
Flat Files: Data is in a defined, generic format. Additional information about the source object is
necessary for further processing.
Dump Files: An Oracle - specific format in which the information about the containing objects is
Redo and Archive Logs:
Redo logs comprise files in a proprietary format which log a history of all changes made to the data
base. Each redo log file consists of redo records. A redo record (redo entry), holds a group of change-
vectors, each of which describes or represents a change made to a single block in the database.
For example, if a user UPDATEs a salary-value in an employee-table, the DBMS generates a redo record
containing change-vectors that describe changes to the data segment block for the table. And if the user
then COMMITs the update, Oracle generates another redo record and assigns the change a "system
change number" (SCN).
A single transaction may involve multiple changes to data blocks, so it may have more than one redo
A group of redo log files to one or more offline destinations, known collectively as the archived redo log,
or more simply the archive log. The process of turning redo log files into archived redo log files is called
archiving. This process is only possible if the database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. You can choose
automatic or manual archiving.
Q5)Write short notes on 1)RAID 0 2)RAID 1.
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, RAID is an assortment of hard drives connected and setup in
ways to help protect or speed up the performance of a computer's disk storage. RAID is commonly used
on servers and high performance computers.
Software stripping and Block Interleave (minimum 2 drives needed* ). Data is written to each drive in
succession, each block going to the next available drive thus the data is distributed across the array
drives (striping) providing faster operation and less chance that one drive will get overloaded with data
requests. The volume can of course be much larger than any single drive. Since no redundancy is
provided, the failure of a single drive will bring the system down. This is the fastest and most efficient
array type, but offers no fault-tolerance.
Disk Mirroring and Duplexing (minimum 2 drives needed*). Drives are used in pairs and all data is
written identically to both drives. Each drive can be duplexed by being connected to its own interface
controller. The failure of one drive will not bring down the system, instead the other drive will continue
to operate. Of course, two drives are now used for the equivalent storage capacity of one drive. There is
no performance gain with this level. The array of choice for performance-critical, fault-tolerant
environments. In addition, RAID-1 is the only choice for fault-tolerance if no more than two drives are

Q6) What is Metadata Management? Explain integrated Metadata Management with a block
The purpose of Metadata management is to support the development and administration of data
warehouse infrastructure as well as analysis of the data of time.
Metadata widely considered as a promising driver for improving effectiveness and efficiency of data
warehouse usage, development, maintenance and administration. Data warehouse usage can be
improved because metadata provides end users with additional semantics necessary to reconstruct the
business context of data stored in the data warehouse.
Integrated Metadata Management
An integrated Metadata Management supports all kinds of users who are involved in the data
warehouse development process. End users, developers and administrators can use/see the Metadata.
Developers and administrators mainly focus on technical Metadata but make use of business Metadata
if they want. Developers and administrators need metadata to understand transformations of object
data and underlying data flows as well as the technical and conceptual system architecture.

Several Metadata management systems are in existence. One such system/ tool is Integrated Metadata
Repository System (IMRS). It is a metadata management tool used to support a corporate data
management function and is intended to provide metadata management services. Thus, the IMRS will
support the engineering and configuration management of data environments incorporating e-business
transactions, complex databases, federated data environments, and data warehouses / data marts. The
metadata contained in the IMRS used to support application development, data integration, and the
system administration functions needed to achieve data element semantic consistency across a
corporate data environment, and to implement integrated or shared data environments.
Metadata management has several sub processes like data warehouse development.
Some of them are listed below,
Metadata definition
Metadata collection
Metadata control
Metadata publication to the right people at the right time.
Determining what kind of data to be captured.